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Sample records for filtration protects brain

  1. Public health protection through bank filtration - Kearney Nebraska case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseks, E.; Bellamy, W.; Heinemann, T.; Stocker, K.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of Kearney's bank filtration system provides further evidence of this technology's capability to assist in providing public health protection, as it relates to drinking water. The results of hydrogeologic and treatment studies demonstrate the capabilities of the Platte River aquifer materials, in this locale, to remove pathogens and their surrogates. Continual monitoring and evaluations will establish the system’s longevity and continued treatment efficacy. The City of Kearney is located in south central Nebraska. The City owns and operates a public water system that serves approximately 24,889 people. The water system includes 12 wells located on Killgore Island in the Platte River. In 1994, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services System (Department) determined that 3 wells in the wellfield serving the City of Kearney were ground water under the direct influence of surface water. This determination was based on results of microscopic particulate analysis (MPA). The City of Kearney undertook the natural bank filtration study to determine whether natural bank filtration was occurring at the site and if the filtration was sufficient to meet pathogen treatment requirements designed to protect public health. A preliminary study was undertaken from June through October 1995. This coincided with the City’s peak pumping time, which may be the time when the influence of the River is greatest on the wellfield wells. Hydrogeologic studies assisted in selecting wells that were at highest risk based on shortest travel times and greatest differential head. Data collected included particle counts, MPAs, turbidity, coliform, centrifugate pellet evaluation (CPE) volumes, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Following analysis of data collected during the preliminary 18-week study the Department granted conditional approval of 2-log credit for removal of Giardia lamblia and 1-log credit for removal of viruses through bank filtration, pending the

  2. Filtration of nanoparticles - Application to respiratory protecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochot, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine how the respiratory protective devices (RPD), whose performances are qualified for particles above 100 nm, are effective for nanoparticles. Indeed, if the use of a collective filtration is inadequate, wearing a RPD is the last protection recommended. A literature review showed that no research concerned the effectiveness of half-masks for nanoparticles. The test bench ETNA has been sized and built to overcome these lacks. Two half masks were tested according to different configurations: constant flow rate and cyclic flow rate (average flow of 84 L /min), particle size (from 5 to 100 nm), positions of the mask (sealed, usual, or with calibrated leaks). The results show that, since the RPD contain high efficiency filter media (without charged fibers) for the most penetrating particle size (100 nm - 300 nm), the RPD is more efficient for nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results obtained in the presence of actual and calibrated leaks, highlighted the importance of face seal leakages in determining the performance of RPD. A model for calculating the protection factor was established based on the balance between the airflow through the filter and the leak. This model was validated using measurements obtained in the presence of calibrated leaks, and applied for the analysis of our results in usual position. (author)

  3. Protect Your Brain

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    At least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), either with or without other injuries. This podcast discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.

  4. Protect Your Brain

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Recent high-profile cases among professional athletes have called attention to the serious problem of traumatic brain injuries, or TBI, but the problem isn’t limited to playing fields. In 2009, at least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a TBI, either with or without other injuries. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa McGuire discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.

  5. [Brain protection against cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Previous clinical trials failed to show the benefit of several potentially protective drugs in acute ischemic stroke. However, there would be three main approaches for brain protection against stroke. The first is to develop a novel thrombolytic agent which is more efficient and safer than alteplase. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are in progress as a new thrombolytic drug. The second strategy is to augment collateral circulation through leptomeningeal anastomosis. Administration of G-CSF could enhance arteriogenesis, but it takes several days to develop functional collateral. For this purpose, partial aortic balloon clumping or stimulation of pterygopalatine ganglion may be promising. The third one is to protect neurovascular unit against reperfusion injury. Brain hypothermia is the most effective strategy in experimental ischemia, and the clinical trial for hypothermia combined with thrombolysis therapy is in progress. Activation of endogenous protective response, as presented by ischemic tolerance, has focused on remote ischemic conditioning. Although the precise mechanisms of remote preconditioning remain unclear, intermittent limb ischemia is a safe approach. Remote ischemic conditioning is now investigated in acute patients with thrombolysis therapy.

  6. Effect of filtration of signals of brain activity on quality of recognition of brain activity patterns using artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Musatov, Vyachaslav Yu.

    2018-02-01

    In present work we studied features of the human brain states classification, corresponding to the real movements of hands and legs. For this purpose we used supervised learning algorithm based on feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) with error back-propagation along with the support vector machine (SVM) method. We compared the quality of operator movements classification by means of EEG signals obtained experimentally in the absence of preliminary processing and after filtration in different ranges up to 25 Hz. It was shown that low-frequency filtering of multichannel EEG data significantly improved accuracy of operator movements classification.

  7. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  8. Iron assessment to protect the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieff, Michael K

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) before the age of 3 y can lead to long-term neurological deficits despite prompt diagnosis of ID anemia (IDA) by screening of hemoglobin concentrations followed by iron treatment. Furthermore, pre- or nonanemic ID alters neurobehavioral function and is 3 times more common than IDA in toddlers. Given the global prevalence of ID and the enormous societal cost of developmental disabilities across the life span, better methods are needed to detect the risk of inadequate concentrations of iron for brain development (i.e., brain tissue ID) before dysfunction occurs and to monitor its amelioration after diagnosis and treatment. The current screening and treatment strategy for IDA fails to achieve this goal for 3 reasons. First, anemia is the final state in iron depletion. Thus, the developing brain is already iron deficient when IDA is diagnosed owing to the prioritization of available iron to red blood cells over all other tissues during negative iron balance in development. Second, brain ID, independently of IDA, is responsible for long-term neurological deficits. Thus, starting iron treatment after the onset of IDA is less effective than prevention. Multiple studies in humans and animal models show that post hoc treatment strategies do not reliably prevent ID-induced neurological deficits. Third, most currently used indexes of ID are population statistical cutoffs for either hematologic or iron status but are not bioindicators of brain ID and brain dysfunction in children. Furthermore, their relation to brain iron status is not known. To protect the developing brain, there is a need to generate serum measures that index brain dysfunction in the preanemic stage of ID, assess the ability of standard iron indicators to detect ID-induced brain dysfunction, and evaluate the efficacy of early iron treatment in preventing ID-induced brain dysfunction. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Nanoscopic designs of radiological protection in environmental scale for the Fukushima nuclear accident: Strategy by dispersion, dissolution, and filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New kind of radiological protection concept is introduced. • The shielding concept is accompanied with the water spray system. • The solubility of radioactive material could be used for protection. • Practical method is suggested. • The system is variable by the random number quantities. - Abstract: The environmental defense system in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated in the aspect of the environmental scale incorporated with atmospheric and marine sectors. The object is to find the radiological protection protocol in the environmental scale which is different from the conventional three kinds of radiological protection principles. Conventional laboratory based principles are not applicable in the mass failure accident such as the case of Fukushima disaster. This newly introduced protocol has many useful applications for the nature treatment oriented methods where the atmospheric protection of dispersion and dissolution is performed first and the filtration of seawater would follow. The maximum and minimum values in fan velocity are about 7.5 m/s and 5.3 m/s respectively. For the spray system, the mole fractions by the water spray are shown where maximum and minimum values are 6.57 × 10 −17 and 8.84 × 10 −19 moles respectively. The maximum and minimum values of discharged values in filtration are 99.4 and 1.3 square velocity (m/s), respectively. The total and general radiological protection concept is suggested in the nanoscopic molecular scale performance.

  10. Air Filtration as Protection against Fouling of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Lajčíková, Ariana

    2005-01-01

    Currently, air filters are one of the most critical components of air treatment systems as they decontaminate the air delivered to living space. During the operation, however, the level of harmful surface deposits increases, and at certain times, an uncleaned filter can itself become a source...... of undesirable contaminents influencing negatively the IAQ of a living space. This is the phenomenon that has been a subject of the current research. The article presents a new, alternative view on indoor air contaminents and filtration requirements. It describes alternative means of filtration and assesses...... issues of inadequate maintenance and/or long term use of applied air filters. An experimental method of evealuating the air quality by means of chemical analysis and state-of-the-art spectrometer is also described....

  11. Protection by neuroglobin expression in brain pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Baez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic and structural functions and, when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactacte, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the CNS, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  12. Brain networks engaged in audiovisual integration during speech perception revealed by persistent homology-based network filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    The human brain naturally integrates audiovisual information to improve speech perception. However, in noisy environments, understanding speech is difficult and may require much effort. Although the brain network is supposed to be engaged in speech perception, it is unclear how speech-related brain regions are connected during natural bimodal audiovisual or unimodal speech perception with counterpart irrelevant noise. To investigate the topological changes of speech-related brain networks at all possible thresholds, we used a persistent homological framework through hierarchical clustering, such as single linkage distance, to analyze the connected component of the functional network during speech perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging. For speech perception, bimodal (audio-visual speech cue) or unimodal speech cues with counterpart irrelevant noise (auditory white-noise or visual gum-chewing) were delivered to 15 subjects. In terms of positive relationship, similar connected components were observed in bimodal and unimodal speech conditions during filtration. However, during speech perception by congruent audiovisual stimuli, the tighter couplings of left anterior temporal gyrus-anterior insula component and right premotor-visual components were observed than auditory or visual speech cue conditions, respectively. Interestingly, visual speech is perceived under white noise by tight negative coupling in the left inferior frontal region-right anterior cingulate, left anterior insula, and bilateral visual regions, including right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform components. In conclusion, the speech brain network is tightly positively or negatively connected, and can reflect efficient or effortful processes during natural audiovisual integration or lip-reading, respectively, in speech perception.

  13. Brain-lung crosstalk in critical care: how protective mechanical ventilation can affect the brain homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, A T; Fanelli, V; Mascia, L

    2013-03-01

    The maintenance of brain homeostasis against multiple internal and external challenges occurring during the acute phase of acute brain injury may be influenced by critical care management, especially in its respiratory, hemodynamic and metabolic components. The occurrence of acute lung injury represents the most frequent extracranial complication after brain injury and deserves special attention in daily practice as optimal ventilatory strategy for patients with acute brain and lung injury are potentially in conflict. Protecting the lung while protecting the brain is thus a new target in the modern neurointensive care. This article discusses the essentials of brain-lung crosstalk and focuses on how mechanical ventilation may exert an active role in the process of maintaining or treatening brain homeostasis after acute brain injury, highlighting the following points: 1) the role of inflammation as common pathomechanism of both acute lung and brain injury; 2) the recognition of ventilatory induced lung injury as determinant of systemic inflammation affecting distal organs, included the brain; 3) the possible implication of protective mechanical ventilation strategy on the patient with an acute brain injury as an undiscovered area of research in both experimental and clinical settings.

  14. Current insights in brain protection for the sick newborn infant

    OpenAIRE

    KOOI E.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modern antenatal and postnatal strategies in brain protection for both preterm and term born infants. It is known, that the two most common causes of neonatal brain injury are prematurity and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the term born infant. Approximately one in nine babies is born before term. Nowadays these preterm born infants more often survive the neonatal period due to developments in treatment options in the last decades. They are how...

  15. Ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-meng Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we hypothesized that an increase in integrin αv ß 3 and its co-activator vascular endothelial growth factor play important neuroprotective roles in ischemic injury. We performed ischemic preconditioning with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 5 minutes in C57BL/6J mice. This was followed by ischemic injury with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 30 minutes. The time interval between ischemic preconditioning and lethal ischemia was 48 hours. Histopathological analysis showed that ischemic preconditioning substantially diminished damage to neurons in the hippocampus 7 days after ischemia. Evans Blue dye assay showed that ischemic preconditioning reduced damage to the blood-brain barrier 24 hours after ischemia. This demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. Western blot assay revealed a significant reduction in protein levels of integrin αv ß 3, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor in mice given ischemic preconditioning compared with mice not given ischemic preconditioning 24 hours after ischemia. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning is associated with lower integrin αv ß 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the brain following ischemia.

  16. A prototypical Sigma-1 receptor antagonist protects against brain ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Schetz, John A.; Perez, Evelyn; Liu, Ran; Chen, Shiuhwei; Lee, Ivan; Simpkins, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the Sigma-1 ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) protects the brain from ischemia. Less clear is whether protection is mediated by agonism or antagonism of the Sigma-1 receptor, and whether drugs already in use for other indications and that interact with the Sigma-1 receptor might also prevent oxidative damage due to conditions such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The antipsychotic drug haloperidol is an antagonist of Sigma-1 receptors and in this s...

  17. An overview of filtration methods that can provide protection from the macrofouling zebra mussel at hydroelectric facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smythe, A.G.; Short, T.M. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The non-indigenous freshwater zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena, spp.) threaten to foul freshwater conduits throughout much of the United States and southern Canada. Initially, many electric facilities within the lower Great Lakes drainage were fouled. More recently, other systems both in and out of the Great Lakes, have been exposed to infested water facilitated by canals and boat traffic and impacted by the mussels. Mussels have clogged conduits and fouled equipment and monitoring sensors in relatively distant regions including the Hudson River, the Mississippi River south to New Orleans, and the Arkansas River into Oklahoma. Chemicals can effectively control the mussels, however, filtration methods promise to be a relatively cost effective, environmentally safe alternative control approach. Information on traditional filtration methods will be presented in this paper along with recent research results for in-line filters.

  18. Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-03

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.

  19. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  20. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Gilbert, H.

    1982-01-01

    Significant developments in high-efficiency filtration for nuclear applications are reviewed for the period 1968 to 1980. Topics of special interest include (1) factory (bench) and in-place test methods, (2) new developments in paper and filter unit construction methods, (3) vented containment air cleaning systems for liquid-metal fast breeder reactors and light-water-moderated reactors, and (4) decontamination of off-gases from nuclear waste volume-reduction processes. Standards development has been vigorously pursued during this period, but advances in filtration theory have been few. One of the significant changes likely to occur in the immediate future is adoption of the European style of high-efficiency particulate air filters instead of those which have been in service for the past three decades to obtain the benefits of having almost twice as much filter paper in the same filter cartridge

  1. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Gilbert, H.

    1981-01-01

    Significant developments in high efficiency filtration for nuclear applications are reviewed for the period 1968 to 1980. Topics of special interest include factory (bench) and in-place test methods, new developments in paper and filter unit construction methods, vented containment air cleaning systems for LMFBR and light water moderated reactors, and decontamination of offgases from nuclear waste volume reduction processes. It is noted that standards development has been vigorously pursued during this period but that advances in filtration theory have been few. One of the significant changes likely to occur in the immediate future is adoption of the European style of HEPA filters for those that have been in service for the past three decades to obtain the benefits of having almost twice as much filter paper in the same filter cartridge. 71 references

  2. Effects of body mass index and age on N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide are associated with glomerular filtration rate in chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Body mass index (BMI), age, and GFR are associated with plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in chronic heart failure...... (CHF) patients. We hypothesized that the effects of BMI and age on plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP are associated with GFR. METHODS: We obtained clinical data and laboratory test results from 345 CHF patients at the baseline visit in our heart failure clinic and examined the hypothesis using...... estimates for BMI (P = 0.3807) and age (P = 0.7238) changed markedly and became insignificant. In another model, after adjustment for GFR estimated by the 4-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (eGFR(MDRD)), the parameter estimates for age (P = 0.0674) changed markedly and became...

  3. Hydrophilic compounds in culture filtrates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense GCV [01210] induce protection to banana leave toward a main pathogen phytotoxic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanci Portal González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, is among the most important diseases in Musa spp. Foc is a necrotrophic fungus, their phytotoxins play a role in disease development. Previously culture filtrate (FCC 15 days incubation with differential phytotoxic activity against two Musa cultivars was obtained. From this, the main fraction with nonspecific phytotoxic activity against both cultivars was purified. In this study, the biological activity of the aqueous phase and the main phytotoxic fraction purified from organic extract of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense VCG [01210] Race 1 FCC was determined on banana leaves of cv. `Gros Michel' (susceptible and `FHIA-01' (resistant. Foc FCC phytotoxic effect was confirmed. The aqueous phase showed no phytotoxic activity on both cultivars, while the simultaneous application of the aqueous phase with the main phytotoxic fraction induced a differential response of tissues in susceptible and resistant cultivars evaluated. The results indicated that the compounds present in the aqueous phase are required to induce the protection of leaf tissue against phytotoxic main component of the pathogen. Key words: culture filtrate, Panama disease, resistant, susceptible

  4. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; De Smet, M.; Trine, J.; Hertschap, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m 3 /h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m 3 /h at 400 0 C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134 Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  5. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... taken from a surface water or GWUDI source. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not... separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat entire plant flow taken from a surface water... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional filtration toolbox...

  6. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water...

  7. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  8. Estimated glomerular filtration rate is associated with both arterial stiffness and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Mustafa; Uçar, Hakan; Kuloğlu, Osman; Kıvrak, Ali; Şeker, Taner; Türkoğlu, Caner; Özaltun, Betül; Kaypaklı, Onur; Şahin, Durmuş Yıldıray; Elbasan, Zafer; Tanboğa, Halil İbrahim; Çaylı, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Even a slight decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness, left ventricular hypertrophy and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which are particularly common in end-stage renal disease. We aimed to evaluate the association between GFR with arterial stiffness, left ventricle mass (LVM) and NT-proBNP in hypertensive subjects with normal to mildly impaired renal function. The study population consisted of 285 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients (mean age; 49.9 ± 11.8 years). GFR was estimated (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), which reflects arterial stiffness, were calculated using the single-point method via the Mobil-O-Graph® ARCsolver algorithm. LVM was obtained by echocardiography. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured by electrochemiluminescence. The patients were divided into two groups according to the median eGFR value (eGFRlow group values were higher in eGFRlow group compared with eGFRhigh group (pvalues were higher in eGFRlow group compared with eGFRhigh group (pPresent study showed that eGFR was independently associated with PWV and NT-proBNP values. Importantly, these findings may explain, in part, the increase in cardiovascular risk in with slightly impaired renal function.

  9. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection... water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141...

  10. Protect Your Brain (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-21

    At least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), either with or without other injuries. This podcast discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.  Created: 3/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  11. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...

  12. Filtration in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundquist, Arthur; Clarke, Steven; Bettin, William

    2006-01-01

    .... Understanding the ability of filtration to reduce disease-causing microorganisms in water is important in protecting Soldiers, who are considering using this technology, from acute health threats...

  13. Cross-flow filtration and axial filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two relatively novel alternative solid-liquid-separation techniques of filtration are discussed. In cross-flow filtration, the feed is pumped past the filtering surface. While in axial filtration the filter, mounted on a rotor, is moved with respect to the feed. While large-scale application of the axial filter is still in doubt, it permits with little expenditure of time and money, duplication of many hydrodynamic aspects of cross-flow filtration for fine-particle handling problems. The technique has been applied to municipal wastes, low-level radioactive waste treatment plant, lead removal from industrial wastes, removal of pulp-mill contaminants, textile-mill wastes, and pretreatment of saline waters by lime-soda process in preparation for hyperfiltration. Economics and energy requirements are also discussed

  14. Resveratrol Protects the Brain of Obese Mice from Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha D. Rege

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that exerts cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects. Recently it has been shown that obesity is associated with an increase in cerebral oxidative stress levels, which may enhance neurodegeneration. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective action of resveratrol in brain of obese (ob/ob mice. Resveratrol was administered orally at the dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight daily for three weeks to lean and obese mice. Resveratrol had no effect on body weight or blood glucose levels in obese mice. Lipid peroxides were significantly increased in brain of obese mice. The enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and nonenzymatic antioxidants tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione were decreased in obese mice brain. Administration of resveratrol decreased lipid peroxide levels and upregulated the antioxidant activities in obese mice brain. Our findings indicate a neuroprotective effect of resveratrol by preventing oxidative damage in brain tissue of obese mice.

  15. Brain protection by methylprednisolone in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Mao; Lee, Ming-Hsueh; Wang, Ting-Chung; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chung, Chiu-Yen; Yang, Jen-Tsung

    2009-07-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is clinically treated by high doses of methylprednisolone. However, the effect of methylprednisolone on the brain in spinal cord injury patients has been little investigated. This experimental study examined Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression and Nissl staining to evaluate an apoptosis-related intracellular signaling event and final neuron death, respectively. Spinal cord injury produced a significant apoptotic change and cell death not only in the spinal cord but also in the supraventricular cortex and hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 region in the rat brains. The treatment of methylprednisolone increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and prevented neuron death for 1-7 days after spinal cord injury. These findings suggest that rats with spinal cord injury show ascending brain injury that could be restricted through methylprednisolone management.

  16. Protect Your Brain (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-21

    Recent high-profile cases among professional athletes have called attention to the serious problem of traumatic brain injuries, or TBI, but the problem isn’t limited to playing fields. In 2009, at least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a TBI, either with or without other injuries. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa McGuire discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.  Created: 3/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  17. Protective Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors in the Brain and Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Steckelings, Ulrike M; Sumners, Colin

    2017-01-01

    in the brain, particularly within or near cardiovascular control centers, mesh well with findings from pharmacological and gene transfer studies which demonstrate that activation of central AT2R can influence cardiovascular regulation. Collectively, these studies indicate that selective activation of brain AT2......R causes moderate decreases in blood pressure in normal animals and more profound anti-hypertensive effects, along with restoration of baroreflex function, in rodent models of neurogenic hypertension. These findings have opened the door to studies that can (i) assess the role of specific AT2R neuron...

  18. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The gap junction plays an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and stressed cells to the neighboring viable cells. The present study was performed to investigate the important role of gap junction communication on rabbits' explosive brain injury. Methods: Explosion of paper ...

  19. Thyroxin treatment protects against white matter injury in the immature brain via brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pi-Lien; Huang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Tu, Dom-Gene; Chang, Ying-Chao

    2013-08-01

    Low level of thyroid hormone is a strong independent risk factor for white matter (WM) injury, a major cause of cerebral palsy, in preterm infants. Thyroxin upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor during development. We hypothesized that thyroxin protected against preoligodendrocyte apoptosis and WM injury in the immature brain via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Postpartum (P) day-7 male rat pups were exposed to hypoxic ischemia (HI) and intraperitoneally injected with thyroxin (T4; 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or normal saline immediately after HI at P9 and P11. WM damage was analyzed for myelin formation, axonal injury, astrogliosis, and preoligodendrocyte apoptosis. Neurotrophic factor expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Neuromotor functions were measured using open-field locomotion (P11 and P21), inclined plane climbing (P11), and beam walking (P21). Intracerebroventricular injection of TrkB-Fc or systemic administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was performed. On P11, the HI group had significantly lower blood T4 levels than the controls. The HI group showed ventriculomegaly and marked reduction of myelin basic protein immunoreactivities in the WM. T4 (1 mg/kg) treatment after HI markedly attenuated axonal injury, astrocytosis, and microgliosis, and increased preoligodendrocyte survival. In addition, T4 treatment significantly increased myelination and selectively upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the WM, and improved neuromotor deficits after HI. The protective effect of T4 on WM myelination and neuromotor performance after HI was significantly attenuated by TrkB-Fc. Systemic 7,8-dihydroxyflavone treatment ameliorated hypomyelination after HI injury. T4 protects against WM injury at both pathological and functional levels via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling in the immature brain.

  20. Protection of the blood-brain barrier by hypercapnia during acute hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.L.; Mayhan, W.G.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hypercapnia on susceptibility of the blood-brain barrier to disruption during acute hypertension. Two methods were used to test the hypothesis that cerebral vasodilation during hypercapnia increases disruption of the blood-brain barrier. First, permeability of the blood-brain barrier was measured in anesthetized cats with 125 I-labeled serum albumin. Severe hypertension markedly increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier during normocapnia, but not during hypercapnia. The protective effect of hypercapnia was not dependent on sympathetic nerves. Second, in anesthetized rats, permeability of the barrier was quantitated by clearance of fluorescent dextran. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier during hypertension was decreased by hypercapnia. Because disruption of the blood-brain barrier occurred primarily in pial venules, the authors also measured pial venular diameter and pressure. Acute hypertension increased pial venular pressure and diameter in normocapnic rats. Hypercapnia alone increased pial venular pressure and pial venular diameter, and acute hypertension during hypercapnia further increased venular pressure. The magnitude of increase in pial venular pressure during acute hypertension was significantly less in hypercapnic than in normocapnic rats. They conclude that hypercapnia protects the blood-brain barrier. Possible mechanisms of this effect include attenuation of the incremental increase in pial venular pressure by hypercapnia or a direct effect on the blood-brain barrier not related to venous pressure

  1. Lycium barbarum Extracts Protect the Brain from Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Cerebral Edema in Experimental Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Suk-Yee; Yeung, Chung-Man; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP), a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. Methods C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB) extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after MCAO. Results LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. Conclusions Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke. PMID:22438957

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for Neuron-Derived Conditioned Medium (NCM-Mediated Protection of Ischemic Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsin Lin

    Full Text Available The protective value of neuron-derived conditioned medium (NCM in cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanism(s responsible for NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia were investigated in the study. NCM was first collected from the neuronal culture growing under the in vitro ischemic condition (glucose-, oxygen- and serum-deprivation or GOSD for 2, 4 or 6 h. Through the focal cerebral ischemia (bilateral CCAO/unilateral MCAO animal model, we discovered that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced brain infarction was significantly reduced by NCM, given directly into the cistern magna at the end of 90 min of CCAO/MCAO. Immunoblocking and chemical blocking strategies were applied in the in vitro ischemic studies to show that NCM supplement could protect microglia, astrocytes and neurons from GOSD-induced cell death, in a growth factor (TGFβ1, NT-3 and GDNF and p-ERK dependent manner. Brain injection with TGFβ1, NT3, GDNF and ERK agonist (DADS alone or in combination, therefore also significantly decreased the infarct volume of ischemic brain. Moreover, NCM could inhibit ROS but stimulate IL-1β release from GOSD-treated microglia and limit the infiltration of IL-β-positive microglia into the core area of ischemic brain, revealing the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of NCM. In overall, NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia has been demonstrated for the first time in S.D. rats, due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and potentially anti-glutamate activities (NCM-induced IL-1β can inhibit the glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity and restriction upon the infiltration of inflammatory microglia into the core area of ischemic brain. The therapeutic potentials of NCM, TGFβ1, GDNF, NT-3 and DADS in the control of cerebral ischemia in human therefore have been suggested and require further investigation.

  4. Pomegranate extract protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and preserves brain DNA integrity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maha A E; El Morsy, Engy M; Ahmed, Amany A E

    2014-08-21

    Interruption to blood flow causes ischemia and infarction of brain tissues with consequent neuronal damage and brain dysfunction. Pomegranate extract is well tolerated, and safely consumed all over the world. Interestingly, pomegranate extract has shown remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models. Many investigators consider natural extracts as novel therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of standardized pomegranate extract against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Adult male albino rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, and two other groups that received standardized pomegranate extract at two dose levels (250, 500 mg/kg) for 15 days prior to ischemia/reperfusion (PMG250+I/R, and PMG500+I/R groups). After I/R or sham operation, all rats were sacrificed and brains were harvested for subsequent biochemical analysis. Results showed reduction in brain contents of MDA (malondialdehyde), and NO (nitric oxide), in addition to enhancement of SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPX (glutathione peroxidase), and GRD (glutathione reductase) activities in rats treated with pomegranate extract prior to cerebral I/R. Moreover, pomegranate extract decreased brain levels of NF-κB p65 (nuclear factor kappa B p65), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), caspase-3 and increased brain levels of IL-10 (interleukin-10), and cerebral ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production. Comet assay showed less brain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage in rats protected with pomegranate extract. The present study showed, for the first time, that pre-administration of pomegranate extract to rats, can offer a significant dose-dependent neuroprotective activity against cerebral I/R brain injury and DNA damage via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and ATP-replenishing effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  5. PROBLEMS OF NONSTATIONARY FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod A. Shabanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available he article deals with the classical hydrodynamic theory of filtration. Discusses models of soil, fluid and nature of fluid flow that formed the basis for the creation of the classic filtration theory. Also discusses the assumptions made for the linearization of the equations. Evaluated the scope of the classical filtration theory. Proposed a new model of filtration through a porous medium, based on the application of the laws of theoretical mechanics. It is based on the classical model of soil: the soil is composed of capillaries with ..parallel axes, in which the liquid moves. For tasks of infiltration equations of motion. Considered special cases of unsteady motion of a finite volume of liquid. Numerical example a machine experiment.

  6. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....

  7. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms

  8. Protective effect of grifolin against brain injury in an acute cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of grifolin against brain injury in an acute cerebral ischemia rat model. Methods: Rats were assigned to five groups: control, negative control, and grifolin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) treated groups, which received the drug for 2 weeks. All the animals were sacrificed at the end of ...

  9. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  10. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  11. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve protect against cognitive decline over 4.5 years in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Dackovic, Jelena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2014-05-20

    Based on the theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve, we investigated whether larger maximal lifetime brain growth (MLBG) and/or greater lifetime intellectual enrichment protect against cognitive decline over time. Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent baseline and 4.5-year follow-up evaluations of cognitive efficiency (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task) and memory (Selective Reminding Test, Spatial Recall Test). Baseline and follow-up MRIs quantified disease progression: percentage brain volume change (cerebral atrophy), percentage change in T2 lesion volume. MLBG (brain reserve) was estimated with intracranial volume; intellectual enrichment (cognitive reserve) was estimated with vocabulary. We performed repeated-measures analyses of covariance to investigate whether larger MLBG and/or greater intellectual enrichment moderate/attenuate cognitive decline over time, controlling for disease progression. Patients with MS declined in cognitive efficiency and memory (p improve prediction of future cognitive decline in patients with MS. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Andrea E.; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Nagy, Lajos; Puskás, László G.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Takata, Fuyuko; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Deli, Mária A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal. Methodology Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and β-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging. Principal Findings Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM) provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound. Conclusion These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases. PMID:25033388

  13. Edaravone protects against methylglyoxal-induced barrier damage in human brain endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Tóth

    Full Text Available Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line treated with methylglyoxal.Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and β-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging.Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound.These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning protects against traumatic brain injury at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S L; Hu, R; Li, F; Liu, Z; Xia, Y Z; Cui, G Y; Feng, H

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that preconditioning with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) can reduce ischemic and hemorrhagic brain injury. We investigated effects of HBO preconditioning on traumatic brain injury (TBI) at high altitude and examined the role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in such protection. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: HBO preconditioning group (HBOP; n = 13), high-altitude group (HA; n = 13), and high-altitude sham operation group (HASO; n = 13). All groups were subjected to head trauma by weight-drop device, except for HASO group. HBOP rats received 5 sessions of HBO preconditioning (2.5 ATA, 100% oxygen, 1 h daily) and then were kept in hypobaric chamber at 0.6 ATA (to simulate pressure at 4000m altitude) for 3 days before operation. HA rats received control pretreatment (1 ATA, room air, 1 h daily), then followed the same procedures as HBOP group. HASO rats were subjected to skull opening only without brain injury. Twenty-four hours after TBI, 7 rats from each group were examined for neurological function and brain water content; 6 rats from each group were killed for analysis by H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. Neurological outcome in HBOP group (0.71 +/- 0.49) was better than HA group (1.57 +/- 0.53; p < 0.05). Preconditioning with HBO significantly reduced percentage of brain water content (86.24 +/- 0.52 vs. 84.60 +/- 0.37; p < 0.01). Brain morphology and structure seen by light microscopy was diminished in HA group, while fewer pathological injuries occurred in HBOP group. Compared to HA group, pretreatment with HBO significantly reduced the number of MMP-9-positive cells (92.25 +/- 8.85 vs. 74.42 +/- 6.27; p < 0.01). HBO preconditioning attenuates TBI in rats at high altitude. Decline in MMP-9 expression may contribute to HBO preconditioning-induced protection of brain tissue against TBI.

  15. Filtration by eyelashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  17. Protection of cortex by overlying meninges tissue during dynamic indentation of the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManus, David B; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2017-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a recent focus of biomedical research with a growing international effort targeting material characterization of brain tissue and simulations of trauma using computer models of the head and brain to try to elucidate the mechanisms and pathogenesis of TBI. The meninges, a collagenous protective tri-layer, which encloses the entire brain and spinal cord has been largely overlooked in these material characterization studies. This has resulted in a lack of accurate constitutive data for the cranial meninges, particularly under dynamic conditions such as those experienced during head impacts. The work presented here addresses this lack of data by providing for the first time, in situ large deformation material properties of the porcine dura-arachnoid mater composite under dynamic indentation. It is demonstrated that this tissue is substantially stiffer (shear modulus, μ=19.10±8.55kPa) and relaxes at a slower rate (τ 1 =0.034±0.008s, τ 2 =0.336±0.077s) than the underlying brain tissue (μ=6.97±2.26kPa, τ 1 =0.021±0.007s, τ 2 =0.199±0.036s), reducing the magnitudes of stress by 250% and 65% for strains that arise during indentation-type deformations in adolescent brains. We present the first mechanical analysis of the protective capacity of the cranial meninges using in situ micro-indentation techniques. Force-relaxation tests are performed on in situ meninges and cortex tissue, under large strain dynamic micro-indentation. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model is used subsequently, providing time-dependent mechanical properties of these neural tissues under loading conditions comparable to what is experienced in TBI. The reported data highlights the large differences in mechanical properties between these two tissues. Finite element simulations of the indentation experiments are also performed to investigate the protective capacity of the meninges. These simulations show that the meninges protect the underlying brain tissue

  18. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed

  19. Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnejad Azar, Adel; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bohlooli, Shahab; Panahpour, Hamdollah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of α-tocopherol against edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 major groups (n = 32 in each), namely the sham, and control and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg) ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min) was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At the end of the 24-hour reperfusion period, the animals were randomly selected and used for 4 investigations (n = 8) in each of the 3 main groups: (a) assessment of neurological score and measurement of infarct size, (b) detection of brain edema formation by the wet/dry method, (c) evaluation of BBB permeability using the Evans blue (EB) extravasation technique, and (d) assessment of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced extensive brain edema (brain water content 83.8 ± 0.11%) and EB leakage into brain parenchyma (14.58 ± 1.29 µg/g) in conjunction with reduced GSH and elevated MDA levels (5.86 ± 0.31 mmol/mg and 63.57 ± 5.42 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol significantly lowered brain edema formation and reduced EB leakage compared with the control group (p < 0.001, 80.1 ± 0.32% and 6.66 ± 0.87 µg/g, respectively). Meanwhile, treatment with α-tocopherol retained tissue GSH levels and led to a lower MDA level (p < 0.01, 10.17 ± 0.83 mmol/mg, and p < 0.001, 26.84 ± 4.79 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol reduced ischemic edema formation and produced protective effects on BBB function following ischemic stroke occurrence. This effect could be through increasing antioxidant activity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Brain superoxide anion formation in immature rats during seizures: Protection by selected compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Otáhal, Jakub; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2012), s. 421-429 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA ČR GAP303/10/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immature rats * DL-homocysteic acid-induced seizures * superoxide anion * SOD mimetics * protection * Fluoro-Jade B staining * brain damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2012

  1. Vitamin-C protect ethanol induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in postnatal rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.I.; Najeebullah; Ikramullah; Zubair, H.; Hassan, M.; Yang, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate ethanol effects to induced activation of caspsae-3, and to observe the protective effects of Vitamin C (vit-C) on ethanol-induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in rat cortical area of brain. Methodology: Administration of a single dose of ethanol in 7-d postnatal (P7) rats triggers activation of caspase-3 and widespread apoptotic neuronal death. Western blot analysis, cells counting and Nissl staining were used to elucidate possible protective effect of vit-C against ethanol-induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in brain. Results: The results showed that ethanol significantly increased caspase-3 expression and neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, the co-treatment of vit-C along with ethanol showed significantly decreased expression of caspase-3 as compare to control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that vit-C can prevent some of the deleterious effect of ethanol on developing rat brain when given after ethanol exposure and can be used as an effective protective agent for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). (author)

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  3. A TIGAR-regulated metabolic pathway is critical for protection of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Sun, Meiling; Cao, Lijuan; Gu, Jin-hua; Ge, Jianbin; Chen, Jieyu; Han, Rong; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Yuqiang; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2014-05-28

    TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) inhibits glycolysis and increases the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which generates NADPH and pentose. We hypothesized that TIGAR plays a neuroprotective role in brain ischemia as neurons do not rely on glycolysis but are vulnerable to oxidative stress. We found that TIGAR was highly expressed in brain neurons and was rapidly upregulated in response to ischemia/reperfusion insult in a TP53-independent manner. Overexpression of TIGAR in normal mice with lentivirus reduced ischemic neuronal injury, whereas lentivirus-mediated TIGAR knockdown aggravated it. In cultured primary neurons, increasing TIGAR expression reduced oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation-induced injury, whereas decreasing its expression worsened the injury. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was upregulated in mouse and cellular models of stroke, and its upregulation was further enhanced by overexpression of TIGAR. Supplementation of NADPH also reduced ischemia/reperfusion brain injury and alleviated TIGAR knockdown-induced aggravation of ischemic injury. In animal and cellular stroke models, ischemia/reperfusion increased mitochondrial localization of TIGAR. OGD/reoxygenation-induced elevation of ROS, reduction of GSH, dysfunction of mitochondria, and activation of caspase-3 were rescued by overexpression of TIGAR or supplementation of NADPH, while knockdown of TIGAR aggravated these changes. Together, our results show that TIGAR protects ischemic brain injury via enhancing PPP flux and preserving mitochondria function, and thus may be a valuable therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347458-14$15.00/0.

  4. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate based on alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with amlodipine/benazepril or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Hung, Yi-Jen; Chen, Jung-Fu; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with sympathetic activation. However, the effects of BDNF on diabetic nephropathy are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) and changes in serum BDNF levels in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with antihypertensive medications. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension were assigned to either the benazepril/amlodipine or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment groups for a 16-week period. The post hoc analyses were based on increased or decreased serum BDNF levels. Of the 153 enrolled subjects, the changes in eGFR were significantly and inversely correlated with those in BDNF in the 76 subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (r = -0.264, P = 0.021) but not in the 77 subjects treated with benazepril/amlodipine (r = -0.025, P = 0.862). The 45 subjects with increased BDNF following valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment exhibited a significantly reduced eGFR (-8.8 ± 14.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P benazepril.

  6. 40 CFR 141.717 - Pre-filtration treatment toolbox components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface water or GWUDI source. (c) Bank filtration. Systems receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit for... paragraph. Systems using bank filtration when they begin source water monitoring under § 141.701(a) must... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-filtration treatment toolbox...

  7. Nanoparticle-Delivered 2-PAM for Rat Brain Protection against Paraoxon Central Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashirova, Tatiana N; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Babaev, Vasily M; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Souto, Eliana B; Nikolsky, Evgeny E; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Masson, Patrick; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2017-05-24

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are among the most promising nanocarriers to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Encapsulation of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), in SLNs appears to be a suitable strategy for protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents (OPs) and postexposure treatment. 2-PAM-loaded SLNs were developed for brain targeting and delivery via intravenous (iv) administration. 2-PAM-SLNs displayed a high 2-PAM encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (maximum 30.8 ± 1%). Drug-loaded particles had a mean hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm and high negative zeta potential (-54 to -15 mV). These properties contribute to improve long-term stability of 2-PAM-SLNs when stored both at room temperature (22 °C) and at 4 °C, as well as to longer circulation time in the bloodstream compared to free 2-PAM. Paraoxon-poisoned rats (2 × LD 50 ) were treated with 2-PAM-loaded SLNs at a dose of 2-PAM of 5 mg/kg. 2-PAM-SLNs reactivated 15% of brain AChE activity. Our results confirm the potential use of SLNs loaded with positively charged oximes as a medical countermeasure both for protection against OPs poisoning and for postexposure treatment.

  8. Glucocorticoids Protect Neonatal Rat Brain in Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Harding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE resulting from asphyxia in the peripartum period is the most common cause of neonatal brain damage and can result in significant neurologic sequelae, including cerebral palsy. Currently therapeutic hypothermia is the only accepted treatment in addition to supportive care for infants with HIE, however, many additional neuroprotective therapies have been investigated. Of these, glucocorticoids have previously been shown to have neuroprotective effects. HIE is also frequently compounded by infectious inflammatory processes (sepsis and as such, the infants may be more amenable to treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, the present study investigated dexamethasone and hydrocortisone treatment given after hypoxic-ischemic (HI insult in neonatal rats via intracerebroventricular (ICV injection and intranasal administration. In addition, we examined the effects of hydrocortisone treatment in HIE after lipopolysaccharide (LPS sensitization in a model of HIE and sepsis. We found that dexamethasone significantly reduced rat brain infarction size when given after HI treatment via ICV injection; however it did not demonstrate any neuroprotective effects when given intranasally. Hydrocortisone after HI insult also significantly reduced brain infarction size when given via ICV injection; and the intranasal administration showed to be protective of brain injury in male rats at a dose of 300 µg. LPS sensitization did significantly increase the brain infarction size compared to controls, and hydrocortisone treatment after LPS sensitization showed a significant decrease in brain infarction size when given via ICV injection, as well as intranasal administration in both genders at a dose of 300 µg. To conclude, these results show that glucocorticoids have significant neuroprotective effects when given after HI injury and that these effects may be even more pronounced when given in circumstances of additional

  9. Method of electrostatic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Electrostatic filtration of secondary ions of mass m in a given mass ratio with a primary ion of mass M which has formed the secondary ions by fission is carried out by a method which consists in forming a singly-charged primary ion of the substance having a molecular mass M and extracting the ion at a voltage V 1 with respect to ground. The primary ion crosses a potential barrier V 2 , in producing the dissociation of the ion into at least two fragments of secondary ions and in extracting the fragment ion of mass m at a voltage V 2 . Filtration is carried out in an electrostatic analyzer through which only the ions of energy eV'' are permitted to pass, detecting the ions which have been filtered. The mass m of the ions is such that (M/m) = (V 1 - V 2 )/(V'' - V 2 )

  10. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  11. Mixture based outlier filtration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecherková, Pavla; Nagy, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2006), s. 30-35 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MDS 1F43A/003/120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data filtration * system modelling * mixture models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20060165.pdf

  12. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  13. Filtration of polydispersed colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic microscopic form of the population balance model is applied to the problem of polydispersed particle capture in one spatial diffusion. This mathematical modeling approach can be applied to the difficult and potentially important problem of particulate (radiocolloid) transport in the groundwater surrounding a nuclear waste disposal site. To demonstrate the population balance methodology, the equations were developed and used to investigate transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. Modeling simulations were compared to experimental column data. The multidimensional form of the population balance equation was used to analyze the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids. A numerical model was developed to describe transport of polydispersed colloids through a one-dimensional porous region. The effects of various size distributions were investigated in terms of capture efficiency. For simulating the column data, it was found by trial and error that as part of the population balance model a linear size dependent filtration function gave a good fit to the measured colloid concentration profile. The effects of constant versus size dependent filtration coefficients were compared and the differences illustrated by the calculated colloid profile within the column. Also observed from the model calculations was the dramatically changing liquid-phase colloid-size distribution which was plotted as a function of position down the column. This modeling approach was excellent for describing and understanding microscopic filtration in porous media

  14. Radiation-induced late brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Junlin; Miao Yanjun; Yang Weizhi; Cai Weiming; Liu Yajie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether radiation-induced late injury of the brain can be ameliorated by traditional Chinese Medicine through blocking the primary events. Methods: This trial included five animal groups: sham irradiation, irradiation only, and three treatment groups. The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated with 22 Gy by using a 6 MV linear accelerator. Step down method was used to evaluate the study and memory abilities. Mouse weight was also recorded every week before and after irradiation. On D90, all mice alive were euthanized and Glee's silver dye method and Bielschousky silver dye method were used to detect the senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences among the groups in the various aspects of study and memory abilities as well as quality of life. Kaplan-Meier was used to evaluate the survival. Log-rank was used to detect the differences among the survival groups. Results: 1. There was no significant difference in survival among the treatment groups, even though Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM) was able to improve the quality of life. As to the cognition function, it was shown that whole brain radiation would make a severe cognition damage with the learning and memorizing ability of the irradiated mice being worse than those of the sham irradiation group. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia Miltiorrhiza possesses the role of a protective agent against cognition function damage induced by irradiation. 2. Glee's silver dye and Bielschousky silver dye show much more senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle in brain tissue of R group and R + 654-2 group than those in the R + SM group. Conclusions: Salvia Miltiorrhiza is able to protect the mouse from cognition function damage induced by irradiation and improve the quality of life by ameliorating the primary events, though it does not improve the survival

  15. Protective effect of Xingnaojia formulation on rats with brain and liver damage caused by chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Wang, S U; Guo, Zhi-Gang; Huang, Ning; Zhao, Fan-Rong; Zhu, Mo-Li; Ma, Li-Juan; Liang, Jin-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Zhong-Lin; Wan, Guang-Rui

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a formulation of traditional Chinese medicine extracts known as Xingnaojia (XNJ) on the liver function, learning ability and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism and to verify the mechanism by which it protects the brain and liver. A rat model of chronic alcoholism was used in the study. The spatial learning ability and memory of the rats were tested. The rats were then sacrificed and their brains and hepatic tissues were isolated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutamate (Glu), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the hippocampus were analyzed. The ultrastructure of the hepatic tissue was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in serum were tested and the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TCHOL) were analyzed. XNJ enhanced the learning and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism. Treatment with XNJ increased the activity of SOD, and decreased the expression levels of NR2B mRNA and NR2B, CB1 and CDK5 proteins in the brain tissues compared with those in the model rats. It also increased the activity of ALDH in the serum and liver, decreased the serum levels of LDL, TG and TCHOL and increased the serum level of HDL. These results indicate that XNJ exhibited a protective effect against brain and liver damage in rats with chronic alcoholism.

  16. Effect of low glomerular filtration rate on evaluating the cardiac function by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Li Peiyong; Guan Liang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of NT-proBNP in hypertension patients by observing the effect of decreased GFR on N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration in patients with different cardiac function. Methods: Eighty-nine hypertension patients were divided into two groups based on the results of UCG. Forty-three patients had normal left ventricular function and 46 patients had dysfunction. GFR, NT-proBNP and other biochemical markers of cardiac and renal function were measured. The factors affecting the NT-proBNP concentration under normal left ventricular function were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of NT-proBNP affected by normal or decreased GFR (> 80 ml/min or ≤80 ml/min) under different left ventricular functions were further assessed. The two-sample t test, rank sum test and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze their statistical difference and relationship. Results: In patients with normal left ventricular function, GFR (β=-0.361, P<0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD, β=0.385, P<0.05) were significant factors to NT-proBNP level. They were both meaningful compared with LVEF (β=0.189, P>0.05) and septal thickness (β=0.003, P>0.05). The median concentration of NT-proBNP was 13.18 and 24.14 μg/L in patients with normal left ventricular function and dysfunction, respectively (Z=-3.19, P<0.01). While in patients with decreased GFR, 6 cases with normal left ventricular function and 19 cases with dysfunction had a median concentration of NT-proBNP of 38.45 and 44.20 μg/L, respectively (Z=-0.45, P>0.05). In patients with normal GFR, 37 cases with normal left ventricular function and 27 cases with dysfunction had a median concentration of NT-proBNP of 12.51 and 20.31 μg/L, which was lower than that of patients with decreased GFR (Z=-2.76, both P<0.05). The NT-proBNP concentration had no significant difference between patients of normal left ventricular function with decreased GFR and

  17. Protective effects of edaravone on the radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats following whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingzhu; Tian Ye; Bao Shiyao; Bao Huan; Zhan Zhilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of the oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the cortex following whole brain irradiation and the effects of the neotype free radical scavenger, edaravone on radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats. Methods: 120 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham- irradiation group, irradiation group and edaravone group. The model of whole-brain irradiation was established with exposure of the whole brain of the rats to 4 MeV X-rays with a single-dose of 10 Gy. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with edaravone at 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg. Tissue microarray of irradiation-induced brain injury in rats was constructed. The expression of A2BS, oligodendrocyte market 4(O4) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the cortex was examined by tissue microarray technology and immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were counted. Results: Compared with the sham-irradiation group, the number of A2BS-positive cells increased and the number of O4, CNPase-positive cells decreased significantly at certain time in the irradiation group(P<0.05). Compared with irradiation group, A2BS-positive cells decreased significantly after edaravone treatment, while O4-positive cells and CNPase-positive cells increased significantly (P<0.05, or P<0.01). Conclusions: The number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cortex of rats increased reactively following whole brain irradiation and changed with time. Edaravone played a protective role in oligodendrocyte ischemic reaction in a dose-dependent manner. (authors)

  18. Protective effects of edaravone on the radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats following whole brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yingzhu, Chen; Ye, Tian; Shiyao, Bao; Huan, Bao; Zhilin, Zhan [The Second Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou Univ., Suzhou (China)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To investigate the changes of the oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the cortex following whole brain irradiation and the effects of the neotype free radical scavenger, edaravone on radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats. Methods: 120 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham- irradiation group, irradiation group and edaravone group. The model of whole-brain irradiation was established with exposure of the whole brain of the rats to 4 MeV X-rays with a single-dose of 10 Gy. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with edaravone at 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg. Tissue microarray of irradiation-induced brain injury in rats was constructed. The expression of A2BS, oligodendrocyte market 4(O4) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the cortex was examined by tissue microarray technology and immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were counted. Results: Compared with the sham-irradiation group, the number of A2BS-positive cells increased and the number of O4, CNPase-positive cells decreased significantly at certain time in the irradiation group(P<0.05). Compared with irradiation group, A2BS-positive cells decreased significantly after edaravone treatment, while O4-positive cells and CNPase-positive cells increased significantly (P<0.05, or P<0.01). Conclusions: The number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cortex of rats increased reactively following whole brain irradiation and changed with time. Edaravone played a protective role in oligodendrocyte ischemic reaction in a dose-dependent manner. (authors)

  19. Carnosine supplementation protects rat brain tissue against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Biberoglu, Gursel; Mertoglu Caglar, Oznur

    2010-06-01

    Ethanol causes oxidative stress and tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidant carnosine on the oxidative stress induced by ethanol in the rat brain tissue. Forty male rats were divided equally into four groups as control, carnosine (CAR), ethanol (EtOH), and ethanol plus carnosine (EtOH + CAR). Rats in the control group (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.9% saline; EtOH group (n = 10) with 2 g/kg/day ethanol, CAR group (n = 10) received carnosine at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day and EtOH + CAR group (n = 10) received carnosine (orally) and ethanol (i.p.). All animals were sacrificed using ketamine and brain tissues were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and tissue carnosine levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. Endogenous CAR levels in the rat brain tissue specimens were significantly increased in the CAR and EtOH groups when compared to the control animals. MDA and PCO levels in the EtOH group were significantly increased as compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). CAR treatment also decreased MDA levels in the CAR group as compared to the control group. Increased SOD activities were obtained in the EtOH + CAR group as compared to the control (P < 0.05). CAR levels in the rat brain were significantly increased in the CAR, EtOH and CAR + EtOH groups when compared to the control animals. These findings indicated that carnosine may appear as a protective agent against ethanol-induced brain damage.

  20. Sodium thiosulfate protects brain in rat model of adenine induced vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, N; Sriram, R; Kurian, Gino A

    2015-11-01

    Vascular bed calcification is a common feature of ends stage renal disease that may lead to a complication in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular beds, which is a promoting cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, dementia and aneurysms. Sodium thiosulfate (STS) due to its multiple properties such as antioxidant and calcium chelation has been reported to prevent vascular calcification in uremic rats, without mentioning its impact on cerebral function. Moreover, the previous studies have not explored the effect of STS on the mitochondrial dysfunction, one of the main pathophysiological features associated with the disease and the main site for STS metabolism. The present study addresses this limitation by using a rat model where 0.75% adenine was administered to induce vascular calcification and 400 mg/kg b wt. of STS was given as preventive and curative agent. The blood and urine chemistries along with histopathology of aorta confirms the renal protective effect of STS in two modes of administration. The brain oxidative stress assessment was made through TBARS level, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, found to be in the near normal level. STS administration not only reduced the mitochondrial oxidative stress (measured by TBARS, SOD, GPx and CAT) but also preserved the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities (NADH dehydrogenase, Succinate dehydrogenase and Malate dehydrogenase) and its physiology (measured by P/O ratio and RCR). In fact, the protective effect of STS was prominent, when it was administered as a curative agent, where low H2S and high thiosulfate level was observed along with low cystathionine β synthase activity, confirms thiosulfate mediated renal protection. In conclusion, STS when given after induction of calcification is protective to the brain by preserving its mitochondria, compared to the treatment given concomitantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paeoniflorin, a Monoterpene Glycoside, Protects the Brain from Cerebral Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Huang; Huang, Mingqing; Huang, Mei; Chu, Kedan; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Shengnan; Que, Jinhua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a principal bioactive component, which exhibits many pharmacological effects, including protection against ischemic injury. This paper aimed to investigate the protective effect of PF both in vivo and in vitro. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat for 2 h, and different doses of PF or vehicle were administered 2 h after reperfusion. Rats were sacrificed after 7 days treatment of PF/vehicle. PF treatment for 7 days ameliorated MCAO-induced neurological deficit and decreased the infarct area. Further study demonstrated that PF inhibited the over-activation of astrocytes and apoptosis of neurons, and PF promoted up-regulation of neuronal specific marker neuron-specific nuclear (NeuN) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in brain. Moreover, NMDA-induced neuron apoptosis was employed. The in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against NMDA-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss via up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN, MAP-2 and Bcl-2 and the down-regulation Bax. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces its protective effect by inhibiting the over-activation of astrocytes, apoptosis of neurons and up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN, MAP-2, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and down-regulation Bax. Our study reveals that PF may be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke and can provide basic data for clinical use.

  2. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Alterations of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Treated with Amlodipine/Benazepril or Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Te Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with sympathetic activation. However, the effects of BDNF on diabetic nephropathy are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs and changes in serum BDNF levels in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with antihypertensive medications. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension were assigned to either the benazepril/amlodipine or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment groups for a 16-week period. The post hoc analyses were based on increased or decreased serum BDNF levels. Results. Of the 153 enrolled subjects, the changes in eGFR were significantly and inversely correlated with those in BDNF in the 76 subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (r=-0.264, P=0.021 but not in the 77 subjects treated with benazepril/amlodipine (r=-0.025, P=0.862. The 45 subjects with increased BDNF following valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment exhibited a significantly reduced eGFR (-8.8±14.9 mL/min/1.73 m2; P<0.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increased serum BDNF represents an independent factor for reduced eGFR (95% confidence interval between −0.887 and −0.076, P=0.020. Conclusions. Increased serum BDNF is associated with reduced eGFR in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide but not with amlodipine/benazepril.

  3. On one approach to health protection: Music of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotchev, Alexander; Radchenko, Grigoriy; Zemlianaia, Anna

    2017-10-18

    This review presents the current status of a method for prevention and timely correction of human functional disturbances that was first proposed by Russian neurologist Ya.I. Levin in 1998 and further developed by the authors. The approach is named "Music of the Brain" and is based on musical or music-like stimulation organized in strict accordance with the biopotentials of a patient's brain. Initial studies on the music of the brain approach were analyzed, and its limitations were noted. To enhance the efficiency and usability of the approach, several combinations of music therapy with neurofeedback technique - musical neurofeedback - were developed. Enhanced efficiency of the approach has been shown for correction of functional disturbances during pregnancy and for elimination of stress-induced states in high technology specialists. The use and advantages of musical neurofeedback technology for increasing human cognitive activity, correcting sleep disturbances and treatment of disorders of attention were verified. After further development and testing the approach may be suited for a wide range of therapeutic and rehabilitation procedures in the protection of public health.

  4. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

  5. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development.

  6. Protective effects of carnosol against oxidative stress induced brain damage by chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Samini, Mohammad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-05-04

    Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have a therapeutic effect versus free radical induced diseases. The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The restraint stress induced by keeping animals in restrainers for 21 consecutive days. Thereafter, the rats were injected carnosol or vehicle for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, all the rats were subjected to his open field test and forced swimming test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed for measuring their oxidative stress parameters. To measure the modifications in the biochemical aspects after the experiment, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus the non-stressed animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non-stressed rats (p < 0.01). Carnosol ameliorated this alteration versus the non-treated rats (p < 0.05). In the vehicle treated rats that submitted to the stress, the level of MDA levels was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased versus the non-stressed animals (P < 0.001). Carnosol treatment reduced the modifications in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). All of these carnosol effects were nearly similar to those observed with fluoxetine. The current research shows that the protective effects of carnosol may be accompanied with enhanced antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative injury.

  7. Ischemic conditioning-induced endogenous brain protection: Applications pre-, per- or post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuechun; Reis, Cesar; Applegate, Richard; Stier, Gary; Martin, Robert; Zhang, John H

    2015-10-01

    In the area of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases, a plethora of experimental and clinical evidence strongly indicates the promise of therapeutically exploiting the endogenous adaptive system at various levels like triggers, mediators and the end-effectors to stimulate and mobilize intrinsic protective capacities against brain injuries. It is believed that ischemic pre-conditioning and post-conditioning are actually the strongest known interventions to stimulate the innate neuroprotective mechanism to prevent or reverse neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and traumatic brain injury. Recently, studies showed the effectiveness of ischemic per-conditioning in some organs. Therefore the term ischemic conditioning, including all interventions applied pre-, per- and post-ischemia, which spans therapeutic windows in 3 time periods, has recently been broadly accepted by scientific communities. In addition, it is extensively acknowledged that ischemia-mediated protection not only affects the neurons but also all the components of the neurovascular network (consisting of neurons, glial cells, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and venule/veins). The concept of cerebroprotection has been widely used in place of neuroprotection. Intensive studies on the cellular signaling pathways involved in ischemic conditioning have improved the mechanistic understanding of tolerance to cerebral ischemia. This has added impetus to exploration for potential pharmacologic mimetics, which could possibly induce and maximize inherent protective capacities. However, most of these studies were performed in rodents, and the efficacy of these mimetics remains to be evaluated in human patients. Several classical signaling pathways involving apoptosis, inflammation, or oxidation have been elaborated in the past decades. Newly characterized mechanisms are emerging with the advances in biotechnology and conceptual renewal. In this review we are going to focus on

  8. BWR condensate filtration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.A.; Pasricha, A.; Rekart, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Poor removal of particulate corrosion products (especially iron) from condensate is one of the major problems in BWR systems. The presence of activated corrosion products creates ''hot spots'' and increases piping dose rates. Also, fuel efficiency is reduced and the risk of fuel failure is increased by the deposit of corrosion products on the fuel. Because of these concerns, current EPRI guidelines call for a maximum of 2 ppb of iron in the reactor feedwater with a level of 0.5 ppb being especially desirable. It has become clear that conventional deep bed resins are incapable of meeting these levels. While installation of prefilter systems is an option, it would be more economical for plants with naked deep beds to find an improved bead resin for use in existing systems. BWR condensate filtration technologies are being tested on a condensate side stream at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station. After two years of testing, hollow fiber filters (HFF) and fiber matrix filters (FMF), and low crosslink cation resin, all provide acceptable results. The results are presented for pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and water quality measurements. The costs are compared for backwashable non-precoat HFF and FMF. Results are also presented for full deep bed vessel tests of the low crosslink cation resin

  9. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  11. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase protects against brain injury induced by chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Zaghloul

    Full Text Available Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is an isoform of SOD normally found both intra- and extra-cellularly and accounting for most SOD activity in blood vessels. Here we explored the role of EC-SOD in protecting against brain damage induced by chronic hypoxia. EC-SOD Transgenic mice, were exposed to hypoxia (FiO2.1% for 10 days (H-KI and compared to transgenic animals housed in room air (RA-KI, wild type animals exposed to hypoxia (H-WT or wild type mice housed in room air (RA-WT. Overall brain metabolism evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET showed that H-WT mice had significantly higher uptake of 18FDG in the brain particularly the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. H-KI mice had comparable uptake to the RA-KI and RA-WT groups. To investigate the functional state of the hippocampus, electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo hippocampal slices were performed and showed that H-KI had normal synaptic plasticity, whereas H-WT were severely affected. Markers of oxidative stress, GFAP, IBA1, MIF, and pAMPK showed similar values in the H-KI and RA-WT groups, but were significantly increased in the H-WT group. Caspase-3 assay and histopathological studies showed significant apoptosis/cell damage in the H-WT group, but no significant difference in the H-KI group compared to the RA groups. The data suggest that EC-SOD has potential prophylactic and therapeutic roles in diseases with compromised brain oxygenation.

  12. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  13. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and as...

  14. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  15. Galantamine and carbon monoxide protect brain microvascular endothelial cells by heme oxygenase-1 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Atsunori; Kaczorowski, David J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Lei Jing; Faleo, Gaetano; Deguchi, Kentaro; McCurry, Kenneth R.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Kanno, Shinichi

    2008-01-01

    Galantamine, a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), is a novel drug treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Interestingly, it has been suggested that galantamine treatment is associated with more clinical benefit in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease compared to other AChE inhibitors. We hypothesized that the protective effects of galantamine would involve induction of the protective gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in addition to enhancement of the cholinergic system. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs) were isolated from spontaneous hypertensive rats. Galantamine significantly reduced H 2 O 2 -induced cell death of mvECs in association with HO-1 induction. These protective effects were completely reversed by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibition or HO inhibition. Furthermore, galantamine failed to induce HO-1 in mvECs which lack inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), supplementation of a nitric oxide (NO) donor or iNOS gene transfection on iNOS-deficient mvECs resulted in HO-1 induction with galantamine. These data suggest that the protective effects of galantamine require NF-κB activation and iNOS expression, in addition to HO-1. Likewise, carbon monoxide (CO), one of the byproducts of HO, up-regulated HO-1 and protected mvECs from oxidative stress in a similar manner. Our data demonstrate that galantamine mediates cytoprotective effects on mvECs through induction HO-1. This pharmacological action of galantamine may, at least in part, account for the superior clinical efficacy of galantamine in vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease

  16. Protective and Antioxidant Effects of a Chalconoid from Pulicaria incisa on Brain Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Elmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, by activity-guided fractionation, we have purified from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa two protective compounds and determined their structures by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were found to be new chalcones—pulichalconoid B and pulichalconoid C. This is the first study to characterize the antioxidant and protective effects of these compounds in any biological system. Using primary cultures of astrocytes, we have found that pulichalconoid B attenuated the accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with hydrogen peroxide by 89% and prevented 89% of the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. Pulichalconoid B exhibited an antioxidant effect both in vitro and in the cellular antioxidant assay in astrocytes and microglial cells. Pulichalconoid B also caused a fourfold increase in GDNF transcription in these cells. Thus, this chalcone deserves further studies in order to evaluate if beneficial therapeutic effect exists.

  17. Hot filtration 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Rebagliati, Raul; Liberman, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The magnetic filtration technique allows the removal of suspended magnetic species from a fluid at high flow rate and temperature. It is specially advantageous for water purification in systems such as thermonuclear and thermoelectric plants in which corrosion products must be removed from the heat transport and cooling circuits. Using diluted aqueous suspensions of magnetite, the behaviour of a ball matrix filter was studied as a function of flow rate, temperature and concentration of particles. The retention efficiency shows an exponential decay with fluid's velocity and viscosity in agreement with theory. Within the range of concentration considered, there is no change in the retention with concentration. Design parameters for filters according to plant's needs are obtained from the results of this study. (Author) [es

  18. Huperzine A protects isolated rat brain mitochondria against beta-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Yang, Ling; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2009-06-01

    Our previous work in cells and animals showed that mitochondria are involved in the neuroprotective effect of huperzine A (HupA). In this study, the effects of HupA on isolated rat brain mitochondria were investigated. In addition to inhibiting the Abeta(25-35) (40 microM)-induced decrease in mitochondrial respiration, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, enzyme activity, and transmembrane potential, HupA (0.01 or 0.1 microM) effectively prevented Abeta-induced mitochondrial swelling, reactive oxygen species increase, and cytochrome c release. More interestingly, administration of HupA to isolated mitochondria promoted the rate of ATP production and blocked mitochondrial swelling caused by normal osmosis. These results indicate that HupA protects mitochondria against Abeta at least in part by preserving membrane integrity and improving energy metabolism. These direct effects on mitochondria further extend the noncholinergic functions of HupA.

  19. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  20. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water system...

  1. A GSK-3β Inhibitor Protects Against Radiation Necrosis in Mouse Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Perez-Torres, Carlos J. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Thotala, Dinesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Engelbach, John A. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Yuan, Liya [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Cates, Jeremy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gao, Feng [Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Drzymala, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Schmidt, Robert E. [Department of Neuropathology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Ackerman, Joseph J.H. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Hallahan, Dennis E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garbow, Joel R., E-mail: garbow@wustl.edu [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effectiveness of SB415286, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, as a neuroprotectant against radiation-induced central nervous system (brain) necrosis in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cohorts of mice were treated with SB415286 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prior to irradiation with a single 45-Gy fraction targeted to the left hemisphere (brain) using a gamma knife machine. The onset and progression of radiation necrosis (RN) were monitored longitudinally by noninvasive in vivo small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) beginning 13 weeks postirradiation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes for SB415286- and DMSO-treated mice were compared. MRI results were supported by correlative histology. Results: Mice treated with SB415286 showed significant protection from radiation-induced necrosis, as determined by in vivo MRI with histologic validation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes were significantly smaller at all postirradiation time points in SB415286-treated animals. Although the irradiated hemispheres of the DMSO-treated mice demonstrated many of the classic histologic features of RN, including fibrinoid vascular necrosis, vascular telangiectasia, hemorrhage, and tissue loss, the irradiated hemispheres of the SB415286-treated mice consistently showed only minimal tissue damage. These studies confirmed that treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor dramatically reduced delayed time-to-onset necrosis in irradiated brain. Conclusions: The unilateral cerebral hemispheric stereotactic radiation surgery mouse model in concert with longitudinal MRI monitoring provided a powerful platform for studying the onset and progression of RN and for developing and testing new neuroprotectants. Effectiveness of SB415286 as a neuroprotectant against necrosis motivates potential clinical trials of it or other GSK-3β inhibitors.

  2. An Evolutionarily Conserved Role of Presenilin in Neuronal Protection in the Aging Drosophila Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jongkyun; Shin, Sarah; Perrimon, Norbert; Shen, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin and Nicastrin are essential components of γ-secretase, a multi-subunit protease that cleaves Type I transmembrane proteins. Genetic studies in mice previously demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Presenilin or Nicastrin in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain results in memory deficits, synaptic impairment, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. The roles of Drosophila Presenilin ( Psn ) and Nicastrin ( Nct ) in the adult fly brain, however, are unknown. To knockdown (KD) Psn or Nct selectively in neurons of the adult brain, we generated multiple shRNA lines. Using a ubiquitous driver, these shRNA lines resulted in 80-90% reduction of mRNA and pupal lethality-a phenotype that is shared with Psn and Nct mutants carrying nonsense mutations. Furthermore, expression of these shRNAs in the wing disc caused notching wing phenotypes, which are also shared with Psn and Nct mutants. Similar to Nct , neuron-specific Psn KD using two independent shRNA lines led to early mortality and rough eye phenotypes, which were rescued by a fly Psn transgene. Interestingly, conditional KD (cKD) of Psn or Nct in adult neurons using the elav-Gal4 and tubulin-Gal80 ts system caused shortened lifespan, climbing defects, increases in apoptosis, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. Together, these findings demonstrate that, similar to their mammalian counterparts, Drosophila Psn and Nct are required for neuronal survival during aging and normal lifespan, highlighting an evolutionarily conserved role of Presenilin in neuronal protection in the aging brain. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. A GSK-3β Inhibitor Protects Against Radiation Necrosis in Mouse Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Perez-Torres, Carlos J.; Thotala, Dinesh; Engelbach, John A.; Yuan, Liya; Cates, Jeremy; Gao, Feng; Drzymala, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Garbow, Joel R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effectiveness of SB415286, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, as a neuroprotectant against radiation-induced central nervous system (brain) necrosis in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cohorts of mice were treated with SB415286 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prior to irradiation with a single 45-Gy fraction targeted to the left hemisphere (brain) using a gamma knife machine. The onset and progression of radiation necrosis (RN) were monitored longitudinally by noninvasive in vivo small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) beginning 13 weeks postirradiation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes for SB415286- and DMSO-treated mice were compared. MRI results were supported by correlative histology. Results: Mice treated with SB415286 showed significant protection from radiation-induced necrosis, as determined by in vivo MRI with histologic validation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes were significantly smaller at all postirradiation time points in SB415286-treated animals. Although the irradiated hemispheres of the DMSO-treated mice demonstrated many of the classic histologic features of RN, including fibrinoid vascular necrosis, vascular telangiectasia, hemorrhage, and tissue loss, the irradiated hemispheres of the SB415286-treated mice consistently showed only minimal tissue damage. These studies confirmed that treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor dramatically reduced delayed time-to-onset necrosis in irradiated brain. Conclusions: The unilateral cerebral hemispheric stereotactic radiation surgery mouse model in concert with longitudinal MRI monitoring provided a powerful platform for studying the onset and progression of RN and for developing and testing new neuroprotectants. Effectiveness of SB415286 as a neuroprotectant against necrosis motivates potential clinical trials of it or other GSK-3β inhibitors

  4. Protective effect of pyruvate against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Ullah, Ikram; Lee, Hae Young; Koh, Phil Ok; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol during the early stages of brain development can lead to neurological disorders in the CNS. Apoptotic neurodegeneration due to ethanol exposure is a main feature of alcoholism. Exposure of developing animals to alcohol (during the growth spurt period in particular) elicits apoptotic neuronal death and causes fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). A single episode of ethanol intoxication (at 5 g/kg) in a seven-day-old developing rat can activate the apoptotic cascade, leading to widespread neuronal death in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pyruvate against ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. After 4h, a single dose of ethanol induced upregulation of Bax, release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c into the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), all of which promote apoptosis. These effects were all reversed by co-treatment with pyruvate at a well-tolerated dosage (1000 mg/kg). Histopathology performed at 24 and 48 h with Fluoro-Jade-B and cresyl violet stains showed that pyruvate significantly reduced the number of dead cells in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Immunohistochemical analysis at 24h confirmed that ethanol-induced cell death is both apoptotic and inhibited by pyruvate. These findings suggest that pyruvate treatment attenuates ethanol-induced neuronal cell loss in the developing rat brain and holds promise as a safe therapeutic and neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in newborns and infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Azotemia protects the brain from osmotic demyelination on rapid correction of hyponatremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza F Dhrolia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS is a dreadful, irreversible and well-recognized clinical entity that classically occurs after rapid correction of hyponatremia. However, it has been observed that when hyponatremia is rapidly corrected in azotemic patients by hemodialysis (HD, patients do not necessarily develop ODS. We studied the effect of inadvertent rapid correction of hyponatremia with HD in patients with azotemia. Fifty-two azotemic patients, who underwent HD at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, having pre-HD serum sodium level <125 mEq/L and post-HD serum sodium levels that increased by ≥12 mEq/L from their pre-dialysis level, were studied. Serum sodium was analyzed before and within 24 h after a HD session. HD was performed using bicarbonate solution, with the sodium concentration being 140 meq/L. The duration of the dialysis session was based on the discretion of the treating nephrologist. Patients were examined for any neurological symptoms or signs before and after HD and for up to two weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in required cases. None of the 52 patients with azotemia, despite inadvertent rapid correction of hyponatremia with HD, developed ODS. This study suggests that patients with azotemia do not develop ODS on rapid correction of hyponatremia by HD, which suggests a possible protective role of azotemia on the brain from osmotic demyelination. However, the mechanism by which azotemia protects the brain from demyelination in humans is largely hypothetical and further studies are needed to answer this question.

  6. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Komolafe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity.

  7. Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jie; Zhou, Qiong; Du, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Miao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xi, Ye; Li, Zhuyi; Miao, Jianting

    2014-08-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a critical causative factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, which involves many pathophysiological processes. Consequently, inhibition of several pathophysiological pathways is an attractive therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Rutin, a biologically active flavonoid, protects the brain against several insults through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of rutin on cognitive impairments and the potential mechanisms underlying its action in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We used Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. After rutin treatment for 12 weeks, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in rats was evaluated by behavioural tests, biochemical and histopathological analyses. BCCAO rats showed marked cognitive deficits, which were improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, compared with sham-operated rats. All these effects were significantly alleviated by treatment with rutin. Our results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of rutin and suggest that rutin has multi-targeted therapeutical potential on cognitive deficits associated with conditions with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion such as vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Integrating Brain Science and Law: Neuroscientific Evidence and Legal Perspectives on Protecting Individual Liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin J. Kraft

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuroscientific techniques have found increasingly broader applications, including in legal neuroscience (or “neurolaw”, where experts in the brain sciences are called to testify in the courtroom. But does the incursion of neuroscience into the legal sphere constitute a threat to individual liberties? And what legal protections are there against such threats? In this paper, we outline individual rights as they interact with neuroscientific methods. We then proceed to examine the current uses of neuroscientific evidence, and ultimately determine whether the rights of the individual are endangered by such approaches. Based on our analysis, we conclude that while federal evidence rules constitute a substantial hurdle for the use of neuroscientific evidence, more ethical safeguards are needed to protect against future violations of fundamental rights. Finally, we assert that it will be increasingly imperative for the legal and neuroscientific communities to work together to better define the limits, capabilities, and intended direction of neuroscientific methods applicable for use in law.

  9. Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae, Chorogi) Protects against Learning and Memory Dysfunction Associated with Ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shinichi; Tsujita, Tsukasa; Ono, Akiko; Miyagi, Kei; Mori, Takaharu; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae; Chinese artichoke, a tuber), "chorogi" in Japanese, has been extensively used in folk medicine, and has a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative activity. However, few studies have examined the neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract (chorogi extract), and it remains unknown whether the extract can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of chorogi extract, and examined its protection against learning and memory dysfunction using Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) as a positive control. Mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min. Oral administration of chorogi extract or ginkgo extract significantly reduced post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage including memory impairment on day 3 after BCAO, compared with the vehicle-treated group. Neither herbal medicine affected locomotor activity. Furthermore, neither significantly alleviated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment. In primary neurons, neuronal survival rate was significantly reduced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. This hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity was significantly suppressed by chorogi extract and ginkgo extract. Taken together, our findings suggest that chorogi extract as well as ginkgo extract can protect against learning and memory dysfunction associated with ischemic brain injury through an antioxidative mechanism.

  10. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  11. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  12. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  13. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  14. Protective effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in perioperative period during open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbin; Li, Yong; Bao, Weiguo; Qiu, Shi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and safety aspects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on cardiac functions of patients undergoing open-heart surgery during perioperative period. In total, 150 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the Second Hospital of Shandong Universty from August 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into control group and observation group each with 75 cases. Patients in control group were treated by routine rehabilitation while patients in the observation group were treated by both the routine rehabilitation and rhBNP. All the observations were made before operation, after operation and 7 days after operation. The changes of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) of patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac function [Cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PAWP) and central venous pressure (CVP)] of patients were measured. Further, respirator support time, ICU stay time, incidence of complications and vital signs (BP, HR, SaO2) of patients in the two groups were also compared. NT-proBNP levels of all patients improved after operation but it decreased in both groups after 7 days of operation. The decrease of NT-proBNP levels in observation group was significantly higher than that of control group. Whereas, LVEF, CO, PAWP and CVP of patients in both the groups increased after operation but effects were significantly higher in the observation group after 7 days of medication. Respirator support time and ICU stay time of patients in observation group were significantly shorter than those in control group, and the incidence of postoperative complications of patients in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group. Moreover, BP, HR and SaO2 of patients in observation group were significantly elevated in comparison to control group (Popen heart surgery, and is safe as well as reliable.

  15. The lazaroid U74389G protects normal brain from stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buatti, John M.; Friedman, William A.; Theele, Daniel P.; Bova, Francis J.; Mendenhall, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To test an established model of stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury with pretreatments of either methylprednisolone or the lazaroid U74389G. Methods and Materials: Nine cats received stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator using an animal radiosurgery device. Each received a dose of 125.0 Gy prescribed to the 84% isodose shell to the anterior limb of the right internal capsule. One animal received no pretreatment, two received citrate vehicle, three received 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone, and three received 5 mg/kg of U74389G. After irradiation, the animals had frequent neurologic examinations, and neurologic deficits developed in all of them. Six months after the radiation treatment, the animals were anesthetized, and had gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scans, followed by Evans blue dye perfusion, euthanasia, and brain fixation. Results: Magnetic resonance scans revealed a decrease in the size of the lesions from a mean volume of 0.45 ± 0.06 cm 3 in the control, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated animals to 0.22 ± 0.14 cm 3 in the U74389G-treated group. The scans also suggested the absence of necrosis and ventricular dilatation in the lazaroid-treated group. Gross pathology revealed that lesions produced in the untreated, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated cats were similar and were characterized by a peripheral zone of Evans blue dye staining with a central zone of a mature coagulative necrosis and focal hemorrhage. However, in the U74389G-treated animals, the lesions were found to have an area of Evans blue dye staining, but lacked discrete areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Conclusion: These results suggest that the lazaroid U74389G protects the normal brain from radiation injury produced by stereotactic radiosurgery

  16. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  17. Latest aspects of mechanical filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and unify all knowledge about mechanic filtration. The first part deals with the parameters and properties of filtration. Here some important basic concepts are explained such as pressure gradient, filter life, etc. There’s also a description of convenient filtration technology for coarse and fine materials, such as sand, smoke or soot. The second part primarily focuses on the real use and application of filters for liquid and gaseous media. The differences in construction between different types of filters for filtration of fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, air and cabin filters are described. The last section is focused mainly on new materials for the production of filters. These materials are ceramic or nanomaterials, which can actually be enriched for example with antibacterial silver or some fungicides.

  18. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  20. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  1. Effects of alkylating agents on dopamine D(3) receptors in rat brain: selective protection by dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Weiss, N T; Tarazi, F I; Kula, N S; Baldessarini, R J

    1999-11-13

    Dopamine D(3) receptors are structurally highly homologous to other D(2)-like dopamine receptors, but differ from them pharmacologically. D(3) receptors are notably resistant to alkylation by 1-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), which readily alkylates D(2) receptors. We compared EEDQ with N-(p-isothiocyanatophenethyl)spiperone (NIPS), a selective D(2)-like receptor alkylating agent, for effects on D(3) and D(2) receptors in rat brain using autoradiographic analysis. Neither agent occluded D(3) receptors in vivo at doses that produced substantial blockade of D(2) receptors, even after catecholamine-depleting pretreatments. In vitro, however, D(3) receptors were readily alkylated by both NIPS (IC(50)=40 nM) and EEDQ (IC(50)=12 microM). These effects on D(3) sites were blocked by nM concentrations of dopamine, whereas microM concentrations were required to protect D(2) receptors from the alkylating agents. The findings are consistent with the view that alkylation of D(3) receptors in vivo is prevented by its high affinity for even minor concentrations of endogenous dopamine.

  2. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  3. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside is a blood-brain barrier protective and anti-inflammatory agent: implications for neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Slava; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Reichenbach, Nancy L; Erickson, Michelle A; Winfield, Malika; Gajghate, Sachin; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L; Persidsky, Yuri

    2018-01-27

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in flaxseed, is known for its beneficial effects in inflammation, oxidative stress, heart disease, tumor progression, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. SDG might be an attractive natural compound that protects against neuroinflammation. Yet, there are no comprehensive studies to date investigating the effects of SDG on brain endothelium using relevant in vivo and in vitro models. We evaluated the effects of orally administered SDG on neuroinflammatory responses using in vivo imaging of the brain microvasculature during systemic inflammation and aseptic encephalitis. In parallel, the anti-inflammatory actions of SDG on brain endothelium and monocytes were evaluated in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Multiple group comparisons were performed by one-way analysis of variance with Dunnet's post hoc tests. We found that SDG diminished leukocyte adhesion to and migration across the BBB in vivo in the setting of aseptic encephalitis (intracerebral TNFα injection) and prevented enhanced BBB permeability during systemic inflammatory response (LPS injection). In vitro SDG pretreatment of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) or human monocytes diminished adhesion and migration of monocytes across brain endothelial monolayers in conditions mimicking CNS inflammatory responses. Consistent with our in vivo observations, SDG decreased expression of the adhesion molecule, VCAM1, induced by TNFα, or IL-1β in BMVEC. SDG diminished expression of the active form of VLA-4 integrin (promoting leukocyte adhesion and migration) and prevented the cytoskeleton changes in primary human monocytes activated by relevant inflammatory stimuli. This study indicates that SDG directly inhibits BBB interactions with inflammatory cells and reduces the inflammatory state of leukocytes. Though more work is needed to determine the mechanism by which SDG mediates these effects, the ability of SDG to exert a multi

  4. A brain-targeted ampakine compound protects against opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Xiao, Dian; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Xin-Bo; Fang, Tong-Yu; Yong, Zheng; Su, Rui-Bin

    2017-08-15

    The use of opioid drugs for pain relief can induce life-threatening respiratory depression. Although naloxone effectively counteracts opioid-induced respiratory depression, it diminishes the efficacy of analgesia. Our studies indicate that ampakines, in particular, a brain-targeted compound XD-8-17C, are able to reverse respiratory depression without affecting analgesia at relatively low doses. Mice and rats were subcutaneously or intravenously injected with the opioid agonist TH-030418 to induce moderate or severe respiratory depression. XD-8-17C was intravenously administered before or after TH-030418. The effect of XD-8-17C on opioid-induced respiratory depression was evaluated in terms of the opioid-induced acute death rate, arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests. In addition, the hot-plate test was conducted to investigate whether XD-8-17C influenced opioid-induced analgesia. Pre-treatment with XD-8-17C significantly reduced opioid-induced acute death, and increased the median lethal dose of TH-030418 by 4.7-fold. Blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests demonstrated that post-treatment with XD-8-17C alleviated respiratory depression, as indicated by restoration of arterial blood gas (pO 2 , sO 2 , cK + ) and lung function parameters (respiratory frequency, minute ventilation) to the normal range. The hot-plate test showed that XD-8-17C had no impact on the antinociceptive efficacy of morphine. The ability of XD-8-17C to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression has the potential to increase the safety and convenience of opioid treatment. These findings contribute to the discovery of novel therapeutic agents that protect against opioid-induced respiratory depression without loss of analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quercetin protects human brain microvascular endothelial cells from fibrillar β-amyloid1–40-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ are known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy has been shown to be a prominent feature in the majority of Alzheimer׳s disease. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid molecule and has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects, but its protective effect on endothelial cells under Aβ-damaged condition is unclear. In the present study, the protective effects of quercetin on brain microvascular endothelial cells injured by fibrillar Aβ1–40 (fAβ1–40 were observed. The results show that fAβ1–40-induced cytotoxicity in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs can be relieved by quercetin treatment. Quercetin increases cell viability, reduces the release of lactate dehydrogenase, and relieves nuclear condensation. Quercetin also alleviates intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and increases superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, it strengthens the barrier integrity through the preservation of the transendothelial electrical resistance value, the relief of aggravated permeability, and the increase of characteristic enzyme levels after being exposed to fAβ1–40. In conclusion, quercetin protects hBMECs from fAβ1–40-induced toxicity.

  6. Optimism and the brain: trait optimism mediates the protective role of the orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume against anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Sanda; Hu, Yifan; Iordan, Alexandru D; Moore, Matthew; Dolcos, Florin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence identifies trait optimism and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as personality and brain factors influencing anxiety, but the nature of their relationships remains unclear. Here, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of trait optimism and of increased OFC volume against symptoms of anxiety were investigated in 61 healthy subjects, who completed measures of trait optimism and anxiety, and underwent structural scanning using magnetic resonance imaging. First, the OFC gray matter volume (GMV) was associated with increased optimism, which in turn was associated with reduced anxiety. Second, trait optimism mediated the relation between the left OFC volume and anxiety, thus demonstrating that increased GMV in this brain region protects against symptoms of anxiety through increased optimism. These results provide novel evidence about the brain-personality mechanisms protecting against anxiety symptoms in healthy functioning, and identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing susceptibility and increasing resilience against emotional disturbances. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. miR-98 and let-7g* protect the blood-brain barrier under neuroinflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Slava; Dykstra, Holly; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Reichenbach, Nancy L; Persidsky, Yuri

    2015-12-01

    Pathologic conditions in the central nervous system, regardless of the underlying injury mechanism, show a certain level of blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest event in the initiation of vascular damage caused by inflammation due to stroke, atherosclerosis, trauma, or brain infections. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of gene expression regulators. The relationship between neuroinflammation and miRNA expression in brain endothelium remains unexplored. Previously, we showed the BBB-protective and anti-inflammatory effects of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β inhibition in brain endothelium in in vitro and in vivo models of neuroinflammation. Using microarray screening, we identified miRNAs induced in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α, with/out GSK3β inhibition. Among the highly modified miRNAs, let-7 and miR-98 were predicted to target the inflammatory molecules, CCL2 and CCL5. Overexpression of let-7 and miR-98 in vitro and in vivo resulted in reduced leukocyte adhesion to and migration across endothelium, diminished expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased BBB tightness, attenuating barrier 'leakiness' in neuroinflammation conditions. For the first time, we showed that miRNAs could be used as a therapeutic tool to prevent the BBB dysfunction in neuroinflammation.

  8. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is to use more simple systems. Dextran-MnO2 particles and polystyrene particles with a water-swollen polyacrylic acid shell have therefore been synthesised. These particles have been filtered and used to study the non-linear filtration behaviour. The compressibility of the formed cake has been investigated......The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... and the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour explained as a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). Thus, the creep phenomenon has been adopted in the conventional filtration models and it will be shown that the model can be used to simulate filtration data...

  9. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama, Myriam; Adla-Biassette, Homa; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Bollen, Bieke; Brissaud, Olivier; Matrot, Boris; Gressens, Pierre; Gallego, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group), a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group), and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group). Exposure to moderate IH (8% O2) consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine whether in

  10. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eBouslama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group, a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group, and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group. Exposure to moderate IH consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 hours per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine

  11. Protective effects of hydroxysaffor yellow A on brain injury in mice irradiated by 300 MeV/n 12C6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lu; Wang Zhenhua; Zhang Hong; Ma Chengjun; Li Guang

    2012-01-01

    Radiation encephalopathy is the main complication of cranial radiotherapy. It can cause necrosis of brain tissue and cognitive dysfunction, to which no ideal prevention method is available until now. Hydroxysaffor yellow A (HSYA) is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine safflower, with protective effects against cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we investigated the protective effects of HSYA on brain injury in mice irradiated by 300 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beam. The whole head of male Kunming mouse was irradiated to 4.0 Gy after receiving daily intra-peritoneal injection HSYA for 3 d. One month later, the Morris water maze test was used to detect the spatial memory in mice. The Evans blue was used as the tracer to evaluate the permeability of blood-brain barrier. The SOD activity and MDA content in brain tissue were assayed by test kits. The results showed that the 12 C 6+ irradiation significantly impaired the spatial learning and memory in mice, increased the permeability of blood-brain barrier and the MDA content in brain tissue, whereas decreased the SOD activity in brain tissue. The pretreatment with HSYA could improve the spatial memory deficits and inhibit the changes of the blood-brain barrier, the SOD activity and the MDA content in brain tissue in mice. All these demonstrate that HSYA possesses the protective effect against brain injury induced by 12 C 6+ particle therapy. (authors)

  12. Optimization of suspensions filtration with compressible cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is described filtering process for separating reaction mixture after enzymatic hydrolysis to process the chromium tanning waste. Filtration of this mixture is very complicated because it is case of mixture filtration with compressible cake. Successful process strongly depends on mathematical describing of filtration, calculating optimal values of pressure difference, specific resistant of filtration cake and temperature maintenance which is connected with viscosity change. The mathematic model of filtration with compressible cake we verified in laboratory conditions on special filtration device developed on our department.

  13. Filtration set for gaseous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, B.; Couvrat-Desvergnes, A.

    1988-01-01

    This filtration set is made by a cylindrical vessel containing upstairs to downstairs, the gas inlet, a sealed floor for man inspection, a horizontal granular filter bed, a linen with a porosity inferior to the granulometry of the filter bed, a light support layer of material of larger granulometry, gas permeable tubes and an annular collector connecting the tubes to the outlet [fr

  14. Some observations on air filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluyver, A.J.; Visser, J.

    1950-01-01

    1. A method has been developed for testing the filtration efficiency of some filter materials. For each of the materials investigated — cotton wool, stillite and carbon — a suitable filter has been devised. 2. The filtered air was analyzed as to its germ content with the aid of a set of 3 capillary

  15. Filtration device for active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-01-01

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter

  16. Self Cleaning HEPA Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylde, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research (Bergman et al 1997, Moore et al 1992) suggests that the then costs to the DOE, based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5,000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15,000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  17. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 7: Role Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Prevention, Protection, and Repair, Subproject: Role of Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury, are as follows: Species Rat(Albino Wistar), Number Allowed...

  18. The usage of filtration as fulfillment of acceptable indoor and optimal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The role of filtration is a significant factor in the prevention and mitigation of indoor air quality problems. ASHRAE Standard 62-89. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, makes broad and non-specific references to filtration. This paper provides guidelines for the usage of filtration as a means of fulfillment of the Standard's requirements. The paper also references the specific authorities as iterated in the Standard. The discussion will include the usage of filtration in treating contaminated outside air, protection of equipment and systems, protection of occupants, reduction of ventilation air, and source control. The reduction of ventilation air through filtration has significant and positive energy management benefits. Other energy benefits accrue from clean heat exchange surfaces

  19. Protective Effects of Salubrinal on Liver Injury in Rat Models of Brain Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Shui-Jun Zhang; Sheng-Li Cao; Wen-Zhi Guo; Bing Yan; Hong-Bo Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Previous studies have indicated that endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in and mediates liver injury and apoptosis in brain-dead (BD) rats.In this study,we observed the effect ofsalubrinal (Sal,Sigma,USA) on liver cells in BD rats and explored its relevant mechanisms.Methods:Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups:BD group,Sal group,and DMSO group.The BD models were established by increasing intracranial pressure in a modified,slow,and intermittent way.In the drug groups,Sal was administered l h before the induction of BD.After modeling was completed,the blood and liver samples were harvested.CHOP and Caspase-12 mRNA expression was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.PKR-like ER kinase (PERK),P-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α),eIF2α,CHOP and caspase-12 expression was detected using western blotting (WB).CHOP and caspase-12 distribution and expression in liver tissues were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC).Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer.Hepatic cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL.The results were analyzed using Quantity-one v4.62 software (Bio-Rad,USA).Results:CHOP and caspase-12 expression and PERK,eIF2α,and P-eIF2α protein expression showed no significant difference between BD group and DMSO group.Compared with BD group,Sal group had a significantly higher P-eIF2C level and a lower P-PERK level 2 h and 6 h after BD (P < 0.05).However,eIF2α expression showed no significant difference (P > 0.05).After the Sal treatment,CHOP and caspase-12 mRNA expression significantly decreased 4 h after BD (P < 0.05).WB and IHC indicated that CHOP and caspase-12 expression also significantly decreased after Sal treatment.Sal was associated with improved liver function and decreased hepatic cell apoptosis.Conclusions:Sal can significantly reduce apoptosis in hepatic cells of BD rats

  20. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Astrocyte-targeted expression of IL-6 protects the CNS against a focal brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes; Lago, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    significantly increased up to but not including 20 dpl in the GFAP-IL6 mice. Oxidative stress as well as apoptotic cell death was significantly decreased throughout the time period studied in the GFAP-IL6 mice compared to controls. This could be linked to the altered inflammatory response as well......The effect of CNS-targeted IL-6 gene expression has been thoroughly investigated in the otherwise nonperturbed brain but not following brain injury. Here we examined the impact of astrocyte-targeted IL-6 production in a traumatic brain injury (cryolesion) model using GFAP-IL6 transgenic mice...... as to the transgenic IL-6-induced increase of the antioxidant, neuroprotective proteins metallothionein-I + II. These results indicate that although in the brain the chronic astrocyte-targeted expression of IL-6 spontaneously induces an inflammatory response causing significant damage, during an acute...

  2. Bmi1 is down-regulated in the aging brain and displays antioxidant and protective activities in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdouh

    Full Text Available Aging increases the risk to develop several neurodegenerative diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Inactivation of the Polycomb group gene Bmi1 in mice results in growth retardation, cerebellar degeneration, and development of a premature aging-like phenotype. This progeroid phenotype is characterized by formation of lens cataracts, apoptosis of cortical neurons, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, owing to p53-mediated repression of antioxidant response (AOR genes. Herein we report that Bmi1 expression progressively declines in the neurons of aging mouse and human brains. In old brains, p53 accumulates at the promoter of AOR genes, correlating with a repressed chromatin state, down-regulation of AOR genes, and increased oxidative damages to lipids and DNA. Comparative gene expression analysis further revealed that aging brains display an up-regulation of the senescence-associated genes IL-6, p19(Arf and p16(Ink4a, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Noxa, as seen in Bmi1-null mice. Increasing Bmi1 expression in cortical neurons conferred robust protection against DNA damage-induced cell death or mitochondrial poisoning, and resulted in suppression of ROS through activation of AOR genes. These observations unveil that Bmi1 genetic deficiency recapitulates aspects of physiological brain aging and that Bmi1 over-expression is a potential therapeutic modality against neurodegeneration.

  3. Filtrations of free groups as intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Efrat, Ido

    2013-01-01

    For several natural filtrations of a free group S we express the n-th term of the filtration as the intersection of all kernels of homomorphisms from S to certain groups of upper-triangular unipotent matrices. This generalizes a classical result of Grun for the lower central filtration. In particular, we do this for the n-th term in the lower p-central filtration of S.

  4. The absence of protective effect of candesartan and angiotensin IV in the moderate brain injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, M.; Botelle, L.; Javellaud, J.; Oudart, N.; Achard, J-M

    2012-01-01

    Background: angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are protective in various models of experimental ischemic stroke. This protective effect is mediated by the stimulation of non-AT1 receptors by angiotensin II and angiotensin IV. Since traumatic brain injury shares with ischemic cerebral injury several common mechanisms, we examined if a pretreatment with the ARB candesartan, or a post-treatment with angiotensin IV are also protective in a rat model of blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods :adults Sprague Dawley rats were treated for five days with candesartan (0.5 mg/kg/day) or saline by gavage prior to the induction of diffuse moderate TBI using the impact-acceleration model. Two others groups of rats were treated by a daily intraperitoneal injection of angiotensin IV (1.5 mg/kg/day) or saline for five days following TBI. Overall neurological insult were assessed daily by measuring the neurological score. Sensitive deficits (scotch test) and sensorimotor deficits (beam-walking test) were evaluated daily from day 1 to 7 and at day 15; cognitive impairment (object recognition test) was evaluated at day 15. Results : TBI induced significant sensitive and sensorimotor deficits that were maximal at day 1 and spontaneously improved with time. At day 15, traumatised animals had a marked alteration of the working memory. Neither treatment with candesartan, angiotensin IV or with erythropoietin decreased the severity of the initial sensorimotor deficits, nor accelerate the recovery rate. Candesartan, angiotensin IV had likewise no protective effect on the cognitive deficit evaluated to day 15. Conclusion: pretreatment with candesartan and post-treatment with angiotensin IV are both ineffective to protect against sensorimotor and c ognitive impairment in a rat model of impact-acceleration TBI. (author)

  5. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  6. Protective ventilation of preterm lambs exposed to acute chorioamnionitis does not reduce ventilation-induced lung or brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Samantha K; Moss, Timothy J M; Hooper, Stuart B; Crossley, Kelly J; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; Zahra, Valerie; Wong, Flora Y; Pichler, Gerhard; Galinsky, Robert; Miller, Suzanne L; Tolcos, Mary; Polglase, Graeme R

    2014-01-01

    The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response. Pregnant ewes (n = 18) received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6), or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5) or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7) for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury. LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (pVentilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor to WM injury in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis.

  7. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... root of time. Even more clearly it is demonstrated by plotting the liquid pressure at the cake piston interface v.s. the relative deformation (to be shown). The phenomenon of a secondary consolidation processes is in short called creep. Provided that the secondary consolidation rate is of the same...

  8. Properties of plastic filtration material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses properties of filters made of thermoplastic granulated material. The granulated plastic has a specific density of 10.3-10.6 kN/m/sup 3/ and a bulk density of about 6 kN/m/sup 3/. Its chemical resistance to acids, bases and salts is high but is it soluble in organic solvents. Filters made of this material are characterized by a porosity coefficient of 36.5% and a bulk density of 5.7-6.8 kN/m/sup 3/. Physical and mechanical properties of filter samples made of thermoplastic granulated material (50x50x50 mm) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Compression strength and influencing factors were analyzed (ambient temperature, manufacturing technology). Tests show that this filtration material developed by Poltegor is superior to other filtration materials used in Poland.

  9. Protective effect of crocin on acrolein-induced tau phosphorylation in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein, as a by-product of lipid peroxidation, is implicated in brain aging and in the pathogenesis of oxidative stressmediated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Widespread human exposure to the toxic environmental pollutant that is acrolein renders it necessary to evaluate the effects of exogenous acrolein on the brain. This study investigated the toxic effects of oral administration of 3 mg/kg/day acrolein on the rat cerebral cortex. Moreover, the neuroprotective effects of crocin, the main constituent of saffron, against acrolein toxicity were evaluated. We showed that acrolein decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Amyloid-beta (Abeta) and phospho-tau in the brain. Simultaneously, acrolein activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathways. Co-administration of crocin significantly attenuated MDA, Abeta and p-tau levels by modulating MAPKs signalling pathways. Our data demonstrated that environmental exposure to acrolein triggers some molecular events which contribute to brain aging and neurodisorders. Additionally, crocin as an antioxidant is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as brain aging and AD.

  10. The protective influence of the locus ceruleus on the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harik, S.I.; McGunigal, T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The functions of the putative noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus remain ambiguous. Although most evidence indicates that such innervation does not have a major role in the control of cerebral blood flow, there are increasing indications that it modulates transport and permeability functions of the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated the effect of unilateral chemical lesioning of the locus ceruleus on the leakage of radioiodinated human serum albumin across the blood-brain barrier. Experiments were performed in awake and restrained rats under steady-state conditions and during drug-induced systemic arterial hypertension, and in anesthetized and paralyzed rats during bicuculline-induced seizures. Both hypertension and seizures are known to be associated with increased leakage of macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier. Albumin leakage into norepinephrine-depleted forebrain structures ipsilateral to the locus ceruleus lesion was compared with that of the contralateral side. There were no side-to-side differences in blood-brain barrier permeability to albumin under steady-state conditions, the stress of restraint, or angiotensin-induced hypertension, or after isoproterenol administration. Norepinephrine-induced hypertension and seizures, however, caused significant increases in albumin leakage into forebrain structures ipsilateral to the lesion. These results suggest that noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the locus ceruleus helps preserve the integrity of the blood-brain barrier during pathophysiological states associated with hypertension and increased circulating catecholamines

  11. Protective effect of green tea polyphenol EGCG against neuronal damage and brain edema after unilateral cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung; Bae, Jae Hoon; Lee, Seong-Ryong

    2004-09-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechine gallate (EGCG), has a potent free radical scavenging and antioxidant effect. Glutamate leads to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, which are important pathophysiologic responses to cerebral ischemia resulting in brain edema and neuronal damage. We investigated the effect of EGCG on excitotoxic neuronal damage in a culture system and the effect on brain edema formation and lesion after unilateral cerebral ischemia in gerbils. In vitro, excitotoxicity was induced by 24-hr incubation with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 10 microM), AMPA (10 microM), or kainate (20 microM). EGCG (5 microM) was added to the culture media alone or with excitotoxins. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA) level and neuronal viability to evaluate the effect of EGCG. In vivo, unilateral cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right common carotid artery for 30, 60, or 90 min and followed by reperfusion of 24 hr. Brain edema, MDA, and infarction were examined to evaluate the protective effect of EGCG. EGCG (25 or 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered twice, at 30 min before and immediately after ischemia. EGCG reduced excitotoxin-induced MDA production and neuronal damage in the culture system. In the in vivo study, treatment of gerbils with the lower EGCG dose failed to show neuroprotective effects; however, the higher EGCG dose attenuated the increase in MDA level caused by cerebral ischemia. EGCG also reduced the formation of postischemic brain edema and infarct volume. These results demonstrate EGCG may have future possibilities as a neuroprotective agent against excitotoxicity-related neurologic disorders such as brain ischemia.

  12. Dietary interventions designed to protect the perinatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy--Creatine prophylaxis and the need for multi-organ protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Dickinson, Hayley; McKenzie, Matthew; Walker, David W

    2016-05-01

    Birth asphyxia or hypoxia arises from impaired placental gas exchange during labor and remains one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a condition that can strike in pregnancies that have been uneventful until these final moments, and leads to fundamental loss of cellular energy reserves in the newborn. The cascade of metabolic changes that occurs in the brain at birth as a result of hypoxia can lead to significant damage that evolves over several hours and days, the severity of which can be ameliorated with therapeutic cerebral hypothermia. However, this treatment is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria and is usually administered only in facilities with a high level of medical surveillance. Hence, a number of neuropharmacological interventions have been suggested as adjunct therapies to improve the efficacy of hypothermia, which alone improves survival of the post-hypoxic infant but does not altogether prevent adverse neurological outcomes. In this review we discuss the prospect of using creatine as a dietary supplement during pregnancy and nutritional intervention that can significantly decrease the risk of brain damage in the event of severe oxygen deprivation at birth. Because brain damage can also arise secondarily to compromise of other fetal organs (e.g., heart, diaphragm, kidney), and that compromise of mitochondrial function under hypoxic conditions may be a common mechanism leading to damage of these tissues, we present data suggesting that dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylaxis that can protect the fetus from the multi-organ consequences of severe hypoxia at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor to Brain Edema Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Involved Mechanisms: Effect of Aquaporin-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heling Chu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has protective effects on many neurological diseases. However, whether VEGF acts on brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is largely unknown. Our previous study has shown aquaporin-4 (AQP4 plays an important role in brain edema elimination following ICH. Meanwhile, there is close relationship between VEGF and AQP4. In this study, we aimed to test effects of VEGF on brain edema following ICH and examine whether they were AQP4 dependent. Recombinant human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165 was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 d after ICH induced by microinjecting autologous whole blood into striatum. We detected perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression, then examined the effects of rhVEGF165 on perihemotomal brain edema at 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after injection in wild type (AQP4(+/+ and AQP4 knock-out (AQP4(-/- mice. Furthermore, we assessed the possible signal transduction pathways activated by VEGF to regulate AQP4 expression via astrocyte cultures. We found perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression was highly increased by rhVEGF165. RhVEGF165 alleviated perihemotomal brain edema in AQP4(+/+ mice at each time point, but had no effect on AQP4(-/- mice. Perihemotomal EB extravasation was increased by rhVEGF165 in AQP4(-/- mice, but not AQP4(+/+ mice. RhVEGF165 reduced neurological deficits and increased Nissl's staining cells surrounding hemotoma in both types of mice and these effects were related to AQP4. RhVEGF165 up-regulated phospharylation of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK and AQP4 protein in cultured astrocytes. The latter was inhibited by JNK and ERK inhibitors. In conclusion, VEGF reduces neurological deficits, brain edema, and neuronal death surrounding hemotoma but has no influence on BBB permeability. These effects are closely related to AQP4 up-regulation, possibly through activating JNK and ERK pathways. The current study may present new insights to

  14. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on the use of the methods of determining the filtration coefficient on the basis of oedometer test results. The present analysis of the filtration theory equations should help interpret effective parameters of the non-steady filtration model. Moreover, equations for the flow of a gas through a porous medium and an interpretation of the filtration model effective parameters in this case are presented.

  15. Protective effects of monomethyl fumarate at the inflamed blood-brain barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, J.L.; van der Pol, S.M.A.; Di Dio, F.; van het Hof, B.; Kooij, G.; de Vries, H.E.; van Horssen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis as they induce blood-brain barrier disruption and enhance transendothelial leukocyte migration. Thus, therapeutic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential could have clinical value in

  16. Paeoniflorin protects against ischemia-induced brain damages in rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Bing Guo

    Full Text Available Paeoniflorin (PF, the principal component of Paeoniae Radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects including protection against ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of PF on cerebral ischemia are still under investigation. The present study showed that PF treatment for 14 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced over-activation of astrocytes and microglia, and prevented up-regulations of pro-inflamamtory mediators (TNFα, IL-1β, iNOS, COX(2 and 5-LOX in plasma and brain. Further study demonstrated that chronic treatment with PF suppressed the activations of JNK and p38 MAPK, but enhanced ERK activation. And PF could reverse ischemia-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, our in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against TNFα-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces a delayed protection in the ischemia-injured rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB mediated peripheral and cerebral inflammatory response. Our study reveals that PF might be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke.

  17. Paeoniflorin protects against ischemia-induced brain damages in rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruo-Bing; Wang, Guo-Feng; Zhao, An-Peng; Gu, Jun; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), the principal component of Paeoniae Radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects including protection against ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of PF on cerebral ischemia are still under investigation. The present study showed that PF treatment for 14 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced over-activation of astrocytes and microglia, and prevented up-regulations of pro-inflamamtory mediators (TNFα, IL-1β, iNOS, COX(2) and 5-LOX) in plasma and brain. Further study demonstrated that chronic treatment with PF suppressed the activations of JNK and p38 MAPK, but enhanced ERK activation. And PF could reverse ischemia-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, our in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against TNFα-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces a delayed protection in the ischemia-injured rats via inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB mediated peripheral and cerebral inflammatory response. Our study reveals that PF might be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke.

  18. How bilingualism protects the brain from aging: Insights from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Emmorey, Karen; Gong, Gaolang; Yan, Xin; Feng, Xiaoxia; Zou, Lijuan; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-08-01

    Bilingual experience can delay cognitive decline during aging. A general hypothesis is that the executive control system of bilinguals faces an increased load due to controlling two languages, and this increased load results in a more "tuned brain" that eventually creates a neural reserve. Here we explored whether such a neuroprotective effect is independent of language modality, i.e., not limited to bilinguals who speak two languages but also occurs for bilinguals who use a spoken and a signed language. We addressed this issue by comparing bimodal bilinguals to monolinguals in order to detect age-induced structural brain changes and to determine whether we can detect the same beneficial effects on brain structure, in terms of preservation of gray matter volume (GMV), for bimodal bilinguals as has been reported for unimodal bilinguals. Our GMV analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of age × group in the bilateral anterior temporal lobes, left hippocampus/amygdala, and left insula where bimodal bilinguals showed slight GMV increases while monolinguals showed significant age-induced GMV decreases. We further found through cortical surface-based measurements that this effect was present for surface area and not for cortical thickness. Moreover, to further explore the hypothesis that overall bilingualism provides neuroprotection, we carried out a direct comparison of GMV, extracted from the brain regions reported above, between bimodal bilinguals, unimodal bilinguals, and monolinguals. Bilinguals, regardless of language modality, exhibited higher GMV compared to monolinguals. This finding highlights the general beneficial effects provided by experience handling two language systems, whether signed or spoken. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4109-4124, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids protect the brain against ischemic injury by activating Nrf2 and upregulating heme oxygenase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Suping; Mao, Leilei; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Sun, Baoliang; Cao, Guodong; Gao, Yanqin; Xu, Yun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-29

    Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) attenuate ischemic neuronal injury by activating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in both in vitro and in vivo models. We observed that pretreatment of rat primary neurons with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly reduced neuronal death following oxygen-glucose deprivation. This protection was associated with increased Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation. Inhibition of HO-1 activity with tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the protective effects of DHA. Further studies showed that 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of peroxidation of n-3 PUFAs, was a more potent Nrf2 inducer than 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal derived from n-6 PUFAs. In an in vivo setting, transgenic mice overexpressing fatty acid metabolism-1, an enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs, were remarkably resistant to focal cerebral ischemia compared with their wild-type littermates. Regular mice fed with a fish oil-enhanced diet also demonstrated significant resistance to ischemia compared with mice fed with a regular diet. As expected, the protection was associated with HO-1 upregulation, Nrf2 activation, and 4-HHE generation. Together, our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs are highly effective in protecting the brain, and that the protective mechanisms involve Nrf2 activation and HO-1 upregulation by 4-HHE. Further investigation of n-3 PUFA neuroprotective mechanisms may accelerate the development of stroke therapies.

  20. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Muniappan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  2. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

    2004-11-02

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Protective effect of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm. against transient global ischemia-induced brain damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, B S; Nagakannan, P; Shivasharan, B D; Mahendran, S; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S

    2011-11-01

    Embelia ribes is being used in Indian traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of mental disorders and as brain tonic. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of embelin from E. ribes on global ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Transient global ischemia was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24-h reperfusion. Neurological functions were measured using sensorimotor tests. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury was assessed by cerebral infarct area, biochemical and histopathological examination. Pretreatment of embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased locomotor activity and hanging latency time and decreased beam walking latency when compared with ischemic control. The treatment also reduced significantly the lipid peroxidation and increased the total thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain homogenates. The decreased cerebral infarction area in embelin-treated groups and histopathological observations confirmed the above findings. These observations suggested that embelin is a neuroprotective agent and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke.

  4. Combined Blockade of Interleukin-1α and -1β Signaling Protects Mice from Cognitive Dysfunction after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Elizabeth A; Todd, Brittany P; Mahoney, Jolonda; Pieper, Andrew A; Ferguson, Polly J; Bassuk, Alexander G

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse activation of interleukin-1 inflammatory cytokine signaling after traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits progressive neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and thus represents a potential opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β both activate the common type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI), they manifest distinct injury-specific roles in some models of neurodegeneration. Despite its potential relevance to treating patients with TBI, however, the individual contributions of IL-1α and IL-1β to TBI-pathology have not been previously investigated. To address this need, we applied genetic and pharmacologic approaches in mice to dissect the individual contributions of IL-1α, IL-β, and IL-1RI signaling to the pathophysiology of fluid percussion-mediated TBI, a model of mixed focal and diffuse TBI. IL-1RI ablation conferred a greater protective effect on brain cytokine expression and cognitive function after TBI than did individual IL-1α or IL-1β ablation. This protective effect was recapitulated by treatment with the drug anakinra, a recombinant naturally occurring IL-1RI antagonist. Our data thus suggest that broad targeting of IL-1RI signaling is more likely to reduce neuroinflammation and preserve cognitive function after TBI than are approaches that individually target IL-1α or IL-1β signaling.

  5. Protective/detoxicative function of metallothionein in the rat brain and blood induced by controlled cadmium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Shiyntum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmiumclassified as a major carcinogen is considered a poisonous and unwanted heavy metal to a lot of tissues in many organisms. Of many publications already available, the general consensus is that the cadmium attenuating element is metallothionein (MT through its interchangeable mechanism with Zn triggered by the presence of Cd, providing binding sites for Cd ions. MT was first discovered in the kidney cortex of the horse; it represents a low molecular weight protein, rich in cysteine residues which effectively bind with metals. Its functions consist in detoxification of heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, cadmium, homeostasis of essential metals including copper and zinc, anti-oxidation against reactive oxygen species, protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, cell survival, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and increase of proliferation. In this work, we sought to highlight the protective function of MT in the brain and serum of rats by means of detoxification under induced effects of controlled Cd doses. We have done this by exposing Wistar rats to Cd at different doses in drinking water at different time intervals. In two independent experiments, 58 rats were subjected to 0.1 or 1.0 µg Cd2+/kg of body weight for 15 or 36 days under different conditions. The obtained data indicates the different functioning systems for the brain and the blood for MT metabolism under Cd effect. Our results indicate significant loss of metallothionein level in the brain and important increases in the amount of MT in serum proving that even minimal ingestion of toxic Cd is enough to trigger the release of MT protein in blood.

  6. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  7. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana [IRCCS Neuromed, Neurogenetics Unit and Centre for Rare Disease, Pozzilli (Italy); Romanelli, Pantaleo [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Neurosurgery, Pozzilli (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, La Spezia (Italy); Frati, Luigi [University ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Second University of Naples, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  8. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Frati, Luigi; Mansi, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  9. Protecting Neural Structures and Cognitive Function During Prolonged Space Flight by Targeting the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Molecular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. A.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main activity-dependent neurotrophin in the human nervous system. BDNF is implicated in production of new neurons from dentate gyrus stem cells (hippocampal neurogenesis), synapse formation, sprouting of new axons, growth of new axons, sprouting of new dendrites, and neuron survival. Alterations in the amount or activity of BDNF can produce significant detrimental changes to cortical function and synaptic transmission in the human brain. This can result in glial and neuronal dysfunction, which may contribute to a range of clinical conditions, spanning a number of learning, behavioral, and neurological disorders. There is an extensive body of work surrounding the BDNF molecular network, including BDNF gene polymorphisms, methylated BDNF gene promoters, multiple gene transcripts, varied BDNF functional proteins, and different BDNF receptors (whose activation differentially drive the neuron to neurogenesis or apoptosis). BDNF is also closely linked to mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1alpha, which can influence brain and muscle metabolic efficiency. BDNF AS A HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT COUNTERMEASURE TARGET Earth-based studies reveal that BDNF is negatively impacted by many of the conditions encountered in the space environment, including oxidative stress, radiation, psychological stressors, sleep deprivation, and many others. A growing body of work suggests that the BDNF network is responsive to a range of diet, nutrition, exercise, drug, and other types of influences. This section explores the BDNF network in the context of 1) protecting the brain and nervous system in the space environment, 2) optimizing neurobehavioral performance in space, and 3) reducing the residual effects of space flight on the nervous system on return to Earth

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells induce T-cell tolerance and protect the preterm brain after global hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reint K Jellema

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE in preterm infants is a severe disease for which no curative treatment is available. Cerebral inflammation and invasion of activated peripheral immune cells have been shown to play a pivotal role in the etiology of white matter injury, which is the clinical hallmark of HIE in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in an ovine model of HIE. In this translational animal model, global hypoxia-ischemia (HI was induced in instrumented preterm sheep by transient umbilical cord occlusion, which closely mimics the clinical insult. Intravenous administration of 2 x 10(6 MSC/kg reduced microglial proliferation, diminished loss of oligodendrocytes and reduced demyelination, as determined by histology and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, in the preterm brain after global HI. These anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MSC were paralleled by reduced electrographic seizure activity in the ischemic preterm brain. Furthermore, we showed that MSC induced persistent peripheral T-cell tolerance in vivo and reduced invasion of T-cells into the preterm brain following global HI. These findings show in a preclinical animal model that intravenously administered MSC reduced cerebral inflammation, protected against white matter injury and established functional improvement in the preterm brain following global HI. Moreover, we provide evidence that induction of T-cell tolerance by MSC might play an important role in the neuroprotective effects of MSC in HIE. This is the first study to describe a marked neuroprotective effect of MSC in a translational animal model of HIE.

  11. Severe hypertriglyceridemia does not protect from ischemic brain injury in gene-modified hypertriglyceridemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Ping; Qi, Rong; Wang, Yu-Hui; Liu, George; Wang, Chun

    2016-05-15

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a weak risk factor in primary ischemic stroke prevention. However, clinical studies have found a counterintuitive association between a good prognosis after ischemic stroke and HTG. This "HTG paradox" requires confirmation and further explanation. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess this paradox relationship using the gene-modified mice model of extreme HTG. We first used the human Apolipoprotein CIII transgenic (Tg-ApoCIII) mice and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) littermates to examine the effect of HTG on stroke. To our surprise, infarct size, neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB permeability, neuron density and lipid peroxidation were the same in Tg-ApoCIII mice and Non-Tg mice after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). In the late phase (21 days after surgery), no differences were found in brain atrophy, neurological dysfunctions, weight and mortality between the two groups. To confirm the results in Tg-ApoCIII mice, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1(GPIHBP1) knockout mice, another severe HTG mouse model, were used and yielded similar results. Our study demonstrates for the first time that extreme HTG does not affect ischemic brain injuries in the tMCAO mouse model, indicating that the association between HTG and good outcomes after ischemic stroke probably represents residual unmeasured confounding. Further clinical and prospective population-based studies are needed to explore variables that contribute to the paradox. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S H Boutilier

    Full Text Available Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  13. Evaluation of condensate filtration technologies in fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, Philip J. [JoDan Technologies Ltd., Glen Mills, PA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Long-term protection of electric power generating station boilers depends upon the quality of their feedwater chemistry with respect to the transport and deposition of corrosion products to the boilers from various corrosion sources in the plant's condensate and feedwater cycle. It is in the utility's best interests to expand their programs to include ways to reduce the transport of corrosion products, especially those that occur during plant start-ups. Condensate filtration is a strategy employed by some utilities with demonstrable results in minimizing corrosion product transport and achieving a return on their investment. This paper provides a comparative review of available condensate filtration technologies as well as performance data from fossil plants with the new large diameter high flow filtration systems. Additionally, the paper identifies critical parameters to consider before installation as well as the necessity for agreement between utilities and suppliers on common filtration terminology definitions, to insure an ''apple-to-apple'' basis when comparing a system or technology from more than one supplier. (orig.)

  14. Recombinant TgHSP70 Immunization Protects against Toxoplasma gondii Brain Cyst Formation by Enhancing Inducible Nitric Oxide Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide M. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is known to cause congenital infection in humans and animals and severe disease in immunocompromised individuals; consequently development of vaccines against the parasite is highly necessary. Under stress conditions, T. gondii expresses the highly immunogenic heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70. Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of rTgHSP70 immunization combined with Alum in oral ME-49 T. gondii infection and the mechanisms involved on it. It was observed that immunized mice with rTgHSP70 or rTgHSP70 adsorbed in Alum presented a significantly reduced number of cysts in the brain that was associated with increased iNOS+ cell numbers in the organ, irrespective the use of the adjuvant. Indeed, ex vivo experiments showed that peritoneal macrophages pre-stimulated with rTgHSP70 presented increased NO production and enhanced parasite killing, and the protein was able to directly stimulate B cells toward antibody producing profile. In addition, rTgHSP70 immunization leads to high specific antibody titters systemically and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response, with predominance of IgG1 production. Nonetheless, it was observed that the pretreatment of the parasite with rTgHSP70 immune sera was not able to control T. gondii internalization and replication by NIH fibroblast neither peritoneal murine macrophages, nor anti-rTgHSP70 antibodies were able to kill T. gondii by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting that these mechanisms are not crucial to resistance. Interestingly, when in combination with Alum, rTgHSP70 immunization was able to reduce inflammation in the brain of infected mice and in parallel anti-rTgHSP70 immune complexes in the serum. In conclusion, immunization with rTgHSP70 induces massive amounts of iNOS expression and reduced brain parasitism, suggesting that iNOS expression and consequently NO production in the brain is a protective mechanism induced by TgHSP70 immunization, therefore rTgHSP70 can be a good candidate for

  15. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to

  16. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  17. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelecki Tomasz; Strzelecki Michał

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on...

  18. Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal

  19. Quercitrin offers protection against brain injury in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie-Qiong; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Chan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is one of the primary flavonoid compounds present in vegetables and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quercitrin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced brain injury and further to elucidate its probable mechanisms. ICR mice received CCl4 intraperitoneally with or without quercitrin co-administration for 4 weeks. Our data showed that quercitrin significantly suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reduced tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity, enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities and abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction in mouse brains. Quercitrin also prevented CCl4 induced cerebral function disorders associated with its ability to inhibit the activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (NR2B). In addition, western blot analysis showed that quercitrin suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Taken together, our findings suggested that quercitrin may be a potential candidate to be developed as a neuroprotective agent.

  20. Whey protein concentrate supplementation protects rat brain against aging-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is a rich source of sulfur-containing amino acids and is consumed as a functional food, incorporating a wide range of nutritional attributes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of WPC on rat brain during aging. Young (4 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC (300 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), total thiol (T-SH), protein carbonyl (PC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in brain of control and experimental (WPC supplemented) groups. In addition, gene expression and histopathological studies were also performed. The results indicate that WPC augmented the level of FRAP, T-SH, and AChE in old rats as compared with the old control. Furthermore, WPC-treated groups exhibited significant reduction in LHP, PC, ROS, and NO levels in aged rats. WPC supplementation also downregulated the expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6), and upregulated the expression of marker genes associated with autophagy (Atg3, Beclin-1, LC3B) and neurodegeneration (neuron specific enolase, Synapsin-I, MBP-2). The findings suggested WPC to be a potential functional nutritional food supplement that prevents the progression of age-related oxidative damage in Wistar rats.

  1. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  2. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondus Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA.

  3. Edaravone Protected Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Methylglyoxal-Induced Injury by Inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Xu, Hongjiao; Hu, Yangmin; He, Ping; Ni, Zhenzhen; Xu, Huimin; Zhang, Zhongmiao; Dai, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10–100 µmol/l. What’s more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress. PMID:24098758

  4. Edaravone protected human brain microvascular endothelial cells from methylglyoxal-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlu Li

    Full Text Available Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC, protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10-100 µmol/l. What's more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress.

  5. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carnitine congener mildronate protects against stress- and haloperidol-induced impairment in memory and brain protein expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitnere, Ulrika; Dzirkale, Zane; Isajevs, Sergejs; Rumaks, Juris; Svirskis, Simons; Klusa, Vija

    2014-12-15

    The present study investigates the efficacy of mildronate, a carnitine congener, to protect stress and haloperidol-induced impairment of memory in rats and the expression of brain protein biomarkers involved in synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acetylcholine esterase and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Two amnesia models were used: 2h immobilization stress and 3-week haloperidol treatment. Stress caused memory impairment in the passive avoidance test and induced a significant 2-fold BDNF elevation in hippocampal and striatal tissues that was completely inhibited by mildronate. Mildronate decreased the level of GAD67 (but not acetylcholine esterase) expression by stress. Haloperidol decrease by a third hippocampal BDNF and acetylcholine esterase (but not GAD67) expression, which was normalized by mildronate; it also reversed the haloperidol-induced memory impairment in Barnes test. The results suggest the usefulness of mildronate as protector against neuronal disturbances caused by stress or haloperidol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, M.; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2012-01-01

    to the whole-brain irradiation that is part of standard management. Neurogenesis is very sensitive to radiation, and limiting the radiation dose to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) may preserve neurocognitive function. Radiotherapy plans were created using 4 techniques: standard opposing...... fields, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Mean dose to the hippocampus and SVZ (mean for both sites) could be limited to 88.3% (range, 83.6%-91.0%), 77.1% (range, 71.5%-81.3%), and 42.3% (range, 26......-modulated proton therapy, thus making this an attractive option to be tested in a prospective clinical trial....

  8. Moringa oleifera phytochemicals protect the brain against experimental nicotine-induced neurobehavioral disturbances and cerebellar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotoso, Gabriel Olaiya; Gbadamosi, Ismail Temitayo; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Dada-Habeeb, Shakirat Opeyemi; Arogundade, Tolulope Timothy; Yawson, Emmanuel Olusola

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine is a neuro-stimulant that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many brain diseases. The need to prevent or alleviate the resulting dysfunction is therefore paramount, which has also given way to the use of medicinal plants in the management of brain conditions. This study was designed to determine the histomorphological and neurobehavioural changes in the cerebellum of Wistar rats following nicotine insult and how such injuries respond to Moringa intervention. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group A and B were orally treated with normal saline and Moringa oleifera respectively for twenty-eight days; Group C was treated with nicotine while group D was treated orally with Moringa oleifera and intraperitoneally with nicotine for twenty-eight days. Animals were subjected to the open field test on the last day of treatment. 24 h after last day treatment, the animals were anesthetized and perfusion fixation was carried out. The cerebellum was excised and post-fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and thereafter put through routine histological procedures. Results revealed cytoarchitectural distortion and extreme chromatolysis in neuronal cells of the cerebellar cortical layers in the nicotine-treated group. The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of animals in this group were degenerated. There were also reduced locomotor activities in the group. Moringa was able to prevent the chromatolysis, distortion of the cerebellar cortical cells and neurobehavioural deficit. Our result suggests that Moringa oleifera could prevent nicotine-induced cerebellar injury in Wistar rats, with the possibility of ameliorating the clinical features presented in associated cerebellar pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective effects of organoselenium compounds against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain mitochondrial-enriched fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Meinerz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of 1-100 µM of four organoselenium compounds: diphenyl diselenide, 3’3-ditri-fluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide, p-methoxy-diphenyl diselenide, and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide, against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in mitochondrial-enriched fractions from adult Swiss mouse brain. Methylmercury (10-100 µM significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, which occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, hydroperoxide formation (xylenol orange assay and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS. The co-incubation with diphenyl diselenide (100 µM completely prevented the disruption of mitochondrial activity as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by methylmercury. The compound 3’3-ditrifluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide provided a partial but significant protection against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (45.4 ± 5.8% inhibition of the methylmercury effect. Diphenyl diselenide showed a higher thiol peroxidase activity compared to the other three compounds. Catalase blocked methylmercury-induced TBARS, pointing to hydrogen peroxide as a vector during methylmercury toxicity in this model. This result also suggests that thiol peroxidase activity of organoselenium compounds accounts for their protective actions against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress. Our results show that diphenyl diselenide and potentially other organoselenium compounds may represent important molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of methylmercury as well as other mercury compounds.

  10. Role of Sirt1 during the ageing process: relevance to protection of synapses in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Juan A; Zolezzi, Juan M; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-01

    Ageing is a stochastic process associated with a progressive decline in physiological functions which predispose to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The intrinsic complexity of ageing remains a significant challenge to understand the cause of this natural phenomenon. At the molecular level, ageing is thought to be characterized by the accumulation of chronic oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids caused by free radicals. Increased oxidative stress and misfolded protein formations, combined with impaired compensatory mechanisms, may promote neurodegenerative disorders with age. Nutritional modulation through calorie restriction has been shown to be effective as an anti-ageing factor, promoting longevity and protecting against neurodegenerative pathology in yeast, nematodes and murine models. Calorie restriction increases the intracellular levels of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), a co-substrate for the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1, silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1) activity and a cofactor for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. Promotion of intracellular NAD(+) anabolism is speculated to induce neuroprotective effects against amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) toxicity in some models for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sirt1, has been implicated in the ageing process. Sirt1 serves as a deacetylase for numerous proteins involved in several cellular pathways, including stress response and apoptosis, and plays a protective role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  11. Filtration and retention capacities of filter aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Boualia, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work involves the filtration of impure uranyl nitrate solutions by different filter aids such as kieselguhr, celite and bleaching clay. The retention of substances contained in uranyl nitrate solution was determined using the three filter aids. A study of the effects of granulometry and filter earths treatment (thermal and chemical) on the filtration rate was performed

  12. Studies on cerebral protection of digoxin against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaiwei; Tan, Danfeng; He, Miao; Guo, Dandan; Huang, Juan; Wang, Xia; Liu, Chentao; Zheng, Xiangrong

    2016-08-17

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of neonatal acute deaths and chronic nervous system damage. Our present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of digoxin-induced pharmacological preconditioning after hypoxia-ischemia and underlying mechanisms. Neonatal rats were assigned randomly to control, HIBD, or HIBD+digoxin groups. Pharmacological preconditioning was induced by administration of digoxin 72 h before inducing HIBD by carotid occlusion+hypoxia. Behavioral assays, and neuropathological and apoptotic assessments were performed to examine the effects; the expression of Na/K ATPase was also assessed. Rats in the HIBD group showed deficiencies on the T-maze, radial water maze, and postural reflex tests, whereas the HIBD+digoxin group showed significant improvements on all behavioral tests. The rats treated with digoxin showed recovery of pathological conditions, increased number of neural cells and proliferative cells, and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, an increased expression level of Na/K ATPase was observed after digoxin preconditioning treatment. The preconditioning treatment of digoxin contributed toward an improved functional recovery and exerted a marked neuroprotective effect including promotion of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis after HIBD, and the neuroprotective action was likely associated with increased expression of Na/K ATPase.

  13. A Pharmacogenetic Discovery: Cystamine Protects Against Haloperidol-Induced Toxicity and Ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haili; Zheng, Ming; Wu, Manhong; Xu, Dan; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Yuki; Giffard, Rona; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Xu, Li Jun; Clark, J David; Sahbaie, Peyman; Dill, David L; Peltz, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic agent, but it causes Parkinsonian-like extrapyramidal symptoms in the majority of treated subjects. To address this treatment-limiting toxicity, we analyzed a murine genetic model of haloperidol-induced toxicity (HIT). Analysis of a panel of consomic strains indicated that a genetic factor on chromosome 10 had a significant effect on susceptibility to HIT. We analyzed a whole-genome SNP database to identify allelic variants that were uniquely present on chromosome 10 in the strain that was previously shown to exhibit the highest level of susceptibility to HIT. This analysis implicated allelic variation within pantetheinase genes (Vnn1 and Vnn3), which we propose impaired the biosynthesis of cysteamine, could affect susceptibility to HIT. We demonstrate that administration of cystamine, which is rapidly metabolized to cysteamine, could completely prevent HIT in the murine model. Many of the haloperidol-induced gene expression changes in the striatum of the susceptible strain were reversed by cystamine coadministration. Since cystamine administration has previously been shown to have other neuroprotective actions, we investigated whether cystamine administration could have a broader neuroprotective effect. Cystamine administration caused a 23% reduction in infarct volume after experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Characterization of this novel pharmacogenetic factor for HIT has identified a new approach for preventing the treatment-limiting toxicity of an antipsychotic agent, which could also be used to reduce the extent of brain damage after stroke. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Covarrubias-Pinto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS. Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Particle filtration in consolidated granular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.M.; Wilkinson, D.J.; Bolsterli, M.; Hammond, P.

    1993-01-01

    Grain-packing algorithms are used to model the mechanical trapping of dilute suspensions of particles by consolidated granular media. We study the distribution of filtrate particles, the formation of a damage zone (internal filter cake), and the transport properties of the host--filter-cake composite. At the early stages of filtration, our simulations suggest simple relationships between the structure of the internal filter cake and the characteristics of the underlying host matrix. These relationships are then used to describe the dynamics of the filtration process. Depending on the grain size and porosity of the host matrix, calculated filtration rates may either be greater than (spurt loss) or less than (due to internal clogging) those predicted by standard surface-filtration models

  16. The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine on 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine in brain: evidence for the protective effect of chlormethiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A R; De Souza, R J; Williams, J L; Murray, T K; Cross, A J

    1992-04-01

    Studies were undertaken in mice and rats on the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine on dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in the brain and the neuroprotective action of chlormethiazole. In initial studies, mice were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at 2 hr intervals, to a total of 4 times. This procedure produced a 66% loss of striatal dopamine and a 50% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase activity 3 days later. Chlormethiazole (50 mg/kg, i.p.), given 15 min before each dose of methamphetamine, totally prevented the methamphetamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and partly prevented the loss of dopamine. Phencyclidine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), given in place of chlormethiazole, also prevented the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. Administration to rats of 4 doses of methamphetamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 hr intervals resulted in a 75% loss of striatal dopamine 3 days later and a similar loss of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in cortex and hippocampus. Chlormethiazole (50 mg/kg, i.p.), given 15 min before each injection of methamphetamine, protected against the loss of dopamine and indoleamine content, in the respective regions. Pentobarbital (25 mg/kg, i.p.) also provided substantial protection but diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was without effect. Confirming earlier studies, dizocilpine (1 mg/kg) also provided substantial protection against the methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Preliminary data indicated that chlormethiazole was not neuroprotective because of a hypothermic action. These data therefore demonstrate that chlormethiazole is an effective neuroprotective agent against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and extend the evidence for the possible value of this drug in preventing neurodegeneration.

  17. Protective Prevention Effects on the Association of Poverty With Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Gray, Joshua C; Yu, Tianyi; Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Galván, Adrianna; MacKillop, James; Windle, Michael; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood. In the rural southeastern United States, African American parents and their 11-year-old children were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families randomized prevention trial or to a control condition. Parents provided data used to calculate income-to-needs ratios when children were aged 11 to 13 years and 16 to 18 years. When the participants were aged 25 years, hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Household poverty was measured by income-to-needs ratios. Young adults' whole hippocampal, dentate gyrus, and CA3 hippocampal subfields as well as amygdalar volumes were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 667 participants in the Strong African American Families randomized prevention trial, 119 right-handed African American individuals aged 25 years living in rural areas were recruited. Years lived in poverty across ages 11 to 18 years forecasted diminished left dentate gyrus (simple slope, -14.20; standard error, 5.22; P = .008) and CA3 (simple slope, -6.42; standard error, 2.42; P = .009) hippocampal subfields and left amygdalar (simple slope, -34.62; standard error, 12.74; P = .008) volumes among young adults in the control condition (mean [SD] time, 2.04 [1.88] years) but not among those who participated in the Strong African American Families program (mean [SD] time, 2.61 [1.77] years). In this study, we described how participation in a randomized

  18. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  19. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  20. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Allele DRB1*13:02 on Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. James

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017. Methods: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32–69 years old underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter. Participants were assigned to two groups, depending on whether they lacked the DRB1*13:02 allele (No DRB1*13:02 group, N = 60 or carried the DRB1*13:02 allele (N = 11. We assessed the change of brain gray matter volume with age in each group by performing a linear regression where the brain volume (adjusted for total intracranial volume was the dependent variable and age was the independent variable. Findings: In the No DRB1*13:02 group, the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter were reduced highly significantly. In contrast, none of these volumes showed a statistically significant reduction with age in the DRB1*13:02 group. Interpretation: These findings document the protective effect of DRB1*13:02 on age-dependent reduction of brain gray matter in healthy individuals. Since the role of this allele is to connect to matching epitopes of external antigens for the subsequent production of antibodies and elimination of the offending antigen, we hypothesize that its protective effect may be due to the successful elimination of such antigens to which we are exposed during the lifespan, antigens that otherwise would persist causing gradual brain atrophy. In addition, we consider a possible beneficial role of DRB1*13:02 attributed to its binding to cathepsin S, a known harmful substance in brain

  1. Dynamic Heterogeneous Multiscale Filtration Model: Probing Micro- and Macroscopic Filtration Characteristics of Gasoline Particulate Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Viswanathan, Sandeep; Rothamer, David A; Foster, David E; Rutland, Christopher J

    2017-10-03

    Motivated by high filtration efficiency (mass- and number-based) and low pressure drop requirements for gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a previously developed heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is extended to simulate dynamic filtration characteristics of GPFs. This dynamic HMF model is based on a probability density function (PDF) description of the pore size distribution and classical filtration theory. The microstructure of the porous substrate in a GPF is resolved and included in the model. Fundamental particulate filtration experiments were conducted using an exhaust filtration analysis (EFA) system for model validation. The particulate in the filtration experiments was sampled from a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine. With the dynamic HMF model, evolution of the microscopic characteristics of the substrate (pore size distribution, porosity, permeability, and deposited particulate inside the porous substrate) during filtration can be probed. Also, predicted macroscopic filtration characteristics including particle number concentration and normalized pressure drop show good agreement with the experimental data. The resulting dynamic HMF model can be used to study the dynamic particulate filtration process in GPFs with distinct microstructures, serving as a powerful tool for GPF design and optimization.

  2. Gene therapy with brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a protection: retinal ganglion cells in a rat glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Zack, Donald J; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Klein, Ronald L; Hauswirth, William W

    2003-10-01

    To develop a modified adenoassociated viral (AAV) vector capable of efficient transfection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to test the hypothesis that use of this vector to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be protective in experimental glaucoma. Ninety-three rats received one unilateral, intravitreal injection of either normal saline (n = 30), AAV-BDNF-woodchuck hepatitis posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE; n = 30), or AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-WPRE (n = 33). Two weeks later, experimental glaucoma was induced in the injected eye by laser application to the trabecular meshwork. Survival of RGCs was estimated by counting axons in optic nerve cross sections after 4 weeks of glaucoma. Transgene expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and direct visualization of GFP. The density of GFP-positive cells in retinal wholemounts was 1,828 +/- 299 cells/mm(2) (72,273 +/- 11,814 cells/retina). Exposure to elevated intraocular pressure was similar in all groups. Four weeks after initial laser treatment, axon loss was 52.3% +/- 27.1% in the saline-treated group (n = 25) and 52.3% +/- 24.2% in the AAV-GFP-WPRE group (n = 30), but only 32.3% +/- 23.0% in the AAV-BDNF-WPRE group (n = 27). Survival in AAV-BDNF-WPRE animals increased markedly and the difference was significant compared with those receiving either AAV-GFP-WPRE (P = 0.002, t-test) or saline (P = 0.006, t-test). Overexpression of the BDNF gene protects RGC as estimated by axon counts in a rat glaucoma model, further supporting the potential feasibility of neurotrophic therapy as a complement to the lowering of IOP in the treatment of glaucoma.

  3. Expression of S100 protein and protective effect of arundic acid on the rat brain in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Ryo; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Wakita, Hideaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Kayoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2007-03-02

    S100 protein is expressed primarily by astroglia in the brain, and accumulates in and around the ischemic lesions. Arundic acid, a novel astroglia-modulating agent, is neuroprotective in acute cerebral infarction, whereas the protective effects remain unknown during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Rats undergoing chronic cerebral hypoperfusion were subjected to a bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries, and were allowed to survive for 3, 7 and 14 days. The animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid, or vehicle, for 14 days. Alternatively, other groups of rats received a delayed intraperitoneal injection of 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid or vehicle, which started from 1, 3 or 7 days after ligation and continued to 14 days. The degree of white matter (WM) lesions and the numerical density of S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia were estimated. In the WM of rats with vehicle injections, the number of S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia increased significantly after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as compared to the sham-operation. A dosage of 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid suppressed the numerical increase in S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia and the WM lesions. These pathological changes were suppressed with delayed treatment up to 7 days in terms of astroglial activation, and up to 3 days in terms of the WM lesions. The protective effects of arundic acid against WM lesions were demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner, and even after postischemic treatments. These results suggest the potential usefulness of arundic acid in the treatment of cerebrovascular WM lesions.

  4. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91phox and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia–ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Che; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Chern, Chang-Ming; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Hou, Yu-Chang; Peng, Yu-Ta; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 μg/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91 phox ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood–brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91 phox and iNOS via activation of the NF-κB pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91 phox and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-κB activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: ► Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. ► Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. ► Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. ► Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. ► Prodigiosin down-regulated gp91 phox and iNOS by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

  5. Projective Dimension in Filtrated K-Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentmann, Rasmus Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Under mild assumptions, we characterise modules with projective resolutions of length n∈N in the target category of filtrated K-theory over a finite topological space in terms of two conditions involving certain Tor -groups. We show that the filtrated K-theory of any separable C∗dash-algebra over...... any topological space with at most four points has projective dimension 2 or less. We observe that this implies a universal coefficient theorem for rational equivariant KK-theory over these spaces. As a contrasting example, we find a separable C∗dash-algebra in the bootstrap class over a certain five......-point space, the filtrated K-theory of which has projective dimension 3. Finally, as an application of our investigations, we exhibit Cuntz-Krieger algebras which have projective dimension 2 in filtrated K-theory over their respective primitive spectrum....

  6. Filtration aids in uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.L.; Levine, N.M.; Risdon, A.L.

    1975-01-01

    The patent describes a process whereby improved flocculation efficiency and filtration of carbonate leached uranium ore pulps are obtained by treating the filter feed slurry with an aqueous solution of hydroxyalkyl guar. (J.R.)

  7. Cake layers and long filtration times protect ceramic micro-filtration membranes for fouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to decrease membrane fouling of a ceramic microfiltration system and at the same time increase the recovery. A conventional operation in micro- and ultrafiltration is an in-line coagulation and a frequent hydraulic backwash. The idea about these frequent backwashes

  8. Early treatment with lyophilized plasma protects the brain in a large animal model of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang; Sillesen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well as the assoc...... as the associated edema. However, FFP is a perishable product that is not well suited for use in the austere prehospital settings. In this study, we tested whether a shelf-stable, low-volume, lyophilized plasma (LSP) product was as effective as FFP.......Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well...

  9. Ang-(1-7) exerts protective role in blood-brain barrier damage by the balance of TIMP-1/MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Zhao, Duo; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Dan

    2015-02-05

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) ranks as the top three health risks, specially cerebral ischemia characterized with the damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The angiotensin Ang-(1-7) was proven to have a protective effect on cerebrovascular diseases. However, its role on blood-brain barrier and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, Ang-(1-7) significantly relieved damage of ischemia reperfusion injury on blood-brain barrier in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) rats. Furthermore, its treatment attenuated BBB permeability and brain edema. Similarly, Ang-(1-7) also decreased the barrier permeability of brain endothelial cell line RBE4. Further analysis showed that Ang-(1-7) could effectively restore tight junction protein (claudin-5 and zonula occludens ZO-1) expression levels both in IRI-rats and hypoxia-induced RBE4 cells. Furthermore, Ang-(1-7) stimulation down-regulated hypoxia-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels, whose silencing with (matrix metalloproteinase-9 hemopexin domain) MMP9-PEX inhibitor significantly increased the expression of claudin-5 and ZO-1. Further mechanism analysis demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) might junction protein levels by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1)-MMP9 pathway, because Ang-(1-7) enhanced TIMP1 expression, whose silencing obviously attenuated the inhibitor effect of Ang-(1-7) on MMP-9 levels and decreased Ang-(1-7)-triggered increase in claudin-5 and ZO-1. Together, this study demonstrated a protective role of Ang-(1-7) in IRI-induced blood-brain barrier damage by TIMP1-MMP9-regulated tight junction protein expression. Accordingly, Ang-(1-7) may become a promising therapeutic agent against IRI and its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effect of Klotho against Ischemic Brain Injury Is Associated with Inhibition of RIG-I/NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jing Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the greatest independent risk factor for the occurrence of stroke and poor outcomes, at least partially through progressive increases in oxidative stress and inflammation with advanced age. Klotho is an antiaging gene, the expression of which declines with age. Klotho may protect against neuronal oxidative damage that is induced by glutamate. The present study investigated the effects of Klotho overexpression and knockdown by an intracerebroventricular injection of a lentiviral vector that encoded murine Klotho (LV-KL or rat Klotho short-hairpin RNA (LV-KL shRNA on cerebral ischemia injury and the underlying anti-neuroinflammatory mechanism. The overexpression of Klotho induced by LV-KL significantly improved neurobehavioral deficits and increased the number of live neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and caudate putamen subregions 72 h after cerebral hypoperfusion that was induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO in mice. The overexpression of Klotho significantly decreased the immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1, the expression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 in 2VO mice. The knockdown of Klotho mediated by LV-KL shRNA in the brain exacerbated neurological dysfunction and cerebral infarct after 22 h of reperfusion following 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. These findings suggest that Klotho itself or enhancers of Klotho may compensate for its aging-related decline, thus providing a promising therapeutic approach for acute ischemic stroke during advanced age.

  11. Protective effect of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L Erukainure

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ability of pineapple peels to protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues using male albino rat models. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM was used to design a series of experiments to optimize treatment conditions with the aim of investigating the protective effect of pineapple peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw. The treatment lasted for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Tissue homogenates were used for the assessment of protein concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH content, catalase, and SOD. Results: Alcohol administration caused a significant decrease (P>0.05 in GSH level in the group which was only fed alcohol. Treatment with pineapple peel extracts caused increase in GSH level in alcohol fed groups. No significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in SOD levels of the negative control and group fed on only pineapple peel extract. Elevated level of catalase was observed in the negative control but pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the levels. Conclusions: This study indicates the protective effect of pineapple peel against alcoholinduced oxidative stress in brain tissues.

  12. Minocycline Protects Against NLRP3 Inflammasome-Induced Inflammation and P53-Associated Apoptosis in Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianru; Chen, Jingsen; Mo, Hangbo; Chen, Jingyin; Qian, Cong; Yan, Feng; Gu, Chi; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao

    2016-05-01

    Minocycline has beneficial effects in early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been clearly identified. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of minocycline on inflammation and neural apoptosis and the possible mechanisms of these effects in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage. SAH was induced by the filament perforation model of SAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Minocycline or vehicle was given via an intraperitoneal injection 1 h after SAH induction. Minocycline treatment markedly attenuated brain edema secondary to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which controls the maturation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Minocycline treatment also markedly reduced the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. To further identify the potential mechanisms, we demonstrated that minocycline increased Bcl2 expression and reduced the protein expression of P53, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3. In addition, minocycline reduced the cortical levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are closely related to both NLRP3 inflammasome and P53 expression. Minocycline protects against NLRP3 inflammasome-induced inflammation and P53-associated apoptosis in early brain injury following SAH. Minocycline's anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect may involve the reduction of ROS. Minocycline treatment may exhibit important clinical potentials in the management of SAH.

  13. Protective effects of telmisartan and tempol on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and amyloidogenesis: possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Waleed A I; Messiha, Basim A S; Abo-Youssef, Amira M H; El-Sayed, Nesrine S

    2017-07-01

    Angiotensin II has pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant potentials. We investigated the possible protective effects of the Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan, compared with the superoxide scavenger tempol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline and amyloidogenesis. Briefly, mice were allocated into a normal control group, an LPS control group, a tempol treatment group, and 2 telmisartan treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted followed by a biochemical study via assessment of brain levels of beta amyloid (Aβ) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) as amyloidogenesis and neuroplasticity markers, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end products (NOx), neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and iNOS) as inflammatory markers, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH), and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers. Finally, histopathological examination of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum sections was performed using routine and special Congo red stains. Tempol and telmisartan improved cognition, decreased brain Aβ deposition and BDNF depletion, decreased TNF-α, NOx, nNOS, iNOS, MDA, and NT brain levels, and increased brain SOD and GSH contents, parallel to confirmatory histopathological evidences. In conclusion, tempol and telmisartan are promising drugs in managing cognitive impairment and amyloidogenesis, at least via upregulation of BDNF with inhibition of neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress.

  14. Identification and characterization of a 29-kilodalton protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate recognized by mouse memory effector cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, I; Rasmussen, P.B.; Carnio, M

    1998-01-01

    Culture filtrate proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induce protective immunity in various animal models of tuberculosis. Two molecular mass regions (6 to 10 kDa and 24 to 36 kDa) of short-term culture filtrate are preferentially recognized by Th1 cells in animal models as well as by patients...... the antigen 85 complex was selected. The 29-kDa antigen (CFP29) was purified from M. tuberculosis short-term culture filtrate by thiophilic adsorption chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration, In its native form, CFP29 forms a polymer with a high molecular mass. CFP29 was mapped......, and they both elicited the release of high levels of gamma interferon from mouse memory effector cells isolated during the recall of protective immunity to tuberculosis. Interspecies analysis by immunoblotting and PCR demonstrated that CFP29 is widely distributed in mycobacterial species....

  15. Non-stationary open-flow filtration of ground waters at the Pripyat'-Dnieper inter river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapon, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to filtration of ground waters into rivers and to effect of drainage devices. Investigations were conducted with use of modelling of planned and profile filtration of ground waters at the electric models. Efficiency of engineering protection facilities suggested, was studied to prevent contamination of water intakes. Modelling shown, that contamination washing out process was in a cycle character with 1 year period. Use of drainage canal with the water level 0.8 m lower than in the river, is an effective way to prevent filtration of ground waters into the Pripyat' and the Dnieper from the upper open-flow aquiver

  16. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Kabiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99. Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly higher than the Sham group, although right hemispheres in all of the treated groups illustrated higher brain water content than the left ones. Brain anti-oxidant capacity elevated in the ischemic rats treated with Kombucha and in the Sham group. Brain and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations significantly decreased in both of the ischemic groups injected with Kombucha. The findings suggest that Kombucha tea could be useful for the prevention of cerebral damage.

  17. EM Task 9 - Centrifugal membrane filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, Daniel J.; Stevens, Bradley G.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1999-01-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc)

  18. The protective role of isorhamnetin on human brain microvascular endothelial cells from cytotoxicity induced by methylglyoxal and oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Chen, Zhigang; Yan, Min; He, Ping; Chen, Zhong; Dai, Haibin

    2016-02-01

    As the first target of stroke, cerebral endothelial cells play a key role in brain vascular repair and maintenance, and their function is impeded in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl produced during glucose metabolism, accumulates in diabetic patients. MGO and MGO-induced advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) could ameliorate stroke-induced brain vascular damage, closely related with ECs dysfunction. Using MGO plus oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic diabetic stroke, we reported the protective effect of isorhamnetin on OGD-induced cytotoxicity after MGO treatment on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and explored the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly enhanced 3-h OGD-induced HBMEC toxic effect, which was inhibited by pretreatment of isorhamnetin (100 μmol/L). Moreover, the protective effect of isorhamnetin is multiple function dependent, which includes anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis effects. Besides its well-known inhibition on the mitochondria-dependent or intrinsic apoptotic pathway, isorhamnetin also reduced activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, as characterized by the decreased expression and activity of caspase 3 and caspase 8. Furthermore, pretreatment with isorhamnetin specifically inhibited FAS/FASL expression and suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicated that isorhamnetin protected against OGD-induced cytotoxicity after MGO treatment in cultured HBMEC due to its multiple protective effects and could inhibit Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptosis. Therefore, isorhamnetin is a promising reagent for the treatment of hyperglycemia and ischemia-induced cerebral vascular degeneration. A proposed model of the potential protective mechanism of isorhamnetin, a metabolite of quercetin, on methylglyoxal (MGO) treatment plus oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) exposure-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human

  19. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  20. Statistical data filtration in neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-11-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of statistical data filtration to minimize the contribution of matrix materials in 200-ell drums to the nondestructive assay of plutonium. Those matrices were examined: polyethylene, concrete, aluminum, iron, cadmium, and lead. Statistical filtration of neutron coincidence data improved the low-end sensitivity of coincidence counters. Spurious data arising from electrical noise, matrix spallation, and geometric effects were smoothed in a predictable fashion by the statistical filter. The filter effectively lowers the minimum detectable mass limit that can be achieved for plutonium assay using passive neutron coincidence counting

  1. The Perspective of Riverbank Filtration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Zuo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable drinking water supply can affect the health of people, and the surrounding ecosystems. According to statistics of the monitoring program of drinking water sources in 309 at or above prefecture level of China in 2013, the major pollutants index were total phosphorus, ammonia and manganese in surface drinking water sources, respectively, iron, ammonia and manganese in groundwater drinking water sources, respectively. More than 150 drinking water emergency environmental accidents happened since 2006, 52 of these accidents led to the disruption of water supply in waterworks, and a population of over ten million were affected. It indicated that there is a potential risk for people's health by the use of river water directly and it is necessary to require alternative techniques such as riverbank filtration for improving the drinking water quality. Riverbank filtration is an inexpensive natural process, not only smoothing out normal pollutant concentration found in surface water but also significantly reducing the risk from such emergency events as chemical spill into the river. Riverbank filtration technique has been used in many countries more than 100 years, including China. In China, in 1950s, the bank infiltration technique was first applied in northeast of China. Extensive bank infiltration application was conducted in 1980s, and more than 300 drinking water sources utilities bank infiltration established mainly near the Songhua River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, Haihe River Basin. However, the comparative lack of application and researches on riverbank filtration have formed critical scientific data gap in China. As the performance of riverbank filtration technique depend on not only the design and setting such as well type, pumping rate, but also the local hydrogeology and environmental properties. We recommend more riverbank filtration project and studies to be conducted to collect related significant environmental geology data in China

  2. Industrial investigations of the liquid steel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes have given good results. The obtained results of filtration have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location considering the limitation of the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  3. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-01

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f 2 , were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f 2 reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f 2 which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP filter. (4

  4. Prospective comparative study of brain protection in total aortic arch replacement: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion or selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Y; Minatoya, K; Tagusari, O; Ando, M; Nagatsuka, K; Kitamura, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of total aortic arch replacement using two different methods of brain protection, particularly with respect to neurologic outcome. From June 1997, 60 consecutive patients who underwent total arch replacement through a midsternotomy were alternately allocated to one of two methods of brain protection: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP: 30 patients) or with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SCP: 30 patients). Preoperative and postoperative (3 weeks) brain CT scan, neurological examination, and cognitive function tests were performed. Serum 100b protein was assayed before and after the cardiopulmonary bypass, as well as 24 hours and 48 hours after the operation. Hospital mortality occurred in 2 patients in the RCP group (6.6%) and 2 in the SCP group (6.6%). New strokes occurred in 1 (3.3%) of the RCP group and in 2 (6.6%) of the SCP group (p = 0.6). The incidence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in the RCP group than in the SCP group (10, 33.3% vs 4, 13.3%, p = 0.05). Except in patients with strokes, S-100b values showed no significant differences in the two groups (RCP: SCP, prebypass 0.01+/-0.04: 0.05+/-0.16, postbypass 2.17+/-0.94: 1.97+/-1.00, 24 hours 0.61+/-0.36: 0.60+/-0.37, 48 hours 0.36+/-0.45: 0.46+/-0.40 microg/L, p = 0.7). There were no intergroup differences in the scores of memory decline (RCP 0.74+/-0.99; SCP 0.55+/-1.19, p = 0.6), orientation (RCP 1.11+/-1.29; SCP 0.50+/-0.76, p = 0.08), or intellectual function (RCP 1.21+/-1.27; SCP 1.05+/-1.15, p = 0.7). Both methods of brain protection for patients undergoing total arch replacement resulted in acceptable levels of mortality and morbidity. However, the prevalence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with the RCP.

  5. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yea-Hwey [Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chern, Chang-Ming [Division of Neurovascular Disease, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Kuo-Tong [Department of Chinese Martial Arts, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chang [Department of Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan General Hospital, Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioscience Technology, Chuan-Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Peng, Yu-Ta [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yuh-Chiang, E-mail: yuhcs@nricm.edu.tw [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 {mu}g/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91{sup phox}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91{sup phox} and iNOS via activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-{kappa}B activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. Black

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates blood brain barrier damage and neuroinflammation and protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP toxicity in the substantia nigra in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yin Xia; He, Bei Ping; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah

    2009-11-30

    Immunomodulatory effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease were studied in the MPTP-induced mouse model. MPTP treatment induced a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons, decreased expressions of claudin 1, claudin 5 and occludin in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc), and functional damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study further discovered that infiltration of MBLs into the brain to bind with microglia was detected in the SNc of MPTP-treated mice, suggesting that the BBB compromise and MBL infiltration might be involved in the pathogenesis of MPTP-induced PD. In addition, MPTP treatment also increased the expression of mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) in the liver tissue. Intravenous transplantation of MSCs into MPTP-treated mice led to recovery of BBB integrity, suppression of MBL infiltration at SNc and MBL expression in the liver, suppression of microglial activation and prevention of dopaminergic neuron death. No transplanted MSCs were observed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, while the MSCs migrated into the SNc and released TGF-beta1 there. Therefore, intravenous transplantation of MSCs which protect dopaminergic neurons from MPTP toxicity may be engaged in anyone or a combination of these mechanisms: repair of the BBB, reduction of MBL in the brain, inhibition of microglial cytotoxicity, and direct protection of dopaminergic neurons.

  7. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Kabiri; Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99). Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly hi...

  8. Filtration of engineered nanoparticles using porous membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzaskus, Krzystof

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at providing a better understanding of the fundamental aspects responsible for nanoparticle removal and fouling development during filtration of engineered nanoparticles. The emphasis is put on the role of interparticle interactions in the feed solution,

  9. Dynamic membrane filtration in tangential flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-containing waste water is produced in many cleaning processes and also on production of compressed air. Dynamic membrane filtration in the tangential flow mode has proved effective in the treatment of these stable emulsions. The possible applications of ceramic membrane filters are illustrated for a variety of examples. (orig.) [de

  10. Filtration aids in uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.L.; Levine, N.M.; Risdon, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process of improving the filtration efficiency and separation of uranium ore pulps obtained by carbonate leaching of uranium ore which comprises treating said ore pulps with an aqueous solution of hydroxyalkyl guar selected from the group consisting of hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl guar in the amount of 0.1 and 2.0 pounds of hydroxyalkyl guar per ton of uranium ore

  11. Filtration engineering study to upgrade the ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, F.N.N.

    1995-01-01

    Filtration technologies are evaluated which have potential to augment or upgrade the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The study was written in anticipation of treating future waste waters that have high fouling potentials. The Three ultrafilters judged to be capable of treating future waste waters are: hollow fiber, tubular, and centrifugal

  12. Water Filtration through Homogeneous Granulated Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Krautsou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available General relationship for calculation of water filtration through homogeneous granulated charge has been obtained. The obtained relationship has been compared with experimental data. Discrepancies between calculated and experimental values do not exceed 6 % throughout the entire investigated range.

  13. Organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelkamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the main removal mechanisms (adsorption and biodegradation) for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal during river bank filtration (RBF) and the possibility of developing a predictive model of this process for OMP removal during RBF. Chapter 2 analysed

  14. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  15. Formation of filtration fields close to near-surface radioactive waste storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart'yanov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Data on the formation of filtration fields in the location of near-surface radioactive waste storages for the conditions of uniformly isotropic properties of bearing strata are demonstrated. The possibility for changing parameters of mean-caused ground flow depending on water permeability of the storages and their dimensions in plan is noted. Comparison of different filtration fields permits to determine a state of its isolating properties. Assessment criteria of the storage engineering barriers integrity are given. Conditions for uniformly isotropic properties of bearing strata by three scenarios, when engineering barriers of the storage are waterproof, distracted or lost protective properties in full, have been determined. Changing filtration field, geochemical and radiochemical situations in bearing strata are noted to represent one of basic characteristics of the integrity of the storage [ru

  16. Protective effects of angiopoietin-like 4 on the blood-brain barrier in acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Chu, Xiuli; Yu, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Yuwu

    2017-04-03

    Given the risk of blood-brain barrier damage (BBB) caused by ischemic and tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis, the preservation of vascular integrity is important. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a protein secreted in hypoxia, is involved in the regulation of vascular permeability. We hypothesized that Angptl4 might exert a protective effect in thrombolysis through stabilizing blood-brain barrier and inhibit hyper-permeability. We investigated the role of Angptl4 in stroke using a transient focal cerebral ischemia mouse model. The treated mice were administered Angptl4 1h after the ischemic event upon reperfusion. Our results showed that Angptl4 combined with thrombolysis greatly reduced the infarct volume and consequent neurological deficit. Western blot analyses and gelatin zymography revealed that Angptl4 protected the integrity of the endothelium damaged by thrombolysis. Angptl4 inhibited the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vascular endothelium after stroke, which was suppressed by counteracting VEGFR signaling and diminishing downstream Src signaling, and led to the increased stability of junctions and improved endothelial cell barrier integrity. These findings demonstrated that Angptl4 protects the permeability of the BBB damaged by ischemic and thrombolysis. Suggested that Angptl4 might be a promising target molecule in therapies for vasoprotection after thrombolysis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aluminium and Gamma Irradiation Induced Oxidative Damage in Brain Tissue of Male Rats - Protective Role of Ferulic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; Hanafi, N.; Noaman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the potential role of ferulic acid (FA) against Aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ), γ- radiation either alone or combination induced oxidative stress in brain tissue of Wistar rats. The period of the experiment was eight weeks. Animals were administrated by aluminium chloride at a dose of 8.5 mg/kg/day and exposed to a single dose (4 Gy) of γ-radiation. FA was administered orally (50 mg/Kg body weight)/day. Histopathological observations and myeloid protein distribution were recorded in brain tissue. Induction of oxidative stress was recorded after all exposures. Brain tissue of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation treatments either alone or combined revealed many altered changes and myeloid protein distribution. Also a decrease in serotonin concentration was recorded. An increase in Malonaldialdahyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and brain showed a significant decrease. Treatment of AlCl 3 loaded animals by FA showed simple atrophy as shrunken morphology saw in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a decrease in myeloid protein deposition. FA treatment of AlCl 3 loaded or irradiated animals represented a significant increase in serotonin concentration and ameliorated affects on oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue. In conclusion FA has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation on brain tissue of rats

  18. Protective properties of 6-gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Ojo, Mercy; Afolabi, Tosin T; Arowoogun, Mary D; Nwawolor, Darlinton; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-05-25

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in agricultural applications and household environments. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger, 6-GRF) has been reported to possess potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated the protective properties of 6-GRF on CPF-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats. Five groups of rats containing 14 rats/group received corn oil (control), CPF (5 mg/kg), 6-GRF (100 mg/kg), CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (50 mg/kg) and CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (100 mg/kg) through gavage once per day for 35 days respectively. The results showed that 6-GRF protected against CPF-induced increases in oxidative stress ((hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), inflammatory (myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers. Also, 6-GRF improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione (GSH) level in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats exposed to CPF (p < 0.05). Overall, the protective effects of 6-GRF on CPF-induced toxicity in the brain and reproductive organs of rats may be due to its potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING THE FILTRATE DISTILLERY DREGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various factors affecting the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs are investigated. Rational conditions for the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs in a spray dryer are obtained.

  20. Evaluation of human body irradiation caused by radionuclides deposited in the filtration unit of gas mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.; Otahal, P.; Johnova, K.; Thinova, L.; Kluson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol particles represent a serious risk for people facing the consequences of nuclear accident of any kind. The first responders to emergency situation need to be protected by personal protective equipment which includes radiation protection suit supplemented with gas mask. The purpose of this work is to estimate the dose to the organs of responder s body as a result of radionuclide deposition in the filtration unit of the gas mask. The problem was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. The dose absorbed by different organs for five representative radionuclides and the dose distribution over the responder s body are presented in this paper. Based on presented MC simulations, we suggest a method of evaluating the irradiation of the responder by the radionuclides deposited in the filtration unit of the gas mask. (authors)

  1. Tempol and perindopril protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis by modulating brain-derived neurotropic factor, neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed Ragab Abdel-Aziz; Abo-Youssef, Amira Morad Hussein; Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Khattab, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    We aim to evaluate the protective role of the central angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril, compared with the standard reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis in a simulation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mice were allocated into a control group, an LPS control group (0.8 mg/kg, i.p., once), a tempol (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment group, and two perindopril (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted to evaluate spatial and nonspatial memory in mice, followed by a biochemical study involving assessment of brain levels of Aβ and BDNF as Alzheimer and neuroplasticity markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end-products (NOx), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as inflammatory markers; and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH), and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers. Finally, histopathological examination of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum sections was performed using both routine and special staining. Tempol and perindopril improved spatial and nonspatial memory in mice without affecting locomotor activity; decreased brain Aβ deposition and BDNF depletion; decreased brain TNF-α, NOx, nNOS, iNOS, MDA, and NT levels; and increased brain SOD and GSH contents, parallel to confirmatory histopathological findings. Tempol and perindopril may be promising agents against AD progression via suppression of Aβ deposition and BDNF decline, suppression of TNF-α production, support of brain antioxidant status, and amelioration of oxido-nitrosative stress and NT production.

  2. Voluntary exercise confers protection against age-related deficits in brain oxygenation in awake mice model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuecong; Moeini, Mohammad; Li, Baoqiang; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by short-term memory loss and cognitive inabilities. This work seeks to study the effects of voluntary exercise on the change in oxygen delivery in awake mice models of Alzheimer's disease by monitoring brain tissue oxygenation. Experiments were performed on Young (AD_Y, 3-4 months, n=8), Old (AD_O, 6-7 months, n=8), and Old with exercise (AD_OEX, 6-7 months, n=8) transgenic APPPS1 mice and their controls. Brain tissue oxygenation was measured by two photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy on the left sensory motor cortex. We found that the average tissue PO2 decreased with age but were regulated by exercise. The results suggest a potential for exercise to improve brain function with age and AD.

  3. Determination of chromate ion in drilling mud filtrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfill, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method of determining the amount of chromate ion in an aqueous drilling mud filtrate containing organic color bodies such as lignosulfate wherein the method comprises: (A) treating the aqueous filtrate with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to destroy said color bodies, and (B) measuring the amount of chromate ion in the filtrate by means of a spectrophotometer

  4. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source under...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration membranes identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), and (a)(4) of this section may be safely used in...

  6. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    , it is difficult to use the existing mathematical filtration models to simulate and optimise the filtration process. Activated sludge as well as synthetic model particles has been filtrated in this project. The study shows that compression of the formed filter cake is a time dependent process, and not only...

  7. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  8. Primary effluent filtration for coastal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper-Smith, G.D. [Yorkshire Water Services, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Rundle, H. [The Capital Controls Group, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The use of a Tetra Deep Bed filter demonstration unit to treat primary effluent (Primary Effluent Filtration, PEF) was investigated. PEF proved capable of achieving the UWWTD primary standard, even when the primary stage performs poorly, but is not a cost-effective alternative to chemically assisted settlement. Results demonstrated that using a 1.5 to 2.2 mm grade medium, a filtration rate of 5 m/h, three backwashes a day and dosing 40 mg/l of PAXXL60 (a polyaluminium silicte) an average effluent quality of 20 mg/l BOD and 15 mgl/l total solid could be achieved. UV disinfection produced an effluent which complied with the Bathing Water Directive imperative requirement. A high enterovirus kill was also achieved. However, considerable additional work would be required before PEF could be considered suitable for full-scale applications. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  10. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  11. High Temperature Particle Filtration Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    High temperature filtration can serve to improve the economic, environmental, and energy performance of chemical processes. This project was designed to evaluate the stability of filtration materials in the environments of the production of dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS). In cooperation with Dow Corning, chemical environments for the fluidized bed reactor where silicon is converted to DDS and the incinerator where vents are cornbusted were characterized. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an exposure system was developed that could simulate these two environments. Filter samples obtained from third parties were exposed to the environments for periods up to 1000 hours. Mechanical properties before and after exposure were determined by burst-testing rings of filter material. The results indicated that several types of filter materials would likely perform well in the fluid bed environment, and two materials would be good candidates for the incinerator environment

  12. Enlargement of filtration with finance in view

    CERN Document Server

    Aksamit, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents classical results of the theory of enlargement of filtration. The focus is on the behavior of martingales with respect to the enlarged filtration and related objects. The study is conducted in various contexts including immersion, progressive enlargement with a random time and initial enlargement with a random variable.  The aim of this book is to collect the main mathematical results (with proofs) previously spread among numerous papers, great part of which is only available in French. Many examples and applications to finance, in particular to credit risk modelling and the study of asymmetric information, are provided to illustrate the theory. A detailed summary of further connections and applications is given in bibliographic notes which enables to deepen study of the topic.  This book fills a gap in the literature and serves as a guide for graduate students and researchers interested in the role of information in financial mathematics and in econometric science. A basic knowledge of...

  13. Osmosis, filtration and fracture of porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    Filtration was produced in a small scale physical model of a granular porous medium of cylindrical shape.The same volume flow was obtained either applying a difference in hydrostatic pressure or in osmotic pressure.In the first case a process of sustained erosion ending in an hydraulic short circuit was observed,while in the second case the material remained stable.This paradoxical strength behaviour is explained using some results from differential geometry,classical field theory and thermo-kinetic theory.The fracture process of a continuous matrix in a porous medium under the combined effect of filtration and external mechanical loads in then considered.The obtained results can be applied to the textural and compressive strength of wet concrete

  14. Protective Effects of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Fetus Brain in Aged and Young Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mahsa; Bahmanpour, Soghra

    2016-05-01

    One of the major problems of the aged women or older than 35 is getting pregnant in the late fertility life. Fertility rates begin to decline gradually at the age of 30, more so at 35, and markedly at 40. Even with fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization, women have more difficulty in getting pregnant or may deliver abnormal fetus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flax seed hydroalcoholic extract on the fetal brain of aged mice and its comparison with young mice. In this experimental study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls received no special treatment. The experimental mice groups, 3 weeks before mating, were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages. After giving birth, the brains of the fetus were removed. Data analysis was performed by statistical test ANOVA using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The mean fetus brain weight of aged mother groups compared to the control group was increased significantly (P<0.05). This study showed that flax seed hydroalcoholic extract could improve fetal brain weights in the aged groups.

  15. Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter

  16. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Benítez, Juan; Gil Montero, María Luisa Almoraima; De la Rosa Fox, Nicolas; Alguacil, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer’s health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon cont...

  17. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion induces reperfusion and blood-brain barrier protection in the photothrombotic stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviv Levi

    Full Text Available The treatment of stroke remains a challenge. Animal studies showing that electrical stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG exerts beneficial effects in the treatment of stroke have led to the initiation of clinical studies. However, the detailed effects of SPG stimulation on the injured brain are not known.The effect of acute SPG stimulation was studied by direct vascular imaging, fluorescent angiography and laser Doppler flowmetry in the sensory motor cortex of the anaesthetized rat. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the rose bengal (RB photothrombosis method. In chronic experiments, SPG stimulation, starting 15 min or 24 h after photothrombosis, was given for 3 h per day on four consecutive days. Structural damage was assessed using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cortical functions were assessed by quantitative analysis of epidural electro-corticographic (ECoG activity continuously recorded in behaving animals.Stimulation induced intensity- and duration-dependent vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow in both healthy and photothrombotic brains. In SPG-stimulated rats both blood brain-barrier (BBB opening, pathological brain activity and lesion volume were attenuated compared to untreated stroke animals, with no apparent difference in the glial response surrounding the necrotic lesion.SPG-stimulation in rats induces vasodilation of cortical arterioles, partial reperfusion of the ischemic lesion, and normalization of brain functions with reduced BBB dysfunction and stroke volume. These findings support the potential therapeutic effect of SPG stimulation in focal cerebral ischemia even when applied 24 h after stroke onset and thus may extend the therapeutic window of currently administered stroke medications.

  18. Fisetin as a caloric restriction mimetic protects rat brain against aging induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Garg, Geetika; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2018-01-15

    In the present study, attempts have been made to evaluate the potential role of fisetin, a caloric restriction mimetic (CRM), for neuroprotection in D-galactose (D-gal) induced accelerated and natural aging models of rat. Fisetin was supplemented (15mg/kg b.w., orally) to young, D-gal induced aged (D-gal 500mg/kg b.w subcutaneously) and naturally aged rats for 6weeks. Standard protocols were employed to measure pro-oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential in brain tissues. Gene expression analysis with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to assess the expression of autophagy, neuronal, aging as well as inflammatory marker genes. We have also evaluated apoptotic cell death and synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporter activities in brain tissues. Our data demonstrated that fisetin significantly decreased the level of pro-oxidants and increased the level of antioxidants. Furthermore, fisetin also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptotic cell death and impairments in the activities of synaptosomal membrane-bound ion transporters in aging rat brain. RT-PCR data revealed that fisetin up-regulated the expression of autophagy genes (Atg-3 and Beclin-1), sirtuin-1 and neuronal markers (NSE and Ngb), and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory (IL-1β and TNF-α) and Sirt-2 genes respectively in aging brain. The present study suggests that fisetin supplementation may provide neuroprotection against aging-induced oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, neuro-inflammation, and neurodegeneration in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Filtration system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takashi; Nakamizo, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    The filtration system of the present invention comprises a filtering device incorporating ceramic filament element bundles, a pool return line for returning filtrates to a side banker pool or fuel storage pool, a waste sludge discharge line for discharging waste sludges captured in the filter elements by way of washing operation and a settling separation vessel. Ceramics of excellent radiation resistance and having an extremely thin multi-layered structure at the surface are used for the filter elements. Highly radioactive cruds captured at the surface of the elements by liquid passage are removed by supplying water or gas in a pulsative manner in the direction opposite to the liquid passage thereby cleaning the surface of the elements at a high speed. The thus removed high radioactive cruds are concentrically confined within the settling separation layer by gravitational settling separation. Thus, there is no more necessary for disposing the filtration element bundles after use, so that the amount of wastes can be reduced, the radiation dosage can be lowered and the facility can be simplified. (N.H.)

  20. Direct filtration of Biesbosch water and Algae and water treatment in the Netherlands : 3rd Direct Filtration Seminar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusevski, B.; Vlaski, A.; Van Breemen, A.N.; Alaerts, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation summarises basic information on direct filtration, and demonstrates the main research findings, related to the performance of simple in-line direct filtration. The results reported are part of a comprehensive ongoing research programm "Direct filtration of Biesbosch water"

  1. Enhancing Brain Pregnenolone May Protect Cannabis Intoxication but Should Not Be Considered as an Anti-addiction Therapeutic: Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Blockade and Promoting Anti-Reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.; Febo, Marcelo; Li, Mona; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication. Some research into those harms will be reviewed here and misgivings about the use of Pregnenolone, to treat cannabis addiction and intoxication explained. Pregnenolone considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, has recently been shown to protect the brain from Cannabis intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances Pregnenolone synthesis in the brain via stimulation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. This steroid has been shown to inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee et al., incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. In this hypothesis, we caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718) have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. Blocking CB1 receptors would result in reduced neuronal release of Dopamine by disinhibition of GABA signaling. Long-term blockade of cannabinoid receptors could occur with raising Pregnenolone brain levels, may induce a hypodopaminergic state, and lead to aberrant substance and non-substance (behavioral) addictions. PMID:26306328

  2. Insulin Protects against Brain Oxidative Stress with an Apparent Effect on Episodic Memory in Doxorubicin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Sonawane, Vishwajeet; Cheruku, Sri Pragnya; Kishore, Anoop; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Shenoy, Rekha S; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the protective effect of insulin against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cognitive function for episodic memory was assessed by a novel object recognition task (NORT) in male Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers-SOD, catalase, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation-in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were assessed using colorimetric methods. Doxorubicin treatment (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., every 5 days for 50 days) reduced recognition and discriminative indices in NORT with increased oxidative stress in the brain. A nonhypoglycemic dose of insulin (0.5 IU/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced brain oxidative stress (MDA) induced by doxorubicin with an increase in the antioxidant defense systems (SOD, catalase, and GSH). Rats treated with combined insulin and DOX spent comparatively more time with the novel object when compared to the non-novel objects; however, the observed difference was not statistically significant. An apparent improvement (p insulin reduces brain oxidative stress and apparently improves doxorubicin-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats.

  3. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Simon C

    2017-11-01

    The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes. Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied endocannabinoids and are both derived from phospholipid-bound ARA. The endocannabinoid system also has well-established roles in neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, suggesting an overlap in the neuroprotective effects observed with these different classes of lipids. Indeed, growing evidence suggests a complex interplay between n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA and the endocannabinoid system. For example, long-term DHA and EPA supplementation reduces AEA and 2-AG levels, with reciprocal increases in levels of the analogous endocannabinoid-like DHA and EPA-derived molecules. This review summarises current evidence of this interplay and discusses the therapeutic potential for brain protection and repair.

  4. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  5. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  6. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects mouse brain against D-galactose induced aging via suppression of oxidative stress response and advanced glycation end products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinhang; Bai, Fuliang; Wang, Wenfei; Liu, Yaonan; Yuan, Qingyan; Qu, Susu; Zhang, Tong; Tian, Guiyou; Li, Siming; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted predominantly in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. Recently, it has been reported that FGF21-Transgenic mice can extend their lifespan compared with wild type counterparts. Thus, we hypothesize that FGF21 may play some roles in aging of organisms. In this study d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice were used to study the mechanism that FGF21 protects mice from aging. The three-month-old Kunming mice were subcutaneously injected with d-gal (180mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 8weeks and administered simultaneously with FGF21 (1, 2 or 5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Our results showed that administration of FGF21 significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in water maze task and step-down test, reduced brain cell damage in the hippocampus, and attenuated the d-gal-induced production of MDA, ROS and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At the same time, FGF21 also markedly renewed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), and decreased the enhanced total cholinesterase (TChE) activity in the brain of d-gal-treated mice. The expression of aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and member-anchored receptor for AGEs (RAGE) declined significantly after FGF21 treatment. Furthermore, FGF21 suppressed inflamm-aging by inhibiting IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, decreased significantly. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF21 protects the aging mice brain from d-gal-induced injury by attenuating oxidative stress damage and decreasing AGE formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  9. Filtration approach to mitigate indoor Thoron progeny concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Meisenberg, O.; Karg, E.; Tschiersch, J.; Chen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates filtration of air as potential mitigation method of thoron progeny exposure. The experiments were conducted in a model room (volume 7.1 m 3 ) which was equipped with a pump and an HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. Filtration at a rate of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.8 h -1 during 88 h proved an effective practice in reducing the total indoor thoron decay product concentration. The results indicate that 0.4-0.8 h -1 filtration rate had almost the same filtration efficiency in decreasing the total thoron EEC (equilibrium equivalent concentration) by 97% while 80% of total thoron EEC were reduced by 0.2 h -1 filtration rate; meanwhile, the unattached thoron EEC rose significantly by 190, 270, 290%, respectively under 0.4-0.8 h -1 filtration rate, whereas 0.2 h -1 filtration rate increased unattached thoron EEC by 40%. The aerosol number size distribution variation reveals that filtration operation removes smaller particles faster or earlier than the larger ones. The annual effective dose calculated was reduced by 91-92% at a filtration rate of 0.4-0.8 h -1 while 75% reduced at 0.2 h -1 filtration rate after 88 h filtration process. (authors)

  10. Role of Transporters in Central Nervous System Drug Delivery and Blood-Brain Barrier Protection: Relevance to Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Brzica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The only approved pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke is thrombolysis via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA. A short therapeutic window and serious adverse events (ie, hemorrhage, excitotoxicity greatly limit r-tPA therapy, which indicates an essential need to develop novel stroke treatment paradigms. Transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB provide a significant opportunity to advance stroke therapy via central nervous system delivery of drugs that have neuroprotective properties. Examples of such transporters include organic anion–transporting polypeptides (Oatps and organic cation transporters (Octs. In addition, multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps are transporter targets in brain microvascular endothelial cells that can be exploited to preserve BBB integrity in the setting of stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on stroke pharmacotherapy and demonstrate how endogenous BBB transporters can be targeted for improvement of ischemic stroke treatment.

  11. Inhibition of aminoacylase 3 protects rat brain cortex neuronal cells from the toxicity of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mercapturate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia; Bragin, Anatol; Faull, Kym; Cascio, Duilio; Damoiseaux, Robert; Schibler, Matthew J.; Pushkin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) and acrolein (ACR) are highly reactive neurotoxic products of lipid peroxidation that are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Conjugation with glutathione (GSH) initiates the 4HNE and ACR detoxification pathway, which generates the mercapturates of 4HNE and ACR that can be excreted. Prior work has shown that the efficiency of the GSH-dependent renal detoxification of haloalkene derived mercapturates is significantly decreased upon their deacetylation because of rapid transformation of the deacetylated products into toxic compounds mediated by β-lyase. The enzymes of the GSH-conjugation pathway and β-lyases are expressed in the brain, and we hypothesized that a similar toxicity mechanism may be initiated in the brain by the deacetylation of 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. The present study was performed to identify an enzyme(s) involved in 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate deacetylation, characterize the brain expression of this enzyme and determine whether its inhibition decreases 4HNE and 4HNE-mercapturate neurotoxicity. We demonstrated that of two candidate deacetylases, aminoacylases 1 (AA1) and 3 (AA3), only AA3 efficiently deacetylates both 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. AA3 was further localized to neurons and blood vessels. Using a small molecule screen we generated high-affinity AA3 inhibitors. Two of them completely protected rat brain cortex neurons expressing AA3 from the toxicity of 4HNE-mercapturate. 4HNE-cysteine (4HNE-Cys) was also neurotoxic and its toxicity was mostly prevented by a β-lyase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate. The results suggest that the AA3 mediated deacetylation of 4HNE-mercapturate may be involved in the neurotoxicity of 4HNE.

  12. Sestrin2 induced by hypoxia inducible factor1 alpha protects the blood-brain barrier via inhibiting VEGF after severe hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xudan; Doycheva, Desislava Met; Xu, Liang; Tang, Jiping; Yan, Min; Zhang, John H

    2016-11-01

    Hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy remains the leading cause of perinatal brain injury resulting in long term disabilities. Stabilization of blood brain barrier (BBB) after HI is an important target, therefore, in this study we aim to determine the role of sestrin2, a stress inducible protein which is elevated after various insults, on BBB stabilization after moderate and severe HI injuries. Rat pups underwent common carotid artery ligation followed by either 150min (severe model) or 100min (moderate model) of hypoxia. 1h post HI, rats were intranasally administered with recombinant human sestrin2 (rh-sestrin2) and sacrificed for infarct area, brain water content, righting reflex and geotaxis reflex. Sestrin2 was silenced using siRNA and an activator/inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor1α (HIF1α) was used to examine their roles on BBB permeability. Rats subjected to severe HI exhibited larger infarct area and higher sestrin2 expression compared to rats in the moderate HI group. rh-sestrin2 attenuated brain infarct and edema, while silencing sestrin2 reversed these protective effects after severe HI. HIF1α induced sestrin2 activation in severe HI but not in moderate HI groups. A HIF1a agonist was shown to increase permeability of the BBB via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after moderate HI. However, after severe HI, HIF1α activated both VEGF and sestrin2. But HIF1α dependent sestrin2 activation was the predominant pathway after severe HI which inhibited VEGF and attenuated BBB permeability. rh-sestrin2 attenuated BBB permeability via upregulation of endogenous sestrin2 which was induced by HIF1α after severe HI. However, HIF1α's effects as a prodeath or prosurvival signal were influenced by the severity of HI injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance...

  14. Adding left atrial appendage closure to open heart surgery provides protection from ischemic brain injury six years after surgery independently of atrial fibrillation history: the LAACS randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Hansen, Jesper; Holme, Susanne J V; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon; Carranza, Christian L; Greve, Anders M; Al-Farra, Gina; Riis, Robert G C; Nilsson, Brian; Clausen, Johan S R; Nørskov, Anne S; Kruuse, Christina R; Rostrup, Egill; Dominguez, Helena

    2018-05-23

    Open heart surgery is associated with high occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), subsequently increasing the risk of post-operative ischemic stroke. Concomitant with open heart surgery, a cardiac ablation procedure is commonly performed in patients with known AF, often followed by left atrial appendage closure with surgery (LAACS). However, the protective effect of LAACS on the risk of cerebral ischemia following cardiac surgery remains controversial. We have studied whether LAACS in addition to open heart surgery protects against post-operative ischemic brain injury regardless of a previous AF diagnosis. One hundred eighty-seven patients scheduled for open heart surgery were enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical trial and randomized to concomitant LAACS vs. standard care. Randomization was stratified by usage of oral anticoagulation (OAC) planned to last at least 3 months after surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of post-operative symptomatic ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or imaging findings of silent cerebral ischemic (SCI) lesions. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 14 (16%) primary events occurred among patients receiving standard surgery vs. 5 (5%) in the group randomized to additional LAACS (hazard ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p = 0.02). In per protocol analysis (n = 141), 14 (18%) primary events occurred in the control group vs. 4 (6%) in the LAACS group (hazard ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.0, p = 0.05). In a real-world setting, LAACS in addition to elective open-heart surgery was associated with lower risk of post-operative ischemic brain injury. The protective effect was not conditional on AF/OAC status at baseline. LAACS study, clinicaltrials.gov NCT02378116 , March 4th 2015, retrospectively registered.

  15. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Injury via Rho/Rho-kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Qian, Chen; Wang, Ning; Lin, Chenyu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Guangyun; Piao, Xinxin

    2017-05-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, also known as Ligustrazine), which is isolated from Chinese Herb Medicine Ligustium wollichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong), has been widely used in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke by Chinese herbalists. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are the integral parts of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting BMECs against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) which is important for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Here, we investigated the protective mechanisms of TMP, focusing on OGD-injured BMECs and the Rho/Rho-kinase (Rho-associated kinases, ROCK) signaling pathway. The model of OGD-injured BMECs was established in this study. BMECs were identified by von Willebrand factor III staining and exposed to fasudil, or TMP at different concentrations (14.3, 28.6, 57.3 µM) for 2 h before 24 h of OGD injury. The effect of each treatment was examined by cell viability assays, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and transendothelial electric resistance and western blot analysis (caspase-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), RhoA, Rac1). Our results show that TMP significantly attenuated apoptosis and the permeability of BMECs induced by OGD. In addition, TMP could notably down-regulate the characteristic proteins in Rho/ROCK signaling pathway such as RhoA and Rac1, which triggered abnormal changes of eNOS and ROS, respectively. Altogether, our results show that TMP has a strong protective effect against OGD-induced BMECs injury and suggest that the mechanism might be related to the inhibition of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway.

  16. Arctigenin Treatment Protects against Brain Damage through an Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism after Needle Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-feng; Kong, Liang; Yao, Ying-Jia; Jiao, Ya-Nan; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Lian, Guan; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) infuses drugs directly into brain tissue. Needle insertion is required and results in a stab wound injury (SWI). Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines, which have dramatic consequences on the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary brain injury and the determination of the underlying mechanism of action in a mouse model of SWI that mimics the process of CED. After CED, mice received a gavage of ARC from 30 min to 14 days. Neurological severity scores (NSS) and wound closure degree were assessed after the injury. Histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluated the extent of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect universal apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to test the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Gene levels of inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) and apoptosis (Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using these, we analyzed ARC’s efficacy and mechanism of action. Results: ARC treatment improved neurological function by reducing brain water content and hematoma and accelerating wound closure relative to untreated mice. ARC treatment reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and the number of allograft inflammatory factor (IBA)- and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells and increased the levels of IL-10. ARC-treated mice had fewer TUNEL+ apoptotic neurons and activated caspase-3-positive neurons surrounding the lesion than controls, indicating increased neuronal survival. Conclusions: ARC treatment confers

  17. Measurement and characterization of filtration efficiencies for prefilter materials used in aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciortino, J.

    1991-01-01

    In applications where the filtration of large quantities of mixed (liquid and solid) aerosols is desired, a multistage filtration system is often employed. This system consists of a prefilter, a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, and any number of specialized filters particular to the filtration application. The prefilter removes liquids and any large particles from the air stream, keeping them from prematurely loading the HEPA filter downstream. The HEPA filter eliminates 99.97% of all particulates in the aerosol. The specialized filters downstream of the HEPA filter can be used to remove organic volatiles or other vapors. While the properties of HEPA filters have been extensively investigated, literature characterizing the prefilter is scarce. The purpose of this report is to characterize the efficiency of the prefilter as a function of particle size, nature of the particle (solid or liquid), and the gas flow rate across the face of the prefilter. 1 ref., 4 figs

  18. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  19. Protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Purohit, R.K.; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.0 and 4.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the brain of Swiss albino mice. The histopathological changes observed were pycnotic nuclei and crenated cells with condensation of nuclear material resulting into hyperchromatic cells. Hydrocephaly with enlarged lateral ventricles was also noted. Corpus callosum was seen malformed. Thickened meninges and venous congestion were also noticed. In the irradiated brains cytoarchitectonic layers were reduced in depth and showed some degree of intermixing of cells of various laminae. Hematoma was present between the cortex and medulla with numerous pycnotic and necrotic nuclei. Disarray of the cortical tissue with disorientation of cell processes was also evident. Damage in the cortex was noticed in the form of karyolysis, pycnosis and spongy degeneration of the connective tissue with the thickening of meninges. Dilation of blood vessels was also observed at certain places. Quality of these changes remaining the same, but their magnitude increased with dose. With an increase in the dose, time of the onset of recovery is delayed and the time required for complete recovery is longer. After the combined exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride, the histological changes were similar but showed higher magnitude than the individual exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride. The brain of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. (author)

  20. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  1. Limitation of releases and filtration by sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schektman, N.

    1986-01-01

    In the highly hypothetic case of a severe reactor accident, it may lead to an increase of pressure within the containment and up to a value above the calculated pressure. A procedure is necessary in this case to maintain the integrity of the containment to prevent a release of radioactive products to the environment, while controlling in the best way releases. So, EDF and the CEA have developed a device of decompression-filtration of the containment atmosphere, using a free penetration of the containment and a sand box; the device and its operation constitute the U5 procedure [fr

  2. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling

  3. Good Filtrations and the Steinberg Square

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildetoft, Tobias

    that tensoring the Steinberg module with a simple module of restricted highest weight gives a module with a good filtration. This result was first proved by Andersen when the characteristic is large enough. In this dissertation, generalizations of those results, which are joint work with Daniel Nakano......, the socle completely determines how a Steinberg square decomposes. The dissertation also investigates the socle of the Steinberg square for a finite group of Lie type, again providing formulas which describe how to find the multiplicity of a simple module in the socle, given information about...

  4. [Influence of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on distribution of bone marrow stem cells and its role in protecting brain in rats with cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Jing-xia; Liu, Ke; Wang, Ding-chao; Ren, Wei-hong; Zhang, Xin-feng; Tian, Yu-shou

    2011-06-01

    To explore the influence of recombination granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rG-CSF) on mobilization and distribution of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) in blood and brain tissue, and its role in protecting brain in rats with cerebral ischemia. One hundred and six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into sham-operated group (n=10),model group (n=48), rG-CSF group (n=48) according to the method of random digital table, and rats in model and rG-CSF groups were divided into four subgroups: i.e. 2, 3, 7 and 14 days subgroups, with 12 rats in each subgroup. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was reproduced with nylon thread. In rats of rG-CSF group rG-CSF (10 μg/kg) was administered by subcutaneous injection 3 days before and 2 days after operation respectively, once a day. Rats in sham-operated and model groups were administered with normal saline in the same volume, once a day. At the corresponding time after operation, general neural function score (GNFS) of rats was measured. Blood was collected through abdominal aorta, then white blood cell (WBC) and CD34+ cells in peripheral blood were counted. Brain pathologic changes were observed, and expression of CD34+ cells in rats brain tissue was determined by using immunohistochemical method. (1) GNFS was lower obviously in 2-day model group compared with that in sham-operated group, and then increased gradually. At 7 days and 14 days after operation, GNFS in rG-CSF group was higher significantly than that in model group (7 days: 11.86±0.69 vs. 10.53±0.76, 14 days: 13.38±0.52 vs. 12.38±0.52, both P<0.01). (2) WBC and CD34+ cells in peripheral blood in model group increased obviously, with the highest level appeared at 3 days and lowered at 7 days and 14 days. Increase of WBC and CD34+ cells in rats of rG-CSF group was more obvious than that of model group at each time point except CD34+ in 14 days group [WBC (×10(9)/L) 2 days: 11.75±1.76 vs. 8.07±1.27, 3 days: 13.07±1.70 vs. 10.88±1.78, 7 days: 8

  5. Measured performance of filtration and ventilation systems for fine and ultrafine particles and ozone in an unoccupied modern California house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Black, Douglas R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration produced indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors. Supply ventilation with MERV13 filtration provided slightly less protection whereas supply MERV16 filtration reduced PM2.55 by 97-98% relative to outdoors. Supply filtration systems used little energy but provided no benefits for indoor-generated particles. Systems with MERV13-16 filters in the recirculating heating and cooling unit (FAU) operating continuously or 20 min/h reduced PM2.5 by 93-98%. Across all systems, removal percentages were higher for ultrafine particles and lower for black carbon, relative to PM2.5. Indoor ozone was 3-4% of outdoors for all systems except an electronic air cleaner that produced ozone. Filtration via the FAU or portable filtration units lowered PM2.5 by 25-75% when operated over the hour following cooking. The energy for year-round operation of FAU filtration with an efficient blower motor was estimated at 600 kWh/year.

  6. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale fruit extract are involved in the protective effect against cellular death induced by sodium nitroprusside in brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Letícia Priscilla; Rauber, Ricardo; de Mattos, Sérgio Edgar Campos; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes due to its choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. We sought to investigate the protective activity of T. officinale fruit extract against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced decreased cellular viability and increased lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats in vitro. To explain the mechanism of the extract's antioxidant activity, its putative scavenger activities against NO, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2) were determined. Slices of cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were treated with 50 μM SNP and T. officinale fruit ethanolic extract (1-20 µg/mL) to determine cellular viability by MTT reduction assay. Lipid peroxidation was measure in cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices incubates with SNP (5 µM) and T. officinale fruit extract (1-20 µg/mL). We also determined the scavenger activities of T. officinale fruit extract against NO·, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2), as well as its iron chelating capacity. The extract (1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL) protected against SNP-induced decreases in cellular viability and increases in lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The extract had scavenger activity against DPPH· and NO· at low concentrations and was able to protect against H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+)-induced deoxyribose oxidation. T. officinale fruit extract has antioxidant activity and protects brain slices against SNP-induced cellular death. Possible mechanisms of action include its scavenger activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  7. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  8. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  9. Renal filtration function in patients with gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study circadian blood pressure (BP profile in patients with gout depending on the presence of arterial hypertension (HT and their relationship to the renal filtration function.Material and methods. Patients with gout (n=87 were included into the study. All the patients underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM with the assessment of circadian BP profile, determination of uric acid serum levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR was evaluated by CKD-EPI method. Depending on GFR level, all the patients were divided into 2 groups - with renal dysfunction or without one.Results. ABPM revealed circadian BP dysregulation in 55% of gout patients both with HT and without HT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was revealed in 72.4% of male patients, with the prevalence in patients with HT (76.6 vs 61%; p<0.001. Correlations between uric acid levels and some ABPM indicators and GFR were determined.Conclusion. Obtained data suggest the contribution of hyperuricemia in disorders of systemic and renal hemodynamics, leading to the early development of CKD.

  10. EM Task 9 - Centrifugal Membrane Filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, B.G.; Stepan, D.J.; Hetland, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project is designed to establish the utility of a novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology for the remediation of liquid mixed waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in support of the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., a small business and owner of the novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to establish the applicability of the technology to DOE site remediation and the commercial viability of the technology for liquid mixed waste stream remediation. The technology is a uniquely configured process that makes use of ultrafiltration and centrifugal force to separate suspended and dissolved solids from liquid waste streams, producing a filtered water stream and a low-volume contaminated concentrate stream. This technology has the potential for effective and efficient waste volume minimization, the treatment of liquid tank wastes, the remediation of contaminated groundwater plumes, and the treatment of secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, as well as the liquid waste stream generated during decontamination and decommissioning activities

  11. Improved remote HEPA filtration development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E. III.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of the prototype development and hot cell mock-up testing program undertaken to adapt a commercial remote HEPA filter housing for use in the Process Facility Modification Project (PFMP). This program was initiated in response to the project design criteria and documentation that required the air from the hot cell environment to be exhausted through three stages of HEPA filtration. Due to the anticipated quantity of radioactive contamination captured by the first stage of filters, it was determined that the first stage would need to be located in a remotely operated and maintained shielded cell adjoining the primary hot cell areas. Commercially available remote filtration equipment was evaluated and candidate unit was identified, which could be developed into a suitable filter housing. A candidate unit was obtained from Flanders Filters, Inc. and a series of hot cell mock-up tests were identified in the 305 facility at the Hanford site. The results of these tests, and further interaction with the vendor, led to a prototype remote filter housing which satisfied most PFMP criteria and proved to be significantly superior to existing commercial units for remote operation/maintenance

  12. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Riverbed Clogging and Sustainability of Riverbank Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grischek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration (RBF sites in field tests and using an analytical solution. Results were compared with data from similar experiments in the early 1970s and 1991–1993. In the 1980s, severe river water pollution in conjunction with high water abstraction led to partly unsaturated conditions beneath the riverbed. A leakage coefficient L of 5 × 10−7 s−1 was determined. After water quality improvement, L increased to 1–1.5 × 10−6 s−1. An alternative, cost and time efficient method is presented to estimate accurate leakage coefficients. The analytical solution is based on groundwater level monitoring data from observation wells next to the river, which can later feed into numerical models. The analytical approach was able to reflect long-term changes as well as seasonal variations. Recommendations for its application are given based on experience.

  14. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  15. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Brain Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage by Electromagnetic Field in Rat: Ultrastructural Study by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki Arash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basil herb (Ocimum basilicum has long been used in human nutrition. Nowadays antioxidant role of this herb is known more. The aim of this study was to study the anti-oxidative property of sweet basil to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic field (EMF and its affective sequences. Materials and Methods: Forty Albino male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups, 10 rats per each. Group 1 received normal diet (control group, group 2 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF for 8 weeks (EMF group. Group 3 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF and fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks (treatment group and group 4 was fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks and named as herbal group. At the end of eighth week 5 mL blood was taken from all rats for biochemical analysis and for ultra structural study of brain neuron samples was taken. Results: The results showed level of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH peroxidase and catalase activity (CAT were significantly increased in herbal and treatment groups as compared to EMF group (P < 0.05. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased in treatment group as compare to EMF group (P < 0.05. Ultra structural evaluation of EMF group showed brain nucleus has a lot of heterochromatic changes and mitochondria have been ovulated and have swelling figure this changes were less in treatment group. Conclusion: Antioxidant capacity of basil extract can cause to decrease oxidative effects of EMF on brain tissue and in rats.

  16. Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramoye, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against γ-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in γ-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. γ-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

  17. Filtration Systems Design for Universal Oils in Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Majdan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three filtration systems using the tractor hydraulic circuit were proposed and verified during the tractors operation. Using the tractor-implement hydraulic system and filter body with accessories the universally useful filtration systems were designed. The designed filtration systems are the second stage of universal oil filtration whereas the first stage is the standard tractor filter. The decrease in the content of iron reached the values 25.53 %, 32.95 % and 41.55 % and the average decrease in oil contamination characterized by average value of decrease in content of iron, copper and silicium reached values 24.3 %, 24.7 % and 35.53 % in dependence on the filtration system and an oil contamination level. The decrease in contamination level verified the ability of designed filtration systems for agricultural tractors.

  18. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1990-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S. [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Histopathological Study of Protective Effects of Honey on Subacute Toxicity of Acrylamide-Induced Tissue Lesions in Rats’ Brain and Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ahrari Roodi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic potential of honey is related to antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species because it contains compounds such as polyphenols; therefore, we evaluated the potential protective effect of honey on subacute toxicity of ACR by histopathologic study on tissue lesions in rat. Methods: In Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, 2016, male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. To induce toxicity, ACR was injected (50 mg/kg for 11 d to rats in 5 groups. In treatment groups, rats received three doses of honey 1.25, 2.5, and 5 g/kg in addition to the ACR. The two remaining groups received vitamin E (200 IU/kg and normal saline as positive and negative control respectively. On the last day, after necropsy, tissue specimens from brain and liver were collected for histopathological studies. Results: Receiving of ACR caused tissue injuries including degeneration, necrosis, hyperemia, hemorrhage and inflammation in liver; ischemic cell change, hyperemia, hemorrhage and edema in brain tissue. Administration of honey considerably reduced tissue damages caused by ACR, particularly with dosage 5 g/kg. Conclusion: The severity of tissue lesions caused by the ACR can be reduced by honey, likely through its antioxidant activity. Increasing concentrations of honey will enhance its effectiveness.

  1. The Protective Effect of Antarctic Krill Oil on Cognitive Function by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Senescence-Accelerated Prone Mouse Strain 8 (SAMP8) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Fengjuan; Wen, Min; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test. Further analysis indicated that AKO might reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in hippocampus through decreasing the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain of SAMP8 mice. The results of Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test indicated that Antarctic krill oil (AKO) improved the cognitive function and anxiety of SAMP8 mice. AKO reduced the Aβ 42 level in hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. AKO ameliorated oxidative stress in brain rather than in serum and liver of SAMP8 mice. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Sodium butyrate has an antimanic effect and protects the brain against oxidative stress in an animal model of mania induced by ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Steckert, Amanda V; Varela, Roger B; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Mariot, Edemilson; Resende, Wilson R; Arent, Camila O; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, João

    2016-01-30

    Studies have consistently reported the participation of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidence indicates that epigenetic regulations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Considering these evidences, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a histone deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitor, on manic-like behavior and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS and protein carbonyl content and SOD and CAT activities) in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to the animal model of mania induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) ouabain administration.The results showed that SB reversed ouabain-induced hyperactivity, which represents a manic-like behavior in rats. In addition, the ouabain ICV administration induced oxidative damage to lipid and protein and alters antioxidant enzymes activity in all brain structures analyzed. The treatment with SB was able to reversesboth behavioral and oxidative stress parameters alteration induced by ouabain.In conclusion, we suggest that SB can be considered a potential new mood stabilizer by acts on manic-like behavior and regulatesthe antioxidant enzyme activities, protecting the brain against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  4. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering

    OpenAIRE

    Nurra, C.; Clavero, E.; Salvadó, J.; Torras, C.

    2014-01-01

    10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.115 The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean ...

  5. 3-62 Protective Effects of Hydroxysaffor Yellow A on Brain Injury in Mice Irradiated by 300 MeV/u 12C6+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan; Lu[1; Zhang; Hong[1

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for head and neck cancers, nasopharyngeal cancers, primary brain tumors and brain metastases. A large number of patients in the world with primary or metastatic brain tumors will require large volume or whole brain irradiation every year. However, therapeutic irradiation not only kills tumor cells, but also injures normal brain tissue, which is commonly associated with significant functional morbidity and decreased quality of life in patients treated with brain radiotherapy[1].

  6. Ciliary neurotrophic factor inhibits brain and peripheral tumor necrosis factor production and, when coadministered with its soluble receptor, protects mice from lipopolysaccharide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, F; Villa, P; Demitri, M T; Sacco, S; Sipe, J D; Lagunowich, L; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P

    1995-07-01

    The receptor of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) contains the signal transduction protein gp130, which is also a component of the receptors of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), IL-11, and oncostatin M. This suggests that these cytokines might share common signaling pathways. We previously reported that CNTF augments the levels of corticosterone (CS) and of IL-6 induced by IL-1 and induces the production of the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the elevation of serum CS is an important feedback mechanism to limit the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF), we have investigated the effect of CNTF on both TNF production and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxicity. To induce serum TNF levels, LPS was administered to mice at 30 mg/kg i.p. and CNTF was administered as a single dose of 10 micrograms/mouse i.v., either alone or in combination with its soluble receptor sCNTFR alpha at 20 micrograms/mouse. Serum TNF levels were the measured by cytotoxicity on L929 cells. In order to measure the effects of CNTF on LPS-induced TNF production in the brain, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 2.5 micrograms/kg LPS. Mouse spleen cells cultured for 4 hr with 1 microgram LPS/ml, with or without 10 micrograms CNTF/ml, were also analyzed for TNF production. CNTF, administered either alone or in combination with its soluble receptor, inhibited the induction of serum TNF levels by LPS. This inhibition was also observed in the brain when CNTF and LPS were administered centrally. In vitro, CNTF only marginally affected TNF production by LPS-stimulated mouse splenocytes, but it acted synergistically with dexamethasone (DEX) in inhibiting TNF production. Most importantly, CNTF administered together with sCNTFR alpha protected mice against LPS-induced mortality. These data suggest that CNTF might act as a protective cytokine against TNF-mediated pathologies both in the brain and

  7. Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexas, A.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1979-01-01

    Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time. Efficiencies on the order of 99.98 and 98.8% were reached for loading capacities of 500 and 1000 g/m 2 , respectively. Unlimited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols can be filtered by wet scrubbers with an efficiency of 70% per scrubber stage. Fiberglas filters connot be used for the filtration of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time because the filter material can be destroyed after several days of operating

  8. Experiments on high efficiency aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Cuccuru, A.; Kunz, P.

    1977-01-01

    Research on high efficiency aerosol filtration by the Nuclear Engineering Institute of Pisa University and by CAMEN in collaboration with CNEN is outlined. HEPA filter efficiency was studied as a function of the type and size of the test aerosol, and as a function of flowrate (+-50% of the nominal value), air temperature (up to 70 0 C), relative humidity (up to 100%), and durability in a corrosive atmosphere (up to 140 hours in NaCl mist). In the selected experimental conditions these influences were appreciable but are not sufficient to be significant in industrial HEPA filter applications. Planned future research is outlined: measurement of the efficiency of two HEPA filters in series using a fixed particle size; dependence of the efficiency on air, temperatures up to 300-500 0 C; performance when subject to smoke from burning organic materials (natural rubber, neoprene, miscellaneous plastics). Such studies are relevant to possible accidental fires in a plutonium laboratory

  9. Protective effect of serotonin on phospholipids and lipid peroxides contents in brain and liver of gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.; Saada, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of normal rats with serotonin (2 mg/100 g body weight) produced no significant change in levels of phospholipids and lipid peroxides of the cerebral hemispheres and liver 1,3 and days after treatment. The content of lipid peroxides was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA). Whole body gamma-irradiation of rats at 8 Gy resulted in significant decrease in the level of phospholipids and significant increase in MDA level in cerebral hemispheres and lever. Changes were more pronounced in liver. Treatment with serotonin, 15 minutes before irradiation, had a pronounced protective effect against the radiation induced changes in the levels of phospholipids and MDA only in the liver through all the experimental period

  10. Protection of Momordica charantia polysaccharide against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through JNK3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Li, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Su-Hua, Qi

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented that Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) has multiple biological effects such as immune enhancement, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. However, the potential protective effects of MCP on stroke damage and its relative mechanisms remain unclear. Our present study demonstrated that MCP could scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intra-cerebral hemorrhage damage, significantly attenuating the neuronal death induced by thrombin in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that MCP prevented the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3), c-Jun and caspase-3, which was caused by the intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury. Taken together, our study demonstrated that MCP had a neuroprotective effect in response to intra-cerebral hemorrhage and its mechanisms involved the inhibition of JNK3 signaling pathway.

  11. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejaoui, Imen; Mnif, Amine; Hamrouni, Bechir

    2009-01-01

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L -1 to 1,2 mg.L -1 . Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na 2 SO 4 ) > TR(CaCl 2 ) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parametersσand P s respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with

  12. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  13. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  14. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly

  15. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  16. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  17. Rotating Ceramic Water Filter Discs System for Water Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to design, construct and operate a new laboratory scale water filtration system. This system was used to examine the efficiency of two ceramic filter discs as a medium for water filtration. These filters were made from two different ceramic mixtures of local red clay, sawdust, and water. The filtration system was designed with two rotating interfered modules of these filters. Rotating these modules generates shear force between water and the surfaces of filter discs of the filtration modules that works to reduce thickness of layer of rejected materials on the filters surfaces. Each module consists of seven filtration units and each unit consists of two ceramic filter discs. The average measured hydraulic conductivity of the first module was 13.7mm/day and that for the second module was 50mm/day. Results showed that the water filtration system can be operated continuously with a constant flow rate and the filtration process was controlled by a skin thin layer of rejected materials. The ceramic water filters of both filtration modules have high removal efficiency of total suspended solids up to 100% and of turbidity up to 99.94%.

  18. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  19. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Filtration behaviors of rod-shaped bacterial broths in unsteady-state phase of cross-flow filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Usui, K.; Koda, K.; Nakanishi, K. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-20

    Filtration behaviors in the unsteady-state phase of crossflow filtration of broths of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, which are rod-shaped, were studied from the viewpoint of the changes in the specific resistance and in the structure of the microbial cake formed on the membrane surface. The permeation flux followed the cake filtration law at the initial stage of the crossflow filtration of the broths of B. subtilis and E. coli, where the cells deposited randomly on the membrane. In the case of the crossflow filtration of a L. delbrueckii broth, the period of random deposition was shorter. The specific resistance for the cake formed at the initial stage agreed with that measured in dead-end filtration. Then, the specific resistance started to increase in comparison with that measured in dead-end filtration due to shear-induced arrangement of the cells. The extent of the increase in specific resistance became higher and the time taken to start the cell arrangement became shorter with increasing circulation flow rate. The increase in specific resistance due to the shear-induced arrangement was more appreciable in the crossflow filtration of the broth of L. delbrueckii than that of B. subtilis and E. coli. The average permeation flux was increased considerably by applying periodical backwashing with appropriate time intervals. The permeation flux was well predicted by the cake filtration law, since the cells deposited in a way similar to that for dead-end filtration during a sufficiently short period of crossflow filtration in a backwashing mode. 21 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Industrial Application of Open Pore Ceramic Foam for Molten Metal Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauckler, L. J.; Waeber, M. M.; Conti, C.; Jacob-Dulière, M.

    Ceramic foam filters were used for industrial filtration of aluminum. Results are compared with laboratory experiments which are in good agreement with trajectory analyses of deep bed filtration for the early stage of filtration.

  2. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Garasto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at reviewing age-related changes in kidney structure and function, methods for estimating kidney function, and impact of reduced kidney function on geriatric outcomes, as well as the reliability and applicability of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in older patients. CKD is associated with different comorbidities and adverse outcomes such as disability and premature death in older populations. Creatinine clearance and other methods for estimating kidney function are not easy to apply in older subjects. Thus, an accurate and reliable method for calculating eGFR would be highly desirable for early detection and management of CKD in this vulnerable population. Equations based on serum creatinine, age, race, and gender have been widely used. However, these equations have their own limitations, and no equation seems better than the other ones in older people. New equations specifically developed for use in older populations, especially those based on serum cystatin C, hold promises. However, further studies are needed to definitely accept them as the reference method to estimate kidney function in older patients in the clinical setting.

  3. Filtration characteristics of porous silicon carbide media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Gil; Seo, Yong Chil; Yim, Sung Paal; Kim, Joon Hyung

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of a filter such as clean filter pressure drop, filtering performance and filter drag variation with dust loading have been studied with fabricated SiC filter specimens in the laboratory and commercial ceramic filters. Several theoretical equations have been modified and applied to investigate such characteristics. To estimate the pressure drop of clean gas flow through a cylindrical porous filter, Forchheimer equation, which contains the terms of permeability and turbulent factor at a high velocity of gas, has been modified and tested with experimental data. The filtering efficiency was found to be above 99.9% and the penetration of dust decreased exponentially with dust loading. The pressure drop during filtration was measured and showed to increase exponentially with dust loading in the beginning because particles were intercepted and a cake layer was formed by structural properties of a filter. And then it increased in proportion as the cake layer thickened. The effect of dust deposition on the pressure drop could be explained theoretically using several characteristic parameters relevant to dust size, structure of filters and cake layer formation

  4. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2016-12-30

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  5. Macular thickness after glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesar, Antonio; Cavar, Ivan; Sesar, Anita Pusić; Geber, Mia Zorić; Sesar, Irena; Laus, Katia Novak; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mandić, Zdravko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was to analyze early postoperative changes in the macular area using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after uncomplicated glaucoma filtration surgery. This prospective study included 32 patients (34 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, which underwent trabeculectomy with or without use of mitomycin C. Exclusion criteria were macular edema, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, blurred optical media, secondary glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. All standard clinical examinations were made before surgery, at the 2nd day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Tomography of the macula was performed during every examination using Cirrus HD OCT for the analysis of central subfield thickness. Results show that thickening of the macula was slightly higher 1 week and 1 month after operation in comparison with baseline end 2nd day postoperativelly. There was no significant difference in the change of macular thickness in patients who have used topical prostaglandins compared with those who have used other topical medications. Also, there was no difference in macular changes between patients treated with or without mitomycin C. In conclusion, we found a slight subclinical increase in macular thickness after uncomplicated trabeculectomy, for which we considered that was the result in reduction of intraocular pressure after glaucoma surgery. Macular thickening after glaucoma filtering surgery could be a physiological reaction to the stress of the retina caused by a sudden reduction of intraocular pressure and it is the consequence of altered relationship between capillary pressure and interstitial fluid pressure.

  6. CRNL research reactor retrofit Emergency Filtration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of NRX and NRU research reactor effluent air treatment systems before describing the selection and design of an appropriate retrofit Emergency Filtration System (EFS) to serve these reactors and the future MX-10 isotope production reactor. The conceptual design of the EFS began in 1984. A standby concrete shielding filter-adsorber system, sized to serve the reactor with the largest exhaust flow, was selected. The standby system, bypassed under normal operating conditions, is equipped with normal exhaust stream shutoff and diversion valves to be activated manually when an emergency is anticipated, or automatically when emergency levels of gamma radiation are detected in the exhaust stream. The first phase of the EFS installation, that is the construction of the EFS and the connection of NRU to the system, was completed in 1987. The second phase of construction, which includes the connection of NRX and provisions for the future connection of MX-10, is to be completed in 1990

  7. Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P; Stocker, Roman

    2010-08-24

    Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d approximately 0.1 microm) at low velocity (U = 1.6 +/- 0.6 cmxs(-1), mean +/- SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re approximately 10(-3)) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-microm diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 microm (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-microm range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 microm) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean.

  8. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan; Falca, Gheorghe; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Boi, Cristiana; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  9. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  10. Additive Difference Schemes for Filtration Problems in Multilayer Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ayrjan, E A; Pavlush, M; Fedorov, A V

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper difference schemes for solution of the plane filtration problem in multilayer systems are analyzed within the framework of difference schemes general theory. Attention is paid to splitting the schemes on physical processes of filtration along water-carring layers and vertical motion between layers. Some absolutely stable additive difference schemes are obtained the realization of which needs no software modification. Parallel algorithm connected with the solving of the filtration problem in every water-carring layer on a single processor is constructed. Program realization on the multi-processor system SPP2000 at JINR is discussed.

  11. Removal of heavy metals from aluminum anodic oxidation wastewaters by membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Nuray; Uzal, Nigmet

    2018-05-27

    that there were more than three times the flux values in SW30 membrane filtration. Due to the lower heavy metal (<65%) and conductivity (<30%) removal performances of UF membrane, it could be evaluated as pretreatment followed by NF filtration to protect and extend NF membrane life. The water treated by both NF and RO could be recycled back into the process to be reused with economic and environmental benefits.

  12. Electrospun Magnetic Nanoparticle-Decorated Nanofiber Filter and Its Applications to High-Efficiency Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Chan Hong, Seung; Bae, Gwi Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2017-10-17

    Filtration technology has been widely studied due to concerns about exposure to airborne dust, including metal oxide nanoparticles, which cause serious health problems. The aim of these studies has been to develop mechanisms for the continuous and efficient removal of metal oxide dusts. In this study, we introduce a novel air filtration system based on the magnetic attraction force. The filtration system is composed of a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-decorated nanofiber (MNP-NF) filter. Using a simple electrospinning system, we fabricated continuous and smooth electrospun nanofibers with evenly distributed Fe 3 O 4 MNPs. Our electrospun MNP-NF filter exhibited high particle collection efficiency (∼97% at 300 nm particle size) compared to the control filter (w/o MNPs, ∼ 68%), with a ∼ 64% lower pressure drop (∼17 Pa) than the control filter (∼27 Pa). Finally, the filter quality factors of the MNP-NF filter were 4.7 and 11.9 times larger than those of the control filter and the conventional high-efficiency particulate air filters (>99% and ∼269 Pa), respectively. Furthermore, we successfully performed a field test of our MNP-NF filter using dust from a subway station tunnel. This work suggests that our novel MNP-NF filter can be used to facilitate effective protection against hazardous metal oxide dust in real environments.

  13. Research of process of filtration of salt water by bulk filters with the use of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Krikun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purification of process water from impurities at fish processing plants, a large number of filtering devices are currently used, differing in their design parameters (mesh, woven, disco, etc.. However, in practice, these filtering devices are mainly used as the first stage of water treatment, since they can not provide sufficient quality of the filtrate. The most effective, as numerous studies of scientists of our country and the world show, are bulk granular filters. Their main advantages over other devices of similar designation are: they have a simple and reliable design; resistant to aggressive operating conditions; they are capable of effectively purifying seawater from mechanical impurities at relatively low pressure; most economical; have a filtering load capable of a long time to work without regeneration (the approximate service life of a grain-loading is 3 to 5 years etc. In this article, the influence of vibration effects on the filtration of sea water in a designed and fabricated filter unit with bulk granular materials of natural and artificial origin, the design of which is protected by two patents for the utility model. The results of the study are presented, revealing the degree of influence of the intensity of vibration of the perforated partitioning wall on the state of bulk granular materials located on it (segregation by size, stratified vibro-packing, compacting or loosening of a layer of granular material. The dependences of the capacity of the filtration unit on the amplitude, frequency and the vibration intensity factor have been experimentally established, which made it possible to establish rational vibration parameters of the perforated septum, under which the filtering layer becomes denser, the porosity of the loading decreases, and the precipitate does not break into the filtrate.

  14. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  15. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  16. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Membrane filtration technologies have emerged as cost competitive and viable techniques in drinking and industrial water production. Despite advancements in membrane manufacturing and technology, membrane scaling and fouling remain major problems and may limit future growth in the industry. Scaling

  17. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-17

    Nov 17, 2009 ... for water filtration applications, but that further improvements are necessary before these membranes can be ... power supply, and a grounded collector. .... nanofibres so that the pore size increases and bacteria leak through ...

  18. Thermo-resistant filtration fabrics for hot gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbowska, T.

    1992-01-01

    Types and technical and utilizing data of heat resistant filtrating fabrics initiated to production by 'Moratex' and provided for dust extraction of technical gas from various industrial processes have been discussed. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The tentorium separates the supratentorium from the infratentorium (right panel). The skull and meninges protect the brain and spinal cord (left panel). Brain tumors are the second most common ...

  20. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  1. Development of filtration equipment to reuse PFC decontamination wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluorocarbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination

  2. Development of electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuit of the steam generators in nuclear power plants is efficient towards insoluble corrosion products. The principle of electromagnetic filtration is shortly recalled and the results of corresponding development work are summarized. The magnitude of water volumes to be treated on the two priviledged parts of the circuit are estimated. These parts are on the feed water tank level and on the blow-down of the steam generator. The practical applications are discussed [fr

  3. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  4. [Why? How? What for? We must measure the glomerular filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Becerra, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of the glomerular filtration shows the degree of the functional qualities and the proficiency of the renal system. Despite new technologies, at present the best accepted technique for measuring the glomerular filtration in most countries is the clearance of creatinine in 24 hour urine. The clearance of creatinine has the advantage that it is confident, easy to reproduce, without technical limitations and low cost.

  5. [Cerebral protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  6. Filtration of Oil-furnace Carbon Black Dust Particles from the Tail Gases by Filter Bags With PTFE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuzela, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the industrial production of oil furnace carbon black, tail gases containing oil-furnace carbon black dust particles are emitted to the atmosphere. In the carbon black plant, Petrokemija d. d., there are six exhaust stacks for tail gases. Each of them has installed process equipment for cleaning tail gases. Efficiency of cleaning mainly depends on equipment construction and cleaning technology. The vicinity of the town, quality of the air in the region of Kutina, regarding floating particles PM10, and corporate responsibility for further enviromental improvement, imposes development of new methods that will decrease the emmision of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the air. Combining centrifugal percipitator and filter, special construction of cyclofilter for filtration of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles from tail gases by using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter bags, was designed. Developed filtration technique provides η = 99.9 % efficiency of filtration. Construction part of the filter contains the newest generation of PTFE membrane filter bags with the ability of jet pulse cleaning. Using the PTFE membrane filter bags technology, filtration efficiency for oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in tail gases of maximum γ=5mgm-3can be achieved. The filtration efficiency was monitored continuously measuring the concentration of the oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the tail gases with the help of in situ electronic probe. The accomplished filtration technology is the base for the installation of the PTFE membrane filter bags in the main operation filters which will provide better protection of the air in the town of Kutina against floating particles PM10.

  7. Hanford underground storage tank waste filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. Two Hanford waste processing applications have been identified as candidates for the use of cross-flow filtration. The first of the Hanford applications involves filtration of the decanted supernate from sludge leaching and washing operations. This process involves the concentration and removal of dilute (0.05 wt percent) fines from the bulk of the supernate. The second application involves filtration to wash and concentrate the sludge during out-of-tank processing. This process employs a relatively concentrated (8 wt percent) solids feed stream. Filter studies were conducted with simulants to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters and 0.1 micron cross-flow Graver filters can perform solid-liquid separation of the solid/liquid waste streams effectively. In cross-flow filtration the fluid to be filtered flows in parallel to the membrane surface and generates shearing forces and/or turbulence across the filter medium. This shearing influences formation of filter cake stabilizing the filtrate flow rate

  8. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  9. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  10. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Hu, Kai [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Li, Shu-Hong [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: xqzhouqq@tom.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  11. Prediction of the filtrate particle size distribution from the pore size distribution in membrane filtration: Numerical correlations from computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo-Hernández, Norma Alejandra; Hernández-Guerrero, Maribel; Nápoles-Duarte, José Manuel; Palomares-Báez, Juan Pedro; Chávez-Rojo, Marco Antonio

    2018-03-01

    We present a computational model that describes the diffusion of a hard spheres colloidal fluid through a membrane. The membrane matrix is modeled as a series of flat parallel planes with circular pores of different sizes and random spatial distribution. This model was employed to determine how the size distribution of the colloidal filtrate depends on the size distributions of both, the particles in the feed and the pores of the membrane, as well as to describe the filtration kinetics. A Brownian dynamics simulation study considering normal distributions was developed in order to determine empirical correlations between the parameters that characterize these distributions. The model can also be extended to other distributions such as log-normal. This study could, therefore, facilitate the selection of membranes for industrial or scientific filtration processes once the size distribution of the feed is known and the expected characteristics in the filtrate have been defined.

  12. Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h -1 and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (- 70% for attached radon decay products and - 80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h -1 with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+ 300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+ 17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the

  13. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  14. High-Temperature Particulate Matter Filtration with Resilient Yttria-Stabilized ZrO2 Nanofiber Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haolun; Lin, Sen; Yang, Shen; Yang, Xudong; Song, Jianan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Zhenglian; Li, Bo; Fang, Minghao; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant in many regions, jeopardizing ecosystems and public health. Filtration at pollutant source is one of the most important ways to protect the environment, however, considering the high-temperature exhaust gas emissions, effective removal of PM and related pollutants from their sources remains a major challenge. In this study, a resilient, heat-resisting, and high-efficiency PM filter based on yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) nanofiber sponge produced with a scalable solution blow spinning process is reported. The porous 3D sponge composed of YSZ nanofibers is lightweight (density of 20 mg cm -3 ) and resilient at both room temperature and high temperatures. At room-temperature conditions, the YSZ nanofiber sponge exhibits 99.4% filtration efficiency for aerosol particles with size in the range of 20-600 nm, associated with a low pressure drop of only 57 Pa under an airflow velocity of 4.8 cm s -1 . At a high temperature of 750 °C, the ceramic sponge maintains a high filtration efficiency of 99.97% for PM 0.3-2.5 under a high airflow velocity of 10 cm s -1 . A practical vehicle exhaust filter to capture particles with filtration efficiency of >98.3% is also assembled. Hence, the YSZ nanofiber sponge has enormous potential to be applied in industry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. CALCULATION OF LONG-TERM FILTRATION IN A POROUS MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila I. Kuzmina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available he filtration problem in a porous medium is an important part of underground hydromechanics. Filtration of suspensions and colloids determines the processes of strengthening the soil and creating waterproof walls in the ground while building the foundations of buildings and underground structures. It is assumed that the formation of a deposit is dominated by the size-exclusion mechanism of pore blocking: solid particles pass freely through large pores and get stuck at the inlet of pores smaller than the diameter of the particles. A one-dimensional mathematical model for the filtration of a monodisperse suspension includes the equation for the mass balance of suspended and retained particles and the kinetic equation for the growth of the deposit. For the blocking filtration coefficient with a double root, the exact solution is given implicitly. The asymptotics of the filtration problem is constructed for large time. The numerical calculation of the problem is carried out by the finite differences method. It is shown that asymptotic approximations rapidly converge to a solution with the increase of the expansion order.

  16. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  17. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  18. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  19. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  20. Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hasan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Yüksel, Murat; Pastacı, Nural; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2014-12-01

    The present study determined the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on oxidative stress in the brain and liver as well as the element levels in growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age. Thirty-two rats and their offspring were equally divided into three different groups: the control, 900 MHz, and 1800 MHz groups. The 900 MHz and 1800 MHz groups were exposed to EMR for 60 min/d during pregnancy and neonatal development. At the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, brain samples were obtained. Brain and liver glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as liver vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations decreased in the EMR groups, although brain iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations increased in the EMR groups. In the 6th week, selenium concentrations in the brain decreased in the EMR groups. There were no statistically significant differences in glutathione, vitamin E, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc concentrations between the three groups. EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring. Mobile phone-induced EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats.

  1. Evaluation of Small System Filtration Technologies for the Treatment of Color, Disinfection ByProducts and Microbiological Contaminants in Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) evaluated various filtration systems at the EPA T&E Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio and at a field site in Ely, Minnesota (MN) in collaboration with the Minnesota Department of Health...

  2. Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It

  3. The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

    2003-07-01

    The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

  4. C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system's ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF

  5. Landfill Leachate Treatment by Electrocoagulation and Fiber Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runwei; Wang, Boya; Owete, Owete; Dertien, Joe; Lin, Chen; Ahmad, Hafiz; Chen, Gang

    2017-11-01

      Landfilling is widely adopted as one of the most economical processes for solid waste disposal. At the same time, landfill leachate is also a great environmental concern owing to its complex composition and high concentrations of contaminants. This research investigated electrocoagulation and fiber filtration for the treatment of landfill leachate. Besides electrical current (i.e., current density) and reaction time, pH played a very important role in arsenic and phosphorus removal by electrocoagulation. The combination of electrocoagulation with fiber filtration achieved a 94% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 87% arsenic, 96% iron, and 86% phosphorus removal. During electrocoagulation, the micro-particles that could not be settled by gravity were removed by the first stage of fiber filtration. Organic contaminants in the leachate were further removed by biodegradation in the second stage of fiber biofiltration.

  6. Efektifitas Riverbank Filtration Trhadap Parameter Fisik (TDS di Sungai Cihideung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roh Santoso Budi Waspodo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a natural resource that is necessary for the livelihood of many people, even by all living things. Data Ministry of Public Works in 2006 mentions the availability of water in Indonesia amounted to 15,500 cubic meters per capita per year, far higher than the global availability averaged only 600 m3. If drawn, the amount of water covers 21% of Indonesia Pacific Ocean. However, the overflow Indonesia does not necessarily solve the problem of water crisis which is also predicted to fall on two major islands in 2015. The general objective of this research is to develop and implement technological innovations RBF (Riverbank Filtration to support the needs of irrigation water Watershed Cisadane, making RBF (Riverbank Filtration as a natural water treatment in Cisadane River area, and water quality data information through RBF (Riverbank Filtration Cisadane Watershed.

  7. C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

    1994-08-26

    The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system`s ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF.

  8. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...... is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration...

  9. Fusion Kalman filtration with k-step delay sharing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Zdzisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A fusion hierarchical state filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern for a multisensor system is considered. A global state estimate depends on local state estimates determined by local nodes using local information. Local available information consists of local measurements and k−step delay global information - global estimate sent from a central node. Local estimates are transmitted to the central node to be fused. The synthesis of local and global filters is presented. It is shown that a fusion filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern is equivalent to the optimal centralized classical Kalman filtration when local measurements are transmitted to the center node and used to determine a global state estimate. It is proved that the k−step delay sharing pattern can reduce covariances of local state errors.

  10. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  12. Graphite beds for coolant filtration at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heathcock, R.E.; Lacy, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature filtration will be provided for new Ontario Hydro CANDU heat transport systems. Filtration has been shown to effectively reduce the concentration of circulating corrosion products in our heat transport systems, hence, minimizing the processes of activity transport. This paper will present one option we have for this application; Deep Bed Granular Graphite Filters. The filter system is described by discussing pertinent aspects of its development programme. The compatibility of the filter and the heat transport coolant are demonstrated by results from loop tests, both out- and in-reactor, and by subsequent results from a large filter installation in the NPD NGS heat transport system. (author)

  13. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  14. Clinical dehydration and glomerular filtration rate in acute paediatric gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Fossali, Emilio F; Perri, Alessandra; Vettori, Arianna; Grillo, Paolo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate changes in glomerular filtration rate in acute gastroenteritis. The correlation between two clinical diagnostic scales and glomerular filtration rate has been investigated in 113 children with acute gastroenteritis in a paediatric emergency setting. A significant reduction of GFR was found in 10% children less than, and 5% children higher than, 2 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. The differences observed as for risk of renal hypoperfusion suggests to consider the age of children as an important determinant to consider the dehydration status in acute gastroenteritis. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Simulation of impaction filtration of aerosol droplets in porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, Steffen; Winkelmann, Christoph; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a method to simulate from first principles the particle filtration efficiency of filters that are composed of structured porous media. We assume that the ratio of particle density to the fluid density is high. We concentrate on the motion of the particles in a laminar flow and quantify the role of inertial effects on the filtration of an ensemble of particles. We adopt the Euler-Lagrange approach, distinguishing a flow field in which the motion of a large numbe...

  16. Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides by seeded magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Norrell, G.; Hemmings, R.L.; Bradbury, D.; Dunn, M.J.; Kalinauskas, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of traces of heavy metal or radionuclide contamination from solution at high flow rate presents a considerable technical challenge. Low flow methods of treatment such as particle gravity settling require expensive large volume equipment, whereas traditional methods of filtration can cause significant energy costs. Magnetic filtration can be used to provide a low cost method of solid-liquid separation at high flow rate, provided contaminants can be selectively bound to a magnetic solid particle. This paper describes the use of such selective magnetic particles made up of inorganic particles coupled with organic polymers

  17. Horizontal-belt filtration at Randfontein Estates Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendulf, K.A.G.; Everett, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes tests on horizontal-belt filters for the filtration of gold and uranium. The promising results led to the installation of 17 such filters (ten of them 120 m 2 in size) in the mine's metallurgical plants, and their operation is discussed. Although several problems were encountered both in operation and maintenance, it is concluded that, with correct operation and suitable filter cloths, exceptionally good metallurgical recoveries can be achieved at filtration rates twice to three times higher than those on rotary filters [af

  18. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu K Madathil

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI.

  19. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Sindhu K.; Carlson, Shaun W.; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Ye, Ping; D’Ercole, A. Joseph; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal) overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d) hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI. PMID:23826235

  20. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  1. The influence of filtration process on the content of minerals in the functional beverage of adaptogenic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Khasanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of functional nutrition in Russia has been analyzed. The level of diseases associated with the nervous system and brain is actively growing in Russian Federation. World Health Organization (WHO predicted, brain diseases and mental disorders will enter the five diseases leading to disability in 2020 year. The market of non-alcoholic and functional beverages (FB, which can help for solving this health’s problem, is negligible. A functional bevarage with adaptogenic action based on fruit and berry raw materials and dry plant extracts for the prevention of brain diseases, in particular, the limbic system, as well as the nervous system, has been developed. The functional beveragewas examined in scientific work for the content of macro elements and trace elements. The filtration process is necessary to improve the microbiological stability of FB of adaptogenic action and consumer properties. During the experiment, the effects of the filtration process (one of the most important technological process on the content of mineral elements were studied. As the most appropriate and rational type of filtration for the drink, microfiltration was chosen.The filters were selected in accordance with the regimes and requirements characteristic of microfiltration process. The content of macro elements and trace elements was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy using flame atomization on a Shimadzu AA 6300 spectrophotometer, (Japan. The values of the concentration of mineral substances in the functional beverage were compared before and after the microfiltration process. According to the results of measurements, the content of potassium remained unchanged and the content of copper and iron fell by 19.5 and 79.6 percent, respectively. Reducing the concentrations of magnesium, calcium, sodium and manganese are included in the measurement error intervals. The results obtained make it possible to analyze the losses of mineral substances and

  2. Development of filter module for passive filtration and accident gas release confinement system for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelizarov, P.G.; Efanov, A.D.; Martynov, P.N.; Masalov, D.P.; Osipov, V.P.; Yagodkin, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One of the urgent problems of the safe NPP operation is air cleaning from radioactive aerosols and volatile iodine compounds under the accident operation conditions of NPP. A principally new passive accident gas release confinement system is used as the basis of the designs of new generation reactor power blocks under the-beyond-design-basis accident conditions with total loss of current. The basic structural component of the passive filtration system (PFS) is the filter-sorber being heated up to 300 deg. C. The filter-sorber represents a design consisting of 150 connected in parallel two-step filtering modules. The first step is intended to clean air from radioactive aerosols, the second one - to clean air from radioactive iodine and its volatile compounds. The filter-sorber is located in the upper point of the exterior protection shell. Due to natural convection, it provides confinement of r/a impurities and controlled steam-gas release from the inter-shell space into atmosphere. The basic specific design feature is the two-section design of the PFS filter module consisting of a coarse-cleaning section and a fine-cleaning section. A combination of layer-by-layer put filtering materials on the basis of glass fiber and metal fiber. The pilot PFS filter module specimen tests run in conditions modeling accident situation indicated that at a filtration rate of 0,3 cm/s the aerodynamic resistance of the module does not exceed 12 Pa, the filtration effectiveness equals 99,99 % in terms of aerosol, no less than 99,9% in terms of radioactive 131 I and no less than 99,0% in terms of organic compounds of iodine (CH 3 131 I); the dust capacity amounts to a value above 50 g/m 2 . The obtained results of tests comply with the design requirements imposed on the PFS filter-sorber module. (authors)

  3. The effects of water filtration systems on fluoride: Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, M D; Grimm, S E; Banks, K; Henley, G

    2000-01-01

    According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), approximately one in eight Americans is exposed to potentially harmful microbes, pesticides, lead, or radioactive radon whenever they drink a glass of tap water or take a shower. One reason for this exposure is that the water plants are aging or ill equipped to process the huge amounts of raw sewage and agricultural pollutants that are still being discharged into our drinking-water sources. Other compounds such as fluoride and chloride have been added to the community water supplies for health benefits. Water filtration systems are becoming more popular as people become concerned with pollutants in the public water supply and questions are being raised as to whether fluoride is affected by these filters. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of three types of water filtration systems and to determine their impact on fluoride content of the water in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. One sample of water was collected daily for fourteen days, from one location. The sample was divided to use as a control and the test samples which were processed through various filter systems. With the use of a fluoride ion specific electrode, the fluoride concentration level was tested in all samples in order to determine the percentage of fluoride removed. This study was intended to prove that the water filtration systems did not affect the advantage offered by optimum water fluoride levels. The experimental samples were ascertained and compared to the control group, resulting in three of the four carbon filters showing statistically significant amounts of fluoride removed from the water. Both Reverse Osmosis and Distillation, as expected, removed the fluoride at a high rate.

  4. Environmental Technology Verification: Baghouse Filtration Products--TDC Filter Manufacturing, Inc., SB025 Filtration Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. ETV seeks to ach...

  5. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  6. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  7. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  8. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing

  9. Iron behavior in the ozonation and filtration of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallanko, J.; Lakso, E.; Ropelinen, J. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    In Finnish groundwater, the main substances that require treatment are iron and manganese. In addition to this, groundwaters are soft and acidic. Iron removal is usually relatively effective by oxidizing dissolved iron into an insoluble form, either by aeration or chemical oxidation and removing the formed precipitate by sand filtration. Sometimes, if the untreated water contains high amounts of organic matter, problems may arise for iron removal. In Finland, it is quite common that groundwater contains high levels of both iron and natural organic matter, mainly as humic substances. The groundwater of the Kukkala intake plant in Liminka has been found to be problematic, due to its high level of natural organic matter. This research studied the removal of iron from this water by means of oxidation with ozone and filtration. While the oxidation of iron by ozone was rapid, the precipitate particles formed were small, and thus could not be removed by sand and anthracite filtration, and the iron residue in the treated water was more than 2 mg L{sup -1}. And while the filtration was able to remove iron well without the feed of ozone, the iron residue in the treated water was only 0.30 mg L{sup -1}. In this case, iron was led to the filter in a bivalent dissolved form. So, the result of iron removal was the best when the sand/anthracite filter functioned largely as an adsorption filter.

  10. The impact of metallic filter media on HEPA filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris; Kaufman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Traditional HEPA filter systems have limitations that often prevent them from solving many of the filtration problems in the nuclear industry; particularly in applications where long service or storage life, high levels of radioactivity, dangerous decomposition products, chemical aggression, organic solvents, elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance and resistance to moisture are issues. This paper addresses several of these matters of concern by considering the use of metallic filter media to solve HEPA filtration problems ranging from the long term storage of transuranic waste at the WIPP site, spent and damaged fuel assemblies, in glove box ventilation and tank venting to the venting of fumes at elevated temperatures from incinerators, vitrification processes and conversion and sintering furnaces as well as downstream of iodine absorbers in gas cooled reactors in the UK. The paper reviews the basic technology, development, performance characteristics and filtration efficiency, flow versus differential pressure, cleanability and costs of sintered metal fiber in comparison with traditional resin bonded glass fiber filter media and sintered metal powder filter media. Examples of typical filter element and system configurations and applications will be presented The paper will also address the economic case for installing self cleaning pre-filtration, using metallic media, to recover the small volumes of dust that would otherwise blind large volumes of final disposable HEPA filters, thus presenting a route to reduce ultimate disposal volumes and secondary waste streams. (authors)

  11. Successful Treatment Of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using Cascade Filtration Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kardas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C apheresis procedure using the cascade filtration system for pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and to clarify the adverse effects and difficulties. METHODS: LDL apheresis using the cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patients with homozygous FH. In total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed for all patients. RESULTS: Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dl to 145 ± 43 mg/dl (p<0.05. We determined an acute mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (57.9%, LDL cholesterol (70.8%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (40.7%. Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinical adverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%, chills/feeling cold (1.7% in 2 sessions, and nausea and vomiting in 3 sessions (2.5%. CONCLUSION: Our experience with three patients using the cascade filtration system were, good clinical outcomes, laboratory findings, safety of usage, minor adverse effects and technical problems.

  12. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sulfites help limit growth of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, SO2 has been reported to decrease cell size, thereby potentially decreasing the porosities of filtration membranes required for removal. B. bruxellensis strains B1b and F3 were inoculated into red wines and after 12 days, half th...

  13. Polymer aids for settling and filtration of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Section; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Oil sand tailings are segregated into coarse and fine tailings. High volumes of toxic fluids and tailings are created in the process. Tailings ponds are an environmental risk with high operating and maintenance costs. Current commercial technologies uses chemical additions to create recycled water and composite tailings (CT). Researchers are now investigating centrifuged and dry mature fine tailings (MFT). Filtration processes with flocculants are used to separate the tailings into warm recycle water and dried cakes that can be used in reclamation processes. Studies are being conducted to find a polymer than can effectively flocculate and filter whole oil sands tailings. The filtration procedure uses pressure to produce released water. Polymers include magnafloc and Al-PAM polymer concentrations are used in slurry masses. Tests have been conducted to determine the settling rates of the polymers. The tests showed that Al-PAM filtered the tailings effectively. Paraffinic froth treatment tests have also been conducted to determine settling rates. A cake produced with froth treatment tailings of Al-PAM 400 ppm had a water content 42.5 wt per cent. The tests showed that while Magnafloc 1011 is a good settling aid, but a poor filtration addition. Al-PAM aided in both the flocculation and filtration processes. Higher Al-PAM dosages are needed for froth treatment tailings processes. It was concluded that dry cakes are produced with the addition of Al-PAM. tabs., figs.

  14. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  15. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nanofibre microfiltration membranes, spun by an innovative electrospinning technique, in water filtration applications. As such, this study bridges the gap between developments in electrospinning techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of ...

  16. Cross-flow micro-filtration using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thern, Gerardo G.; Marajofsky, Adolfo; Rossi, Federico; La Gamma, Ana M.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D 2 O/H 2 O), activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pre-treated in a train consisting on an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing anionic bed resin. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some of them pass through and could be responsible for the resins fouling. The process of micro filtration using ceramic materials is particularly applied to the treatment of waters with oil micro droplets. We describe the development stages of single and double layer filtration ceramic tubes, their characterization and the adaptation to test equipment. The efficiency was evaluated by means of tangential ('cross-flow') filtration of aqueous solutions containing dodecane at the micrograms per ml concentration level. This compound simulates the properties of a typical oil contaminant. A 100-fold reduction in the amount of dodecane in water was observed after the filtration treatment. (author)

  17. Reduced glomerular filtration rate as a predictor of coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    2016-07-09

    Jul 9, 2016 ... Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit, Zagazig University ... glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and risk of coronary artery disease ... ing of eGFR may have a pivotal role in early detection and management of CAD in those types of ..... position statement from kidney disease improving global out-.

  18. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Study of Ceramic Foam Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laé, E.; Duval, H.; Rivière, C.; Le Brun, P.; Guillot, J.-B.

    Ceramic foam filtration is widely used to enable removal of non metallic inclusions from liquid aluminium. Its performances have been largely studied in the literature and some discrepancies remain amongst the published results. Consequently, a research program was deployed to evaluate the performances of a range of ceramic foam filters used under various conditions and to understand the inclusions capture mechanisms.

  20. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a great interest in new process analytical approaches to increase the process understanding of pharmaceutical unit operations. In the present study, the influence of the solvent composition on the material properties and, further, on the filtration characteristics, of different...

  1. Complexant Identification in Hanford Waste Simulant Sr/TRU Filtrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to characterize the available multidentate ligand species and metal ion complexes of iron, strontium and manganese formed with the parent chelators, complexing agents and their fragment products. Complex identification was applied to AN-102 and AN-107 filtrate simulants for Hanford waste after an oxidation reaction with sodium permanganate to create a freshly precipitated manganese dioxide solid for adsorption of transuranic elements. Separation efficiency of different ligands was investigated based on the exchange capability of different ion exchange and ion exclusion analytical columns including Dionex IonPac AS-5A, AS-10, AS-11 and AS-6. The elution programs developed with different mobile phase concentrations were based on the change in the effective charge of the anionic species and therefore the retention on the stationary phase. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative assessments of multidentate ligands were investigated. Identification methods for the metal ion complexes responsible for solubilizing Fe, Mn and Sr were applied to aged and fresh simulant waste filtrates. Although concentration measurements of both fresh and 3-week aged filtrates showed that the degradation process occurs mainly due to the harsh chemical environment, it was found that the concentration of iron and manganese did not increase, within the error of the analytical measurements, after three weeks when compared with fresh filtrate

  2. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Successful treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia using cascade filtration plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaş, Fatih; Cetin, Aysun; Solmaz, Musa; Büyükoğlan, Rüksan; Kaynar, Leylagül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Eser, Bülent; Unal, Ali

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) apheresisusing a cascade filtration system in pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and toclarify the associated adverse effects and difficulties. LDL-C apheresis using a cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patientswith homozygous FH; in total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed. Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dL to 145 ± 43 mg/dL (p= 0.011). We observed an acute mean reduction in the plasma level of total cholesterol (57.9%), LDL-C (70.8%),and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (40.7%). Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinicaladverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%), chills (1.7%) in 2 sessions, and nausea/vomiting in 3 sessions(2.5%). Our experience using the cascade filtration system with 3 patients included good clinical outcomes andlaboratory findings, safe usage, and minor adverse effects and technical problems. None declared.

  4. Simulation of impaction filtration of aerosol droplets in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, Steffen; Winkelmann, Christoph; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a method to simulate from first principles the particle filtration efficiency of filters that are composed of structured porous media. We assume that the ratio of particle density to the fluid density is high. We concentrate on the motion of the particles in a laminar

  5. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  7. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  8. Filtration effectiveness of HVAC systems at near-roadway schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Ludwig, J F; Brown, S G; Vaughn, D L; Roberts, P T

    2013-06-01

    Concern for the exposure of children attending schools located near busy roadways to toxic, traffic-related air pollutants has raised questions regarding the environmental benefits of advanced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems for near-road pollution. Levels of black carbon and gaseous pollutants were measured at three indoor classroom sites and at seven outdoor monitoring sites at Las Vegas schools. Initial HVAC filtration systems effected a 31-66% reduction in black carbon particle concentrations inside three schools compared with ambient air concentrations. After improved filtration systems were installed, black carbon particle concentrations were reduced by 74-97% inside three classrooms relative to ambient air concentrations. Average black carbon particle concentrations inside the schools with improved filtration systems were lower than typical ambient Las Vegas concentrations by 49-96%. Gaseous pollutants were higher indoors than outdoors. The higher indoor concentrations most likely originated at least partially from indoor sources, which were not targeted as part of this intervention. Recent literature has demonstrated adverse health effects in subjects exposed to ambient air near major roadways. Current smart growth planning and infill development often require that buildings such as schools are built near major roadways. Improving the filtration systems of a school's HVAC system was shown to decrease children's exposure to near-roadway diesel particulate matter. However, reducing exposure to the gas-phase air toxics, which primarily originated from indoor sources, may require multiple filter passes on recirculated air. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  10. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  11. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  12. Stochastic modeling of filtrate alkalinity in water filtration devices: Transport through micro/nano porous clay based ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay and plant materials such as wood are the raw materials used in manufacture of ceramic water filtration devices around the world. A step by step manufacturing procedure which includes initial mixing, molding and sintering is used. The manufactured ceramic filters have numerous pores which help i...

  13. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  14. Expanded uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, A. D.; Malaja, L. D.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, A. V.; Shalaj, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The combined standard uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient has been developed. The laboratory researches were carried out which resulted in filtration coefficient determination and combined uncertainty estimation obtaining.

  15. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  16. Static and dynamic filtrations of different clay, electrolytes, polymer systems; Filtrations statiques et dynamiques de differents systemes argile, electrolytes, polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y

    1996-04-16

    Filtration properties of model drilling fluids composed of water, clays, electrolytes and water soluble polymers have been studied in static and dynamic conditions on paper filters and rock slices. Filtration experiments combined with cake observations by cryo-S.E.M. and T.E.M., show the influence of the size shape of clay particles as well as their associating mode in suspension, on the texture of the cake, its permeability, and relaxation properties. These parameters depend on the nature of the electrolyte. The polymer reduces the cake permeability by enhancing the dispersion of the clay within the suspension, but mainly by plugging the porous network due its auto aggregation properties. The cake construction in dynamic conditions, is related to the state of aggregation of the initial suspension, its poly-dispersity, its sensitivity to shear rates, and also, to the permeability of the cake built at the beginning of the filtration. In all cases, the rate of thickening of the cake is slower and larger filtrate volumes are obtained compared to the static conditions. Shear rate has two effects: first, to dissociate the weak aggregates in suspension, second, to impose a size selection of the particles in the case of a poly-dispersed suspension. At high shear rates, a cake of constant thin thickness is quickly obtained. The thickness of this limiting cake depends on the fraction of small particles present in suspension, or that can be formed by dissociation of weak aggregates under shear rate. The permeability of this limiting cake formed in dynamic conditions is, as in static conditions, controlled by the size and the shape of the particles that form the cake or by the presence of a build loss reducer water soluble polymer. Filtrations carried out on Fontainebleau sandstones allow to visualize the internal cake and to precise the risks of formation damage by the drilling fluid. (author) 127 refs.

  17. Numerical Solutions of Mechanical Turbulent Filtration Equation Used in Mechatronics and Micro Mechanic

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Fathabadi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, several novel numerical solutions are presented to solve the turbulent filtration equation and its special case called “Non-Newtonian mechanical filtration equation”. The turbulent filtration equation in porous media is a very important equation which has many applications to solve the problems appearing especially in mechatronics, micro mechanic and fluid mechanic. Many applied mechanical problems can be solved using this equation. For example, non-Newtonian mechanical filtrat...

  18. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  19. Collimator with compensated filtration: clinical adaptation for recommendation 4f of the EU about the radiation protection in oral dental radiology; Colimador con filtracion compensada: adaptacion clinica para alcanzar la recomendacion 4F de la Union Europea sobre proteccion radiologica al paciente en radiologia odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M; Garcia-Vera, C; Bravo, C La; Morant, J J; Armedo, D Y; Canteras, M

    2006-07-01

    Recent recommendations by the European Union (2004) for performing lateral cranial cephalometry (LCC) state that collimation should be maximized so that only those tissues necessary are irradiated when performing clinical diagnoses, although the fact that many manufacturers do not incorporate these elements in their equipment design has been recognised (recommendations 4f). Aim: the manufacture and utilization of a collimator with a pre-patient compensating filter for LLC which may be used in most extraoraldental radiology units, as well as determining the reduction in the dose of radiation absorbed by more sensitive tissues exposed to said clinical exploration. Making use of mannequins, phantom and craniums, we constructed a collimator with a compensating filter and established the necessary technical, dosimetric and quality specifications for its clinical use. Subsequently, we studied 16 patients referred for cephalometric study, determining the radiation dose (TLDs) in both the patients (crystalline lens, frontal lobe, parotid/submaxillary/thyroid glands and brain) and in the radiographic film, as well as in different parts of the collimator/filter. Al presented we are aiming for its clinical use by carrying out LCC in another 16 patients referred of orthodontic treatment but with the pre-a patient introduction of the tested collimator with the compensating filter as a substitute for the usual technique. The collimation reduced the field or radiation by some 40% and with that, so too the radiated tissues. The compensating filter reduced the dose in tissues by some 34.2. Our collimator has allowed the radiological image to be obtained with only one third the usual radiation dose. The dose reaching the film shies only between 17% less than in the usual technique and didn't alter its diagnostic capacity. A reduction of 61,6% of the dose administered to the patient is achieved by incorporating the collimator and filter to most radiological equipment without the need

  20. Collimator with compensated filtration: clinical adaptation for recommendation 4f of the EU about the radiation protection in oral dental radiology; Colimador con filtracion compensada: adaptacion clinica para alcanzar la recomendacion 4F de la Union Europea sobre proteccion radiologica al paciente en radiologia odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Garcia-Vera, C.; Bravo, C. La; Morant, J. J.; Armedo, D. Y.; Canteras, M.

    2006-07-01

    Recent recommendations by the European Union (2004) for performing lateral cranial cephalometry (LCC) state that collimation should be maximized so that only those tissues necessary are irradiated when performing clinical diagnoses, although the fact that many manufacturers do not incorporate these elements in their equipment design has been recognised (recommendations 4f). Aim: the manufacture and utilization of a collimator with a pre-patient compensating filter for LLC which may be used in most extraoraldental radiology units, as well as determining the reduction in the dose of radiation absorbed by more sensitive tissues exposed to said clinical exploration. Making use of mannequins, phantom and craniums, we constructed a collimator with a compensating filter and established the necessary technical, dosimetric and quality specifications for its clinical use. Subsequently, we studied 16 patients referred for cephalometric study, determining the radiation dose (TLDs) in both the patients (crystalline lens, frontal lobe, parotid/submaxillary/thyroid glands and brain) and in the radiographic film, as well as in different parts of the collimator/filter. Al presented we are aiming for its clinical use by carrying out LCC in another 16 patients referred of orthodontic treatment but with the pre-a patient introduction of the tested collimator with the compensating filter as a substitute for the usual technique. The collimation reduced the field or radiation by some 40% and with that, so too the radiated tissues. The compensating filter reduced the dose in tissues by some 34.2. Our collimator has allowed the radiological image to be obtained with only one third the usual radiation dose. The dose reaching the film shies only between 17% less than in the usual technique and didn't alter its diagnostic capacity. A reduction of 61,6% of the dose administered to the patient is achieved by incorporating the collimator and filter to most radiological equipment without the

  1. Brain injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of

  2. Facilitating community water supply treatment : from transferring filtration technology to multi-stakeholder learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    For more than a quarter of a century, IRC has been supporting the development of Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) and more recently, together with CINARA, the pioneering of Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) - a combination of Gravel Filtration and SSF that has been shown to have great potential as an effective

  3. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power... Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1280, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and...

  4. 76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Filtration and Adsorption Units AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Postaccident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup... testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of engineered-safety-feature (ESF) atmosphere...

  5. MATHEMATIC MODEL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FILTRATION PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGICAL LIQUID AND GAS

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Мouradova

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration as a perspective method of filtration and purification of liquid and gas finds its wide application in oil and chemical industry. However absence of highly-reliable model of calculation that permits unambiguously main operational parameters of electromagnetic filtration and limits its wide application. 

  6. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and ...

  7. Tangential filtration technologies membrane and applications for the industry agribusiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Gian Paolo; Russo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The membrane tangential filtration technologies are separation techniques based on the use of semipermeable filters through which, under a pushing force, it is possible to achieve separation of components or suspended in solution as a function of their dimensional characteristics and / or chemical-physical. At the laboratories of the ENEA Research Center Casaccia, as part of the program activities of the Biotechnology and agro-industry division, were studied and developed various filtration processes to membrane in the food industry. The problems have been studied by following a vision sustainable overall, always trying to pair the purification treatment to that of recovery and reuse of water and high value-added components. Ultimate goal of the research conducted is to close the production circuit, ensuring a discharge cycle zero and turning in fact a so-called spread in first, from which to obtain new products. [it

  8. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  9. Cast Steel Filtration Trials Using Ceramic-Carbon Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipowska B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials of cast steel filtration using two types of newly-developed foam filters in which carbon was the phase binding ceramic particles have been conducted. In one of the filters the source of carbon was flake graphite and coal-tar pitch, while in the other one graphite was replaced by a cheaper carbon precursor. The newly-developed filters are fired at 1000°C, i.e. at a much lower temperature than the currently applied ZrO2-based filters. During filtration trials the filters were subjected to the attack of a flowing metal stream having a temperature of 1650°C for 30 seconds.

  10. Controlling inclusions through filtration in investment casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Marshall, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    A technique for the placement of a ceramic foam filter in the feeding up of investment mould was developed which proved quite efficient in removing smaller and major inclusions through various filtration modes. Contaminated old aluminum scrap was used to prepare the melt without the addition of any cleansing and covering fluxes and the main reason was to produce more and more inclusions. Vigorous stirring was also intentionally carried out to form as much oxides as possible. During present research work effective filtration was observed. No leakage through sides of the filter occurred and similarly no choking was seen during feeding of molten metal. Microstructural studies showed the maximum retention of inclusions not only on the surface of filters but also within the various channels of the main body of the filter. The microstructures taken from the filtered test pieces were free from inclusions, which showed the effectiveness and proper placement of the filter. (author)

  11. Contaminated fluid filtration plant using pneumatically renewable granulated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.-C.; Messirejean, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for the filtration of a contaminated fluid flow using a granulated material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the contaminants. This plant includes a filtration box within which there is at least one appreciably vertical filtering bed filled with the material and crossed by the fluid flow, loading and discharge compartments respectively located at the top and bottom of the box, each in communication with the filtering bed and an air-actuated transfer system for loading and discharging this bed through these compartments. Facilities of this kind are used mainly in the nuclear and chemical engineering industries to rid their waste of radio-iodines, generally constituted by elementary iodine and methyl iodide, or of toxic gases that contaminate them. The granulated material, whose job it is to trap these contaminants by adsorption or absorption, is generally composed of active carbon or zeolites whose utilisation time is limited [fr

  12. Filtration of droplets in the nose of the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, C N

    1946-01-01

    Optical measurement was done on oil cloud sedimentation before and after passing through nose and out tracheal cannula. The filtering unit which also provides most resistance to flow is maximal turbinates. Nasal cavity is more complex than in man or some other animals, so filtration may be different. Calculation of particle inertia and filter channel width shows that particles > 7 ..mu..m would impact on curves or projections. Particles less than 1.5 ..mu..m should penetrate freely, but low molecular weight gases would be caught by diffusion. The higher the flow, the better the filtration (inertial settling). Broadly summarizing, at ordinary flow rates and nasal resistances, essentially all drops > 7 ..mu..m will be removed. About 50% of 3-..mu.. drops will be removed. < 1.5-..mu..m drops will penetrate.

  13. The use of an air filtration system in podiatry clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, Nichola; Burrow, Gordon; Maclaren, William; Aidoo, Kofi; Hepher, Mike

    2003-06-01

    A small-scale study was conducted to ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of an air filtration system for use in podiatry/chiropody clinics (Electromedia Model 35F (A), Clean Air Ltd, Scotland, UK). Three clinics were identified, enabling comparison of data between podiatry clinics in the West of Scotland. The sampling was conducted using a portable Surface Air Sampler (Cherwell Laboratories, Bicester, UK). Samples were taken on two days at three different times before and after installation of the filtration units. The global results of the study indicate the filter has a statistically significant effect on microbial counts, with an average percentage decrease of 65%. This study is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, such a system has been tested within podiatric practice.

  14. Formation of siliceous sediments in brandy after diatomite filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2015-03-01

    Brandy is quite a stable spirit but sometimes light sediment appears. This sediment was separated and analysed by IR and SEM-EDX. It was revealed that the sediment is composed mostly of silica and residual organic matter. Silica was present as an amorphous phase and as microparticles. In an attempt to reproduce the formation of the sediment, a diatomite extract was prepared with an ethanol/water mixture (36% vol.) and a calcined diatomite similar to that used in brandy filtration. This extract was added to unfiltered brandy in different amounts. After 1 month, the Si concentration decreased in all samples and sediments with similar compositions and features to those found in the unstable brandy appeared. The amounts of sediment obtained were directly related to the decrease in Si concentration in solution. Consequently, it can be concluded that siliceous sediment in brandy originates from Si released during diatomite filtration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A study on the mechanism by which MDMA protects against dopaminergic dysfunction after minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edut, S; Rubovitch, V; Rehavi, M; Schreiber, S; Pick, C G

    2014-12-01

    Driving under methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) influence increases the risk of being involved in a car accident, which in turn can lead to traumatic brain injury. The behavioral deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely connected to dopamine pathway dysregulation. We have previously demonstrated in mice that low MDMA doses prior to mTBI can lead to better performances in cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to assess in mice the changes in the dopamine system that occurs after both MDMA and minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Experimental mTBI was induced using a concussive head trauma device. One hour before injury, animals were subjected to MDMA. Administration of MDMA before injury normalized the alterations in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels that were observed in mTBI mice. This normalization was also able to lower the elevated dopamine receptor type 2 (D2) levels observed after mTBI. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels did not change following injury alone, but in mice subjected to MDMA and mTBI, significant elevations were observed. In the behavioral tests, haloperidol reversed the neuroprotection seen when MDMA was administered prior to injury. Altered catecholamine synthesis and high D2 receptor levels contribute to cognitive dysfunction, and strategies to normalize TH signaling and D2 levels may provide relief for the deficits observed after injury. Pretreatment with MDMA kept TH and D2 receptor at normal levels, allowing regular dopamine system activity. While the beneficial effect we observe was due to a dangerous recreational drug, understanding the alterations in dopamine and the mechanism of dysfunction at a cellular level can lead to legal therapies and potential candidates for clinical use.

  16. The protective effect of different airway humidification liquids to lung after tracheotomy in traumatic brain injury: The role of pulmonary surfactant protein-A (SP-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xinyang; Li, Zefu; Wang, Meilin; Li, Zhenzhu; Wang, Qingbo; Lu, Wenxian; Li, Xiaoli; Zhou, Youfei; Xu, Hongmei

    2016-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to establish a rat model of a brain injury with tracheotomy and compared the wetting effects of different airway humidification liquids, afterward, the best airway humidification liquid was selected for the clinical trial, thus providing a theoretical basis for selecting a proper airway humidification liquid in a clinical setting. Rats were divided into a sham group, group A (0.9% NaCl), group B (0.45% NaCl), group C (0.9% NaCl+ambroxol) and group D (0.9% NaCl+Pulmicort). An established rat model of traumatic brain injury with tracheotomy was used. Brain tissue samples were taken to determine water content, while lung tissue samples were taken to determine wet/dry weight ratio (W/D), histological changes and expression levels of SP-A mRNA and SP-A protein. 30 patients with brain injury and tracheotomy were selected and divided into two groups based on the airway humidification liquid instilled in the trachea tube, 0.45% NaCl and 0.9% NaCl+ambroxol. Blood was then extracted from the patients to measure the levels of SP-A, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The difference between group C and other groups in lung W/D and expression levels of SP-A mRNA and SP-A protein was significant (Phumidification liquid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  18. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  19. Particle clogging in porous media. Filtration of a smectite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias (Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The goal of this project is to find out if it is possible for bentonite clay to self heal during leaching with deionized water. The investigation has focused on the formation of a filter cake made of accessory material from MX 80 and the separation of solid material when a smectite solution (1%) is pushed through the cake using a pressure difference of 5 bar. It was also in the scope of this project to design and build the necessary equipment for these experiments. In the literature review it was not found any example that the phenomenon of clogging has been used as a self-healing method previously. It was rather separated also between the clogging of a filter cake (deep bed filtration or cake filtration) and the filtration of colloidal particles. Probably because the latter are in such low concentrations in natural systems and the focus have mainly been in the transport properties of colloids within a filter cake or deep bed filter. An experimental equipment was designed and built. It consists of seven filtration cells that could operate in parallel. All of them are connected to the same source of pressure to ensure equal conditions. A system was also prepared to prevent air from dissolving in the solution because it could create an unwanted expansion in the filter cake due to lower solubility at lower pressure. The experiment showed good separation of smectite particles from the solution when it passed through the filter cake. In all tested cases, the separation was almost complete after long enough time, indicating that the cake has small enough pores to act as a geometrical hinder for the small particles. Comparison between the materials prepared at Chalmers University of Technology and at Clay Technology showed a very good agreement indicating similar properties of the produced smectite

  20. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (1) - flucculant dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    During the past four decades, the radioactive slurry liquid waste(RSLW) is produced by operation of TRIGA Mark - II and III research reactors, producing radioisotopes and studying on RI utilization. Vacuum filtration of RSLW and flocculated RSLW with cationic, anionic and nonionic flocculants has been investigated. Test results show that critical dose of flocculant is obtained by the estimation of settling rate, cake moisture content and specific cake residence

  1. Cu filtration for dose reduction in neonatal chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smans, K.; Struelens, L.; Smet, M.; Bosmans, H.; Vanhavere, F.

    2010-01-01

    As neonatal chest images are frequently acquired to investigate the life-threatening lung diseases in prematurely born children, their optimisation in terms of X-ray exposure is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such dose-optimisation studies could be performed using a Monte Carlo computer model. More specifically, a Monte Carlo computer model was used to investigate the influence of Cu filtration on image quality and dose in neonatal chest imaging. Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the MCNPX code and used with voxel models representing prematurely born babies (590 and 1910 g). Physical image quality was derived from simulated images in terms of the signal difference-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To verify the simulation results, measurements were performed using the Gammex 610 Neonatal Chest Phantom, which represents a 1-2 kg neonate. A figure of merit was used to assist in evaluating the optimum balance between the image quality and the patient dose. The results show that the Monte Carlo computer model to investigate dose and image quality works well and can be used in dose-optimisation studies for real clinical practices. Furthermore, working at a specific constant incident air kerma (K a,I ), additional filtration proved to increase SNR with 30%, whereas working at a specific constant detector dose, extra Cu filtration reduces the lung dose with 25%. Optimum balance between patient dose and image quality is found to be 60 kVp (using extra filtration). (authors)

  2. Plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal filtration techniques in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga Ruiz, D; Fonseca San Miguel, F; González de Molina, F J; Úbeda-Iglesias, A; Navas Pérez, A; Jannone Forés, R

    2017-04-01

    Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal technique that eliminates macromolecules involved in pathological processes from plasma. A review is made of the technical aspects, main indications in critical care and potential complications of plasmapheresis, as well as of other extracorporeal filtration techniques such as endotoxin-removal columns and other devices designed to eliminate cytokines or modulate the inflammatory immune response in critical patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Particulate Air-Filtration Media: Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    larger and more efficient filter designs similar to those being considered for future integrated respirator/helmet systems. To avoid eliminating ...including nonwoven, woven, and electret and combinations of media. Some of the manufacturers identified themselves as specializing in biofiltration or...Three Millipore products were identified. The 0.2 µm hydrophobic Aervent PTFE membrane62 is used for the sterile filtration of gases . Aerex

  4. Hazard categorization of K Basin water filtration upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document provides the hazards categorization for the K Basin Water Filtration Upgrade Project at K East. All activities associated with the project are less than Hazard Category 3, except for the handling of the ECO-ROK liners containing spent filter cartridges. All activities involving the handling of liners, containing spent cartridges, by monorail, forklift or mobile crane are classified as Hazard Category 3

  5. Particle clogging in porous media. Filtration of a smectite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find out if it is possible for bentonite clay to self heal during leaching with deionized water. The investigation has focused on the formation of a filter cake made of accessory material from MX 80 and the separation of solid material when a smectite solution (1%) is pushed through the cake using a pressure difference of 5 bar. It was also in the scope of this project to design and build the necessary equipment for these experiments. In the literature review it was not found any example that the phenomenon of clogging has been used as a self-healing method previously. It was rather separated also between the clogging of a filter cake (deep bed filtration or cake filtration) and the filtration of colloidal particles. Probably because the latter are in such low concentrations in natural systems and the focus have mainly been in the transport properties of colloids within a filter cake or deep bed filter. An experimental equipment was designed and built. It consists of seven filtration cells that could operate in parallel. All of them are connected to the same source of pressure to ensure equal conditions. A system was also prepared to prevent air from dissolving in the solution because it could create an unwanted expansion in the filter cake due to lower solubility at lower pressure. The experiment showed good separation of smectite particles from the solution when it passed through the filter cake. In all tested cases, the separation was almost complete after long enough time, indicating that the cake has small enough pores to act as a geometrical hinder for the small particles. Comparison between the materials prepared at Chalmers University of Technology and at Clay Technology showed a very good agreement indicating similar properties of the produced smectite

  6. Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nik N. Nik Daud; Nur H. Izehar; B. Yusuf; Thamer A. Mohamed; A. Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using two aeration methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii) to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in removing iron an...

  7. Modeling Manganese Sorption and Surface Oxidation During Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Bierlein, Kevin Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Soluble manganese (Mn) is a common contaminant in drinking water sources. High levels of Mn can lead to aesthetic water quality problems, necessitating removal of Mn during treatment to minimize consumer complaints. Mn may be removed during granular media filtration by the â natural greensand effect,â in which soluble Mn adsorbs to manganese oxide-coated (MnOx(s)) media and is then oxidized by chlorine, forming more manganese oxide. This research builds on a previous model developed by Mer...

  8. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  9. Are vacuum-filtrated reduced graphene oxide membranes symmetric?

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo

    2015-12-02

    Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes’ physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes.

  10. Corrosion-product filtration in PWRs: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-04-01

    As part of a programme on the optimization of pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary side water treatment, laboratory-scale studies on filtration of the feedwater using materials having chemically active adsorbing surfaces were carried out. Graphite, zirconia and titania were identified, from a review of existing literature, as suitable filtration media, the last two because of their ion-exchange capability. The efficiency of filters packed with granular graphite for filtration of simulated feed train corrosion products and the pressure drop across the filters were determined as functions of filter dimensions and operating parameters at room temperature. A rough sizing of a full-flow feedwater filter using granular graphite was done on the basis of observations from the room temperature tests. Further studies are suggested at low concentrations of the corrosion product and at high temperature typical of steam generator feedwater after the high pressure heaters to derive realistic design parameters for a filter for installation in the PWR secondary circuit. Zirconia was produced in the form of spherical particles using a sol-gel process. The zirconia behaved as an anion exchanger at low pH and as a cation exchanger at high pH. Its suitability for purification of water at high temperature should be determined by futher studies. 30 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Centrifugal Filtration System for Severe Accident Source Term Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu Chang; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual design of a filtration system that can be used to process airborne severe accident source term. Reactor containment may lose its structural integrity due to over-pressurization during a severe accident. This can lead to uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment. For preventing the dispersion of these uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment, several ways to capture or mitigate these radioactive source term releases are under investigation at KAIST. Such technologies are based on concepts like a vortex-like air curtain, a chemical spray, and a suction arm. Treatment of the radioactive material captured by these systems would be required, before releasing to environment. For current filtration systems in the nuclear industry, IAEA lists sand, multi-venturi scrubber, high efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA), charcoal and combinations of the above in NS-G-1-10, 4.143. Most if not all of the requirements of the scenario for applying this technology near the containment of an NPP site and the environmental constraints were analyzed for use in the design of the centrifuge filtration system.

  12. Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Kuno, Yoshio; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-07-01

    Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite was investigated. Na-type bentonite containing 30wt% of quartz sand was compacted in a column and the dry density was adjusted to be 1.6 g/cm 3 . Polyacrylic acid solution (including three types of polyacrylic acid, average molecular weight 2,100, 15,000 and 450,000) was prepared and was passed through the compacted bentonite. Molecular weight distributions of polyacrylic acid in the effluent solution were analysed by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). A batch type experiment was also carried out in order to examine a sorption behavior of these organic substances onto the surfaces of grains of the bentonite. The results indicated that the smaller size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight < 100,000) was passed through the compacted bentonite. On the other hand, the larger size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight ≥100,000) was mostly filtrated by the compacted bentonite. The batch type sorption tests clarified that the polyacrylic acid did not sorb onto the surfaces of minerals constituting the bentonite. Therefore it was suggested that the larger size molecules (≥100,000) of organic substances could be predominantly filtrated by the microstructure of the compacted bentonite. (author)

  13. Are vacuum-filtrated reduced graphene oxide membranes symmetric?

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Wu, Jinbo; Hedhili, Mohamed Neijib; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes’ physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes.

  14. Experience with high-temperature filtration of incinerator flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; de Tassigny, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is always preferable to filter incinerator flue gases as close as possible to their origin, i.e. in a high-temperature zone, and means must be provided to destroy the other organic parts of the flyash resulting from these gases by in-filter combustion. The filter also traps a mineral part of the flyash, which eventually causes clogging and requires replacement or regeneration. Such filtration systems are available and can be operated on an industrial scale. They include candles made of micro-expanded refractory alloys supporting filtering media, porous ceramic candles and other devices. Research and subsequent pilot facility testing have enabled development of alumina fiber filter cartridges that offer more advantages than other equipment employed to date. Specifically, these advantages are: ultralight weight, which enables construction of systems that are relatively unaffected by creep and high-temperature deformations; excellent refractory qualities, which permit a use above 1000 degrees C; insensitivity to thermal shocks and in-situ carbon fines combustion capability; anti-acid quality of the material, which enables high-temperature filtration of acidic flue gases (chlorine and hydrochloric acid, SO x , etc.); low initial pressure drop of the cartridges; dimensional stability of the cartridges, which can be machined to a given tolerance with specific contours after casting and drying. This paper reports the results obtained during the last filtration system test campaign. Details are given for operating conditions, grain sizes and real-time monitoring of various parameters

  15. Improvement of municipal wastewater pretreatment by direct membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago A; Mejía, Fanny R; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Peña Miranda, Mar

    2017-10-01

    The high content of particulate matter in municipal wastewater hinders the conventional anaerobic treatments at psychrophilic temperatures. The hydrolysis of the particulate chemical oxygen demand (pCOD) could be the limiting step under these conditions. Therefore, new pretreatments or improved conventional pretreatments are needed in order to separate pCOD. In this work, direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater, using an ultrafiltration membrane, was investigated. This intensive pretreatment, which aims to separate soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and to concentrate pCOD, together with anaerobic treatments of both streams at psychrophilic and mesophilic conditions respectively, could be an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process. The obtained results show a removal yield of 24.9% of the total solids (TS) and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), obtaining a permeate free of suspended solids. This physical removal implies the accumulation of solids inside the membrane tank, reaching the values of 45.4 and 4.4 g/L of TS in the sedimentation and filtration sections, respectively. The membrane operated with filtration, backwashing cycles and continuous gas sparging, with a permeate flux predominantly around 10 L/(m 2  h). The results show the viability of the technology to concentrate pCOD and so to improve energy recovery from municipal wastewater.

  16. Active osmotic exchanger for advanced filtration at the nano scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    One of the main functions of the kidney is to remove the waste products of an organism, mostly by excreting concentrated urea while reabsorbing water and other molecules. The human kidney is capable of recycling about 200 liters of water per day, at the relatively low cost of 0.5 kJ/L (standard dialysis requiring at least 150 kJ/L). Kidneys are constituted of millions of parallel filtration networks called nephrons. The nephrons of all mammalian kidneys present a specific loop geometry, the Loop of Henle, that is believed to play a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. One limb of the loop is permeable to water and the other contains sodium pumps that exchange with a common interstitium. In this work, we take inspiration from this osmotic exchanger design to propose new nanofiltration principles. We first establish simple analytical results to derive general operating principles, based on coupled water permeable pores and osmotic pumps. The best filtration geometry, in terms of power required for a given water recycling ratio, is comparable in many ways to the mammalian nephron. It is not only more efficient than traditional reverse osmosis systems, but can also work at much smaller pressures (of the order of the blood pressure, 0.13 bar, as compared to more than 30 bars for pressure-retarded osmosis systems). We anticipate that our proof of principle will be a starting point for the development of new filtration systems relying on the active osmotic exchanger principle.

  17. Evaluation of multistage filtration to reduce sand filter exhaust activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Air from the Savannah River Plant Fuel Reprocessing facilities is filtered through deep bed sand filters consisting of 8 1 / 2 feet of gravel and sand. These filters have performed satisfactorily for the past 18 years in maintaining radioactive release levels to a minimum. The apparent filter efficiency has been determined for many years by measurements of the quantity of radioactivity in the air stream before and after the filter. Such tests have indicated efficiencies of 99.9 percent or better. Even with sand filter efficiency approaching a single stage HEPA filter, new emphasis on further reduction in release of plutonium activity to the environment prompted a study to determine what value backup HEPA filtration could provide. To evaluate the specific effect additional HEPA filtration would have on the removal of Pu from the existing sand filter exhaust stream, a test was conducted by passing a sidestream of sand-filtered air through a standard 24 x 24 x 11 1 / 2 in. HEPA filter. Isokinetic air samples were withdrawn upstream and downstream of the HEPA filter and counted for alpha activity. Efficiency calculations indicated that backup HEPA filtration could be expected to provide an additional 99 percent removal of the Pu activity from the present sand-filter exhaust. (U.S.)

  18. Organic iodide capture using a zeolite dry filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanggil; Sung, Joonyoung; Kim, Gi-ppeum; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2017-01-01

    An organic iodide, especially, methyl iodide (CH 3 I) would generated non-negligibly from a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. This CH 3 I will be dangerous for human when it was inhaled, it is highly toxic and causes a serious nerve disorder. Even it is a major contributor to a thyroid cancer. In order to prevent its environmental release, it is required to decontaminate using a filtration system. For the removal of CH 3 I from the release gases, wet-type is not ideal due to a high re-volatile characteristics of CH 3 I. It may become volatile after dissolving in a pool and forms CH 3 I again at the surface of water pool. Therefore, a dry-filtration should be installed to remove the CH 3 I. In this study, we preliminary investigate the characteristics of zeolite filtration methods for the removal of CH 3 I. We used both silver ion exchanged ZSM-5-zeolite (Ag+-ZSM-5) to study the effect of silver ion for the removal of iodine from CH 3 I. In summary, the CH 3 I capture tests using a silver ion exchanged zeolite was conducted in the coupled TGAGC test set-up. The mass change of the sample and concentration of CH 3 I were measured. The samples were investigated by the SEM/EDS to see its surface characteristics.

  19. Non-filtration method of processing uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Vodolazov, L.I.; Tokarev, N.N.; Vyalkov, V.I.; Goldobina, V.A.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the non-filtration sorption method has lead to procedures of the sorption leaching and the extraction desorption, which have made it possible to intensify the processing of uranium ores and to improve greatly the technical and economic indexes by eliminating the complex method of multiple filtration and re-pulping of cakes. This method makes it possible to involve more poor uranium raw materials, at the same time extracting valuable components such as molybdenum, vanadium, copper, etc. Considerable industrial experience has been acquired in the sorption of dense pulp with a solid-to-liquid phase ratio of 1:1. This has led to a plant production increase of 1.5-3.0 times, an increase of uranium extraction by 5-10%, a two- to- three-fold increase of labour capacity of the main workers, and to a several-fold decrease of reagents, auxiliary materials, electric energy and vapour. This non-filtration method is a continuous process in all its phases thanks to the use of high-yield and high-power equipment for high-density pulps. (author)

  20. Field Demonstration of Fuel Crud Filtration System at Ulchin Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Duk-Won; Lee, Doo-Ho; Park, Jong-Youl; Choi, In-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Crud deposited onto the fuel assemblies in nuclear power plants was not a serious problem until an upper core flux depression named Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) was found at Callaway, USA in 1989. Though the mechanism of an AOA is not completely understood, crud is believed to be a key component of initiating AOA. After the sufficient amount of corrosion products in the reactor cooling system are deposited on the fuel clad by a sub-cooled nucleate boiling, boron is adsorbed in the crud. Thus a measurable reduction in the neutron flux occurs which causes an AOA problem. A filtration system has been developed to remove the fuel crud from irradiated fuel assemblies for mitigating the axial offset anomaly under a technical cooperation agreement with DEI (Dominion Engineering Inc.). This filtration system with a fuel cleaning fixture was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant unit 2. Within several minutes, detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also, to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device and radiation monitor devices were connected to the filtration system during the cleaning operation. In this study, we completed a functional test and demonstration of an ultrasonic fuel cleaning system by using four spent fuel assemblies. It took only 5 minutes to remove the fuel crud from each fuel assembly. In addition, collective dose rates indicated an average of 8 R/Hr per assembly

  1. Ultra-filtration measurement using CT imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junfeng; Lu Wenqiang

    2009-01-01

    As a functional unit in the hemodialysis process, dialyzer captured quite a few medical research interests since 1980s. In the design of dialyzer or in the ongoing hemodialysis process, to estimate the ultra-filtration amount of a dialyzer, the sideway loss of the running blood flow through hollow fibers or filtration channels should be measured. This further leads to the measurement of the blood flow inside the dialyzer. For this measurement, a non-invasive method is highly desired because of the high-dense bundled hollow fibers or packed channels inside the dialyzer. As non-invasive measurement tools, CT (Computed Tomography) technologies were widely used for tissue, bone, and cancerous clinical analyses etc .... Thus, in this paper, a CT system is adopted to predict the blood flow inside a hollow fiber dialyzer. In view of symmetric property of the hollow fiber dialyzer, the largest cutting plane that parallels to the cylindrical dialyzer was analyzed by the CT system dynamically. And then, a noninvasive image analysis method used to predict the ultra-filtration amount is proposed.

  2. Simple method for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, T [Group for Biomedical Informatics, Uppsala Univ. Data Center, Uppsala (Sweden); Tengstroem, B [District General Hospital, Skoevde (Sweden)

    1977-02-01

    A simple method is presented for indirect estimation of the glomerular filtration rate from two venous blood samples, drawn after a single injection of a small dose of (/sup 125/I)sodium iothalamate (10 ..mu..Ci). The method does not require exact dosage, as the first sample, taken after a few minutes (t=5 min) after injection, is used to normilize the value of the second sample, which should be taken in between 2 to 4 h after injection. The glomerular filtration rate, as measured by standard insulin clearance, may then be predicted from the logarithm of the normalized value and linear regression formulas with a standard error of estimate of the order of 1 to 2 ml/min/1.73 m/sup 2/. The slope-intercept method for direct estimation of glomerular filtration rate is also evaluated and found to significantly underestimate standard insulin clearance. The normalized 'single-point' method is concluded to be superior to the slope-intercept method and more sophisticated methods using curve fitting technique, with regard to predictive force and clinical applicability.

  3. Modeling the filtration ability of stockpiled filtering facepiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Dana R.

    2016-03-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) are often stockpiled for use during public health emergencies such as an infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. While many stockpile administrators are aware of shelf life limitations, environmental conditions can lead to premature degradation. Filtration performance of a set of FFR retrieved from a storage room with failed environmental controls was measured. Though within the expected shelf life, the filtration ability of several respirators was degraded, allowing twice the penetration of fresh samples. The traditional picture of small particle capture by fibrous filter media qualitatively separates the effect of inertial impaction, interception from the streamline, diffusion, settling, and electrostatic attraction. Most of these mechanisms depend upon stable conformational properties. However, common FFR rely on electrets to achieve their high performance, and over time heat and humidity can cause the electrostatic media to degrade. An extension of the Langevin model with correlations to classical filtration concepts will be presented. The new computational model will be used to predict the change in filter effectiveness as the filter media changes with time.

  4. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2016-01-01

    struggling to their fundamental limit, therefore the membrane filtration technology turns to be a potential candidate for zero pollutant discharge. Membrane filtration technology suffers from the notorious fouling problem, where many methods for fouling prevention and removal are explored, the general idea...... is to guarantee that a relatively high permeability can be kept during filtration. Another crucial issue using membrane filtration technology is its huge energy consumption, for which there is little research has been done so far to systematically investigate and optimize the filtration system’s energy efficiency...

  5. Uptake of wheel-filtration among clients of a supervised injecting facility: Can structured education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Maureen; Silins, Edmund; Flaherty, Ian; Hiley, Sarah; van Breda, Nick; Jauncey, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Wheel-filtration of pharmaceutical opioid tablets is a recognised harm reduction strategy, but uptake of the practice among people who inject drugs is low. The study aimed to: (i) examine perceptions of filtration practices; (ii) provide structured education on wheel-filtration; and (iii) assess uptake of the practice. Frequent opioid tablet injectors (n = 30) attending a supervised injecting facility in Sydney, Australia, received hands-on instruction on wheel-filtration based on recommended practice. Pre-education, post-education and follow-up questionnaires were administered. Wheel-filtration was generally regarded as better than cotton-filtration (the typical method) in terms of perceived effects on health, ease of use and overall drug effect. Sixty-eight percent of those who said they would try wheel-filtration after the education had actually done so. Of those who usually used cotton-filtration, over half (60%) had used wheel-filtration two weeks later. Uptake of safer preparation methods for pharmaceutical opioid tablets increases after structured education in wheel-filtration. Findings suggest that SIFs are an effective site for this kind of education. Supervised injecting facility workers are uniquely positioned to provide harm reduction education at the time of injection. [Steele M, Silins E, Flaherty I, Hiley S, van Breda N, Jauncey M. Uptake of wheel-filtration among clients of a supervised injecting facility: Can structured education work? Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:116-120]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  7. Measuring of filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles in volume from scattered light by seeding particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidlof P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the method which calculates a filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles from scattered light intensity by seeding particles. Thefiltration efficiency is commonly measured by particle counters. Samples of liquid or gas are taken during a test in front of and behind a filtration material. The concentration of particles is measured and the filtration efficiency is calculated. The filtration efficiency does not have to be uniform in itswhole surface. The uniformity of filtration is another indicator of a quality of filtration materials. Measurements described in this article were performed on a water filtration setup which enables optical access to the place where the filtration material is mounted. Pictures of illuminated seeding particles are made by a laser sheet and a camera. Visualisation of the filtration process enables measuring of the efficiency of separation versus time and also versus two-dimensional position in case of use of a traverse mechanism. The filtration textiles were tested by 1 μm seeding particles. Mean value of light intensity and number of bright pixels in evaluative areas during image analysis were obtained. On the basis of these data, the filtration efficiency iscalculated. The best image analysis method was chosen.

  8. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  9. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  10. Crossflow Filtration: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several

  11. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several

  12. The common antitussive agent dextromethorphan protects against hyperoxia-induced cell death in established in vivo and in vitro models of neonatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posod, A; Pinzer, K; Urbanek, M; Wegleiter, K; Keller, M; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U; Griesmaier, E

    2014-08-22

    Preterm infants are prematurely subjected to relatively high oxygen concentrations, even when supplemental oxygen is not administered. There is increasing evidence to show that an excess of oxygen is toxic to the developing brain. Dextromethorphan (DM), a frequently used antitussive agent with pleiotropic mechanisms of action, has been shown to be neuroprotective in various models of central nervous system pathology. Due to its numerous beneficial properties, it might also be able to counteract detrimental effects of a neonatal oxygen insult. The aim of the current study was to evaluate its therapeutic potential in established cell culture and rodent models of hyperoxia-induced neonatal brain injury. For in vitro studies pre- and immature oligodendroglial (OLN-93) cells were subjected to hyperoxic conditions for 48 h after pre-treatment with increasing doses of DM. For in vivo studies 6-day-old Wistar rat pups received a single intraperitoneal injection of DM in two different dosages prior to being exposed to hyperoxia for 24h. Cell viability and caspase-3 activation were assessed as outcome parameters at the end of exposure. DM significantly increased cell viability in immature oligodendroglial cells subjected to hyperoxia. In pre-oligodendroglial cells cell viability was not significantly affected by DM treatment. In vivo caspase-3 activation induced by hyperoxic exposure was significantly lower after administration of DM in gray and white matter areas. In control animals kept under normoxic conditions DM did not significantly influence caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The present results indicate that DM is a promising and safe treatment strategy for neonatal hyperoxia-induced brain injury that merits further investigation. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calderón-Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99 or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22. Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta.

  14. Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Terán-Navarro, Héctor; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Ferrández-Fernández, Eva; Freire, Javier; Penadés, Soledad; Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Gomez-Román, Javier; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP) loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22). Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta. PMID:28335280

  15. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations-Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki

    2015-01-01

    at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE......), and sham-operated (Sham). Mice in CLPV and CLPE were injected with saline or edaravone intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily. The treatments were initiated 4 days prior to the surgical procedure. Mortality, histological changes, electron microscopy (EM), and expression of Bcl-2 family genes...

  16. A high-affinity, dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95 bivalently interacts with PDZ1-2 and protects against ischemic brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders*; Clausen, Bettina H; Møller, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of the ternary protein complex of the synaptic scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a potential strategy for treating ischemic brain damage, but high-affinity inhibitors are ...... of Tat-N-dimer (3 nmol/g) to mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia reduces infarct volume with 40% and restores motor functions. Thus, Tat-N-dimer is a highly efficacious neuroprotective agent with therapeutic potential in stroke....

  17. Antagonist targeting microRNA-155 protects against lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxu eCai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155 could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against TLE was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study.

  18. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  19. Histopathological Study of Protective Effects of Honey on Subacute Toxicity of Acrylamide-Induced Tissue Lesions in Rats’ Brain and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Ahrari Roodi; Zahra Moosavi*; Amir Afkhami Goli; Mohammad Azizzadeh; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic potential of honey is related to antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species because it contains compounds such as polyphenols; therefore, we evaluated the potential protective effect of honey on subacute toxicity of ACR by histopathologic study on tissue lesions in rat. Methods: In Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, 2016, male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. To induce toxicity, ACR was injected (50 mg/kg for 11 d) to rats in 5 group...

  20. The therapeutic protection of a living and dead Lactobacillus strain against aluminum-induced brain and liver injuries in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengwei Tian

    Full Text Available Our previous study found that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 had the ability to alleviate acute aluminum (Al toxicity when the strain was introduced simultaneously with Al exposure. This research was designed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of living and dead L. plantarum CCFM639 against chronic Al toxicity and to gain insight into the protection modes of this strain. Animals were assigned into control, Al only, Al + living CCFM639, and Al + dead CCFM639 groups. The Al exposure model was established by drinking water for the first 4 weeks. The strain was given after Al exposure by oral gavage at 109 colony-forming units once per day for 12 weeks. The results show that the Al binding ability of dead CCFM639 was similar to that of living CCFM639 in vitro. The ingestion of living or dead CCFM639 has similar effects on levels of Al and trace element in tissues, but living strains led to more significant amelioration of oxidative stress and improvement of memory deficits in Al-exposed mice. In conclusion, in addition to intestinal Al sequestration, CCFM639 treatment offers direct protection against chronic Al toxicity by alleviation of oxidative stress. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 has a potential as dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against Al-induced injury.

  1. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  2. Aluminium - Cobalt-Pillared Clay for Dye Filtration Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, A.; Widiarsih

    2018-04-01

    The manufacture of membrane support from cobalt aluminium pillared clay has been conducted. This research was conducted by mixing a clay suspension with pillared solution prepared from the mixture of Co(NO3)2.6H2O and AlCl3.6H2O. The molar ratio between Al and Co was 75:25 and the ratio of [OH-]/[metal] was 2. The clay suspension was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and dried. The dried clay was then calcined at 200°C, 300°C and 400°C with a ramp rate of 2°C/min. Aluminium-cobalt-pillared clay was then characterized by XRD and GSA and moulded become a membrane support for subsequent tests on dye filtration. The XRD analysis showed that basal spacing (d 001) value of aluminium cobalt was 19.49 Å, which was higher than the natural clay of 15.08Å however, the basal spacing decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The result of the GSA analysis showed that the pore diameter of the aluminium cobalt pillared clay membrane was almost the same as that of natural clay that were 34.5Å and 34.2Å, respectively. Nevertheless, the pillared clay has a more uniform pore size distribution. The results of methylene blue filtration measurements demonstrated that the membrane filter support could well which shown by a clear filtrate at all concentrations tested. The value of rejection and flux decreased with the increasing concentration of methylene blue. The values of dye rejection and water flux reached 99.89% and 5. 80 x 10-6 kg min-1, respectively but they decreased with increasing concentration of methylene blue. The results of this study indicates that the aluminium-pillared clay cobalt could be used as membrane materials especially for ultrafiltration.

  3. Optical measurements of lung microvascular filtration coefficient using polysulfone fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Roselli, R J; Evans, S; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Tack, G; Parham, M

    1994-01-01

    Lung fluid balance, which is governed by the product of net transvascular pressure difference and lung filtration coefficient, can be altered in pulmonary diseases. A simple measurement of the lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) would be clinically useful and has been examined by several researchers. Current methods of determining Kfc include gravimetric measurement in isolated lungs and lymph node cannulation, neither of which can be extended to human use. Optical measurements of protein concentration changes in venous blood can be combined with pressure measurements to calculate Kfc. Blood, though, contains red corpuscles, which tend to absorb and scatter light, obscuring these optical measurements. In this study, an optical system was developed in which a polysulfone filter cartridge was used to remove red blood cells before the filtrate was passed through a spectrophotometer. Absorbance changes caused by changes in concentration of albumin labeled with Evans Blue were monitored at 620 nm after venous pressure was elevated by about 13 cm H2O. Optical measurements of Kfc averaged 0.401 +/- 0.074 (ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) for an isolated canine lung. Optical measurements of Kfc (0.363 +/- 0.120 ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) were made for the first time in an intact, closed chest sheep in which pulmonary pressure was altered by inflating a Foley balloon in the left atrium. We conclude that absorbance and scattering artifacts introduced by red blood cells can be eliminated by first filtering the blood through polysulfone fibers. Kfc measurements using the optical method are similar to values obtained by others using gravimetric methods. Finally, we have demonstrated that the technique can be used to estimate Kfc in an intact animal.

  4. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  5. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  6. Determination of filtrations and permeability of an earth dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, H.R.; Baro, G.B.; Gillen, Ricardo.

    1975-11-01

    The aim of this work was to measure with the aid of a radioactive tracer the speed flow of the water filtrating from Sumampa Dam in northeastern Catamarca, while being in operation, and with these data determine if the actual permeability corresponds to the projected one. Iodine-131 was used as tracer and periodical samples were taken from the down stream water in order to determine its activity concentration. In previous perforations ionic interchange resines were used so as to measure simultaneously the fixed Iodine-131. The permeability of the dam was calculated from the obtained speed based on time-concentration curves and applying Darcy formulas for permeability. (author) [es

  7. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions

  8. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Tellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.

  9. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  10. Filtration in ultrasonic field; Filtracao em campo ultrassonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Inaura Carolina C. da; Cortes, Marcela de Araujo H.; Marques, Jose Jailton [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The production of water associated to the petroleum is an issue of big relevance in exploration areas classified as 'exhausted fields'. The current alternative in practice is the re-injection of the wastewater into the geological formation with the dual purpose of increasing oil recovery and pollution minimization. However, produced water presents several components that make impossible its direct re-injection, requiring a previous treatment. In this context, this work presents the state-of-art of filtration in ultrasonic field, in order to contribute to the development of a new treatment technology applicable to the produced water problem. (author)

  11. The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-06-23

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOP11ENT The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process (OD-12) by F. C. Whitmore OSRD No. 654... Potentiometric Titration of Synthetic Mixtures. A? Nitric Acid-Acetic Acid. A sample of 60 ml. glacial acetic acid war diluted to 200 ml. with distilled...i4flinflr?fj3 TADLE 1 CO) |S?lDBnTl» POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF SYNTHETIC t’.IXTURES WITH CONCENTRATED AJKDNIUM HYDROXIDE A; unonium HNO-j- AcOfi Ky

  12. Optimising and Predicting Performance of Industrial Filtrations using Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David Bähner, Franz; Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Industrial cake filtration is non-trivial from an operational point of view. Discrete events such as the removal of filter cake occur on a frequent but irregular basis. These events tend to upset the steady state of the incorporating line, which may constrain plantwide optimisation. A case study...... has been carried out with an industrial partner where changes in the biological feedstock act as strong disturbances on a series of manually reinitialised dead-end pressure leaf filters. This renders production planning a challenging task which,so far, is carried out by experienced operators. We look...

  13. Transport of micropollutants in a riverbank filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Oudega, Thomas; Reiner, Philipp; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater locations at alluvial backwaters are essential for public water supply. Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as a means of obtaining public water supplies. Riverbank filtration is an effective way to remove micropollutants from the receiving surface water. The efficiency of the RBF system strongly depends on the residence time of the water in the aquifer and on the soil properties (Ray, 2011). In order to understand all bio- and geochemical processes within the hyporheic zone (e.g. the region were mixing of surface water and groundwater occurs), exchange rates and flow patterns need to be quantified. The main study area covers the porous groundwater aquifer study site (PGWA) - an urban floodplain extending on the left bank of the River Danube downstream of the City of Vienna. It is one of the main groundwater bodies in Austria. Groundwater quality in the PGWA is influenced by a combination of anthropogenic activities, industry, wastewater treatment plants, heavy precipitation events and floodings. The upper layer of the DPA is impermeable, preventing pollution originating from the surface. The upper layer consists of silt. The underlying confined aquifer consists of sand and gravel layers. Hydraulic conductivities range from 5 x 10-2 m/s up to 5 x 10-5 m/s. Underneath the aquifer are alternating sand an clay/silt layers. Samples are taken from two transects in the DPA. These transects consist of four piezometers in the first few meters of the groundwater aquifer. Several other piezometers are placed downstream from the river-groundwater interface. The behaviour of the micropollutants in the hyporheic zone can therefore be studied intensively. The transport behaviour of several micropollutants is modeled using carbamazepine (CBZ) and acesulfame (ACE) as natural tracers. Furthermore, temperature and electrical conductivity data was used for modeling. The micropollutants are measured using an in house developed online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method

  14. Applications of the spline filter for areal filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Mingsi; Zhang, Hao; Ott, Daniel; Chu, Wei; Song, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a general use isotropic areal spline filter. This new areal spline filter can achieve isotropy by approximating the transmission characteristic of the Gaussian filter. It can also eliminate the effect of void areas using a weighting factor, and resolve end-effect issues by applying new boundary conditions, which replace the first order finite difference in the traditional spline formulation. These improvements make the spline filter widely applicable to 3D surfaces and extend the applications of the spline filter in areal filtration. (technical note)

  15. Separation of actinides by high-gradient magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, L.E.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-gradient magnetic filtration has been identified as a candidate solid/liquid separation technique for removing actinide particulate from waste streams. Although HGMS is not intended to reduce the activity in the waste stream to below 100 nCi/g, it does offer two significant advantages: (a) selective removal of TRU solids for subsequent secondary processing and (b) reduced operating complications during solvent extraction due to solids accumulation in the interfacial region. Removal of > 95 wt% of the plutonium and americium solids is expected regardless of the solids present and their properties. Verification tests will be performed to validate this assumption

  16. Feasibility analysis of Triptolide's role in treating filtering bleb fibrosis after the filtration surgery of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, filtration surgery remains an important treatment of glaucoma, and filtering bleb fibrosis is the main cause for treatment failure. Filtering bleb fibrosis is a common fiber hyperplastic disease, and it relates to the activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and the excessive production of extracellular matrix(ECMsuch as collagen protein. The most frequently-used drugs for filtering bleb fibrosis in clinic are 5-fluoro-2,4(1h, 3hpyrimidinedione(5-Fuand mitomycin(MMC. Although they are effective in some degree, they also have some serious side effects which restrict their clinical use. Triptolide(TPLis a major active component of the medicinal plant, tripterygium wilfordii hook.f.(TWHF. TPL has multiple pharmacological activities including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-fertility activity. Reviewing related literatures published in recent ten years, we confirmed that TPL seemed to possess a pharmacological activity in treating filtering bleb fibrosis. Since it has three major functions: 1. inhibit the activation and proliferation of fibroblasts and the excessive production of collagen protein; 2. alleviate the inflammatory reaction after surgical wound to suppress fibrous scar formation; 3.TPL has a protective effect on retinal ganglion cells(RGCs. We further find that TPL's anti-fibrosis activity mainly results from that it inhibits TGF-β/Smad,NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway. This comprehensive analysis about the feasibility of Triptolide's role in treating filtering bleb fibrosis after the filtration surgery of glaucoma can help us develop new drugs for filtering bleb fibrosis and exploit TPL's clinical value on some level.

  17. Mannitol increases renal blood flow and maintains filtration fraction and oxygenation in postoperative acute kidney injury: a prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2012-08-17

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a major complication after cardiovascular surgery, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diuretic agents are frequently used to improve urine output and to facilitate fluid management in these patients. Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic, is used in the perioperative setting in the belief that it exerts reno-protective properties. In a recent study on uncomplicated postcardiac-surgery patients with normal renal function, mannitol increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), possibly by a deswelling effect on tubular cells. Furthermore, experimental studies have previously shown that renal ischemia causes an endothelial cell injury and dysfunction followed by endothelial cell edema. We studied the effects of mannitol on renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal oxygen consumption (RVO2), and extraction (RO2Ex) in early, ischemic AKI after cardiac surgery. Eleven patients with AKI were studied during propofol sedation and mechanical ventilation 2 to 6 days after complicated cardiac surgery. All patients had severe heart failure treated with one (100%) or two (73%) inotropic agents and intraaortic balloon pump (36%). Systemic hemodynamics were measured with a pulmonary artery catheter. RBF and renal filtration fraction (FF) were measured by the renal vein thermo-dilution technique and by renal extraction of chromium-51-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA), respectively. GFR was calculated as the product of FF and renal plasma flow RBF × (1-hematocrit). RVO2 and RO2Ex were calculated from arterial and renal vein blood samples according to standard formulae. After control measurements, a bolus dose of mannitol, 225 mg/kg, was given, followed by an infusion at a rate of 75 mg/kg/h for two 30-minute periods. Mannitol did not affect cardiac index or cardiac filling pressures. Mannitol increased urine flow by 61% (P renal vascular resistance (P renal FF. Mannitol treatment of postoperative AKI

  18. Organo-clay/anthracite filtration for oil removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazed, H.; Viragahavan, T.

    1999-01-01

    An advantage of organo-clay compared to other sorbents is that it can selectively remove organic pollutants from contaminated waters. An investigation was conducted to determine the potential of an organo-clay/anthracite mixture as a filter media for the removal of oil from synthetic and real oily waters. Also included in the study were column filtration studies using synthetic and real waste waters to determine the sorptive capacity of the material. In general, oil removal efficiencies in a 300 mm organo-clay/anthracite bed decreased with an increase in flow rates. Results of eight hour studies indicated that the depth of an organo-clay/anthracite bed has a direct effect on oil removal efficiency. The Thomas equation provides a reasonable fit of the data based on breakthrough studies. The model can be used to determine the parameters needed to design full-scale filtration columns. The uptake of oil by an organo-clay/anthracite mixture is well described by an equation including time such as the Weber or Moris model. The maximum solid-phase concentration of the solute values obtained from the Thomas equation were comparable to the values found by a mass balance approach. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

  20. Numerical investigation of adhesion effects on solid particles filtration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffee, Amira; Luckham, Paul; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Our work investigate the effectiveness of particle filtration process, in particular using a fully-coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) approach involving poly-dispersed, adhesive solid particles. We found that an increase in particle adhesion reduces solid production through the opening of a wire-wrap type filter. Over time, as particle agglomerates continuously deposit on top of the filter, layer upon layer of particles is built on top of the filter, forming a particle pack. It is observed that with increasing particle adhesion, the pack height build up also increases and hence decreases the average particle volume fraction of the pack. This trend suggests higher porosity and looser packing of solid particles within the pack with increased adhesion. Furthermore, we found that the pressure drop for adhesive case is lower compared to non-adhesive case. Our results suggest agglomerating solid particles has beneficial effects on particle filtration. One important application of these findings is towards designing and optimizing sand control process for a hydrocarbon well with excessive sand production which is major challenge in oil and gas industry. Funding from PETRONAS and RAEng UK for Research Chair (OKM) gratefully acknowledged.