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Sample records for filtration protects brain

  1. Hypertonic saline protects brain endothelial cells against hypoxia correlated to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and interleukin-1β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Long; Deng, Yi-Yu; Wang, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Yong-Li; Jiang, Wen-Qiang; Fang, Ming; Hu, Bei; Wu, Zhi-Xin; Huang, Lin-Qiang; Zeng, Hong-Ke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the protective effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on brain endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions and the relevant underlying mechanism. Methods: bEnd.3 cells were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury. To measure HS performance, cell viability was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick-end labeling staining. RNA-seq was performed to assess the expression profiles and screen the candidate genes that participated in OGD-induced injury and the HS protective effect. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis were used to confirm the expression of candidate genes, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the level of interleukin (IL)-1β. Overexpression analyses were performed to confirm the functions of the differentially expressed genes. Results: HS with a concentration of 40 mmol/L NaCl had an obvious protective effect on bEnd.3 cells after OGD-induced injury, resulting in increased cell viability and a smaller percentage of apoptotic cells. According to the RNA-seq results, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was chosen as the differentially expressed gene target in this study. The qPCR and western blot analyses further confirmed that the levels of EGFR/phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and IL-1β were enhanced after OGD-induced injury, but attenuated after treatment with 40 mmol/L of NaCl HS. Overexpressed EGFR reversed the protective effect of HS that caused low viability and high rates of apoptosis in cells. Conclusion: HS can protect endothelial cells against OGD-induced injury, but is affected by the expression of EGFR/p-EGFR and IL-1β. PMID:28072729

  2. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  3. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  4. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  5. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana Rey; Hctor Coirini

    2015-01-01

    Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABAA receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disordersvia reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids adminis-tration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute prom-ising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl conifguration is the key for binding and activity, but modiifcations in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  6. Protection by neuroglobin expression in brain pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Baez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic and structural functions and, when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactacte, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the CNS, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  7. Protection by Neuroglobin Expression in Brain Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Eliana; Echeverria, Valentina; Cabezas, Ricardo; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Barreto, George E

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic, and structural functions, and when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke, and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactate, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters, and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury, neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the central nervous system, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  8. Protection by Neuroglobin Expression in Brain Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Eliana; Echeverria, Valentina; Cabezas, Ricardo; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Barreto, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic, and structural functions, and when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke, and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactate, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters, and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury, neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the central nervous system, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes. PMID:27672379

  9. Inhibition of neuronal ferroptosis protects hemorrhagic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Han, Xiaoning; Lan, Xi; Gao, Yufeng; Wan, Jieru; Durham, Frederick; Cheng, Tian; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhongyu; Jiang, Chao; Ying, Mingyao; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity, but our knowledge of post-ICH neuronal death and related mechanisms is limited. In this study, we first demonstrated that ferroptosis, a newly identified form of cell death, occurs in the collagenase-induced ICH model in mice. We found that administration of ferrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis, prevented neuronal death and reduced iron deposition induced by hemoglobin in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Mice treated with ferrostatin-1 after ICH exhibited marked brain protection and improved neurologic function. Additionally, we found that ferrostatin-1 reduced lipid reactive oxygen species production and attenuated the increased expression level of PTGS2 and its gene product cyclooxygenase-2 ex vivo and in vivo. Moreover, ferrostatin-1 in combination with other inhibitors that target different forms of cell death prevented hemoglobin-induced cell death in OHSCs and human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived neurons better than any inhibitor alone. These results indicate that ferroptosis contributes to neuronal death after ICH, that administration of ferrostatin-1 protects hemorrhagic brain, and that cyclooxygenase-2 could be a biomarker of ferroptosis. The insights gained from this study will advance our knowledge of the post-ICH cell death cascade and be essential for future preclinical studies.

  10. Air Filtration as Protection against Fouling of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Lajčíková, Ariana

    2005-01-01

    Currently, air filters are one of the most critical components of air treatment systems as they decontaminate the air delivered to living space. During the operation, however, the level of harmful surface deposits increases, and at certain times, an uncleaned filter can itself become a source...... of undesirable contaminents influencing negatively the IAQ of a living space. This is the phenomenon that has been a subject of the current research. The article presents a new, alternative view on indoor air contaminents and filtration requirements. It describes alternative means of filtration and assesses...... issues of inadequate maintenance and/or long term use of applied air filters. An experimental method of evealuating the air quality by means of chemical analysis and state-of-the-art spectrometer is also described....

  11. Brain networks engaged in audiovisual integration during speech perception revealed by persistent homology-based network filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    The human brain naturally integrates audiovisual information to improve speech perception. However, in noisy environments, understanding speech is difficult and may require much effort. Although the brain network is supposed to be engaged in speech perception, it is unclear how speech-related brain regions are connected during natural bimodal audiovisual or unimodal speech perception with counterpart irrelevant noise. To investigate the topological changes of speech-related brain networks at all possible thresholds, we used a persistent homological framework through hierarchical clustering, such as single linkage distance, to analyze the connected component of the functional network during speech perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging. For speech perception, bimodal (audio-visual speech cue) or unimodal speech cues with counterpart irrelevant noise (auditory white-noise or visual gum-chewing) were delivered to 15 subjects. In terms of positive relationship, similar connected components were observed in bimodal and unimodal speech conditions during filtration. However, during speech perception by congruent audiovisual stimuli, the tighter couplings of left anterior temporal gyrus-anterior insula component and right premotor-visual components were observed than auditory or visual speech cue conditions, respectively. Interestingly, visual speech is perceived under white noise by tight negative coupling in the left inferior frontal region-right anterior cingulate, left anterior insula, and bilateral visual regions, including right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform components. In conclusion, the speech brain network is tightly positively or negatively connected, and can reflect efficient or effortful processes during natural audiovisual integration or lip-reading, respectively, in speech perception.

  12. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking gap junction communication. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and ...

  13. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking gap junction communication. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked ...

  14. Green tea may protect brain cells against Parkinson's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Does the consumption of green tea, widely touted to have beneficial effects on health, also protect brain cells? As reported in the 15 December, 2007 issue of Biological Psychiatry, studies by CAS researchers indicate this may be the case.

  15. Blocking NMDA receptors delays death in rats with acute liver failure by dual protective mechanisms in kidney and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; González-Usano, Alba; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Malek, Michal; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W; Carratalá, Arturo; Urios, Amparo; Miguel, Alfonso; Torregrosa, Isidro; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is unsatisfactory and mortality remains unacceptably high. Blocking NMDA receptors delays or prevents death of rats with ALF. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Clarifying these mechanisms will help to design more efficient treatments to increase patient's survival. The aim of this work was to shed light on the mechanisms by which blocking NMDA receptors delays rat's death in ALF. ALF was induced by galactosamine injection. NMDA receptors were blocked by continuous MK-801 administration. Edema and cerebral blood flow were assessed by magnetic resonance. The time course of ammonia levels in brain, muscle, blood, and urine; of glutamine, lactate, and water content in brain; of glomerular filtration rate and kidney damage; and of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and intracranial pressure was assessed. ALF reduces kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as reflected by reduced inulin clearance. GFR reduction is due to both reduced renal perfusion and kidney tubular damage as reflected by increased Kim-1 in urine and histological analysis. Blocking NMDA receptors delays kidney damage, allowing transient increased GFR and ammonia elimination which delays hyperammonemia and associated changes in brain. Blocking NMDA receptors does not prevent cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier permeability but reduces or prevents changes in cerebral blood flow and brain lactate. The data show that dual protective effects of MK-801 in kidney and brain delay cerebral alterations, HE, intracranial pressure increase and death. NMDA receptors antagonists may increase survival of patients with ALF by providing additional time for liver transplantation or regeneration.

  16. Filtration Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ken; Hunsaker, Scot

    1997-01-01

    Examines how choice of commercial swimming-pool filtration systems is driven by the project-specific needs of the pools. Also highlighted are definitions of specific terms used when discussing filtration systems. Questions that pool designers can answer to make filtration-system purchasing decisions are listed. (GR)

  17. Ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-meng Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we hypothesized that an increase in integrin αv ß 3 and its co-activator vascular endothelial growth factor play important neuroprotective roles in ischemic injury. We performed ischemic preconditioning with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 5 minutes in C57BL/6J mice. This was followed by ischemic injury with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 30 minutes. The time interval between ischemic preconditioning and lethal ischemia was 48 hours. Histopathological analysis showed that ischemic preconditioning substantially diminished damage to neurons in the hippocampus 7 days after ischemia. Evans Blue dye assay showed that ischemic preconditioning reduced damage to the blood-brain barrier 24 hours after ischemia. This demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. Western blot assay revealed a significant reduction in protein levels of integrin αv ß 3, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor in mice given ischemic preconditioning compared with mice not given ischemic preconditioning 24 hours after ischemia. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning is associated with lower integrin αv ß 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the brain following ischemia.

  18. Novel approaches in astrocytic protection following brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes have gained a broad attention in the last years, as they exert multiple functions for brain maintenance and neuronal protection. Astrocytes are metabolic regulators of the brain, important for the preservation of blood–brain barrier characteristics, clearance of toxic substances and generation of antioxidant molecules and growth factors for neurons and other glial cells. For these reasons, the protection of astrocytes has become of primordial importance for the prevention of neuronal death during pathologies such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, Ischemia, and others. Currently, different approaches are being used for the protection of astrocytes diseases, including the use of growth factors, steroid molecules derivatives, mesenchymal stem cell factors, nicotine and others. Moreover, the combined use of experimental approaches with bioinformatics tools such as the ones obtained through system biology has allowed a broader knowledge in astrocytic protection both in normal and pathological conditions. In this work, we highlight some of these recent approaches in astrocytic protection, and how they could be used for the study of restorative therapies for the brain in pathological conditions.

  19. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  20. Brain neuropeptides in gastric mucosal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2014-12-01

    The centrally induced gastroprotective effect of neuropeptides has been intensively studied. Besides many similarities, however, differences can also be observed in their gastroprotective actions. The gastroprotective dose-response curve proved to be either sigmoid, or bell-shaped. Additional gastrointestinal effects of neuropeptides can contribute to their mucosal protective effect. Part of the neuropeptides induces gastroprotection by peripheral administration as well. Besides vagal nerve the sympathetic nervous system may also be involved in conveying the central effect to the periphery. Better understanding of the complex mechanism of the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity may result in the development of new strategy to enhance gastric mucosal resistance against injury.

  1. Brain glucosamine boosts protective glucoprivic feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundiji, Mayowa A; Zhou, Ligang; Shaw, Jill; Moore, Stephen P; Yueh, Chen-Yu; Sherwin, Robert; Heisler, Lora K; Evans, Mark L

    2010-04-01

    The risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia is increased in diabetic patients who lose defensive glucoregulatory responses, including the important warning symptom of hunger. Protective hunger symptoms during hypoglycemia may be triggered by hypothalamic glucose-sensing neurons by monitoring changes downstream of glucose phosphorylation by the specialized glucose-sensing hexokinase, glucokinase (GK), during metabolism. Here we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of glucosamine (GSN), a GK inhibitor, on food intake at normoglycemia and protective feeding responses during glucoprivation and hypoglycemia in chronically catheterized rats. ICV infusion of either GSN or mannoheptulose, a structurally different GK inhibitor, dose-dependently stimulated feeding at normoglycemia. Consistent with an effect of GSN to inhibit competitively glucose metabolism, ICV coinfusion of d-glucose but not l-glucose abrogated the orexigenic effect of ICV GSN at normoglycemia. Importantly, ICV infusion of a low GSN dose (15 nmol/min) that was nonorexigenic at normoglycemia boosted feeding responses to glucoprivation in rats with impaired glucose counterregulation. ICV infusion of 15 nmol/min GSN also boosted feeding responses to threatened hypoglycemia in rats with defective glucose counterregulation. Altogether our findings suggest that GSN may be a potential therapeutic candidate for enhancing defensive hunger symptoms during hypoglycemia.

  2. Gut-Brain Axis in Gastric Mucosal Damage and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgambato, Dolores; Capuano, Annalisa; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Romano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background The gut-brain axis plays a potential role in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. Several substances link stomach with central nervous system. In particular, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thyrotropin-releasing factor-containing nerve fibers and capsaicin-sensitive nerves are principal mediators of the harmful and protective central nervous system-mediated effects on gastric mucosa. Also, existing evidence indicates that nitric oxide, prostaglandins and calcitonin gene-related peptide play a role as final effectors of gastric protection. Methods We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature with the aim of focusing on the role of gut-brain axis in gastric damage and protection. In particular, we examined manuscripts dealing with the role of steroids, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandins, melatonin, hydrogen sulfide and peptides influencing food intake (i.e. leptin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, central glucagon–like peptide-1, and ghrelin). Also, the role of GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in gastric mucosal protection have been examined. Results We found and reviewed 61 peer-reviewed papers dealing with the major aspects related to the role of gut brain axis in gastric mucosal damage and protection. Conclusions A dense neuronal network links stomach with central nervous system and a number of neurotransmitters and peptides functionally and anatomically related to central nervous system play a major role in contributing to gastric mucosal integrity. Exploiting the mechanisms underlying the connection between brain and gut may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of gastric mucosal injury and to an improvement in the prevention and, eventually, management of gastric damage. PMID:26903151

  3. Shortening filtrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ENOCHS Edgar E.

    2012-01-01

    Let C be a set of modules.We argue that there is an ordinal κ such that if a module has a filtration by modules in C,then it has a filtration of length κ by direct sums of modules in C.As an application we give another way to prove a result of Saorín and (S)(t)oví(c)ek and of (S)(t)oví(c)ek.

  4. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  5. Simple Sari Cloth Filtration of Water Is Sustainable and Continues To Protect Villagers from Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, Anwar; Yunus, Mohammed; Sohel, Syed Salahuddin; Bhuiya, Abbas; Emch, Michael; Luby, Stephen P.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Nair, G. Balakrish; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT A simple method for filtering water to reduce the incidence of cholera was tested in a field trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, and proved effective. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years later to determine whether the filtration method continued to be employed by villagers and its impact on the incidence of cholera. A total of 7,233 village women collecting water daily for their households in Bangladesh were selected from the same study population of the original field trial for intervi...

  6. NSAIDs may protect against age-related brain atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B Bendlin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in humans is associated with brain differences including decreased number of activated microglia. In animals, NSAIDs are associated with reduced microglia, decreased amyloid burden, and neuronal preservation. Several studies suggest NSAIDs protect brain regions affected in the earliest stages of AD, including hippocampal and parahippocampal regions. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the protective effect of NSAID use on gray matter volume in a group of middle-aged and older NSAID users (n = 25 compared to non-user controls (n = 50. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Non-user controls showed smaller volume in portions of the left hippocampus compared to NSAID users. Age-related loss of volume differed between groups, with controls showing greater medial temporal lobe volume loss with age compared to NSAID users. These results should be considered preliminary, but support previous reports that NSAIDs may modulate age-related loss of brain volume.

  7. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that...

  8. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  9. Effectiveness of a pressurized stormwater filtration system in Green Bay, Wisconsin: a study for the environmental technology verification program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, J.A.; Corsi, Steven R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized stormwater filtration system was installed in 1998 as a stormwater-treatment practice to treat runoff from a hospital rooftop and parking lot in Green Bay, Wisconsin. This type of filtration system has been installed in Florida citrus groves and sewage treatment plants around the United States; however, this installation is the first of its kind to be used to treat urban runoff and the first to be tested in Wisconsin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored the system between November 2000 and September 2002 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Fifteen runoff events were monitored for flow and water quality at the inlet and outlet of the system, and comparison of the event mean concentrations and constituent loads was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Loads were decreased in all particulate-associated constituents monitored, including suspended solids (83 percent), suspended sediment (81 percent), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (26 percent), total phosphorus (54 percent), and total recoverable zinc (62 percent). Total dissolved solids, dissolved phosphorus, and nitrate plus nitrite loads remained similar or increased through the system. The increase in some constituents was most likely due to a ground-water contribution between runoff events. Sand/silt split analysis resulted in the median silt content of 78 percent at the inlet, 87 percent at the outlet, and 3 percent at the flow splitter.

  10. Hydrophilic compounds in culture filtrates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense GCV [01210] induce protection to banana leave toward a main pathogen phytotoxic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanci Portal González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, is among the most important diseases in Musa spp. Foc is a necrotrophic fungus, their phytotoxins play a role in disease development. Previously culture filtrate (FCC 15 days incubation with differential phytotoxic activity against two Musa cultivars was obtained. From this, the main fraction with nonspecific phytotoxic activity against both cultivars was purified. In this study, the biological activity of the aqueous phase and the main phytotoxic fraction purified from organic extract of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense VCG [01210] Race 1 FCC was determined on banana leaves of cv. `Gros Michel' (susceptible and `FHIA-01' (resistant. Foc FCC phytotoxic effect was confirmed. The aqueous phase showed no phytotoxic activity on both cultivars, while the simultaneous application of the aqueous phase with the main phytotoxic fraction induced a differential response of tissues in susceptible and resistant cultivars evaluated. The results indicated that the compounds present in the aqueous phase are required to induce the protection of leaf tissue against phytotoxic main component of the pathogen. Key words: culture filtrate, Panama disease, resistant, susceptible

  11. Effects of body mass index and age on N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide are associated with glomerular filtration rate in chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Body mass index (BMI), age, and GFR are associated with plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in chronic heart failure...... (CHF) patients. We hypothesized that the effects of BMI and age on plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP are associated with GFR. METHODS: We obtained clinical data and laboratory test results from 345 CHF patients at the baseline visit in our heart failure clinic and examined the hypothesis using...... multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Age (P = 0.0184), BMI (P = 0.0098), hemoglobin (P = 0.0043), heart rhythm (P proBNP). After adjustment for GFR estimated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation, the parameter...

  12. Protective effect of xanthohumol against age-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancán, Lisa; Paredes, Sergio D; García, Irene; Muñoz, Pedro; García, Cruz; López de Hontanar, Guzmán; de la Fuente, Mónica; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2017-07-27

    It has been recently shown that xanthohumol, a flavonoid present in hops, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. However, its role in the aging brain has not been addressed so far. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective activity of xanthohumol against age-related inflammatory and apoptotic brain damage in male senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8). Animals were divided into 4 groups: Untreated young mice, untreated old mice and old mice treated either with 1 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) xanthohumol. Young and old senescence accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1) were used as controls. After 30 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed and their brains were collected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. mRNA (GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1β, AIF, BAD, BAX, XIAP, NAIP and Bcl-2) and protein (GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1β, AIF, BAD, BAX, BDNF, synaptophysin and synapsin) expressions were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Significant increased levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β) and pro-apoptotic (AIF, BAD, BAX) markers were observed in both SAMP8 and SAMR1 old mice compared to young animals (P<.05) and also in SAMP8 untreated old mice compared to SAMR1 (P<.05). These alterations were significantly less evident in animals treated with both doses of xanthohumol (P<.05). Also, a reduced expression of synaptic markers was observed in old mice compared to young ones (P<.05) but it significantly recovered with 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) xanthohumol treatment (P<.05). In conclusion, xanthohumol treatment modulated the inflammation and apoptosis of aged brains, exerting a protective effect on damage induced by aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0017 TITLE: " Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER “ Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is largely undefined. Along with reducing mortality, in preliminary experiments Kevlar vests significantly protected

  14. Suppression of Etk/Bmx protects against ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Yun; Wu, Chung-Che; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lou, Ya-Hsin; Chen, Yen-Hua; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    Etk/Bmx (epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase, also known as BMX), a member of the Tec (tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma) family of protein-tyrosine kinases, is an important regulator of signal transduction for the activation of cell growth, differentiation, and development. We have previously reported that activation of Etk leads to apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of Etk in neuronal injury induced by H(2)O(2) or ischemia. Using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we found that treatment with H(2)O(2) significantly enhanced phosphorylation of Etk and its downstream signaling molecule Stat1 in primary cortical neurons. Inhibiting Etk activity by LFM-A13 or knocking down Etk expression by a specific shRNA increased the survival of primary cortical neurons. Similarly, at 1 day after a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in adult rats, both phosphorylated Etk and Stat1 were coexpressed with apoptotic markers in neurons in the penumbra. Pretreatment with LFM-A13 or an adenoviral vector encoding the kinase deletion mutant Etkk attenuated caspase-3 activity and infarct volume in ischemic brain. All together, our data suggest that Etk is activated after neuronal injury. Suppressing Etk activity protects against neurodegeneration in ischemic brain.

  15. Islet Brain 1 Protects Insulin Producing Cells against Lipotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajkovic, Saška; Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Pawlowski, Valérie; Ezanno, Hélène; Plaisance, Valérie; Zmuda, Erik; Hai, Tsonwin; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Waeber, Gérard; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intake of saturated free fatty acids is associated with diabetes and may contribute to the impairment of functional beta cell mass. Mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 also called islet brain 1 (IB1) is a candidate gene for diabetes that is required for beta cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS). In this study we investigated whether IB1 expression is required for preserving beta cell survival and function in response to palmitate. Chronic exposure of MIN6 and isolated rat islets cells to palmitate led to reduction of the IB1 mRNA and protein content. Diminution of IB1 mRNA and protein level relied on the inducible cAMP early repressor activity and proteasome-mediated degradation, respectively. Suppression of IB1 level mimicked the harmful effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and GSIS. Conversely, ectopic expression of IB1 counteracted the deleterious effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and insulin secretion. These findings highlight the importance in preserving the IB1 content for protecting beta cell against lipotoxicity in diabetes.

  16. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  17. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Alterations of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Treated with Amlodipine/Benazepril or Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide

    OpenAIRE

    I-Te Lee; Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu; Yi-Jen Hung; Jung-Fu Chen; Chih-Yuan Wang; Wen-Jane Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with sympathetic activation. However, the effects of BDNF on diabetic nephropathy are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) and changes in serum BDNF levels in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with antihypertensive medications. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension were assigned to either the benazepril/amlod...

  18. The Applications of Electret Air Filtration Material in Breath Protection Products%驻极体空气过滤材料在呼吸防护用品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 王良基

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduce briefly the applications and preparation of electret air filtration material in breath protection products as well as the characteristics of anti bacterium, clean-resistant, solvent- resistant and stability. At the same time, electret air filtration material which is a kind of promising new breath protection products material are also explained.%本文主要介绍了驻极体空气过滤材料在呼吸防护用品中的应用、制备以及抗菌性能、耐清洗性能、耐溶剂性能、稳定性等性能特性,并说明驻极体空气过滤材料是一类非常有应用前景的呼吸防护用品材料。

  19. Protective effects of acupuncture on brain tissue following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshan Wang; Fuguo Ma; Huailong Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with cerebrovascular disease, by means of the neuroendocrine system, acupuncture supports the transformation of a local pathological status into a physiological status. Recently, great progress has been made in studying the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. OBJECTIVE: To summarize research advances in the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and cerebral protection", we retrieved articles from the PubMed database published between January 1991 and June 1994. Meanwhile, we searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure with the same terms. Altogether, 114 articles and their results were analyzed. Inclusive criteria: studies that were closely related to the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury, or studies, whose contents were in the same study field and were published recently, or in the authorized journals. Exclusive criteria: repetitive studies. LITERATURE EVALUATION: Thirty articles that related to the protective effects of acupuncture on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury were included. Among them, 7 were clinical studies, and the remaining 23 articles were animal experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: ① Animal experimental studies have demonstrated that acupuncture improves brain blood perfusion and brain electrical activity, influences pathomorphological and ultramicrostructural changes in ischemic brain tissue, is beneficial in maintaining the stability of intracellular and extracellular ions, resists free radical injury and lipid peroxidation, and influences cytokine, neurotransmitter, brain cell signal transduction, and apoptosis-regulating genes. ② Clinical studies have demonstrated that acupuncture not only promotes nutritional supply to local brain tissue in patients with cerebral

  20. Protect Your Brain (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-21

    At least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), either with or without other injuries. This podcast discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.  Created: 3/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  1. Protective effect of grifolin against brain injury in an acute cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of grifolin against brain injury in an acute ... Sent for review: 24 January 2017 ... levels in tissue homogenates of the cerebral ischemic rats compared with those in the negative ... Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide [1].

  2. Protection of the blood-brain barrier by pentosan against amyloid-β-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Mária A; Veszelka, Szilvia; Csiszár, Boglárka; Tóth, Andrea; Kittel, Agnes; Csete, Mária; Sipos, Aron; Szalai, Anikó; Fülöp, Lívia; Penke, Botond; Abrahám, Csongor S; Niwa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cells of brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier play an important role in the pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are key pathological elements in the development of the disease. A blood-brain barrier model, based on primary rat brain endothelial cells was used in which the barrier properties were induced by glial cells. The effects of amyloid peptides have been tested on cell viability and barrier functions. Aβ showed toxic effects on primary rat brain endothelial cells measured by MTT dye conversion and the lactate dehydrogenase release. Morphologically cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the structure of cytoplasmic organelles and tight junctions could be observed in brain endothelial cells. Treatment with Aβ1-42 decreased the electrical resistance, and increased the permeability of brain endothelial cell monolayers for both fluorescein and albumin. Serum amyloid P component which stabilizes Aβ fibrils in cortical amyloid plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits significantly potentiated the barrier-weakening effect of Aβ1-42. Sulfated polysaccharide pentosan could decrease the toxic effects of Aβ peptides in brain endothelial cells. It could also significantly protect the barrier integrity of monolayers from damaging actions of peptides. Pentosan modified the size, and significantly decreased the number of amyloid aggregates demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. The present data further support the toxic effects of amyloid peptides on brain endothelial cells, and can contribute to the development of molecules protecting the blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Resveratrol Protects the Brain of Obese Mice from Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha D. Rege

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that exerts cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects. Recently it has been shown that obesity is associated with an increase in cerebral oxidative stress levels, which may enhance neurodegeneration. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective action of resveratrol in brain of obese (ob/ob mice. Resveratrol was administered orally at the dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight daily for three weeks to lean and obese mice. Resveratrol had no effect on body weight or blood glucose levels in obese mice. Lipid peroxides were significantly increased in brain of obese mice. The enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and nonenzymatic antioxidants tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione were decreased in obese mice brain. Administration of resveratrol decreased lipid peroxide levels and upregulated the antioxidant activities in obese mice brain. Our findings indicate a neuroprotective effect of resveratrol by preventing oxidative damage in brain tissue of obese mice.

  4. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.171 Criteria for avoiding filtration. In addition to...

  5. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all...

  7. Protect Your Brain (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-21

    Recent high-profile cases among professional athletes have called attention to the serious problem of traumatic brain injuries, or TBI, but the problem isn’t limited to playing fields. In 2009, at least three and a half million people in the U.S. sustained a TBI, either with or without other injuries. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa McGuire discusses the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries.  Created: 3/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  9. Aerosol Filtration Application Using Fibrous Media An Industrial Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传芳

    2012-01-01

    Filtration of aerosol particles using non-woven fibrous media is a common practice for air cleaning. It has found wide applications in industries and our daily lives. This paper overviews some of these applications and provides an industrial perspective. It starts from discussing aerosol filtration theory, followed by a brief review on the advancement of filtration media. After that, filtration applications in respiratory protection, dust collection, and engine in-take air cleaning are elaborated. These are the areas that the author sees as the typical needed ones in China's fast pace economical development endeavor, where air filtration enables the protection of human health, environment and equipment for sustainability.

  10. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating envir...

  11. Rotary filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  12. Inhibition of histone deacetylation protects wildtype but not gelsolin-deficient mice from ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ferah; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Christoph; Fink, Klaus B; Meisel, Andreas; Endres, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    Acetylation/deactylation of histones is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and chromatin remodeling. We have previously demonstrated that the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) protects cortical neurons from oxygen/glucose deprivation in vitro which is mediated--at least in part--via the up regulation of gelsolin expression. Here, we demonstrate that TSA treatment dose-dependently enhances histone acetylation in brains of wildtype mice as evidenced by immunoblots of total brain lysates and immunocytochemical staining. Along with increased histone acetylation dose-dependent up regulation of gelsolin protein was observed. Levels of filamentous actin were largely decreased by TSA pre-treatment in brain of wildtype but not gelsolin-deficient mice. When exposed to 1 h filamentous occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by reperfusion TSA pre-treated wildtype mice developed significantly smaller cerebral lesion volumes and tended to have improved neurological deficit scores compared to vehicle-treated mice. These protective effects could not be explained by apparent changes in physiological parameters. In contrast to wildtype mice, TSA pre-treatment did not protect gelsolin-deficient mice against MCAo/reperfusion suggesting that enhanced gelsolin expression is an important mechanism by which TSA protects against ischemic brain injury. Our results suggest that HDAC inhibitors such as TSA are a promising therapeutic strategy for reducing brain injury following cerebral ischemia.

  13. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  14. Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP, a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. METHODS: C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption after MCAO. RESULTS: LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.

  15. Protective effects of arginine on fetal brain under maternal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Enanat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Arginine by regulating the biological activity of the brain plays an important role in reducing stress. Today's, stress is one of the century disease that created many problem.  This study conducted to determine the protective effect of arginine on nitric oxide levels in maternal fetal brain tissue under stress. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (200-250 gr were randomly divided into four groups. With and without stress groups received arginine (200 mg/kg intraperitoneal from 5 – 20 days of pregnancies. Control with and sham without stress received 2 ml of normal saline. The pregnant rats were anesthetized by ketamine (100 mg/kg on the day 20 then the fetuses removed and weighed. Twenty five brain of fetal brain rat from each group were chosen for measuring of forebrain thickness and brain volume. Another 25 brain were chosen for measuring of nitric oxide. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: Nitric oxide Levels reduced in stress rats treated with arginine compared to control group (P<0.05. The mean thickness of forebrain and hippicampal formation decreased in stress rats versus unstressed, but was not significant. The mean weight decreased significantly in stress group compared to the unstressed group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Arginine could protect the brain tissue and fetal weight by reducing the level of oxidative stress in the pregnant rats.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for Neuron-Derived Conditioned Medium (NCM)-Mediated Protection of Ischemic Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hsin; Wang, Chen-Hsuan; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-An; Hsueh, Chi-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The protective value of neuron-derived conditioned medium (NCM) in cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia were investigated in the study. NCM was first collected from the neuronal culture growing under the in vitro ischemic condition (glucose-, oxygen- and serum-deprivation or GOSD) for 2, 4 or 6 h. Through the focal cerebral ischemia (bilateral CCAO/unilateral MCAO) animal model, we discovered that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain infarction was significantly reduced by NCM, given directly into the cistern magna at the end of 90 min of CCAO/MCAO. Immunoblocking and chemical blocking strategies were applied in the in vitro ischemic studies to show that NCM supplement could protect microglia, astrocytes and neurons from GOSD-induced cell death, in a growth factor (TGFβ1, NT-3 and GDNF) and p-ERK dependent manner. Brain injection with TGFβ1, NT3, GDNF and ERK agonist (DADS) alone or in combination, therefore also significantly decreased the infarct volume of ischemic brain. Moreover, NCM could inhibit ROS but stimulate IL-1β release from GOSD-treated microglia and limit the infiltration of IL-β-positive microglia into the core area of ischemic brain, revealing the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of NCM. In overall, NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia has been demonstrated for the first time in S.D. rats, due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and potentially anti-glutamate activities (NCM-induced IL-1β can inhibit the glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity) and restriction upon the infiltration of inflammatory microglia into the core area of ischemic brain. The therapeutic potentials of NCM, TGFβ1, GDNF, NT-3 and DADS in the control of cerebral ischemia in human therefore have been suggested and require further investigation.

  17. Lipocalin-2 protects the brain during inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S S; Ren, Y; Liu, C-C; Kurti, A; Baker, K E; Bu, G; Asmann, Y; Fryer, J D

    2017-01-10

    Sepsis is a prevalent health issue that can lead to central nervous system (CNS) inflammation with long-term behavioral and cognitive alterations. Using unbiased proteomic profiling of over 100 different cytokines, we found that Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) was the most substantially elevated protein in the CNS after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To determine whether the high level of LCN2 in the CNS is protective or deleterious, we challenged Lcn2(-/-) mice with peripheral LPS and determined effects on behavior and neuroinflammation. At a time corresponding to peak LCN2 induction in wild-type (WT) mice injected with LPS, Lcn2(-/-) mice challenged with LPS had exacerbated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and exhibited significantly worsened behavioral phenotypes. To determine the extent of global inflammatory changes dependent upon LCN2, we performed an RNAseq transcriptomic analysis. Compared with WT mice injected with LPS, Lcn2(-/-) mice injected with LPS had unique transcriptional profiles and significantly elevated levels of multiple pro-inflammatory molecules. Several LCN2-dependent pathways were revealed with this analysis including, cytokine and chemokine signaling, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling. These findings demonstrate that LCN2 serves as a potent protective factor in the CNS in response to systemic inflammation and may be a potential candidate for limiting sepsis-related CNS sequelae.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.243.

  18. The protective effect of HET0016 on brain edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Di; Wang, Huan; Qu, Youyang; Xiao, Xingjun; Zhu, Yulan

    2014-01-28

    N-hydroxy-N-(4-butyl-2-methylphenyl) formamidine (HET0016) is a specific 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) inhibitor which was first synthesized in 2001. It has been demonstrated that HET0016 reduces cerebral infarction volume in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. However, little is known about the role of HET0016 in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study was designed to examine the effect of HET0016 in a MCAO and reperfusion rat model to determine whether it protects against brain edema and BBB disruption. Rats were subjected to 90 min MCAO, followed by 4, 24, 48, and 72 h reperfusion. Brain edema was measured according to the wet and dry weight method. BBB permeability based on the extravasation of Evans blue and sodium fluorescein was detected. BBB ultrastructure alterations were presented through transmission electron microscope. Superoxide production in ischemic tissue was also measured by dihydroethidium fluorescent probe. Western blot was used to analyze the expression of Claudin-5, ZO-1, MMP-9, and JNK pathway. At 24h after reperfusion, HET0016 reduced brain edema and BBB leakage. Ultrastructural damage of BBB and the increase of superoxide production were attenuated by HET0016 treatment. Western blot showed that HET0016 suppressed the activation of MMP-9 and JNK pathway but restored the expression of Claudin-5 and ZO-1. In conclusion, these results suggest that HET0016 protects BBB dysfunction after I/R by regulating the expression of MMP-9 and tight junction proteins. Furthermore, inhibition of oxidative stress and JNK pathway may be involved in this protecting effect.

  19. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  20. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on brain-dead rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-Jun Zhang; Ting-Wu Ma; Xiu-Xian Ma; Jian-Jun Gou; Ji-Hua Shi; Wen-Zhi Guo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-dead donors have been the main sources in organ transplantation. But many studies show that brain-death affects the organ's function after transplantation. This study was undertaken to investigate liver injury after brain-death in rats and the protective effects of N-acetyleysteine (NAC) on liver injury. METHODS: A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: normal control group (C), brain-dead group (B), and NAC pretreatment group (N). At 4 hours after the establishment of a brain-dead model, serum was collected to determine the levels of ALT, AST, TNF-α and hyaluronic acid (HA). Hepatic tissue was obtained for electron microscopic examination. RESULTS:At 4 hours, the levels of ALT, AST, TNF-α, and HA in group N were signiifcantly higher than those in group C, but these parameters were signiifcantly lower than those in group B. Electron microscopy showed activated Kupffer cells, denuded sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), and widened fenestration in group B, but eliminated activation of Kupffer cells and intact SECs in group N. CONCLUSION: Brain death can cause liver injury, and N-acetyleysteine can protect the liver from the injury.

  1. Protective effects of melatonin on the ionizing radiation induced DNA damage in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeger, Ulko; Giray, Belma; Zorlu, A Faruk; Oge, Kamil; Baçaran, Nurçen

    2004-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenously produced antioxidant with radioprotective actions while ionizing radiation is a well-known cytotoxic and mutagenic agent of which the biological results are attributable to its free radical producing effects. The effect of melatonin on the DNA strand breakage and lipid peroxidation induced by ionizing radiation in the rat brain were investigated in order to clarify its radioprotective ability. The DNA strand breakage in rat brain exposed to 1000 cGy ionizing radiation was assessed by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis and the lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations. A significant increase in DNA damage (p radiation treated rat brain. Pre-treatment of rats with intraperitoneal doses of 100 mg/kg melatonin provided a significant decrease in the DNA strand breakage and lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that melatonin can protect brain cells from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  2. Intranasal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects brain from ischemic insult via modulating local inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Wei, N; Lu, T; Zhu, J; Xu, G; Liu, X

    2011-01-13

    Inflammation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may protect brain tissues from ischemic injury. In this study, we investigated whether intranasal BDNF exerted neuroprotection against ischemic insult by modulating the local inflammation in rats with ischemic stroke. Rats were subjected to temporary occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (120 min) and intranasal BDNF or vehicle was adminstrated 2 h after reperfusion. Infarct volume and neuron injury were measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride, Nissl staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. Microglia were detected by immunohistofluorescence. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin10 and mRNAs were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. BDNF level in brain tissues was markedly raised following intranasal administration. There were more Nissl positive and less TUNEL positive neurons in BDNF group than in control group while intranasal BDNF did not reduce the infarct volume significantly (n=6, 0.27±0.04 vs. 0.24±0.05, P>0.05). BDNF increased the number of activated microglia (OX-42 positive) and phagocytotic microglia (ED1 positive). BDNF suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α and mRNA expression while increasing the interleukin10 and mRNA expression. BDNF also increased DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (n=6, 49.78±1.23 vs. 52.89±1.64, PBDNF might protect the brain against ischemic insult by modulating local inflammation via regulation of the levels of cellular, cytokine and transcription factor in the experimental stroke.

  3. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema.

  4. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Media representations of early human development: protecting, feeding and loving the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2013-11-01

    The public profile of neurodevelopmental research has expanded in recent years. This paper applies social representations theory to explore how early brain development was represented in the UK print media in the first decade of the 21st century. A thematic analysis was performed on 505 newspaper articles published between 2000 and 2010 that discussed early brain development. Media coverage centred around concern with 'protecting' the prenatal brain (identifying threats to foetal neurodevelopment), 'feeding' the infant brain (indicating the patterns of nutrition that enhance brain development) and 'loving' the young child's brain (elucidating the developmental significance of emotionally nurturing family environments). The media focused almost exclusively on the role of parental action in promoting optimal neurodevelopment, rarely acknowledging wider structural, cultural or political means of supporting child development. The significance of parental care was intensified by deterministic interpretations of critical periods, which implied that inappropriate parental input would produce profound and enduring neurobiological impairments. Neurodevelopmental research was also used to promulgate normative judgements concerning the acceptability of certain gender roles and family contexts. The paper argues that media representations of neurodevelopment stress parental responsibility for shaping a child's future while relegating the contributions of genetic or wider societal factors, and examines the consequences of these representations for society and family life.

  6. Pentosan polysulfate protects brain endothelial cells against bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veszelka, Szilvia; Pásztói, Mária; Farkas, Attila E; Krizbai, István; Ngo, Thi Khue Dung; Niwa, Masami; Abrahám, Csongor S; Deli, Mária A

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation can aggravate local brain inflammation and neuronal death. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key player in the event. On a relevant in vitro model of primary rat brain endothelial cells co-cultured with primary rat astroglia cells lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in several BBB functions have been investigated. LPS-treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the integrity of endothelial monolayers: transendothelial electrical resistance dropped, while flux of permeability markers fluorescein and albumin significantly increased. Immunostaining for junctional proteins ZO-1, claudin-5 and beta-catenin was significantly weaker in LPS-treated endothelial cells than in control monolayers. LPS also reduced the intensity and changed the pattern of ZO-1 immunostaining in freshly isolated rat brain microvessels. The activity of P-glycoprotein, an important efflux pump at the BBB, was also inhibited by LPS. At the same time production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide was increased in brain endothelial cells treated with LPS. Pentosan polysulfate, a polyanionic polysaccharide could reduce the deleterious effects of LPS on BBB permeability, and P-glycoprotein activity. LPS-stimulated increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide was also decreased by pentosan treatment. The protective effect of pentosan for brain endothelium can be of therapeutical significance in bacterial infections affecting the BBB.

  7. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

  8. The Protective Effect of Rosuvastatin on Ischemic Brain Injury and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the protective effect of rosuvastatin on ischemic brain injury and its mechanism,in on ischemic brain injury and its mechanism,focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)-luminal filament technique. The cerebral blood flow was monitored with laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). The slices of brain tissue were stained with cresyl-violet. The cerebral e quantified with ImageJ software. The expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and activated caspase-3 were detected with Western blot. The inducible NO were immunohistochemically observed. The results demonstrated that rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg) could remarkably decrease infarct volume and cerebral edema after MCAO ots showed that the expression of eNOS in cerebral cortex before and after ischemia was (100±43.3) %, (1668.9±112.2) % respectively (P<0.001), rosuvastatin gulated the expression of eNOS in non-ischemic cortex (P<0.001), whereas in ischemic cortex of rosuvastatin group the expression of eNOS was (1678.8±121.3) %. There was no hemic cortex, nonetheless the expression of activated caspase-3 increased after ischemia, and rosuvastatin significantly diminished it (P<0.01). Immunoaled no iNOS-positive cells in non-ischemic brain area, while in ischemic brain area the number of iNOS positive cells went up, and rosuvastatin could significantly reduced them.'s neural protection on ischemic brain injury are to enhance expression of eNOS, to inhibit expression of iNOS and activated caspase-3.mia/reperfusion; NOS; caspase-3

  9. Protective effects of selenium on cadmium-induced brain damage in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Li; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Yao, Hai-Dong; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important dietary micronutrient with antioxidative roles. Cadmium (Cd), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is known to cause brain lesion in rats and humans. However, little is reported about the deleterious effects of subchronic Cd exposure on the brain of poultry and the protective roles on the brain by Se against Cd. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Se on Cd-induced brain damage in chickens. One hundred twenty 100-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and were fed a basal diet, or Se (as 10 mg Na2SeO3/kg dry weight of feed), Cd (as 150 mg CdCl2/kg dry weight of feed), or Cd + Se in their basic diets for 60 days. Then, concentrations of Cd and Se, production of nitric oxide (NO), messenger RNA (mRNA) level and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), level of oxidative stress, and histological and ultrastructural changes of the cerebrum and cerebellum were examined. The results showed that Cd exposure significantly increased Cd accumulation, NO production, iNOS activities, iNOS mRNA level, and MDA content in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Cd treatment obviously decreased Se content and antioxidase activities and caused histopathological changes in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Se supplementation during dietary Cd obviously reduced Cd accumulation, NO production, mRNA level and activity of iNOS, oxidative stress, and histopathological damage in the cerebrum and cerebellum of chickens. It indicated that Se ameliorates Cd-induced brain damage in chickens by regulating iNOS-NO system changes, and oxidative stress induced by Cd and Se can serve as a potential therapeutic for Cd-induced brain lesion of chickens.

  10. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....

  11. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  12. A TIGAR-regulated metabolic pathway is critical for protection of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Sun, Meiling; Cao, Lijuan; Gu, Jin-hua; Ge, Jianbin; Chen, Jieyu; Han, Rong; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Yuqiang; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2014-05-28

    TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) inhibits glycolysis and increases the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which generates NADPH and pentose. We hypothesized that TIGAR plays a neuroprotective role in brain ischemia as neurons do not rely on glycolysis but are vulnerable to oxidative stress. We found that TIGAR was highly expressed in brain neurons and was rapidly upregulated in response to ischemia/reperfusion insult in a TP53-independent manner. Overexpression of TIGAR in normal mice with lentivirus reduced ischemic neuronal injury, whereas lentivirus-mediated TIGAR knockdown aggravated it. In cultured primary neurons, increasing TIGAR expression reduced oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation-induced injury, whereas decreasing its expression worsened the injury. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was upregulated in mouse and cellular models of stroke, and its upregulation was further enhanced by overexpression of TIGAR. Supplementation of NADPH also reduced ischemia/reperfusion brain injury and alleviated TIGAR knockdown-induced aggravation of ischemic injury. In animal and cellular stroke models, ischemia/reperfusion increased mitochondrial localization of TIGAR. OGD/reoxygenation-induced elevation of ROS, reduction of GSH, dysfunction of mitochondria, and activation of caspase-3 were rescued by overexpression of TIGAR or supplementation of NADPH, while knockdown of TIGAR aggravated these changes. Together, our results show that TIGAR protects ischemic brain injury via enhancing PPP flux and preserving mitochondria function, and thus may be a valuable therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury.

  13. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrůza Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  14. The protective effect of Nigella sativa oil in the brain of the biliary obstructed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Zerrin Toklu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms of jaundice induced encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa (NS seed oil against the oxidative stress of brain tissue induced by experimentalobstructive jaundice in rats.BiliarY obstruction was performed in male Wistar albino rats by bile duct ligation and scission (BDL. Intragastric NS oil (1 mg/kg p.o. or saline was administered for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, in the half of the rats the blood brain barrier (BBB permeability wasevaluated by Evans blue (EB extravasation. Other rats were decapitated and brain tissue samples were obtained for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione(GSH levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO and Na+,K+-ATPase activities.ChronIC biliary obstruction caused a significant increase in the BBB permeability which was verified by EB extravasation while this effect was attenuated by NS oil treatment. On the other hand, BDL-induced decrease in brain GSH level and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were el-evated back to control level in NS oil-treated BDL group. Increase in tissue MDA level, and MPO activity due to BDL were also attenuated by NS oil treatment.Our results suggest that NS oil treatment protects the brain from oxidative damage following bile duct ligation in rats. This effect possibly involves the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation and the restoration of antioxidant status in the tissue. Accordingly, supplementing cirrhotic patients with adjuvant therapy of NS oil may have some benefit against hepatic encephalopathy

  15. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Elevated global SUMOylation in Ubc9 transgenic mice protects their brains against focal cerebral ischemic damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ja Lee

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that a massive increase in global SUMOylation occurs during torpor in ground squirrels, and that overexpression of Ubc9 and/or SUMO-1 in cell lines and cortical neurons protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation. To examine whether increased global SUMOylation protects against ischemic brain damage, we have generated transgenic mice in which Ubc9 is expressed strongly in all tissues under the chicken β-actin promoter. Ubc9 expression levels in 10 founder lines ranged from 2 to 30 times the endogenous level, and lines that expressed Ubc9 at modestly increased levels showed robust resistance to brain ischemia compared to wild type mice. The infarction size was inversely correlated with the Ubc9 expression levels for up to five times the endogenous level. Although further increases showed no additional benefit, the Ubc9 expression level was highly correlated with global SUMO-1 conjugation levels (and SUMO-2,3 levels to a lesser extent up to a five-fold Ubc9 increase. Most importantly, there were striking reciprocal relationships between SUMO-1 (and SUMO-2,3 conjugation levels and cerebral infarction volumes among all tested animals, suggesting that the limit in cytoprotection by global SUMOylation remains undefined. These results support efforts to further augment global protein SUMOylation in brain ischemia.

  17. Protective effects of endomorphins, endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Xue, Li-Ying; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Qian-Yu; Chen, Qiang

    2006-03-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with oxidative stress. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) exists in the brain and is especially sensitive to oxidative damage. Oxidative modification of LDL has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, protecting LDL from oxidation may be essential in the brain. The antioxidative effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2), endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, on LDL oxidation has been investigated in vitro. The peroxidation was initiated by either copper ions or a water-soluble initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). Oxidation of the LDL lipid moiety was monitored by measuring conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the relative electrophoretic mobility. Low density lipoprotein oxidative modifications were assessed by evaluating apoB carbonylation and fragmentation. Endomorphins markedly and in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited Cu2+ and AAPH induced the oxidation of LDL, due to the free radical scavenging effects of endomorphins. In all assay systems, EM1 was more potent than EM2 and l-glutathione, a major intracellular water-soluble antioxidant. We propose that endomorphins provide protection against free radical-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. [Protective effect of salidroside against high altitude hypoxia-induced brain injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoru; Zhang, Xiangnan; Li, Dan; Li, Bin; Wang, Jiye; Meng, Shanshan; Luo, Wenjing; Zhang, Wenbin

    2015-10-01

    To observe the protective effect of salidroside against brain injury in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, and investigate the molecular mechanism of salidroside in the prevention of hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury. Rats were placed in experiment module simulating 6000 m altitude to establish acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury models. Their respiratory frequency was observed and recorded. Cell apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) was detected by TUNEL assay; the expressions of Ras homolog family member A (RhoA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) were detected by Western blotting. After acute exposure to 6000 m altitude, the respiratory frequency of the rats increased remarkably. The simulation of hypobaric hypoxia induced cell apoptosis in hippocampal DG region, and salidroside intervention inhibited the process of cell apoptosis. The expressions of RhoA, p-ERK, p-JNK decreased after hypobaric hypoxia exposure. Salidroside intervention reversed RhoA expression and raised the levels of p-ERK and p-JNK. Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia can induce cell apoptosis in rat hippocampal DG, and salidroside can protect the cells from the exposure-induced apoptosis.

  19. Treatment with Isorhamnetin Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Jing; Song, Jin-Qing; Pan, Shu-Yi; Wang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. The aim of this work was to investigate whether treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Experimental stroke mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion. Treatment with isorhamnetin or vehicle was initiated immediately at the onset of reperfusion. It was found that treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin reduced infarct volume and caspase-3 activity (a biomarker of apoptosis), and improved neurological function recovery. Treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin attenuated cerebral edema, improved blood-brain barrier function, and upregulated gene expression of tight junction proteins including occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-5. Treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin activated Nrf2/HO-1, suppressed iNOS/NO, and led to reduced formation of MDA and 3-NT in ipsilateral cortex. In addition, treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin suppressed activity of MPO (a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration) and reduced protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in ipsilateral cortex. Furthermore, it was found that treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin reduced mRNA and protein expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR1 in ipsilateral cortex. In conclusion, treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Isorhamnetin could thus be envisaged as a countermeasure for ischemic stroke but remains to be tested in humans.

  20. Glucocorticoids Protect Neonatal Rat Brain in Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Benjamin; Conception, Katherine; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from asphyxia in the peripartum period is the most common cause of neonatal brain damage and can result in significant neurologic sequelae, including cerebral palsy. Currently therapeutic hypothermia is the only accepted treatment in addition to supportive care for infants with HIE, however, many additional neuroprotective therapies have been investigated. Of these, glucocorticoids have previously been shown to have neuroprotective effects. HIE is also frequently compounded by infectious inflammatory processes (sepsis) and as such, the infants may be more amenable to treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, the present study investigated dexamethasone and hydrocortisone treatment given after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in neonatal rats via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection and intranasal administration. In addition, we examined the effects of hydrocortisone treatment in HIE after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitization in a model of HIE and sepsis. We found that dexamethasone significantly reduced rat brain infarction size when given after HI treatment via ICV injection; however it did not demonstrate any neuroprotective effects when given intranasally. Hydrocortisone after HI insult also significantly reduced brain infarction size when given via ICV injection; and the intranasal administration showed to be protective of brain injury in male rats at a dose of 300 µg. LPS sensitization did significantly increase the brain infarction size compared to controls, and hydrocortisone treatment after LPS sensitization showed a significant decrease in brain infarction size when given via ICV injection, as well as intranasal administration in both genders at a dose of 300 µg. To conclude, these results show that glucocorticoids have significant neuroprotective effects when given after HI injury and that these effects may be even more pronounced when given in circumstances of additional inflammatory injury, such

  1. Blockade of N-acetylaspartylglutamate peptidases: a novel protective strategy for brain injuries and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunlong; Luo, Qizhong; Jiang, Jiyao

    2014-12-01

    The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is reported to suppress glutamate release mainly through selective activation of presynaptic Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3). Therefore, strategies of inhibition of NAAG peptidases and subsequent NAAG hydrolysis to elevate levels of NAAG could reduce glutamate release under pathological conditions and be neuroprotective by attenuating excitotoxic cell injury. A series of potent inhibitors of NAAG peptidases has been synthesized and demonstrated efficacy in experimental models of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory pain, diabetic neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and phencyclidine-induced schizophrenia-like behaviors. The excessive glutamatergic transmission has been implicated in all of these neurological disorders. Thus, blockade of NAAG peptidases may augment an endogenous protective mechanism and afford neuroprotection in the brain. This review aims to summarize and provide insight into the current understanding of the novel neuroprotective strategy based on limiting glutamate excitotoxicity for a wide variety of brain injuries and neurological disorders.

  2. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” – often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level.

  3. Protection of GBE50 on brain mitochondria in rats with hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaiSUN; GangLIU; Yun-xuanZHANG; Ghen-liangYIN; Gaj-junTIAN; Jia-huPAN

    2005-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effects of the new standardized preparation of Ginkgo biloba extracts(GBE50) anainst brain mitochondrial damages induced by hyperlipemia in rats. METHODS Rat model with hyperlipemia was established by feeding the young male SD rats (3 weeks after born) with high lipid food for 3 months. Then the rats were treated with different dosage of GBE50(ig) for 4 weeks. The prophylaxis rat group were fed with the mixture of high lipid food and GBE50 (50mg/kg/d). The brain mitochondria was separated for determination of the R3, R4 and RCR of the respiration function with the method of Clark's electrode. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential(Δψm) was derected by the Rho123 assay and the cytochrome c release was checked by spectrography. In addition, the parameters of oxidative stress (the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and the MDA leve) and the activities of ATPase were assayed.

  4. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

    1999-10-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  5. Protective effect of bacoside A on cigarette smoking-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the structure and function of mitochondria, which may account for the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases. Bacopa monniera Linn., used in traditional Indian medicine for various neurological disorders, was shown to possess mitrochondrial membrane-stabilizing properties in the rat brain during exposure to morphine. We investigated the protective effect of bacoside A, the active principle of Bacopa monniera, against mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain induced by cigarette smoke. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and administered bacoside A for a period of 12 weeks. The mitochondrial damage in the brain was assessed by examining the levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, and the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase. The oxidative phosphorylation (rate of succinate oxidation, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio, and the levels of ATP) was evaluated for the assessment of mitochondrial functional capacity. We found significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, and C/P ratio, and decreased levels of phospholipids and mitochondrial enzymes in the rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation revealed a marked depletion in all the variables studied. Administration of bacoside A prevented the structural and functional impairment of mitochondria upon exposure to cigarette smoke. From the results, we suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces damage to the mitochondria and that bacoside A protects the brain from this damage by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane.

  6. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  7. Filtration by eyelashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  8. Tailored deep brain stimulation optimization for improved airway protective outcomes in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Troche

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus regarding the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery on swallowing outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD. No prospective studies have compared airway protective outcomes following DBS to the subthalamic nucleus (STN versus globus pallidus interna (GPi. A recent retrospective study described swallowing outcomes pre- and post-STN vs. GPi DBS in a cohort of 34 patients with PD. The results revealed that the patients who received GPi DBS maintained their swallowing function post-DBS, while those in the STN group significantly worsened in swallowing safety. As DBS surgery becomes a common management option in PD it is important to understand the impact of DBS on airway protective outcomes; especially given that aspiration pneumonia is the leading cause of death in this population. We present a case report in which optimizing DBS settings with the goal of improving laryngeal function resulted in immediate improvements to swallowing safety.

  9. The Protective Effects of Sufentanil Pretreatment on Rat Brains under the State of Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Man; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Li-Shen; Dong, Ai-Ping; Shen, Shu-Wei; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the protective effects of sufentanil pretreatment on rat cerebral injury during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Twenty-four male adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups. Then, the rat CPB model was established. A 14G trocar was inserted into the atrium dextrum. For rats in S1 and S5 groups, sufentanil (1 µgKg(-1) and 5 µgKg(-1)) were applied before CPB process. After the operation, rat brain samples were harvested for measurement of the water content of the brains, total calcium in brain tissue and the level of serum S100β. Compared with the Sham group, the water content and the total calcium of the brain tissue, and the expression of S100β in serum were significantly increased in the CPB group (PCPB group, sufentanil treatment significantly reduced the water content of the brains, the total calcium and S100β expression (PCPB, S1, and S5 compared with Sham group during CPB. Compared with the Sham group, the levels of pH and blood lactate in other groups were decreased and increased, respectively, in the post-CPB period. During the CPB and post-CPB periods, the hematocrit levels were significantly down-regulated in groups CPB, S1, and S5 compared with Sham group. In conclusion, sufentanil pretreatment was effective in reducing the cerebral injury during CPB. Reduction in calcium overload may be a potential mechanism in such process.

  10. α-linolenic omega-3 fatty acid for stroke protection: from brain preconditioning paradigm to nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondeau Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third leading cause of death, due to its high incidence, the severity of the insult, and lack of treatment options. The only therapeutic is restoration of cerebral blood flow achieved by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment, but only approximately 5% of patients receive it. In addition, therapeutics aimed at achieving neuroprotection by blocking the ischemic cascade, as identified in numerous preclinical studies, failed in clinical trials. This failure in translation from experimental models to clinical trials led to a re-evaluation of properties which would constitute the ‘‘best-in class’’ therapeutics to be used against stroke. Given that neuroprotection appears ineffective per se, an emerging direction is to identify therapies, probably combinatorial in nature, which protect the whole neurovascular unit and target timedependent neurotoxic mechanisms. Molecules that activate complex cellular signaling cascades that render the brain resistant to subsequent ischemia, known as preconditioners, offer a novel perspective in stroke protection. Preconditioning elicits complex endogenous neuroprotective responses that act by pleiotropic mechanisms to block death pathways, promote survival pathways and increase resistance. In addition to chemical preconditioners, natural/endogenous compounds such as adenosine, glutamate, lysophospholipids, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated to be excellent preconditioners. Consequently, a major new concept in preconditioning to combat stroke is introduced, which is preconditioning achieved through supplementation of an essential item in diet or as a nutraceutical. Several epidemiologic studies suggested a beneficial effect of a seafood/omega-3-enriched diet in cerebral diseases, but the omega-3-induced protective mechanisms are still poorly identified. This review highlights how α-linolenic acid (ALA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor

  11. Enlargements of filtrations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corcuera, J M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review some old and new results about the enlargement of filtrations problem, as well as their applications to credit risk and insider trading problems. The enlargement of filtrations problem consists in the study of conditions under which a semimartingale remains a semimartingale when the filtration is enlarged, and, in such a case, how to find the Doob-Meyer decomposition. Filtrations may be enlarged in different ways. In this paper we consider initial and progressive filtration enlargements made by random variables and processes. Keywords: Credit Risk, Insider Trading, Enlargement of Filtrations

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  13. 40 CFR 141.717 - Pre-filtration treatment toolbox components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-filtration treatment toolbox... Cryptosporidium Requirements for Microbial Toolbox Components § 141.717 Pre-filtration treatment toolbox... softening stages prior to filtration. Both softening stages must treat the entire plant flow taken from...

  14. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

  15. Protective effects of Guizhi-Fuling-Capsules on rat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie-Jun; Qiu, Yan; Mao, Jun-Qin; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Rui, Yao-Cheng; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies revealed that Guizhi-Fuling-Capsules (GZFLC), a traditional Chinese medical (Kampo) formulation composed of five kinds of medicinal plants, Cinnamomum cassia BLUME (Cinnamomi Cortex), Paeonia lactiflora PALL. (Peonies Radix), Paeonia suffruticosa ANDREWS (Moutan Cortex), Prunus persica BATSCH (Persicae Semen), and Poria cocos WOLF (Hoelen), exerts a protective effect against vascular injury and has a protective effect against glutamate- or nitro oxide-mediated neuronal damage. In the present study, the effect of GZFLC in a rat in vivo model of focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion was investigated. Administration of GZFLC (0.3 and 0.9 g/kg, p.o.) after focal cerebral ischemia significantly decreased brain infarction and water contents in rats subjected to 2-h ischemia followed by 24-h reperfusion from 31.72 +/- 2.49%, 84.76 +/- 1.63% in the model group to 17.31 +/- 3.66%, 82.51 +/- 1.36% and 8.30 +/- 3.73%, 81.35 +/- 1.73%, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of inflammatory cytokines in ischemic brain showed that GZFLC treatment significantly down-regulated expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta and tissue necrosis factor-alpha and markedly up-regulated expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-10R both in mRNA and protein levels. The serum levels of these inflammatory cytokines were also regulated the same way. These results suggested that GZFLC may be beneficial for the treatment of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury partly due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Ischemic conditioning-induced endogenous brain protection: Applications pre-, per- or post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuechun; Reis, Cesar; Applegate, Richard; Stier, Gary; Martin, Robert; Zhang, John H

    2015-10-01

    In the area of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases, a plethora of experimental and clinical evidence strongly indicates the promise of therapeutically exploiting the endogenous adaptive system at various levels like triggers, mediators and the end-effectors to stimulate and mobilize intrinsic protective capacities against brain injuries. It is believed that ischemic pre-conditioning and post-conditioning are actually the strongest known interventions to stimulate the innate neuroprotective mechanism to prevent or reverse neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and traumatic brain injury. Recently, studies showed the effectiveness of ischemic per-conditioning in some organs. Therefore the term ischemic conditioning, including all interventions applied pre-, per- and post-ischemia, which spans therapeutic windows in 3 time periods, has recently been broadly accepted by scientific communities. In addition, it is extensively acknowledged that ischemia-mediated protection not only affects the neurons but also all the components of the neurovascular network (consisting of neurons, glial cells, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and venule/veins). The concept of cerebroprotection has been widely used in place of neuroprotection. Intensive studies on the cellular signaling pathways involved in ischemic conditioning have improved the mechanistic understanding of tolerance to cerebral ischemia. This has added impetus to exploration for potential pharmacologic mimetics, which could possibly induce and maximize inherent protective capacities. However, most of these studies were performed in rodents, and the efficacy of these mimetics remains to be evaluated in human patients. Several classical signaling pathways involving apoptosis, inflammation, or oxidation have been elaborated in the past decades. Newly characterized mechanisms are emerging with the advances in biotechnology and conceptual renewal. In this review we are going to focus on

  17. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  18. Overexpression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protects against Brain Injury Induced by Chronic Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Nahla; Patel, Hardik; Codipilly, Champa; Marambaud, Philippe; Dewey, Stephen; Frattini, Stephen; Huerta, Patricio T.; Nasim, Mansoor; Miller, Edmund J.; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an isoform of SOD normally found both intra- and extra-cellularly and accounting for most SOD activity in blood vessels. Here we explored the role of EC-SOD in protecting against brain damage induced by chronic hypoxia. EC-SOD Transgenic mice, were exposed to hypoxia (FiO2.1%) for 10 days (H-KI) and compared to transgenic animals housed in room air (RA-KI), wild type animals exposed to hypoxia (H-WT or wild type mice housed in room air (RA-WT). Overall brain metabolism evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET) showed that H-WT mice had significantly higher uptake of 18FDG in the brain particularly the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. H-KI mice had comparable uptake to the RA-KI and RA-WT groups. To investigate the functional state of the hippocampus, electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo hippocampal slices were performed and showed that H-KI had normal synaptic plasticity, whereas H-WT were severely affected. Markers of oxidative stress, GFAP, IBA1, MIF, and pAMPK showed similar values in the H-KI and RA-WT groups, but were significantly increased in the H-WT group. Caspase-3 assay and histopathological studies showed significant apoptosis/cell damage in the H-WT group, but no significant difference in the H-KI group compared to the RA groups. The data suggest that EC-SOD has potential prophylactic and therapeutic roles in diseases with compromised brain oxygenation. PMID:25268361

  19. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase protects against brain injury induced by chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Zaghloul

    Full Text Available Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is an isoform of SOD normally found both intra- and extra-cellularly and accounting for most SOD activity in blood vessels. Here we explored the role of EC-SOD in protecting against brain damage induced by chronic hypoxia. EC-SOD Transgenic mice, were exposed to hypoxia (FiO2.1% for 10 days (H-KI and compared to transgenic animals housed in room air (RA-KI, wild type animals exposed to hypoxia (H-WT or wild type mice housed in room air (RA-WT. Overall brain metabolism evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET showed that H-WT mice had significantly higher uptake of 18FDG in the brain particularly the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. H-KI mice had comparable uptake to the RA-KI and RA-WT groups. To investigate the functional state of the hippocampus, electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo hippocampal slices were performed and showed that H-KI had normal synaptic plasticity, whereas H-WT were severely affected. Markers of oxidative stress, GFAP, IBA1, MIF, and pAMPK showed similar values in the H-KI and RA-WT groups, but were significantly increased in the H-WT group. Caspase-3 assay and histopathological studies showed significant apoptosis/cell damage in the H-WT group, but no significant difference in the H-KI group compared to the RA groups. The data suggest that EC-SOD has potential prophylactic and therapeutic roles in diseases with compromised brain oxygenation.

  20. Protective and Antioxidant Effects of a Chalconoid from Pulicaria incisa on Brain Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Elmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, by activity-guided fractionation, we have purified from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa two protective compounds and determined their structures by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were found to be new chalcones—pulichalconoid B and pulichalconoid C. This is the first study to characterize the antioxidant and protective effects of these compounds in any biological system. Using primary cultures of astrocytes, we have found that pulichalconoid B attenuated the accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with hydrogen peroxide by 89% and prevented 89% of the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. Pulichalconoid B exhibited an antioxidant effect both in vitro and in the cellular antioxidant assay in astrocytes and microglial cells. Pulichalconoid B also caused a fourfold increase in GDNF transcription in these cells. Thus, this chalcone deserves further studies in order to evaluate if beneficial therapeutic effect exists.

  1. Protective and antioxidant effects of a chalconoid from Pulicaria incisa on brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Erlank, Hilla; Mordechay, Sharon; Rindner, Miriam; Ofir, Rivka; Kashman, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, by activity-guided fractionation, we have purified from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa two protective compounds and determined their structures by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were found to be new chalcones-pulichalconoid B and pulichalconoid C. This is the first study to characterize the antioxidant and protective effects of these compounds in any biological system. Using primary cultures of astrocytes, we have found that pulichalconoid B attenuated the accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with hydrogen peroxide by 89% and prevented 89% of the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. Pulichalconoid B exhibited an antioxidant effect both in vitro and in the cellular antioxidant assay in astrocytes and microglial cells. Pulichalconoid B also caused a fourfold increase in GDNF transcription in these cells. Thus, this chalcone deserves further studies in order to evaluate if beneficial therapeutic effect exists.

  2. The protective effects of dexmedetomidine on ischemic brain injury: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lianxiang; Hu, Meizhu; Lu, Yan; Cao, Ya; Chang, Yan; Dai, Zeping

    2017-08-01

    Intracranial lesions, trauma or surgery-related damage activate immune inflammation and neuroendocrine responses, causing ischemic brain injury. Studies have shown that inflammatory cascade mediated by neuroendocrine hormones and proinflammatory mediators is implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemic brain injury. Alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists, dexmedetomidine, is widely used as neuroprotectants in anesthesia practice. However, it is still lack of a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the neuroprotection of dexmedetomidine against ischemic brain injury via suppressing these two physiological responses. Searched the Cochrane Library, Pub-Med, EMBASE, EBSCO, Ovid, Chinese biological and medical database (CBM). Related literatures published in English or Chinese before January 2017 were enrolled. We assessed the quality of eligible studies and synthesized predefined outcomes with a random-effects model or fixed-effects model. Nineteen Randomized Controlled Trials including 879 patients were included. Findings for meta-analysis of various outcomes were summarised. Primary results shown that compared with placebo, dexmedetomidine reduced a surge of TNF-α [SMD=-2.34, 95%CI (-3.25, -1.44)], IL-6 [SMD=-2.44, 95%CI (-3.40, -1.47)], S100-β [SMD=-2.73, 95%CI (-3.65, -1.82)], NSE [SMD=-1.69, 95%CI (-2.77, -0.61)], cortisol [SMD=-2.48, 95%CI (-3.38, -1.58)] and glucose [SMD=-1.44, 95%CI (-1.85, -1.04)]; maintained the level of SOD [SMD=1.36, 95%CI (0.62, 2.10)]; decreased the rise in CRP level at postoperative one day. In response to stress reaction, dexmedetomidine attenuated the stress-related increasing of MAP, HR and intracranial pressure without significant effects on cerebral oxygen metabolism. Alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists, dexmedetomidine, could reduce the release of inflammatory mediators and neuroendocrine hormones as well as maintain intracranial homoeostasis, alleviating ischemic brain injury and exerting an effect on brain protection. Copyright © 2017

  3. Protective effects of tetrandrine on brain cells in phenobarbital-dependent and -withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Fu, Ping; Ye, Yun; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on the brain cells of phenobarbital‑dependant and ‑withdrawn rats, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. A total of 100 rats were randomly divided into five groups: The control group, the phenobarbital‑dependent model group, and Tet‑treated groups of low‑, mid‑ and high‑dosages. Following drug withdrawl, the morphological changes of the frontal lobe cells were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the expression of apoptosis‑related proteins Bcl‑2 and Bax. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and western blotting methods were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl‑2 and Bax, respectively, in the frontal lobe. The results indicated that Tet effectively reduced the withdrawal symptoms, particularly the weight loss, in phenobarbital‑dependent and ‑withdrawn rats. H&E staining revealed that Tet significantly restored the histopathological changes in the addicted rats in a dose‑dependent manner. The immunohistochemical, RT‑PCR, and western blot analyses indicated that Tet treatment significantly increased the Bcl‑2+ brain cells and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl‑2, and decreased the Bax+ cells and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax, as well as elevated the ratio of Bcl‑2/Bax, in phenobarbital‑dependent and ‑withdrawn rats. Tet may inhibit apoptosis in these addicted rats, in a dose‑dependent manner. Tet alleviates the phenobarbital withdrawal symptoms and protects the brain cells against apoptosis, which may be a result of the regulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl‑2 and Bax.

  4. A GSK-3β Inhibitor Protects Against Radiation Necrosis in Mouse Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Perez-Torres, Carlos J. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Thotala, Dinesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Engelbach, John A. [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Yuan, Liya [Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Cates, Jeremy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gao, Feng [Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Drzymala, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Schmidt, Robert E. [Department of Neuropathology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Ackerman, Joseph J.H. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Hallahan, Dennis E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garbow, Joel R., E-mail: garbow@wustl.edu [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effectiveness of SB415286, a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, as a neuroprotectant against radiation-induced central nervous system (brain) necrosis in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cohorts of mice were treated with SB415286 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prior to irradiation with a single 45-Gy fraction targeted to the left hemisphere (brain) using a gamma knife machine. The onset and progression of radiation necrosis (RN) were monitored longitudinally by noninvasive in vivo small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) beginning 13 weeks postirradiation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes for SB415286- and DMSO-treated mice were compared. MRI results were supported by correlative histology. Results: Mice treated with SB415286 showed significant protection from radiation-induced necrosis, as determined by in vivo MRI with histologic validation. MRI-derived necrotic volumes were significantly smaller at all postirradiation time points in SB415286-treated animals. Although the irradiated hemispheres of the DMSO-treated mice demonstrated many of the classic histologic features of RN, including fibrinoid vascular necrosis, vascular telangiectasia, hemorrhage, and tissue loss, the irradiated hemispheres of the SB415286-treated mice consistently showed only minimal tissue damage. These studies confirmed that treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor dramatically reduced delayed time-to-onset necrosis in irradiated brain. Conclusions: The unilateral cerebral hemispheric stereotactic radiation surgery mouse model in concert with longitudinal MRI monitoring provided a powerful platform for studying the onset and progression of RN and for developing and testing new neuroprotectants. Effectiveness of SB415286 as a neuroprotectant against necrosis motivates potential clinical trials of it or other GSK-3β inhibitors.

  5. Estrogen protects the blood-brain barrier from inflammation-induced disruption and increased lymphocyte trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioli, E; McArthur, S; Mauro, C; Kieswich, J; Kusters, D H M; Reutelingsperger, C P M; Yaqoob, M; Solito, E

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences have been widely reported in neuroinflammatory disorders, focusing on the contributory role of estrogen. The microvascular endothelium of the brain is a critical component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and it is recognized as a major interface for communication between the periphery and the brain. As such, the cerebral capillary endothelium represents an important target for the peripheral estrogen neuroprotective functions, leading us to hypothesize that estrogen can limit BBB breakdown following the onset of peripheral inflammation. Comparison of male and female murine responses to peripheral LPS challenge revealed a short-term inflammation-induced deficit in BBB integrity in males that was not apparent in young females, but was notable in older, reproductively senescent females. Importantly, ovariectomy and hence estrogen loss recapitulated an aged phenotype in young females, which was reversible upon estradiol replacement. Using a well-established model of human cerebrovascular endothelial cells we investigated the effects of estradiol upon key barrier features, namely paracellular permeability, transendothelial electrical resistance, tight junction integrity and lymphocyte transmigration under basal and inflammatory conditions, modeled by treatment with TNFα and IFNγ. In all cases estradiol prevented inflammation-induced defects in barrier function, action mediated in large part through up-regulation of the central coordinator of tight junction integrity, annexin A1. The key role of this protein was then further confirmed in studies of human or murine annexin A1 genetic ablation models. Together, our data provide novel mechanisms for the protective effects of estrogen, and enhance our understanding of the beneficial role it plays in neurovascular/neuroimmune disease.

  6. Pretreatment with Danhong injection protects the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Guo, Hong; Wang, Xumei; Chai, Lijuan; Hu, Limin; Zhao, Tao; Zhao, Buchang; Tan, Xiaoxu; Jia, Feifei

    2014-08-01

    Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is widely used in China for treating acute ischemic stroke. In the present study, we explored the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and evaluated the potential mechanisms underlying its effects. Pretreatment with DHI (0.9 and 1.8 mL/kg) resulted in a significantly smaller infarct volume and better neurological scores than pretreatment with saline. Furthermore, DHI significantly reduced the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, increased occludin protein expression and decreased neutrophil infiltration, as well as profoundly suppressing the upregulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression seen in rats that had received vehicle. Matrix metallopeptidase-2 expression was not affected by ischemia or DHI. Moreover, DHI (1.8 mL/kg) administered 3 hours after the onset of ischemia also improved neurological scores and reduced infarct size. Our results indicate that the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by a protective effect on the blood-brain barrier and the reversal of neutrophil infiltration.

  7. Protection of Effective Component Group from Xiaoshuan Tongluo on Brain Injury after Chronic Hypoperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Chu-bing; WANG Hong-qing; TIAN Shuo; GAO Mei; XU Wei-ren; CHEN Ruo-yun; DU Guan-hua

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of purified effective component group in extract from Xiaoshuan Tongluo(CGXT)formula on chronic brain ischemia in rats.Methods CGXT 75,150,and 300 mg/kg or vehicle were ig administered daily for four weeks to rats with bilateral common carotid arteries ligation(BCCAL).From the day 24 to 28 after BCCAL,Morris water maze was performed to assess the learning and memory impairment of rats.Four weeks after BCCAL,brain gray and white matter damage were assessed.Results In Morris test,the mean escape latency of rats in the CGXT(150 and 300 mg/kg)groups was significantly shorter than that in the vehicle group.CGXT also attenuated the neuronal damage in hippocampus and cortex and reduced the pathological damage in the optic tract and corpus callosum.Conclusion CGXT could improve learning and memory impairment resulted from BCCAL in rats.These results provide the experimental basis for the clinical use of CGXT in stroke treatment and may help in investigation of multimodal therapy strategies in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases including stroke.

  8. Rhubarb extract has a protective role against radiation-induced brain injury and neuronal cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Wenjun; Zhou, Min; Tang, Yamei; Peng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ionizing radiation is involved in neuronal damage in a number of disorders, including trauma, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals, which cause neuronal apoptosis and have important roles in the development of some types of chronic brain disease. The present study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) of ethanolic rhubarb extract on the neuronal damage caused by irradiation in primary neuronal cultures obtained from the cortices of rat embryos aged 20 days. Brain damage was induced with a single dose of γ-irradiation that induced DNA fragmentation, increased lactate dehydrogenase release in neuronal cells and acted as a trigger for microglial cell proliferation. Treatment with rhubarb extract significantly decreased radiation-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation, which are important in the process of cell apoptosis. The rhubarb extract exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase release and neuronal cell apoptosis that were induced by the administration of ionizing radiation. The effect of a 10 µg/ml dose of rhubarb extract on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by radiation was also investigated. This dose led to significant inhibition of ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study showed a protective role of rhubarb extract against irradiation-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ROS generation.

  9. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Komolafe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity.

  10. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Alterations of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Treated with Amlodipine/Benazepril or Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Te Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with sympathetic activation. However, the effects of BDNF on diabetic nephropathy are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs and changes in serum BDNF levels in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with antihypertensive medications. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension were assigned to either the benazepril/amlodipine or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment groups for a 16-week period. The post hoc analyses were based on increased or decreased serum BDNF levels. Results. Of the 153 enrolled subjects, the changes in eGFR were significantly and inversely correlated with those in BDNF in the 76 subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (r=-0.264, P=0.021 but not in the 77 subjects treated with benazepril/amlodipine (r=-0.025, P=0.862. The 45 subjects with increased BDNF following valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment exhibited a significantly reduced eGFR (-8.8±14.9 mL/min/1.73 m2; P<0.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increased serum BDNF represents an independent factor for reduced eGFR (95% confidence interval between −0.887 and −0.076, P=0.020. Conclusions. Increased serum BDNF is associated with reduced eGFR in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide but not with amlodipine/benazepril.

  11. Prohibitin reduces mitochondrial free radical production and protects brain cells from different injury modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Qian, Liping; D’Aurelio, Marilena; Cho, Sunghee; Wang, Gang; Manfredi, Giovanni; Pickel, Virginia; Iadecola, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    Prohibitin is an essential mitochondrial protein that has been implicated in a wide variety of functions in many cell types, but its role in neurons remains unclear. In a proteomic screen of rat brains in which ischemic tolerance was induced by electrical stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus, we found that prohibitin is upregulated in mitochondria. This observation prompted us to investigate the role of prohibitin in neuronal death and survival. We found that prohibitin is upregulated also in the ischemic tolerance induced by transient ischemia in vivo, or oxygen-glucose deprivation in neuronal cultures. Cell fractionation and electron microscopic immunolabeling studies demonstrated that prohibitin is localized to neuronal mitochondria. Upregulation of prohibitin in neuronal cultures or hippocampal slices was markedly neuroprotective, whereas prohibitin gene-silencing increased neuronal vulnerability, an effect associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. Prohibitin upregulation was associated with reduced production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria exposed to the complex I inhibitor rotenone. In addition, prohibitin protected complex I activity from the inhibitory effects of rotenone. These observations, collectively, establish prohibitin as an endogenous neuroprotective protein involved in ischemic tolerance. Prohibitin exerts beneficial effects on neurons by reducing mitochondrial free radical production. The data with complex I activity suggest that prohibitin may stabilize the function of complex I. The protective effect of prohibitin has potential translational relevance in diseases of the nervous system associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:22238093

  12. Fermented Chinese Formula Shuan-Tong-Ling Protects Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling (STL, composed of fourteen medicinal herbs, was an experiential formula by Dr. Zhigang Mei for treating vascular encephalopathy, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of fermented STL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced injury in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs and the possible mechanisms. Cultured BMECs were treated with H2O2, STL, or nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor. Then, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was employed to detect cell proliferation and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal was used to examine cell senescence. Cell nuclei were observed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Additionally, changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione (GSH levels were measured. Expression of SIRT1, p21, and PGC-1α was determined by western blot. Cell proliferation significantly increased with STL treatment in a dose-dependent manner. H2O2 treatment could intensify cell senescence and nuclei splitting or pyknosis. With STL treatment, the reduced ROS level was accompanied by increased SOD and GSH activity. Further assays showed upregulation of SIRT1 and PGC-1α and downregulation of p21 after STL treatment. The results revealed that STL could protect BMECs against oxidative stress injury at least partially through the SIRT1 pathway.

  13. Dynamic optical filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  14. Magnetic flocculation and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiacoumi, Sotira; Chin, Ching-Ju; Yin, Tung-Yu [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Tsouris, C., DePaoli, D.W.; Chattin, M.R.; Spurrier, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A model is available in predicting flocculation frequencies between particles of various properties under the influence of a magnetic field. This model provides a basic understanding of fundamental phenomena, such as particle-particle and particle-collector interactions, occurring in HGMF (high gradient magnetic field), and will be extended to describe experimental data of particle flocculation and filtration and predict the performance of high- gradient magnetic filters. It is also expected that this model will eventually lead to a tool for design and optimization of magnetic filters for environmental, metallurgical, biochemical, and other applications.

  15. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  17. Fucoidan Extracted from Hijiki Protects Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Against Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure-Induced Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Sook; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Soo; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of fucoidan against the decreased function of primary cultured bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMECs) after exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). BBMECs were extracted from bovine brains and cultured until confluent. To evaluate the function of BBMECs, we performed a permeability test using cell-by-cell equipment and by Western blot analysis for zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1), which is a tight junction protein of BMECs, and evaluated oxidative stress in BBMECs using the DCFH-DA assay and the CUPRAC-BCS assay. The increased oxidative stress in BBMECs following DEP exposure was suppressed by fucoidan. In addition, permeability of BBMECs induced by DEP exposure was decreased by fucoidan treatment. Our results showed that fucoidan protects against BBMEC disruption induced by DEP exposure. This study provides evidence that fucoidan might protect the central nervous system (CNS) against DEP exposure.

  18. xperimental Study of Protective Effect of Qingkailing(清开灵) on Brain Damage Induced by Glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳少杰; 虞佩兰; 罗自强; 曾庆善; 陶永光; 伍赶球

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Qingkailing (QKL) on brain damage induced by glutamate, in order to seek for effective drugs for antagonizing neurotoxicity of glutamate. Methods:The number and morphological metrology of neurocytes in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were detected by MIAS-300 image analyser, electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods. Results:QKL could alleviate the glutamate induced accumulation of water and sodium in brain tissue,relieve the metrological and structural damage of cerebral cells in cortex and hippocampus, reduce the percentage of c-fos positive cell in brain. Conclusion: QKL could protect brain damage induced by glutamate, which might be related to the inhibition of QKL on the enhancement of c-fos gene expression induced by glutamate.

  19. Through metal binding, curcumin protects against lead- and cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and against lead-induced tissue damage in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sheril; Limson, Janice L; Dairam, Amichand; Watkins, Gareth M; Daya, Santy

    2004-02-01

    Curcumin, the major constituent of turmeric is a known, naturally occurring antioxidant. The present study examined the ability of this compound to protect against lead-induced damage to hippocampal cells of male Wistar rats, as well as lipid peroxidation induced by lead and cadmium in rat brain homogenate. The thiobarbituric assay (TBA) was used to measure the extent of lipid peroxidation induced by lead and cadmium in rat brain homogenate. The results show that curcumin significantly protects against lipid peroxidation induced by both these toxic metals. Coronal brain sections of rats injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (20 mg/kg) in the presence and absence of curcumin (30 mg/kg) were compared microscopically to determine the extent of lead-induced damage to the cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, and to establish the capacity of curcumin to prevent such damage. Lead-induced damage to the neurons was significantly curtailed in the rats injected with curcumin. Possible chelation of lead and cadmium by curcumin as its mechanism of neuroprotection against such heavy metal insult to the brain was investigated using electrochemical, ultraviolet spectrophotometric and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The results of the study show that there is an interaction between curcumin and both cadmium and lead, with the possible formation of a complex between the metal and this ligand. These results imply that curcumin could be used therapeutically to chelate these toxic metals, thus potentially reducing their neurotoxicity and tissue damage.

  20. Brain protective effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative patients in temporal muscle sticking for moyamoya disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun CHEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the application of dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing temporal muscle sticking for moyamoya disease (MMD, and to discuss the possible mechanism of brain protection. Methods Sixty patients undergoing temporal muscle sticking operation were randomly divided into 2 groups: dexmedetomidine group (Group D, N = 30 and control group (Group S, N = 30, respectively receiving dexmedetomidine intravenous infusion (0.60 μ g/kg and the same dose of normal saline before anesthesia induction. In Group D, dexemdetomidine was administered continuously (intravenous pumping with the dose of 0.40 μg/(kg·h perioperatively, while the same dose of normal saline was administered in Group S. Heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded at T0 (before administration, T1 (before tracheal intubation, T2 (1 min after intubation, T3 (at the moment of skin incision, T4 (before extubation and T5 (1 min after extubation respectively. Total amount of propofol, remifentanil and patients' recovery conditions after anesthesia were also recorded. Glutamine and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured and compared before and after operation. Results In group D, HR and MAP decreased significantly at T2-4 compared with T0 (P < 0.05, for all. Total amount of propofol, remifentanil in Group D was lower than that in Group S (P < 0.05, for all and the patients' recovery conditions in Group D after anesthesia was better than Group S (P = 0.000, for all, without occurence of shivering, cough and dysphoria (P < 0.05, for all. Glutamine and MDA increased after anesthesia compared with that before anesthesia in both 2 groups (P < 0.05, for all, however, it was higher in Group S than that in Group D (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine can provide stable hemodynamic condition during the anesthesia with patients undergoing temporal muscle sticking for moyamoya disease, and has a positive effect on improving both the outcome of the operation and

  1. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2006-01-01

    The mind involves the whole body and two-way communication between the brain and the cardiovascular, immune, and other systems via neural and endocrine mechanisms. Stress is a condition of the mind-body interaction, and a factor in the expression of disease that differs among individuals. It is notjust the dramatic stressful events that exact their toll, but rather the many events of daily life that elevate and sustain activities of physiological systems and cause sleep deprivation, overeating, and other health-damaging behaviors, producing the feeling of being "stressed out." Over time, this results in wear and tear on the body which is called "allostatic load," and it reflects not only the impact of life experiences but also of genetic load, individual lifestyle habits reflecting items such as diet, exercise, and substance abuse, and developmental experiences that set life-long patterns of behavior and physiological reactivity. Hormones associated with stress and allostatic load protect the body in the short run and promote adaptation by the process known as allostasis, but in the long run allostatic load causes changes in the body that can lead to disease. The brain is the key organ of stress, allostasis, and allostatic load, because it determines what is threatening and therefore stressful, and also determines the physiological and behavioral responses. Brain regions such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex respond to acute and chronic stress by undergoing structural remodeling, which alters behavioral and physiological responses. Translational studies in humans with structural and functional imaging reveal smaller hippocampal volume in stress-related conditions, such as mild cognitive impairment in aging and prolonged major depressive illness, as well as in individuals with low self-esteem. Alterations in amygdala and prefrontal cortex are also reported. Besides pharmaceuticals, approaches to alleviate chronic stress and reduce allostatic load

  2. Gastrodin protects neonatal rat brain against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy Acute therapeutic drug effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Niu; Zhengyong Jin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that gastrodin has a protective effect on neonatal rat brain subjected to hypoxia-ischemia; however,the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the acute therapeutic effects of gastrodin by observing prostaglandin B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1 a in brain issue of neonatal rats that received gastrodin injections immediately after hypoxia-ischemia.DESIGN:Single-factor design.SETTING:Department of Pediatrics,Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University. MATERIALS:This study was performed in the Laboratory of the Department of Pediatrics,Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University(key laboratory of provincial Health Department)from April to December 2003.Fifty-five Wistar rats of either gender,aged 7 days,were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University.The rats were randomly divided into normal control(n=10), model(n=15),gastrodin-treated(n=15),and Danshen-treated(n=15)groups.The protocol was performed in accordance with guidelines from the Institute of Health Sciences for the use and care of animals.The following reagents were.used:Gastrodin(Sancai Medicine Group Co.,Ltd.,Zhongshan,Guangdong Province,China;component:gastrodin),Danshen(Conba Stock Company,Jinhua,Zhengjiang Province,China; component:salvia miltiorrhiza),and reagent kits for 125I-prostaglandin B2 and 125I-6-prostaglandin F 1 a (Research and Development Center for Science and Technology,General Hospital of Chinese PLA). METHODS:Rats in the normal control group received no treatment.Rats in the remaining 3 groups were anesthetized,followed by ligation of the left common carotid artery.One hour later,the rats were placed in a closed hypoxic box and allowed to inhale 8% oxygen-air(2.0-3.0 L/min)for 2 hours to develop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.Immediately after lesion,rats in the gastrodin and Danshen-treated groups were intraperitoneally

  3. Nao-Xue-Shu Oral Liquid Protects and Improves Secondary Brain Insults of Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongning Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine one traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid which protects and improves secondary brain insults (SBI in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage (HCH. Methods. 158 patients with HCH were divided into routine clinical medicine plus Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid (n=78 as treatment group, and routine clinical medicine (n=80 only served as the control group. The incidence of SBI and the classification of a favorable prognosis and a bad prognosis using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS were assessed to evaluate the clinical effects. The changes of IL-6 and TNF-α levels were determined to study the mechanism of the effects for the TCM. Results. The incidence of SBI at the end of week 2 was 8.97% in the treatment group and 23.75% in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.001. The incidence of a favorable prognosis was 48.72% in the treatment group and 32.72% in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01 at the end of week 2. These findings indicate clear differences for IL-6 and TNF-α at the end of week 1 and week 2 compared with before treatment for the treatment group and a marked difference at the end of week 2 between the two groups. It also shows a significant difference between the end of week 2 and before treatment for IL-6 and TNF-α for the control group, although the difference was much smaller than the treatment group. Conclusion. Nao-Xue-Shu oral liquid could protect against the occurrence of SBI and improve HCH and SBI patients. It may also decrease the damage and the mass effects of the hematoma by reducing IL-6 and TNF-α to obtain the effects, and thus it is a potentially suitable drug for HCH and SBI.

  4. Modus of filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Theodore H

    2006-01-01

    Experience teaches that particles larger than the pores of a filter cannot negotiate its passage. Other retention mechanisms are less obvious than sieve retention or size exclusion. They are electrical in nature, and find expression in the bonding alliances that mutually attract (or repel) filters and particles. The influence of hydrogen bonds, of van der Waals forces, of hydrophobic adsorptions, and of transient polarities on particle retentions are set forth in terms of the double electrical layer concept that also governs colloidal destabilizations. The origins of differences in membrane porosities is explained, as also the importance of the filtration conditions. The singularity of the particle-fluid-filter relationship on organism and/or pore size alteration is stressed.

  5. Filtration properties of nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gador, W; Jankowska, E

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions from experimental investigations concerning filtration properties of nonwovens. The needled nonwovens were made from polyester fibres (PTE) with average fibre diameter 12 micrometres and polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 32 micrometres. Nonwovens were produced out of each of those fibres or out of a mixture of polyester and polypropylene fibres. This paper also presents investigations of nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 2.6 micrometres, which was formed according to melt-blown technology. Oil mist, as challenge aerosol, was used to evaluate the performance of filter media at various aerosol velocities. The average oil mist test aerosol particle diameter was 0.3 micrometre. Filter penetration was measured at oil mist concentration 0.24 g/m(3).

  6. Citicoline protects brain against closed head injury in rats through suppressing oxidative stress and calpain over-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ke; Gu, Yi; Zhao, Yumei; Li, Zhenzong; Sun, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Citicoline, a natural compound that functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids, is essential for membrane integrity and repair. It has been reported to protect brain against trauma. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of citicoline on closed head injury (CHI) in rats. Citicoline (250 mg/kg i.v. 30 min and 4 h after CHI) lessened body weight loss, and improved neurological functions significantly at 7 days after CHI. It markedly lowered brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and the levels of glutathione, reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and lactic acid. Moreover, citicoline suppressed the activities of calpain, and enhanced the levels of calpastatin, myelin basic protein and αII-spectrin in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. Also, it attenuated the axonal and myelin sheath damage in corpus callosum and the neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields 7 days after CHI. These data demonstrate the protection of citicoline against white matter and grey matter damage due to CHI through suppressing oxidative stress and calpain over-activation, providing additional support to the application of citicoline for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

  7. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  8. The protective influence of selenium on oxidant disturbances in brain of rats exposed to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, M; Kocot, J; Lewandowska, A; Żelazowska, R; Musik, I

    2015-01-01

    For more than sixty years lithium carbonate has been used in medicine. However, during its administration different side effects including oxidative stress can occur. Selenium belongs to essential elements possessing antioxidant properties. This study aimed at evaluating if selenium could be used as a protective adjuvant in lithium therapy. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control), II (Li), III (Se), IV (Li + Se) treated with saline, lithium carbonate (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w.), sodium selenite (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.) and lithium carbonate (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w.) + sodium selenite (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.), respectively. All substances were administered as water solutions by stomach tube for 3 or 6 weeks. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were determined in brain homogenates. Lithium slightly enhanced MDA and depressed CAT and SOD after 6 weeks as well as GPx after 3 weeks. Selenium co-administration showed tendency to restore the disturbed parameters. Selenium alone and given with lithium significantly increased GPx vs. Li-treated group after 3 weeks. Having regarded the outcomes of this study, the research on application of selenium during lithium treatment seems to be worth continuation.

  9. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  10. Protocatechuic acid protects brain mitochondrial function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaming, Yoswaris; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Pintana, Hiranya; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in diabetic animals with neurodegeneration. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a major metabolite of anthocyanin, has been shown to exert glycemic control and oxidative stress reduction in the heart. However, its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the brain under diabetic condition have never been investigated. We found that PCA exerted glycemic control, attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and contributes to the prevention of brain oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  11. Caffeine protects against disruptions of the blood-brain barrier in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Ghribi, Othman; Geiger, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and as such they represent major public health problems. Finding effective treatments for AD and PD represents an unmet and elusive goal largely because these diseases are chronic and progressive, and have a complicated and ill-understood pathogenesis. Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, caffeine, the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug in the world, has been shown in human and animal studies to be protective against AD and PD. One mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of AD and PD is blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and we reported recently that caffeine exerts protective effects against AD and PD at least in part by keeping the BBB intact. The present review focuses on the role of BBB dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD and PD, caffeine's protective effects against AD and PD, and potential mechanisms whereby caffeine protects against BBB leakage.

  12. Some aspects of applying nanostructured materials in air filtration, water filtration and electrical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmer, Dusan; Vincent, Ivo; Lovecka, Lenka; Kazda, Tomas; Giurg, Adam; Skorvan, Ondrej

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures prepared from nanofibres and nanostructured composites prepared from nanofibres and fillers are gradually becoming increasingly demanded materials for applications in various industrial branches connected with catalysis, environment protection (air filtration, waste water treatment, sound absorption), in biological engineering, electronics (battery separators, electrode materials), etc. Selected applications of these materials prepared in the company SPUR a.s. are summed up in the following presentation.

  13. Poloxamer 188 protects neurons against ischemia/reperfusion injury through preserving integrity of cell membranes and blood brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Poloxamer 188 (P188, a multiblock copolymer surfactant, has been shown to protect against ischemic tissue injury of cardiac muscle, testes and skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms have not been fully understood. In this study, we explored whether P188 had a protective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and its underlying mechanisms. The in vivo results showed that P188 significantly reduced the infarct volume, ameliorated the brain edema and neurological symptoms 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In the long-term outcome study, P188 markedly alleviated brain atrophy and motor impairments and increased survival rate in 3 weeks of post stroke period. Additionally, P188 protected cultured hippucampal HT22 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R injury. The ability in membrane sealing was assessed with two fluorescent membrane-impermeant dyes. The results showed that P188 treatment significantly reduced the PI-positive cells following ischemia/reperfusion injury and repaired the HT22 cell membrane rupture induced by Triton X-100. In addition, P188 inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 and leakage of Evans blue. Therefore, the present study concludes that P188 can protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and the protection involves multi-mechanisms in addition to the membrane resealing.

  14. Computerized cognitive training and brain derived neurotrophic factor during bed rest: mechanisms to protect individual during acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Angelina; Soavi, Cecilia; Sanz, Juana M.; Morieri, Mario L.; Dalla Nora, Edoardo; Kavcic, Voyko; Narici, Marco V.; Reggiani, Carlo; Biolo, Gianni; Zuliani, Giovanni; Lazzer, Stefano; Pišot, Rado

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress, as bed rest, was shown to increase plasma level of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in older, but not in young adults. This increase might represent a protective mechanism towards acute insults in aging subjects. Since computerized cognitive training (CCT) is known to protect brain, herein we evaluated the effect of CCT during bed rest on BDNF, muscle mass, neuromuscular function and metabolic parameters. The subjects that underwent CCT did not show an increase of BDNF after bed rest, and showed an anti-insular modification pattern in metabolism. Neuromuscular function parameters, already shown to beneficiate from CCT, negatively correlated with BDNF in research participants undergoing CCT, while positively correlated in the control group. In conclusion, BDNF increase can be interpreted as a standardized protective mechanism taking place whenever an insult occurs; it gives low, but consistent preservation of neuromuscular function. CCT, acting as an external protective mechanism, seems to modify this standardized response, avoiding BDNF increase or possibly modifying its time course. Our results suggest the possibility of differential neuroprotective mechanisms among ill and healthy individuals, and the importance of timing in determining the effects of protective mechanisms. PMID:28161695

  15. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on model rats of brain dysfunction induced by aluminum salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-haiGONG; QinWU; Dan-liYANG; Xie-nanHUANG; An-shengSUN; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) on the learning and memory in brain dysfunction model induced by aluminum salt in rats, and to investigate potential mechanisms. METHODS: Wistar rats were given daily aluminum chloride 500 mg·kg·d-1 ig, for one month, followed by continuous exposure via the drinking water containing 1600 ppm

  16. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  17. Apigenin protects blood-brain barrier and ameliorates early brain injury by inhibiting TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathway in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Su, Jingyuan; Guo, Bingyu; Wang, Kaiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liang, Guobiao

    2015-09-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation has been considered as the major contributor to brain damage after SAH. SAH induces a systemic increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitates the influx of inflammatory cells. It has been reported that the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway plays a vital role in the central nervous system diseases. Apigenin, a common plant flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation effect. In this study, we focused on the effects of apigenin on EBI following SAH and its anti-inflammation mechanism. Our results showed that apigenin (20mg/kg) administration significantly attenuated EBI (including brain edema, BBB disruption, neurological deficient, severity of SAH, and cell apoptosis) after SAH in rats by suppressing the expression of TLR4, NF-κB and their downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cortex and by up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins of BBB. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that TLR4 was activated following SAH in neurons, microglia cells, and endothelial cells but not in astrocytes. Apigenin could suppress the activation of TLR4 induced by SAH and inhibit apoptosis of cells in the cortex. These results suggested that apigenin could attenuate EBI after SAH in rats by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammation and protecting against BBB disruption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sodium nitrite protects against kidney injury induced by brain death and improves post-transplant function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelpke, Stacey S; Chen, Bo; Bradley, Kelley M; Teng, Xinjun; Chumley, Phillip; Brandon, Angela; Yancey, Brett; Moore, Brandon; Head, Hughston; Viera, Liliana; Thompson, John A; Crossman, David K; Bray, Molly S; Eckhoff, Devin E; Agarwal, Anupam; Patel, Rakesh P

    2012-08-01

    Renal injury induced by brain death is characterized by ischemia and inflammation, and limiting it is a therapeutic goal that could improve outcomes in kidney transplantation. Brain death resulted in decreased circulating nitrite levels and increased infiltrating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney. Since nitrite stimulates nitric oxide signaling in ischemic tissues, we tested whether nitrite therapy was beneficial in a rat model of brain death followed by kidney transplantation. Nitrite, administered over 2 h of brain death, blunted the increased inflammation without affecting brain death-induced alterations in hemodynamics. Kidneys were transplanted after 2 h of brain death and renal function followed over 7 days. Allografts collected from nitrite-treated brain-dead rats showed significant improvement in function over the first 2 to 4 days after transplantation compared with untreated brain-dead animals. Gene microarray analysis after 2 h of brain death without or with nitrite therapy showed that the latter significantly altered the expression of about 400 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that multiple signaling pathways were affected by nitrite, including those related to hypoxia, transcription, and genes related to humoral immune responses. Thus, nitrite therapy attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by regulating responses to ischemia and inflammation, ultimately leading to better post-transplant kidney function.

  19. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage.

  20. A brain-targeted ampakine compound protects against opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Xiao, Dian; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Xin-Bo; Fang, Tong-Yu; Yong, Zheng; Su, Rui-Bin

    2017-08-15

    The use of opioid drugs for pain relief can induce life-threatening respiratory depression. Although naloxone effectively counteracts opioid-induced respiratory depression, it diminishes the efficacy of analgesia. Our studies indicate that ampakines, in particular, a brain-targeted compound XD-8-17C, are able to reverse respiratory depression without affecting analgesia at relatively low doses. Mice and rats were subcutaneously or intravenously injected with the opioid agonist TH-030418 to induce moderate or severe respiratory depression. XD-8-17C was intravenously administered before or after TH-030418. The effect of XD-8-17C on opioid-induced respiratory depression was evaluated in terms of the opioid-induced acute death rate, arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests. In addition, the hot-plate test was conducted to investigate whether XD-8-17C influenced opioid-induced analgesia. Pre-treatment with XD-8-17C significantly reduced opioid-induced acute death, and increased the median lethal dose of TH-030418 by 4.7-fold. Blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests demonstrated that post-treatment with XD-8-17C alleviated respiratory depression, as indicated by restoration of arterial blood gas (pO2, sO2, cK(+)) and lung function parameters (respiratory frequency, minute ventilation) to the normal range. The hot-plate test showed that XD-8-17C had no impact on the antinociceptive efficacy of morphine. The ability of XD-8-17C to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression has the potential to increase the safety and convenience of opioid treatment. These findings contribute to the discovery of novel therapeutic agents that protect against opioid-induced respiratory depression without loss of analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and functional damages of whole body ionizing radiation on rat brain homogenate membranes and protective effect of amifostine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulgun; Severcan, Mete; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of whole body ionizing radiation at a sublethal dose on rat brain homogenate membranes and the protective effects of amifostine on these systems at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, in the absence and presence of amifostine, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 8 Gy and decapitated after 24 h. The brain homogenate membranes of these rats were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Ionizing radiation caused a significant increase in the lipid to protein ratio and significant decreases in the ratios of olefinic = CH/lipid, CH2/lipid, carbonyl ester/lipid and CH3/lipid suggesting, respectively, a more excessive decrease in the protein content and the degradation of lipids as a result of lipid peroxidation. In addition, radiation changed the secondary structure of proteins and the status of packing of membrane lipid head groups. Furthermore, it caused a decrease in lipid order and an increase in membrane fluidity. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited all the radiation-induced alterations in brain homogenate membranes. The results revealed that whole body ionizing radiation at a sublethal dose causes significant alterations in the structure, composition and dynamics of brain homogenate membranes and amifostine has a protective effect on these membranes.

  2. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  3. Quercetin protects human brain microvascular endothelial cells from fibrillar β-amyloid1–40-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ are known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy has been shown to be a prominent feature in the majority of Alzheimer׳s disease. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid molecule and has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects, but its protective effect on endothelial cells under Aβ-damaged condition is unclear. In the present study, the protective effects of quercetin on brain microvascular endothelial cells injured by fibrillar Aβ1–40 (fAβ1–40 were observed. The results show that fAβ1–40-induced cytotoxicity in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs can be relieved by quercetin treatment. Quercetin increases cell viability, reduces the release of lactate dehydrogenase, and relieves nuclear condensation. Quercetin also alleviates intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and increases superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, it strengthens the barrier integrity through the preservation of the transendothelial electrical resistance value, the relief of aggravated permeability, and the increase of characteristic enzyme levels after being exposed to fAβ1–40. In conclusion, quercetin protects hBMECs from fAβ1–40-induced toxicity.

  4. Optimism and the brain: trait optimism mediates the protective role of the orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume against anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Sanda; Hu, Yifan; Iordan, Alexandru D; Moore, Matthew; Dolcos, Florin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence identifies trait optimism and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as personality and brain factors influencing anxiety, but the nature of their relationships remains unclear. Here, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of trait optimism and of increased OFC volume against symptoms of anxiety were investigated in 61 healthy subjects, who completed measures of trait optimism and anxiety, and underwent structural scanning using magnetic resonance imaging. First, the OFC gray matter volume (GMV) was associated with increased optimism, which in turn was associated with reduced anxiety. Second, trait optimism mediated the relation between the left OFC volume and anxiety, thus demonstrating that increased GMV in this brain region protects against symptoms of anxiety through increased optimism. These results provide novel evidence about the brain-personality mechanisms protecting against anxiety symptoms in healthy functioning, and identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing susceptibility and increasing resilience against emotional disturbances. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Salvinorin A and derivatives: protection from metabolism does not prolong short-term, whole-brain residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Jacob M; Munro, Thomas A; Béguin, Cécile; Alexoff, David; Shea, Colleen; Xu, Youwen; Cohen, Bruce M

    2009-09-01

    Salvinorin A (SA) is a potent kappa opioid agonist with a brief duration of action. Consistent with this, our previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of carbon-11 labeled SA showed that brain levels decrease rapidly after intravenous administration. SA is rapidly metabolized, giving the much less potent salvinorin B (SB), which is presumed to be responsible in part for SA's brief duration of action. To test this, we labeled the metabolically stable methyl ester of SA and SB with carbon-11 and compared their pharmacokinetics by PET imaging after intravenous administration to baboons. Labeling of salvinorin B ethoxymethyl ether (EOM-SB), a derivative with greater potency and resistance to metabolism, provided an additional test of the role of metabolism in brain efflux. Plasma analysis confirmed that SB and EOM-SB exhibited greater metabolic stability than SA. However, the three compounds exhibited very similar pharmacokinetics in brain, entering and exiting rapidly. This suggests that metabolism is not solely responsible for the brief brain residence time of SA. We determined that whole-brain concentrations of EOM-SB declined more slowly than SA after intraperitoneal administration in rodents. This is likely due to a combination in EOM-SB's increased metabolic stability and its decreased plasma protein affinity. Our results suggest that protecting salvinorin A derivatives from metabolism will prolong duration of action, but only when administered by routes giving slow absorption.

  6. C1-Inhibitor protects from focal brain trauma in a cortical cryolesion mice model by reducing thrombo-inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane eAlbert-Weissenberger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI induces a strong inflammatory response which includes blood-brain barrier damage, edema formation and infiltration of different immune cell subsets. More recently, microvascular thrombosis has been identified as another pathophysiological feature of TBI. The contact-kinin system represents an interface between inflammatory and thrombotic circuits and is activated in different neurological diseases. C1-Inhibitor counteracts activation of the contact-kinin system at multiple levels. We investigated the therapeutic potential of C1-Inhibitor in a model of TBI. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cortical cryolesion and treated with C1-Inhibitor after 1 hour. Lesion volumes were assessed between day 1 and day 5 and blood-brain barrier damage, thrombus formation as well as the local inflammatory response were determined post TBI. Treatment of male mice with 15.0 IU C1-Inhibitor, but not 7.5 IU, 1 hour after cryolesion reduced lesion volumes by ~75% on day 1. This protective effect was preserved in female mice and at later stages of trauma. Mechanistically, C1-Inhibitor stabilized the blood-brain barrier and decreased the invasion of immune cells into the brain parenchyma. Moreover, C1-Inhibitor had strong antithrombotic effects. C1-Inhibitor represents a multifaceted antiinflammatory and antithrombotic compound that prevents traumatic neurodegeneration in clinically meaningful settings.

  7. Latest aspects of mechanical filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and unify all knowledge about mechanic filtration. The first part deals with the parameters and properties of filtration. Here some important basic concepts are explained such as pressure gradient, filter life, etc. There’s also a description of convenient filtration technology for coarse and fine materials, such as sand, smoke or soot. The second part primarily focuses on the real use and application of filters for liquid and gaseous media. The differences in construction between different types of filters for filtration of fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, air and cabin filters are described. The last section is focused mainly on new materials for the production of filters. These materials are ceramic or nanomaterials, which can actually be enriched for example with antibacterial silver or some fungicides.

  8. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  9. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama, Myriam; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Bollen, Bieke; Brissaud, Olivier; Matrot, Boris; Gressens, Pierre; Gallego, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group), a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group), and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group). Exposure to moderate IH (8% O2) consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine whether in

  10. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eBouslama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group, a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group, and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group. Exposure to moderate IH consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 hours per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine

  11. Protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain and memory in a mouse model of apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama, Myriam; Adla-Biassette, Homa; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Bollen, Bieke; Brissaud, Olivier; Matrot, Boris; Gressens, Pierre; Gallego, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is considered a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders in children based on epidemiological studies. This idea is supported by studies in newborn rodents in which exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) as a model of AOP significantly impairs development. However, the severe IH used in these studies may not fully reflect the broad spectrum of AOP severity. Considering that hypoxia appears neuroprotective under various conditions, we hypothesized that moderate IH would protect the neonatal mouse brain against behavioral stressors and brain damage. On P6, each pup in each litter was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group exposed to IH while separated from the mother (IH group), a control group exposed to normoxia while separated from the mother (AIR group), and a group of untreated unmanipulated pups left continuously with their mother until weaning (UNT group). Exposure to moderate IH (8% O2) consisted of 20 hypoxic events/hour, 6 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P10. The stress generated by maternal separation in newborn rodents is known to impair brain development, and we expected this effect to be smaller in the IH group compared to the AIR group. In a separate experiment, we combined maternal separation with excitotoxic brain lesions mimicking those seen in preterm infants. We analyzed memory, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain lesion size. In non-lesioned mice, IH stimulated hippocampal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and improved short-term memory indices. In brain-lesioned mice, IH decreased lesion size and prevented memory impairments. Contrary to common perception, IH mimicking moderate apnea may offer neuroprotection, at least in part, against brain lesions and cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity. AOP may therefore have beneficial effects in some preterm infants. These results support the need for stratification based on AOP severity in clinical trials of treatments for AOP, to determine whether in

  12. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  13. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  14. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  15. Methylene blue protects the cortical blood-brain barrier against ischemia/reperfusion-induced disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclescu, Adriana; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Martijn, Cécile; Wiklund, Lars

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects of cardiac arrest and the reperfusion syndrome on blood-brain barrier permeability and evaluate whether methylene blue counteracts blood-brain barrier disruption in a pig model of controlled cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Forty-five piglets. Forty-five anesthetized piglets were subjected to cardiac arrest alone or 12-min cardiac arrest followed by 8 mins cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The first group (n = 16) was used to evaluate blood-brain barrier disruptions after untreated cerebral ischemia after 0, 15, or 30 mins after untreated cardiac arrest. The other two groups received either an infusion of saline (n = 10) or infusion of saline with methylene blue (n = 12) 1 min after the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and continued 50 mins after return of spontaneous circulation. In these groups, brains were removed for immunohistological analyses at 30, 60, and 180 mins after return of spontaneous circulation. An increase of injured neurons and albumin immunoreactivity was demonstrated with increasing duration of ischemia/reperfusion. Less blood-brain barrier disruption was observed in subjects receiving methylene blue as demonstrated by decreased albumin leakage (p blue treatment reduced cerebral tissue nitrite/nitrate content (p blood-brain barrier permeability and neurologic injury were increased early in reperfusion after cardiac arrest. Methylene blue exerted neuroprotective effects against the brain damage associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury and ameliorated the blood-brain barrier disruption by decreasing nitric oxide metabolites.

  16. Nerve protective effect of rhTPO and G-CSF on hypoxic ischemic brain damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Zhou; Chun-Lai Zhang; Yue-Hong Li; Yu-Xin Zhang; Zi-Feng Wei; Xi Wang Meng Ling-Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the protection effect of rhTPO and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on brain nerve after hypoxic ischemic brain damage(HIBD) in neonatal rats, exploring new ways for the laboratory basis of treatment for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and provide for possible.Methods:A total of120 newbornSD rats aging7 d were randomly divided into control group, model group,TPO group andG-CSF group, using the method of blockingleft carotid artery to establishHIBD model.The left carotid artery was only seperated rather than blocked in the control group; after modeling, saline injection, rhTPO treatment andG-CSF treatment were adopted in the model group,TPO group andG-CSF group respectively.Then10 rats of4 groups were executed atDay3,7,14 after modeling, brain tissue was extracted to observe the brain damage;Immunohistochemical method was used to observe the histopathological changes of brain tissue and changes of nest protein(nestin) expression.Results:Injured brain mass of model group,TPO group andG-CSF group were significantly higher than that of control group at corresponding time point(P<0.05).Injured brain mass ofTPO group andG-CSF group were significantly lower than that of model group(P<0.05), and with the increase of age, more significant increasing trend.AtDay3 after modeling, the expression of nestin positive cells in cerebral cortex of model group,TPO group andG-CSF group increased significantly than that of control group(P<0.05); nestin positive cells ofG-CSF group outnumberedTPO group significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions:The earlyTPO,G-CSF treatment ofHIBD rats can improve brain function after hypoxia ischemia by neural protection.G-CSF can promote the differentiation of neural cells proliferation, and reduce degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells.

  17. Incorporating Human Body Mass in Standards of Helmet Impact Protection against Traumatic Brain Injury

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Impact induced traumatic brain injury (ITBI) describes brain injury from head impact not necessarily accompanied by skull fracture. For sufficiently abrupt head impact decelerations, ITBI results from brain tissue stress incurred as the brain crashes into the inside of the skull wall, displacing the surrounding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Proper helmet cushioning can damp the impact force and reduce ITBI. But force is mass times acceleration and commonly used helmet blunt impact standards are based only on acceleration thresholds. Here I show how this implies that present standards overestimate the minimum acceleration onset for ITBI by implicitly assuming that the brain is mechanically decoupled from the body. I quantify how an arbitrary orientation of the body with respect to impact direction increases the effective mass that should be used in calculating the required damping force and injury threshold accelerations. I suggest a practical method to incorporate the body mass and impact angle into ITBI helme...

  18. Protective effect of taurine on the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Piao, Fengyuan; Li, Yachen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As(2)O(3) through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As(2)O(3) and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

  19. Protective Effects of Salubrinal on Liver Injury in Rat Models of Brain Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Shui-Jun Zhang; Sheng-Li Cao; Wen-Zhi Guo; Bing Yan; Hong-Bo Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Previous studies have indicated that endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in and mediates liver injury and apoptosis in brain-dead (BD) rats.In this study,we observed the effect ofsalubrinal (Sal,Sigma,USA) on liver cells in BD rats and explored its relevant mechanisms.Methods:Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups:BD group,Sal group,and DMSO group.The BD models were established by increasing intracranial pressure in a modified,slow,and intermittent way.In the drug groups,Sal was administered l h before the induction of BD.After modeling was completed,the blood and liver samples were harvested.CHOP and Caspase-12 mRNA expression was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.PKR-like ER kinase (PERK),P-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α),eIF2α,CHOP and caspase-12 expression was detected using western blotting (WB).CHOP and caspase-12 distribution and expression in liver tissues were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC).Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer.Hepatic cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL.The results were analyzed using Quantity-one v4.62 software (Bio-Rad,USA).Results:CHOP and caspase-12 expression and PERK,eIF2α,and P-eIF2α protein expression showed no significant difference between BD group and DMSO group.Compared with BD group,Sal group had a significantly higher P-eIF2C level and a lower P-PERK level 2 h and 6 h after BD (P < 0.05).However,eIF2α expression showed no significant difference (P > 0.05).After the Sal treatment,CHOP and caspase-12 mRNA expression significantly decreased 4 h after BD (P < 0.05).WB and IHC indicated that CHOP and caspase-12 expression also significantly decreased after Sal treatment.Sal was associated with improved liver function and decreased hepatic cell apoptosis.Conclusions:Sal can significantly reduce apoptosis in hepatic cells of BD rats

  20. Targeted brain derived neurotropic factors (BDNF delivery across the blood-brain barrier for neuro-protection using magnetic nano carriers: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel

    Full Text Available Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB expression and decrease in dendritic branching and spine density in cultured cells. Use of neuroprotective agent; brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which protects neurons against these effects, could be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate addiction. Previous studies have shown that BDNF was not transported through the blood brain barrier (BBB in-vivo.; and hence it is not effective in-vivo. Therefore development of a drug delivery system that can cross BBB may have significant therapeutic advantage. In the present study, we hypothesized that magnetically guided nanocarrier may provide a viable approach for targeting BDNF across the BBB. We developed a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP based carrier bound to BDNF and evaluated its efficacy and ability to transmigrate across the BBB using an in-vitro BBB model. The end point determinations of BDNF that crossed BBB were apoptosis, CREB expression and dendritic spine density measurement. We found that transmigrated BDNF was effective in suppressing the morphine induced apoptosis, inducing CREB expression and restoring the spine density. Our results suggest that the developed nanocarrier will provide a potential therapeutic approach to treat opiate addiction, protect neurotoxicity and synaptic density degeneration.

  1. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...

  2. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure.

  3. Glucocorticoids Play a Fundamental Role in Protecting the Brain during Innate Immune Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadeau, Sylvain; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    .... Here we show that activation of this system is not detrimental for the brain but a profound neurodegeneration takes place in animals treated with the glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor Mifepristone (RU486...

  4. [Protective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Zhengzheng; Chen, Zhenggang; Yang, Kun

    2017-09-28

    To evaluate protective effects of SS31 on early brain injury (EBI) induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats.
 Methods: A total of 96 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A sham group, an SAH group, an SAH+vehicle group (SAH+V), and an SAH+SS31 group. The SAH-induced prechiasmatic cistern rat model was established in this study. Neurological deficit scores were evaluated at 24 h after SAH. The SS31 (5 mg/kg) as well as equal volume of vehicle were administrated intraperitoneally at 2 h after SAH. The neurological scores, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, apoptosis, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoride dismutase (SOD) activity, and the expression of cytosolic cytochrome c (Cyt C) and Bax were analyzed at 24 h after SAH.
 Results: Treatment with SS31 could significantly reduce MDA levels, and restored the activities of GPx and SOD in the cortex following SAH when compared with the SAH+V group. In addition, Bax SS31 trearment increased or decreased the levels of mitochondrial Cyt C or Bax, respectively. Moreover, SS31 treatment ameliorated brain edema and Evans blue dye extravasation, improved neurological deficits, and decreased neuronal apoptosis at 24 h after SAH.
 Conclusion: SS31 could alleviate EBI after SAH through its antioxidant property and ability in inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  5. Bmi1 is down-regulated in the aging brain and displays antioxidant and protective activities in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdouh

    Full Text Available Aging increases the risk to develop several neurodegenerative diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Inactivation of the Polycomb group gene Bmi1 in mice results in growth retardation, cerebellar degeneration, and development of a premature aging-like phenotype. This progeroid phenotype is characterized by formation of lens cataracts, apoptosis of cortical neurons, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, owing to p53-mediated repression of antioxidant response (AOR genes. Herein we report that Bmi1 expression progressively declines in the neurons of aging mouse and human brains. In old brains, p53 accumulates at the promoter of AOR genes, correlating with a repressed chromatin state, down-regulation of AOR genes, and increased oxidative damages to lipids and DNA. Comparative gene expression analysis further revealed that aging brains display an up-regulation of the senescence-associated genes IL-6, p19(Arf and p16(Ink4a, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Noxa, as seen in Bmi1-null mice. Increasing Bmi1 expression in cortical neurons conferred robust protection against DNA damage-induced cell death or mitochondrial poisoning, and resulted in suppression of ROS through activation of AOR genes. These observations unveil that Bmi1 genetic deficiency recapitulates aspects of physiological brain aging and that Bmi1 over-expression is a potential therapeutic modality against neurodegeneration.

  6. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: an FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulgun; Miller, Lisa M; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2012-04-15

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH(2) groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH(3) groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  8. Neuregulin 1 protects against ischemic brain injury via ErbB4 receptors by increasing GABAergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y-F; Wu, C-Y; Fang, Y-Y; Zeng, Y-N; Luo, Z-Y; Li, S-J; Li, X-W; Zhu, X-H; Mei, L; Gao, T-M

    2015-10-29

    Identifying novel neuroprotectants that can halt or even reverse the effects of stroke is of interest to both clinicians and scientists. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is an effective neuroprotectant, but its molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. In this study, NRG1 rescued cortical neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model, but the effect was blocked by neutralizing NRG1 and ErbB4 inhibition. In addition, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists had no synergistic effect with NRG1, and the neuroprotective effect of NRG1 against OGD was partly blocked by GABA receptor antagonists. Importantly, NRG1 neuroprotection against brain ischemia was abolished in the mice with specific deletion of ErbB4 in parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons. In summary, NRG1 protects against ischemic brain injury via ErbB4 receptors by enhancing GABAergic transmission.

  9. Puerarin protects brain tissue against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y by inhibiting the inlfammator y response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhou; Liang Wang; Panpan Liu; Weiwei Hu; Xiangdong Zhu; Hong Shen; Yuanyuan Yao

    2014-01-01

    Puerarin, a traditional Chinese medicine, exerts a powerful neuroprotective effect in cerebral isch-emia/reperfusion injury, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we established rat models of middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury using the suture method. Puerarin (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before middle cerebral artery occlusion and 8 hours after reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, we found that puerarin signiifcantly im-proved neurological deifcit, reduced infarct size and brain water content, and notably diminished the expression of Toll-like receptor-4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, nuclear factor kappa B and tumor necrosis factor-αin the ischemic region. These data indicate that puerarin exerts an anti-inlfammatory protective effect on brain tissue with ischemia/reperfusion damage by down-regulating the expression of multiple inlfammatory factors.

  10. The pharmacology of neurotrophic treatment with Cerebrolysin: brain protection and repair to counteract pathologies of acute and chronic neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliah, E; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2012-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors are considered as part of the therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders like dementia, stroke and traumatic brain injury. Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair. In dementia models, Cerebrolysin decreases β-amyloid deposition and microtubule-associated protein tau phosphorylation by regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity, increases synaptic density and restores neuronal cytoarchitecture. These effects protect integrity of the neuronal circuits and thus result in improved cognitive and behavioral performance. Furthermore, Cerebrolysin enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, the basis for neuronal replacement therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental studies in stroke animal models have shown that Cerebrolysin stabilizes the structural integrity of cells by inhibition of calpain and reduces the number of apoptotic cells after ischemic lesion. Cerebrolysin induces restorative processes, decreases infarct volume and edema formation and promotes functional recovery. Stroke-induced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone was also promoted by Cerebrolysin, thus supporting the brain's self-repair after stroke. Both, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury conditions stimulate the expression of natural neurotrophic factors to promote repair and regeneration processes -axonal regeneration, neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis- that is considered to be crucial for the future recovery. Neuroprotective effects of Cerebrolysin on experimentally induced traumatic spinal cord injury have shown that Cerebrolysin prevents apoptosis of lesioned motoneurons and promotes functional recovery. This section summarizes the most relevant data on the pharmacology of Cerebrolysin obtained from in vitro assays (biochemical and cell cultures) and in vivo animal models of acute and chronic neurological disorders.

  11. Nelfinavir inhibits intra-mitochondrial calcium influx and protects brain against hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Utkina-Sosunova

    Full Text Available Nelfinavir (NLF, an antiretroviral agent, preserves mitochondrial membranes integrity and protects mature brain against ischemic injury in rodents. Our study demonstrates that in neonatal mice NLF significantly limits mitochondrial calcium influx, the event associated with protection of the brain against hypoxic-ischemic insult (HI. Compared to the vehicle-treated mice, cerebral mitochondria from NLF-treated mice exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to the Ca(2+-induced membrane permeabilization, greater ADP-phosphorylating activity and reduced cytochrome C release during reperfusion. Pre-treatment with NLF or Ruthenium red (RuR significantly improved viability of murine hippocampal HT-22 cells, reduced Ca(2+ content and preserved membrane potential (Ψm in mitochondria following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Following histamine-stimulated Ca(2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, in contrast to the vehicle-treated cells, the cells treated with NLF or RuR also demonstrated reduced Ca(2+ content in their mitochondria, the event associated with preserved Ψm. Because RuR inhibits mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter, we tested whether the NLF acts via the mechanism similar to the RuR. However, in contrast to the RuR, in the experiment with direct interaction of these agents with mitochondria isolated from naïve mice, the NLF did not alter mitochondrial Ca(2+ influx, and did not prevent Ca(2+ induced collapse of the Ψm. These data strongly argues against interaction of NLF and mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, our study is the first to show that NLF inhibits intramitochondrial Ca(2+ flux and protects developing brain against HI-reperfusion injury. This novel action of NLF has important clinical implication, because it targets a fundamental mechanism of post-ischemic cell death: intramitochondrial Ca(2+ overload → mitochondrial membrane permeabilization → secondary energy failure.

  12. Erythropoietin-mediated protection of insect brain neurons involves JAK and STAT but not PI3K transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljus, N; Heibeck, S; Jarrar, M; Micke, M; Ostrowski, D; Ehrenreich, H; Heinrich, R

    2014-01-31

    The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) initiates adaptive cellular responses to both moderate environmental challenges and tissue damaging insults in various non-hematopoietic mammalian tissues including the nervous system. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative functions of Epo in mammals are mediated through receptor-associated Janus kinase 2 and intracellular signaling cascades that modify the transcription of Epo-regulated genes. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) represent key components of two important Epo-induced transduction pathways. Our previous study on insects revealed neuroprotective and regenerative functions of recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) similar to those in mammalian nervous tissues. Here we demonstrate that rhEpo effectively rescues primary cultured locust brain neurons from apoptotic cell death induced by hypoxia or the chemical compound H-7. The Janus kinase inhibitor AG-490 and the STAT inhibitor sc-355797 abolished protective effects of rhEpo on locust brain neurons. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 had no effect on rhEpo-mediated neuroprotection. The results indicate that rhEpo mediates the protection of locust brain neurons through interference with apoptotic pathways by the activation of a Janus kinase-associated receptor and STAT transcription factor(s). The involvement of similar transduction pathways in mammals and insects for the mediation of neuroprotection and support of neural regeneration by Epo indicates that an Epo/Epo receptor-like signaling system with high structural and functional similarity exists in both groups of animals. Epo-like signaling involved in tissue protection appears to be an ancient beneficial function shared by vertebrates and invertebrates.

  13. Protective ventilation of preterm lambs exposed to acute chorioamnionitis does not reduce ventilation-induced lung or brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Barton

    Full Text Available The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response.Pregnant ewes (n = 18 received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6, or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5 or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7 for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury.LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02 and cell death (p<0.05 in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups.Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor to WM injury in infants exposed

  14. Protective effect of crocin on acrolein-induced tau phosphorylation in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein, as a by-product of lipid peroxidation, is implicated in brain aging and in the pathogenesis of oxidative stressmediated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Widespread human exposure to the toxic environmental pollutant that is acrolein renders it necessary to evaluate the effects of exogenous acrolein on the brain. This study investigated the toxic effects of oral administration of 3 mg/kg/day acrolein on the rat cerebral cortex. Moreover, the neuroprotective effects of crocin, the main constituent of saffron, against acrolein toxicity were evaluated. We showed that acrolein decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Amyloid-beta (Abeta) and phospho-tau in the brain. Simultaneously, acrolein activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathways. Co-administration of crocin significantly attenuated MDA, Abeta and p-tau levels by modulating MAPKs signalling pathways. Our data demonstrated that environmental exposure to acrolein triggers some molecular events which contribute to brain aging and neurodisorders. Additionally, crocin as an antioxidant is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as brain aging and AD.

  15. Deletion of TRAAK Potassium Channel Affects Brain Metabolism and Protects against Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigle, Christophe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Viola, Angèle

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K+ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak−/− mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak−/− mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak+/+ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak−/− mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak+/+ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak−/− mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke. PMID:23285272

  16. Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress and Brain Edema in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-shu; Wang, Ju-lei; Feng, Da-yun; Qin, Huai-zhou; Wen, Hua; Yin, Zhong-min; Gao, Guo-dong; Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin has been demonstrated to play an important role in altering the progression of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress. The effects of quercetin on brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however, have not been investigated. This study was designed to explore the effects of quercetin on oxidative stress and brain edema after experimental SAH using four equal groups (n = 16) of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, including a sham group, an SAH + vehicle group, an SAH + quercetin10 group, and an SAH + quercetin50 group. The rat SAH model was induced by injection of 0.3 ml of non-heparinised arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. In the SAH + quercetin10 and SAH + quercetin50 groups, doses of 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, were directly administered by intraperitoneal injection at 30 min, 12 h, and 24 h after SAH induction. Cerebral tissue samples were extracted for enzymatic antioxidant determination, lipid peroxidation assay, caspase-3 activity and water content testing 48 h after SAH. Treatment with a high dose (50 mg/kg) of quercetin markedly enhanced the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and treatment with this dose significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Caspase-3 and brain edema was ameliorated and neurobehavioral deficits improved in rats that received the high dose of quercetin. The findings suggest that the early administration of optimal dose of quercetin may ameliorate brain damage and provide neuroprotection in the SAH model, potentially by enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting free radical generation. PMID:24516353

  17. Protection of normal brain cells from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis by a mitochondria-targeted triphenyl-phosphonium-nitroxide: a possible utility in glioblastoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhentai; Jiang, Jianfei; Belikova, Natalia A; Stoyanovsky, Detcho A; Kagan, Valerian E; Mintz, Arlan H

    2010-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor. A strong rationale to identify innovative approaches to treat these tumors is required since treatment failures result in local recurrences and median survivals range from 9 to 12 months. Glioma cells are reported to have less mitochondrial content compared to adjacent normal brain cells. Based on this difference, we suggest a new strategy, utilizing protection of normal brain cells by mitochondria-targeted electron scavengers and antioxidants-nitroxides-thus allowing for the escalation of the radiation doses. In this paper, we report that a conjugate of nitroxide with a hydrophobic cation, triphenyl-phosphonium (TPEY-Tempo), significantly protected brain endothelial cells from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis while radiosensitizing brain tumor cells. Thus, TPEY-Tempo may be a promising adjunct in the treatment of glioblastoma with the potential to not only prolong survival but also to maintain quality of life and reduce treatment toxicity.

  18. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    the distribution of N and P on the fields. Filtration is a useful method for such a separation. Furthermore, chemicals can be added to flocculate the solids and thereby increase the filterability i.e. the specific filter-cake resistance can be reduced from 1015 m/kg to 1011 m/kg. Both the amount of added chemicals......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...... that the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour is due to a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). This can also explain the observed behaviour when flocculated manure is filtered. The filtration data can be simulated if cake creep is adopted in the filtration...

  19. Dietary interventions designed to protect the perinatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy--Creatine prophylaxis and the need for multi-organ protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Dickinson, Hayley; McKenzie, Matthew; Walker, David W

    2016-05-01

    Birth asphyxia or hypoxia arises from impaired placental gas exchange during labor and remains one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a condition that can strike in pregnancies that have been uneventful until these final moments, and leads to fundamental loss of cellular energy reserves in the newborn. The cascade of metabolic changes that occurs in the brain at birth as a result of hypoxia can lead to significant damage that evolves over several hours and days, the severity of which can be ameliorated with therapeutic cerebral hypothermia. However, this treatment is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria and is usually administered only in facilities with a high level of medical surveillance. Hence, a number of neuropharmacological interventions have been suggested as adjunct therapies to improve the efficacy of hypothermia, which alone improves survival of the post-hypoxic infant but does not altogether prevent adverse neurological outcomes. In this review we discuss the prospect of using creatine as a dietary supplement during pregnancy and nutritional intervention that can significantly decrease the risk of brain damage in the event of severe oxygen deprivation at birth. Because brain damage can also arise secondarily to compromise of other fetal organs (e.g., heart, diaphragm, kidney), and that compromise of mitochondrial function under hypoxic conditions may be a common mechanism leading to damage of these tissues, we present data suggesting that dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylaxis that can protect the fetus from the multi-organ consequences of severe hypoxia at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kevlar Vest Protection against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    ketoglutarate can directly enter the citric acid cycle to generate ATP, GOT2 is believed to play major role in ATP production in neurons.14–16 In the present...6 shows the schematic representation of the role of GOT2 in brain energy metabolism involving the ‘‘mini citric acid cycle ,’’ which was proposed by...amino acids could provide an alternate source of energy to help maintain ATP levels in the brain through ‘‘mini citric acid cycle ’’.16 They also found

  1. Synaptic protection in the brain of WldS mice occurs independently of age but is sensitive to gene-dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann K Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disruption of synaptic connectivity is a significant early event in many neurodegenerative conditions affecting the aging CNS, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Therapeutic approaches that protect synapses from degeneration in the aging brain offer the potential to slow or halt the progression of such conditions. A range of animal models expressing the slow Wallerian Degeneration (Wld(S gene show robust neuroprotection of synapses and axons from a wide variety of traumatic and genetic neurodegenerative stimuli in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, raising that possibility that Wld(S may be useful as a neuroprotective agent in diseases with synaptic pathology. However, previous studies of neuromuscular junctions revealed significant negative effects of increasing age and positive effects of gene-dose on Wld(S-mediated synaptic protection in the peripheral nervous system, raising doubts as to whether Wld(S is capable of directly conferring synapse protection in the aging brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the influence of age and gene-dose on synaptic protection in the brain of mice expressing the Wld(S gene using an established cortical lesion model to induce synaptic degeneration in the striatum. Synaptic protection was found to be sensitive to Wld(S gene-dose, with heterozygous Wld(S mice showing approximately half the level of protection observed in homozygous Wld(S mice. Increasing age had no influence on levels of synaptic protection. In contrast to previous findings in the periphery, synapses in the brain of old Wld(S mice were just as strongly protected as those in young mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that Wld(S-mediated synaptic protection in the CNS occurs independently of age, but is sensitive to gene dose. This suggests that the Wld(S gene, and in particular its downstream endogenous effector pathways, may be potentially useful therapeutic agents for

  2. Protection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor to Brain Edema Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Involved Mechanisms: Effect of Aquaporin-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heling Chu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has protective effects on many neurological diseases. However, whether VEGF acts on brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is largely unknown. Our previous study has shown aquaporin-4 (AQP4 plays an important role in brain edema elimination following ICH. Meanwhile, there is close relationship between VEGF and AQP4. In this study, we aimed to test effects of VEGF on brain edema following ICH and examine whether they were AQP4 dependent. Recombinant human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165 was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 d after ICH induced by microinjecting autologous whole blood into striatum. We detected perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression, then examined the effects of rhVEGF165 on perihemotomal brain edema at 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after injection in wild type (AQP4(+/+ and AQP4 knock-out (AQP4(-/- mice. Furthermore, we assessed the possible signal transduction pathways activated by VEGF to regulate AQP4 expression via astrocyte cultures. We found perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression was highly increased by rhVEGF165. RhVEGF165 alleviated perihemotomal brain edema in AQP4(+/+ mice at each time point, but had no effect on AQP4(-/- mice. Perihemotomal EB extravasation was increased by rhVEGF165 in AQP4(-/- mice, but not AQP4(+/+ mice. RhVEGF165 reduced neurological deficits and increased Nissl's staining cells surrounding hemotoma in both types of mice and these effects were related to AQP4. RhVEGF165 up-regulated phospharylation of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK and AQP4 protein in cultured astrocytes. The latter was inhibited by JNK and ERK inhibitors. In conclusion, VEGF reduces neurological deficits, brain edema, and neuronal death surrounding hemotoma but has no influence on BBB permeability. These effects are closely related to AQP4 up-regulation, possibly through activating JNK and ERK pathways. The current study may present new insights to

  3. Effects of drinking-water filtration on Cryptosporidium seroepidemiology, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Colin N; Wagner, Adam P; Robertson, Chris; Smith, Huw V; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2014-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts is associated with production of protective antibodies. We investigated prevalence of antibodies against the 27-kDa Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen among blood donors in 2 areas of Scotland supplied by drinking water from different sources with different filtration standards: Glasgow (not filtered) and Dundee (filtered). During 2006-2009, seroprevalence and risk factor data were collected; this period includes 2007, when enhanced filtration was introduced to the Glasgow supply. A serologic response to the 27-kDa antigen was found for ≈75% of donors in the 2 cohorts combined. Mixed regression modeling indicated a 32% step-change reduction in seroprevalence of antibodies against Cryptosporidium among persons in the Glasgow area, which was associated with introduction of enhanced filtration treatment. Removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water reduces the risk for waterborne exposure, sporadic infections, and outbreaks. Paradoxically, however, oocyst removal might lower immunity and increase the risk for infection from other sources.

  4. Protective effects of peroxiredoxin-1 at the injured blood-brain barrier.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreibelt, G.; Horssen, J. van; Haseloff, R.F.; Reijerkerk, A.; Pol, SM van der; Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Krause, E.; Blasig, I.E.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Ronken, E.; Vries, H.E. de

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we studied the effect of ROS on protein expression in brain endothelial cells (BECs) using proteomic techniques and show that long-term exposure to ROS induces

  5. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health.

  6. Physical Activity Protects the Human Brain against Metabolic Stress Induced by a Postprandial and Chronic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pruimboom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health.

  7. New generation lipid emulsion protects against LPS-induced brain inflammation in pemature piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature infants provided parenteral nutrition (PN) high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have increased risk of inflammatory disease, such as nosocomial sepsis. The pro-inflammatory insult can also contribute to injury and delayed neuronal growth in the perinatal brain. Provision of high ...

  8. Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelschenbach, Jennifer L; Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Gu, Chao-Jiang; Chao, Wei; Bentsman, Galina; Hong, Jessie P; Hanke, Tomas; Sharer, Leroy R; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2012-06-01

    Infection by some viruses induces immunity to reinfection, providing a means to identify protective epitopes. To investigate resistance to reinfection in an animal model of HIV disease and its control, we employed infection of mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV. When immunocompetent mice were infected by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of EcoHIV, they resisted subsequent secondary infection by IP injection, consistent with a systemic antiviral immune response. To investigate the potential role of these responses in restricting neurotropic HIV infection, we established a protocol for efficient EcoHIV expression in the brain following intracranial (IC) inoculation of virus. When mice were inoculated by IP injection and secondarily by IC injection, they also controlled EcoHIV replication in the brain. To investigate their role in EcoHIV antiviral responses, CD8+ T lymphocytes were isolated from spleens of EcoHIV infected and uninfected mice and adoptively transferred to isogenic recipients. Recipients of EcoHIV primed CD8+ cells resisted subsequent EcoHIV infection compared to recipients of cells from uninfected donors. CD8+ spleen cells from EcoHIV-infected mice also mounted modest but significant interferon-γ responses to two HIV Gag peptide pools. These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings.

  9. Deletion of TRAAK potassium channel affects brain metabolism and protects against ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Laigle

    Full Text Available Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K⁺ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K⁺ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak⁻/⁻ mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak⁻/⁻ mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak⁺/⁺ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak⁻/⁻ mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak⁺/⁺ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak⁻/⁻ mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke.

  10. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  11. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  12. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found that the prod......The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... magnitude as the primary consolidation (defined by the hydraulic retardation), the creep phenomenon may occur during filtration. This will lead to Ruth's plots characterized by a concave with two (more or less) distinct slopes. The slopes are defined by the relationship between the porosity...

  13. Amburana cearensis seed extract protects brain mitochondria from oxidative stress and cerebellar cells from excitotoxicity induced by glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Pereira, Érica Patrícia; Santos Souza, Cleide; Amparo, Jessika; Short Ferreira, Rafael; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Gonzaga Fernandez, Luzimar; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Amaral da Silva, Victor Diogenes; Lima Costa, Silvia

    2017-09-14

    Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A.C.Sm. is a medicinal plant of the Brazilian Caatinga reported to present antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the extracts obtained from the seeds of A. cearensis in primary cultures of cerebellar cells subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and brain mitochondria submitted to oxidative stress. and methods: Primary cultures of cerebellar cells were treated with the ethanol (ETAC), hexane (EHAC), dichloromethane (EDAC) and ethyl acetate (EAAC) extracts of the seeds of A.cearensis and subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate (10µM). Mitochondria isolated from rat brains were submitted to oxidative stress and treated with ETAC. Only the EHAC extract reduced cell viability by 30% after 72h of treatment. Morphological analyses by Immunofluorescence showed positive staining for glutamine synthetase, β-III tubulin, GFAP and IBA1 similar to control cultures, indicating a better preservation of astrocytes, neurons and microglia, after excitotoxic damage induced by glutamate in cerebellar cultures treated with the extracts. The ETAC extract also protected mitochondria isolated from rat brains from oxidative stress, reducing the swelling, dissipation of the membrane potential, ROS production and calcium influx. Thus, this study suggests that the seed extracts from A. Cearensis exhibit neuroprotective potential against oxidative stress and excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and can be considered a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings.

  15. Silver nanoparticle-doped zirconia capillaries for enhanced bacterial filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Julia; Köser, Jan; Lindner, Patrick; Lüder, Christian; Beutel, Sascha; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-03-01

    Membrane clogging and biofilm formation are the most serious problems during water filtration. Silver nanoparticle (Agnano) coatings on filtration membranes can prevent bacterial adhesion and the initiation of biofilm formation. In this study, Agnano are immobilized via direct reduction on porous zirconia capillary membranes to generate a nanocomposite material combining the advantages of ceramics being chemically, thermally and mechanically stable with nanosilver, an efficient broadband bactericide for water decontamination. The filtration of bacterial suspensions of the fecal contaminant Escherichia coli reveals highly efficient bacterial retention capacities of the capillaries of 8 log reduction values, fulfilling the requirements on safe drinking water according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Maximum bacterial loading capacities of the capillary membranes are determined to be 3×10(9)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface until back flushing is recommendable. The immobilized Agnano remain accessible and exhibit strong bactericidal properties by killing retained bacteria up to maximum bacterial loads of 6×10(8)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface and the regenerated membranes regain filtration efficiencies of 95-100%. Silver release is moderate as only 0.8% of the initial silver loading is leached during a three-day filtration experiment leading to average silver contaminant levels of 100μg/L.

  16. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating environment and the performance goals for the gas turbine. Selection of these systems can be a challenging task. This paper provides a review of the considerations for selecting an inlet filtration system by covering (1 the characteristics of filters and filter systems, (2 a review of the many types of filters, (3 a detailed look at the different environments where the gas turbine can operate, (4 a process for evaluating the site where the gas turbine will be or is installed, and (5 a method to compare various filter system options with life cycle cost analysis.

  17. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  18. Protective/detoxicative function of metallothionein in the rat brain and blood induced by controlled cadmium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Shiyntum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmiumclassified as a major carcinogen is considered a poisonous and unwanted heavy metal to a lot of tissues in many organisms. Of many publications already available, the general consensus is that the cadmium attenuating element is metallothionein (MT through its interchangeable mechanism with Zn triggered by the presence of Cd, providing binding sites for Cd ions. MT was first discovered in the kidney cortex of the horse; it represents a low molecular weight protein, rich in cysteine residues which effectively bind with metals. Its functions consist in detoxification of heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, cadmium, homeostasis of essential metals including copper and zinc, anti-oxidation against reactive oxygen species, protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, cell survival, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and increase of proliferation. In this work, we sought to highlight the protective function of MT in the brain and serum of rats by means of detoxification under induced effects of controlled Cd doses. We have done this by exposing Wistar rats to Cd at different doses in drinking water at different time intervals. In two independent experiments, 58 rats were subjected to 0.1 or 1.0 µg Cd2+/kg of body weight for 15 or 36 days under different conditions. The obtained data indicates the different functioning systems for the brain and the blood for MT metabolism under Cd effect. Our results indicate significant loss of metallothionein level in the brain and important increases in the amount of MT in serum proving that even minimal ingestion of toxic Cd is enough to trigger the release of MT protein in blood.

  19. Protecting Neural Structures and Cognitive Function During Prolonged Space Flight by Targeting the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Molecular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. A.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main activity-dependent neurotrophin in the human nervous system. BDNF is implicated in production of new neurons from dentate gyrus stem cells (hippocampal neurogenesis), synapse formation, sprouting of new axons, growth of new axons, sprouting of new dendrites, and neuron survival. Alterations in the amount or activity of BDNF can produce significant detrimental changes to cortical function and synaptic transmission in the human brain. This can result in glial and neuronal dysfunction, which may contribute to a range of clinical conditions, spanning a number of learning, behavioral, and neurological disorders. There is an extensive body of work surrounding the BDNF molecular network, including BDNF gene polymorphisms, methylated BDNF gene promoters, multiple gene transcripts, varied BDNF functional proteins, and different BDNF receptors (whose activation differentially drive the neuron to neurogenesis or apoptosis). BDNF is also closely linked to mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1alpha, which can influence brain and muscle metabolic efficiency. BDNF AS A HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT COUNTERMEASURE TARGET Earth-based studies reveal that BDNF is negatively impacted by many of the conditions encountered in the space environment, including oxidative stress, radiation, psychological stressors, sleep deprivation, and many others. A growing body of work suggests that the BDNF network is responsive to a range of diet, nutrition, exercise, drug, and other types of influences. This section explores the BDNF network in the context of 1) protecting the brain and nervous system in the space environment, 2) optimizing neurobehavioral performance in space, and 3) reducing the residual effects of space flight on the nervous system on return to Earth

  20. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana [IRCCS Neuromed, Neurogenetics Unit and Centre for Rare Disease, Pozzilli (Italy); Romanelli, Pantaleo [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Neurosurgery, Pozzilli (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, La Spezia (Italy); Frati, Luigi [University ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Second University of Naples, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells induce T-cell tolerance and protect the preterm brain after global hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reint K Jellema

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE in preterm infants is a severe disease for which no curative treatment is available. Cerebral inflammation and invasion of activated peripheral immune cells have been shown to play a pivotal role in the etiology of white matter injury, which is the clinical hallmark of HIE in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in an ovine model of HIE. In this translational animal model, global hypoxia-ischemia (HI was induced in instrumented preterm sheep by transient umbilical cord occlusion, which closely mimics the clinical insult. Intravenous administration of 2 x 10(6 MSC/kg reduced microglial proliferation, diminished loss of oligodendrocytes and reduced demyelination, as determined by histology and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, in the preterm brain after global HI. These anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MSC were paralleled by reduced electrographic seizure activity in the ischemic preterm brain. Furthermore, we showed that MSC induced persistent peripheral T-cell tolerance in vivo and reduced invasion of T-cells into the preterm brain following global HI. These findings show in a preclinical animal model that intravenously administered MSC reduced cerebral inflammation, protected against white matter injury and established functional improvement in the preterm brain following global HI. Moreover, we provide evidence that induction of T-cell tolerance by MSC might play an important role in the neuroprotective effects of MSC in HIE. This is the first study to describe a marked neuroprotective effect of MSC in a translational animal model of HIE.

  2. Selenium and zinc protect brain mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain enzymes following postnatal protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Adenuga, Gbenga A; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are trace elements required for optimal brain functions. Thus, the role of Se and Zn against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes from rats' brain were investigated. Normal protein (NP) and low protein (LP) rats were fed with diets containing 16% and 5% casein respectively for a period of 10weeks. Then the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15mgL(-1) and 227mgL(-1) in drinking water for 3weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The results obtained from the study showed significant (pmalnutrition induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Fluid Helmet Liner for Protection Against Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Induced Traumatic Brain Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-08-1-0261 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Young, Laurence , R... Laurence R. Young Steven F. Son George A. Christou Matthew D. Alley Rahul Goel Andrew P. Vechart Benjamin R. Schimizze Table of Contents...Beach, South Carolina, Battelle Press, Columbus, pp. 29-38,1997. 10. Grover ,R., Ree , F. A., and Holmes, N., "Equation of state from Si02 Aerogel

  4. Lung-protective Ventilation in Patients with Brain Injury: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study and Questionnaire Survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Ying Luo; Ying-Hong Hu; Xiang-Yuan Cao; Yan Kang; Li-Ping Liu; Shou-Hong Wang; Rong-Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Over the years,the mechanical ventilation (MV) strategy has changed worldwide.The aim of the present study was to describe the ventilation practices,particularly lung-protective ventilation (LPV),among brain-injured patients in China.Methods:This study was a multicenter,1-day,cross-sectional study in 47 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) across China.Mechanically ventilated patients (18 years and older) with brain injury in a participating ICU during the time of the study,including traumatic brain injury,stroke,postoperation with intracranial tumor,hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy,intracranial infection,and idiopathic epilepsy,were enrolled.Demographic data,primary diagnoses,indications for MV,MV modes and settings,and prognoses on the 60th day were collected.Multivariable logistic analysis was used to assess factors that might affect the use of LPV.Results:A total of 104 patients were enrolled in the present study,87 (83.7%) of whom were identified with severe brain injury based on a Glasgow Coma Scale <8 points.Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) was the most frequent ventilator mode,accounting for 46.2% of the entire cohort.The median tidal volume was set to 8.0 ml/kg (interquartile range [IQR],7.0-8.9 ml/kg) of the predicted body weight;50 (48.1%) patients received LPV.The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was set to 5 cmH2O (IQR,5-6 cmH2O).No PEEP values were higher than 10 cmH2O.Compared with partially mandatory ventilation,supportive and spontaneous ventilation practices were associated with LPV.There were no significant differences in mortality and MV duration between patients subjected to LPV and those were not.Conclusions:Among brain-injured patients in China,SIMV was the most frequent ventilation mode.Nearly one-half of the brain-injured patients received LPV.Patients under supportive and spontaneous ventilation were more likely to receive LPV.

  5. Protective effect of anisodamine on respiratory function after severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 戴伟民; 揭园庆; 余国峰

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical therapeutic effect of anisodamine on respiratory function after severe brain injury.Methods: Ninety patients with respiratory dysfunction following severe brain injury were divided into two groups: a treatment group (n=45, treated with routine therapy plus anisodamine) and a control group (n=45, treated with routine therapy only). The pulmonary ventilation function and oxygenation function were compared between the two groups.Results: In the treatment group, 12 hours after treatment the respiratory rate reduced, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) and oxygenation exponent increased, the dead space ventilation dose and the pulmonary alveolus-partial pressure of arterial oxygen difference decreased, and the ventilation function of the respiratory tract and pulmonary oxygenation function improved. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). No side-effect was found except a slight increase of intracranial pressure and heart rate.Conclusions: Anisodamine can improve pulmonary ventilation function and oxygenation function and decrease the incidence of hypoxemia markedly. It is effective in treating respiratory dysfunction after severe brain injury.

  6. Protective role for type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors against ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyanova, Slavianka G; Mastroiacovo, Federica; Kortenska, Lidia V; Mitreva, Rumiana G; Fardone, Erminia; Santolini, Ines; Sobrado, Mónica; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ngomba, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    We examined the influence of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors on ischemic brain damage using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in mice and the endothelin-1 (Et-1) model of transient focal ischemia in rats. Mice lacking mGlu4 receptors showed a 25% to 30% increase in infarct volume after MCAO as compared with wild-type littermates. In normal mice, systemic injection of the selective mGlu4 receptor enhancer, N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-caboxamide (PHCCC; 10  mg/kg, subcutaneous, administered once 30  minutes before MCAO), reduced the extent of ischemic brain damage by 35% to 45%. The drug was inactive in mGlu4 receptor knockout mice. In the Et-1 model, PHCCC administered only once 20  minutes after ischemia reduced the infarct volume to a larger extent in the caudate/putamen than in the cerebral cortex. Ischemic rats treated with PHCCC showed a faster recovery of neuronal function, as shown by electrocorticographic recording and by a battery of specific tests, which assess sensorimotor deficits. These data indicate that activation of mGlu4 receptors limit the development of brain damage after permanent or transient focal ischemia. These findings are promising because selective mGlu4 receptor enhancers are under clinical development for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other central nervous system disorders.

  7. Phycocyanin for protecting brain ischemia-reperfusion injury and its effect on the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Yang; Yunliang Guo; Hongbing Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phycocyanin can anti-oxidize and clear free radial. Whether its protective effect on brain is related to Caspase-3, the promoter and operator of apoptosis, is highly concerned.OBJECTIVE: To observe phycocyanin for protecting nerve function and reducing the size of cerebral infarction of rats with brain ischemia-reperfusion and its effect on the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA.DESIGN: A randomized controlled experiment.SETrING: Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 84 adult healthy female Wistar rats, weighing 210 to 250 g, of clean grade, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of Shandong University. Phycocyanin (Institute of Oceanography of Chinese Academy of Sciences) was used.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Key Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Brain Diseases during May to December 2005. ① The rats were randomized into sham-operation group (n=4),control group (n=40) and phycocyanin-treated group (n=40). Middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MACO/R) models were created on the rats of control and phycocyanin-treated groups with suture-occluded method by inserting a thread into left side external-internal carotid artery. In the sham-operation group, inserting suture was omitted. After ischemia for 1 hour and reperfusion for 2 hours, suspension of phycocyanin was intragastrically administrated into the rats of the phycocyanin-treated group at 100 mg/kg , and the same volume of normal saline was isochronously administrated into the rats of control group as the same. ② Six rats were chosen respectively from the control group and phycocyanin-treated group, then neurologic impairment degrees of rats were evaluated according to Bederson's grading. ③ Six rats were chosen respectively from the control and phycocyanin-treated groups. The isolated brain tissue was stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and then the size of cerebral

  8. Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2011-04-04

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

  9. Protective effects and time course of Huangqion early-stage free radical injury following brain trauma in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjie Wang; Xingbo Liu; Xun Wang

    2008-01-01

    and SOD, as well as MDA content, was analyzed using biochemical indicators at 4, 24, and 48 hours after injury. RESULTS: All 72 rats were included in the fmal analysis. At 4, 24, and 48 hours after injury, ATPase activity was significantly reduced in the model and Huangqi groups than in the sham-operated group (P 0.05). At 24 and 48 hours after injury, ATPase activity in the Huangqi group gradually decreased, but remained significantly greater than that in the model group (P<0.05). At four hours after injury, when compared with the sham-operated group, the MDA content in the model group significantly increased and remained at a high level, while SOD activity significantly decreased (P<0.05). In the Huangqi group, MDA content and SOD activity did not change at four hours after injury. However, MDA content significantly decreased, and SOD activity significantly increased, at 24 and 48 hours after injury, compared with the model group (P<0.05). Moreover, at 24 and 48 hours after injury, the water content of brain tissue was significantly lower in the Huangqi group than in the model group (P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination of cerebral cortical neurons revealed severe damage in the model group, compared to the sham-operated group, while only mild injury was observed in the Huangqi group. CONCLUSION: The protective effects of Huangqi against traumatic brain injury correlates with decreasing MDA content and increasing SOD activity.

  10. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to nano-aerosols

  11. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to

  12. Recombinant TgHSP70 Immunization Protects against Toxoplasma gondii Brain Cyst Formation by Enhancing Inducible Nitric Oxide Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide M. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is known to cause congenital infection in humans and animals and severe disease in immunocompromised individuals; consequently development of vaccines against the parasite is highly necessary. Under stress conditions, T. gondii expresses the highly immunogenic heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70. Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of rTgHSP70 immunization combined with Alum in oral ME-49 T. gondii infection and the mechanisms involved on it. It was observed that immunized mice with rTgHSP70 or rTgHSP70 adsorbed in Alum presented a significantly reduced number of cysts in the brain that was associated with increased iNOS+ cell numbers in the organ, irrespective the use of the adjuvant. Indeed, ex vivo experiments showed that peritoneal macrophages pre-stimulated with rTgHSP70 presented increased NO production and enhanced parasite killing, and the protein was able to directly stimulate B cells toward antibody producing profile. In addition, rTgHSP70 immunization leads to high specific antibody titters systemically and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response, with predominance of IgG1 production. Nonetheless, it was observed that the pretreatment of the parasite with rTgHSP70 immune sera was not able to control T. gondii internalization and replication by NIH fibroblast neither peritoneal murine macrophages, nor anti-rTgHSP70 antibodies were able to kill T. gondii by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting that these mechanisms are not crucial to resistance. Interestingly, when in combination with Alum, rTgHSP70 immunization was able to reduce inflammation in the brain of infected mice and in parallel anti-rTgHSP70 immune complexes in the serum. In conclusion, immunization with rTgHSP70 induces massive amounts of iNOS expression and reduced brain parasitism, suggesting that iNOS expression and consequently NO production in the brain is a protective mechanism induced by TgHSP70 immunization, therefore rTgHSP70 can be a good candidate for

  13. Protective effect of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahua; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

    2008-02-01

    Arsenic, a notoriously poisonous metalloid, is ubiquitous in the environment, and it affects nearly all organ systems of animals including humans. The present study was designed to investigate the preventive role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced oxidative damage in murine brain. Sodium arsenite was selected as a source of arsenic for this study. The free-radical-scavenging activity and the in vivo antioxidant power of arjunolic acid were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of sodium arsenite at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days significantly decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, the level of cellular metabolites, reduced glutathione, total thiols and increased the level of oxidized glutathione. In addition, it enhanced the levels of lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to arsenic administration almost normalized above indices. Histological findings due to arsenic intoxication and arjunolic acid treatment supported the other biochemical changes in murine brains. Results of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays clearly showed the in vitro radical scavenging as well as the in vivo antioxidant power of arjunolic acid, respectively. The effect of a well-established antioxidant, vitamin C, has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, results suggest that arjunolic acid possessed the ability to ameliorate arsenic-induced oxidative insult in murine brain and is probably due to its antioxidant activity.

  14. Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, M.; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2012-01-01

    We sought to assess the feasibility and estimate the benefit of sparing the neurogenic niches when irradiating the brain of pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) based on clinical outcome data. Pediatric MB survivors experience a high risk of neurocognitive adverse effects, often attributed......%-60%), and 33% (95% CI, 23%-44%) with opposing fields, IMAT, IMRT, and IMPT, respectively. Neurogenic niche sparing during cranial irradiation of pediatric patients with MB is feasible and is estimated to lower the risks of long-term neurocognitive sequelae. Greatest sparing is achieved with intensity...

  15. Phenolic Alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum Rhizome Protect against Brain Ischemia Injury via Regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lian-Jun Guo; Jie Ding; Jin-Jin Zhan; Mei Zhou; Xi Sun; Yang Chen; Bo Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Menispermum dauricum rhizome has been widely used in China to treat various cardiovascular and thrombosis disorders. Some studies have reported that the phenolic alkaloids of Menispermum dauricum rhizome (PAM) have protective effects against brain ischemia injury, but the mechanism of this action remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms of action of PAM on experimental brain ischemia injury. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat primary cort...

  16. Mobile surface water filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Vatsyayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To design a mobile system for surface water filtrationMethodology: the filtration of surface impurities begins with their retraction to concentrated thickness using non ionising surfactants, then isolation using surface tension property and sedimentation of impurities in process chamber using electrocoagulation. Result:following studies done to determine the rate of spreading of crude oil on water a method for retraction of spread crude oil to concentrated volumes is developed involving addition of non -ionising surfactants in contrast to use of dispersants. Electrocoagulation process involves multiple processes taking place to lead to depositionof impurities such as oil, grease, metals. Studies of experiments conducted reveals parameters necessary for design of electrocoagulation process chamber though a holistic approach towards system designing is still required. Propeller theory is used in determining the required design of propeller and the desired thrust, the overall structure will finally contribute in deciding the choice of propeller.

  17. Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  18. Protective effects of carbenoxolone are associated with attenuation of oxidative stress in ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang Zhang; Yu-Min Li; Yu-Hong Jing; Shao-Yu Wang; Yan-Feng Song; Jie Yin

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that the gap junction plays an important role in the determination of cerebral ischemia,but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.In this study,we assessed the effect of a gap-junction blocker,carbenoxolone (CBX),on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and the possible mechanisms.By using the transient cerebral ischemia model induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h,we found that pre-administration of CBX (25 mg/kg,intracerebroventricular injection,30 min before cerebral ischemic surgery) diminished the infarction size in rats.And this was associated with a decrease of reactive oxygen species generation and inhibition of the activation of astrocytes and microglia.In PC12 cells,H202 treatment induced more coupling and apoptosis,while CBX partly inhibited the opening of gap junctions and improved the cell viability.These results suggest that cerebral ischemia enhances the opening of gap junctions.Blocking the gap junction with CBX may attenuate the brain injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion by partially contributing to amelioration of the oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  19. Protective Effects of Inducible HO-1 on Oxygen Toxicity in Rat Brain Endothelial Microvessel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Yoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReperfusion in ischemia is believed to generate cytotoxic oxidative stress, which mediates reperfusion injury. These stress conditions can initiate lipid peroxidation and damage to proteins, as well as promote DNA strand breaks. As biliverdin and bilirubin produced by heme oxygenase isoform 1 (HO-1 have antioxidant properties, the production of both antioxidants by HO-1 may help increase the resistance of the ischemic brain to oxidative stress. In the present study, the survival effect of HO-1 was confirmed using hemin.MethodsTo confirm the roles of HO-1, carbon monoxide, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate further in the antioxidant effect of HO-1 and bilirubin, cells were treated with cycloheximide, desferoxamine, and zinc deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4 bis glycol, respectively.ResultsHO-1 itself acted as an antioxidant. Furthermore, iron, rather than carbon monoxide, was involved in the HO-1-mediated survival effect. HO-1 activity was also important in providing bilirubin as an antioxidant.ConclusionOur results suggested that HO-1 helped to increase the resistance of the ischemic brain to oxidative stress.

  20. Dichlorvos and lindane induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dichlorvos and lindane pesticide causes toxicity in animals including humans. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties. Objective: This study was designed to assess ameliorating effects of ginger juice in dichlorvos and lindane induced neurotoxicity in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Dichlorvos (8.8 mg/kg bw and lindane (8.8 mg/kg bw were orally administered alone as well as in combination to adult male and female wistar rats for 14 days followed by the post-treatment of ginger juice (100 mg/kg bw for 14 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GR, quinine reductase (QR, and protein level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in brain. Results: Dichlorvos and lindane administration alone and in combination increased LPO and decreased the GSH level, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity, and protein. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is believed to be involved in the toxicities induced by these pesticides. Post-treatment of ginger juice decreased LPO and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity and protein in the brain of rats. Conclusions: The results indicated that dichlorovos and lindane induced tissue damage was ameliorated by ginger juice.

  1. Astrocytic Toll-like receptor 3 is associated with ischemic preconditioning-induced protection against brain ischemia in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-na Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC protects brain against ischemic injury. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 signaling can induce neuroprotective mediators, but whether astrocytic TLR3 signaling is involved in IPC-induced ischemic tolerance is not known. METHODS: IPC was modeled in mice with three brief episodes of bilateral carotid occlusion. In vitro, IPC was modeled in astrocytes by 1-h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Injury and components of the TLR3 signaling pathway were measured after a subsequent protracted ischemic event. A neutralizing antibody against TLR3 was used to evaluate the role of TLR3 signaling in ischemic tolerance. RESULTS: IPC in vivo reduced brain damage from permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and increased expression of TLR3 in cortical astrocytes. IPC also reduced damage in isolated astrocytes after 12-h OGD. In astrocytes, IPC or 12-h OGD alone increased TLR3 expression, and 12-h OGD alone increased expression of phosphorylated NFκB (pNFκB. However, IPC or 12-h OGD alone did not alter the expression of Toll/interleukin receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFNβ (TRIF or phosphorylated interferon regulatory factor 3 (pIRF3. Exposure to IPC before OGD increased TRIF and pIRF3 expression but decreased pNFκB expression. Analysis of cytokines showed that 12-h OGD alone increased IFNβ and IL-6 secretion; 12-h OGD preceded by IPC further increased IFNβ secretion but decreased IL-6 secretion. Preconditioning with TLR3 ligand Poly I:C increased pIRF3 expression and protected astrocytes against ischemic injury; however, cells treated with a neutralizing antibody against TLR3 lacked the IPC- and Poly I:C-induced ischemic protection and augmentation of IFNβ. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that IPC-induced ischemic tolerance is mediated by astrocytic TLR3 signaling. This reprogramming of TLR3 signaling by IPC in astrocytes may play an important role in suppression of the post

  2. Iduna Protects the Brain from Glutamate Excitotoxicity and Stroke by Interfering with Parthanatos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Kang, Ho Chul; Haince, Jean-François; Lee, Yun-Il; Zhang, Jian; Chi, Zhikai; West, Andrew B.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate acting on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injury following stroke, through activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and generation of the death molecule poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer. Here we identify Iduna, a novel NMDA receptor-induced survival gene that is neuroprotective against glutamate NMDA receptor mediated excitotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo and against stroke through interfering with PAR polymer induced cell death (parthanatos). Iduna’s protective effects are independent and downstream of PARP-1 activity. Iduna is a PAR polymer binding protein and mutations at the PAR polymer binding site abolishes the PAR binding activity of Iduna and attenuates its protective actions. Iduna is protective in vivo against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced stroke in mice. These results define Iduna as the first endogenous inhibitor of parthanatos. Interfering with PAR polymer signaling offers a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurologic disorders. PMID:21602803

  3. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  4. Glibenclamide pretreatment protects against chronic memory dysfunction and glial activation in rat cranial blast traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokum, Jesse A; Keledjian, Kaspar; Hayman, Erik; Karimy, Jason K; Pampori, Adam; Imran, Ziyan; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2017-08-30

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects both military and civilian populations, and often results in chronic deficits in cognition and memory. Chronic glial activation after bTBI has been linked with cognitive decline. Pharmacological inhibition of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) with glibenclamide was shown previously to reduce glial activation and improve cognition in contusive models of CNS trauma, but has not been examined in bTBI. We postulated that glibenclamide would reduce chronic glial activation and improve long-term memory function after bTBI. Using a rat direct cranial model of bTBI (dc-bTBI), we evaluated the efficacy of two glibenclamide treatment paradigms: glibenclamide prophylaxis (pre-treatment), and treatment with glibenclamide starting after dc-bTBI (post-treatment). Our results show that dc-bTBI caused hippocampal astrocyte and microglial/macrophage activation that was associated with hippocampal memory dysfunction (rapid place learning paradigm) at 28days, and that glibenclamide pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, effectively protected against glial activation and memory dysfunction. We also report that a brief transient time-window of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs after dc-bTBI, and we speculate that glibenclamide, which is mostly protein bound and does not normally traverse the intact BBB, can undergo CNS delivery only during this brief transient opening of the BBB. Together, our findings indicate that prophylactic glibenclamide treatment may help to protect against chronic cognitive sequelae of bTBI in warfighters and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha mediates protection of DL-3-n-butylphthalide in brain microvascular endothelial cells against oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihong Yang; Ling Li; Ruxun Huang; Zhong Pei; Songjie Liao; Jinsheng Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that DL-3-n-butylphthalide can significantly alleviate oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells at least partly associated with its enhancement on oxygen glucose deprivation -induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression. In this study, we hypothesized that DL-3-n-butylphthalide can protect against oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury of newborn rat brain microvascular endothelial cells by means of upregulating hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression. MTT assay and Hoechst staining results showed that DL-3-n-butylphthalide protected brain microvascular endothelial cells against oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results further confirmed that the protective effect was related to upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α. Real-time RT-PCR reaction results showed that DL-3-n-butylphthalide reduced apoptosis by inhibiting downregulation of pro-apoptotic gene caspase-3 mRNA expression and upregulation of apoptosis-executive protease bcl-2 mRNA expression; however, DL-3-n-butylphthalide had no protective effects on brain microvascular endothelial cells after knockdown of hypoxia inducible factor-1α by small interfering RNA. These findings suggest that DL-3-n-butylphthalide can protect brain microvascular endothelial cells against oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury by upregulating bcl-2 expression and downregulating caspase-3 expression though hypoxia inducible factor-1α pathway.

  6. The effect of rare-earth filtration on organ doses in intraoral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asako, Satoshi; Satoh, Kenji; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    Filters of rare-earth elements such as lanthanum (La, Z=57), samarium (Sm, Z=62), gadolinium (Gd, Z=64) and erbium (Er, Z=68) are frequently used in radiography for the purpose of reducing the patient dose by eliminating low-energy and high-energy X-rays which are not involved in imaging. It is useful to evaluate the dose reduction achieved by these rare-earth filters in terms of organ dose, and the effective dose equivalent, which is used for evaluating carcinogenic risks and hereditary effects of X-ray irradiation, for the purpose of optimizing the radiographic technique and radiation protection. Therefore, we calculated the organ dose and effective dose equivalent during intraoral radiography of the maxillary incisor region by simulation using samarium or erbium, typical rare-earth elements, in filtration. We evaluated the effects of these metals in dose reduction. When samarium or erbium, 0.1 mm thick, was used in added filtration at tube voltage of 60, 70, 80 and 90 kV, the time required for radiography almost doubled, respectively. The organ dose at each tube voltage was the largest in the parathyroid and thyroid glands, followed by bone surfaces and the optic lenses, skin, red bone marrow and salivary glands, larynx, and brain, in that order. The organ dose at sites other than the larynx and brain decreased as the quality of the incident X-ray beam was hardened. When samarium or erbium was added at each voltage, the effective dose equivalent was reduced by about 20% to 45%. Erbium was more effective than samarium in reducing the effective dose equivalent, and either of the two elements decreased its effectiveness with an increase in tube voltage. (author) 43 refs.

  7. Topiramate attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats via duplex protection against inflammation and neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Guo, Song-Xue; Li, Jian-Ru; Du, Hang-Gen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun

    2015-10-05

    Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death.

  8. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  9. Methylophiopogonanone A Protects against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Attenuates Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbao Lin

    Full Text Available Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A, an active homoisoflavonoid of the Chinese herb Ophiopogon japonicus which has been shown to have protective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. However, little is known about its role in cerebral I/R injury. Therefore, in this study, by using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and reperfusion rat model, the effect of MO-A on cerebral I/R injury was examined. The results showed that MO-A treatment reduced infarct volume and brain edema, improved neurological deficit scores, reversed animal body weight decreases, and increased animal survival time in the stroke groups. Western blotting showed that MO-A suppressed MMP-9, but restored the expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy were monitored to determine the blood-brain barrier (BBB alterations in vitro. The results showed that MO-A markedly attenuated BBB damage in vitro. Additionally, MO-A inhibited ROS production in ECs and MMP-9 release in differentiated THP-1 cells in vitro, and suppressed ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in ECs and leukocyte/EC adhesion. In conclusion, our data indicate that MO-A has therapeutic potential against cerebral I/R injury through its ability to attenuate BBB disruption by regulating the expression of MMP-9 and tight junction proteins.

  10. Carnitine congener mildronate protects against stress- and haloperidol-induced impairment in memory and brain protein expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitnere, Ulrika; Dzirkale, Zane; Isajevs, Sergejs; Rumaks, Juris; Svirskis, Simons; Klusa, Vija

    2014-12-15

    The present study investigates the efficacy of mildronate, a carnitine congener, to protect stress and haloperidol-induced impairment of memory in rats and the expression of brain protein biomarkers involved in synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acetylcholine esterase and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Two amnesia models were used: 2h immobilization stress and 3-week haloperidol treatment. Stress caused memory impairment in the passive avoidance test and induced a significant 2-fold BDNF elevation in hippocampal and striatal tissues that was completely inhibited by mildronate. Mildronate decreased the level of GAD67 (but not acetylcholine esterase) expression by stress. Haloperidol decrease by a third hippocampal BDNF and acetylcholine esterase (but not GAD67) expression, which was normalized by mildronate; it also reversed the haloperidol-induced memory impairment in Barnes test. The results suggest the usefulness of mildronate as protector against neuronal disturbances caused by stress or haloperidol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effect of polydatin on learning and memory impairments in neonatal rats with hypoxic‑ischemic brain injury by up‑regulating brain‑derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Qu, Yunxia; He, Huiming; Fan, Xiaolei; Qin, Yuanhua; Mao, Weifeng; Xu, Lixin

    2014-12-01

    Polydatin is a key component of Polygonum cuspidatum, a herb with medical and nutritional value. The present study investigated the protective effect of polydatin against learning and memory impairment in neonatal rats with hypoxic‑ischemic brain injury (HIBI). The unilateral common carotid artery ligation method was used to generate neonatal HIBI rats. Y‑maze testing revealed that rats with HIBI exhibited memory impairment, while rats with HIBI treated with polydatin displayed enhanced long‑term learning and memory. Of note, polydatin was found to upregulate the expression of hippocampal brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rats with HIBI. BDNF has a role in protecting HIBI‑induced brain tissue injury and alleviating memory impairment. These findings showed that polydatin had a protective effect against learning and memory impairment in neonatal rats with HIBI and that the protective effect may be mediated through the upregulation of BDNF.

  12. Gap junction communication involved in brain protection following focal ischemia and reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wang; Jian Hai; Yuhong Jing

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that gap junctions not only modulate the fate of the neocortex, but are also involved in maintaining homeostasis in the mature brain. However, the neuroprotective effects of gap junction communication following brain ischemic injury remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanisms of gap junction communication following focal ischemia and reperfusion. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed at the School of Basic Medical Sciences of Lanzhou University between June 2007 and May 2008.MATERIALS: Rabbit polyclonal anti-connexin 43 (Cx43) and gap junction blocking agent octanol were purchased from Sigma, USA;mouse monoclonal anti-rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was provided by Santa Cruz, USA;mouse monoclonal anti-rat CD11b was produced by Abcam, England. METHODS: A total of 52 adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham-operated (n=12), vehicle control (n=20), and octanol-treated (n=20). Brain ischemia and reperfusion were induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vehicle control and octanol-treated groups, while no MCAO was administered to the sham-operated group. In the octanol-treated group, 5 mmol/kg octanol was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (0.005% v/v) and was intraperitoneally injected 30 minutes prior to ischemic onset. Sham-operated and vehicle groups received equivalent volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infarct volumes in ipsilateral striatum after MCAO were measured using cresyl violet dye;GFAP, CD11b, and Cx43 expression in the ipsilateral striatum following MCAO were detected by immunohistochemistry;Western blot analysis was employed to determine Cx43 and GFAP expression. RESULTS: At 1 and 3 days following MCAO and reperfusion, ipsilateral striatum infarct volumes in the octanol group were significantly greater than in the vehicle group

  13. Protective and biogenesis effects of sodium hydrosulfide on brain mitochondria after cardiac arrest and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hao; Xie, Xuemeng; Chen, Di; Zhang, Jincheng; Zhou, Yaguang; Yang, Guangtian

    2014-10-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in brain injury after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor compounds preserve mitochondrial morphology and function during ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we sought to explore the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on brain mitochondria 24h after cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6min cardiac arrest and then resuscitated successfully. Rats received NaHS (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 1.67ml/kg) 1min before the start of CPR intravenously, followed by a continuous infusion of NaHS (1.5mg/kg/h) or vehicle (5ml/kg/h) for 3h. Neurological deficit was evaluated 24h after resuscitation and then cortex was collected for assessments. As a result, we found that rats treated with NaHS revealed an improved neurological outcome and cortex mitochondrial morphology 24h after resuscitation. We also observed that NaHS therapy reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and calcium overload, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pores, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated ATP level and ameliorated the cytochrome c abnormal distribution. Further studies indicated that NaHS administration increased mitochondrial biogenesis in cortex at the same time. Our findings suggested that administration of NaHS 1min prior CPR and followed by a continuous infusion ameliorated neurological dysfunction 24h after resuscitation, possibly through mitochondria preservation as well as by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis.

  14. Protective Effect of Angiopoietin-1 on the Blood Brain Barrier after Focal Cerebral IschemiaReperfusion Injury in Rats

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    Xuan GAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1 on the blood brain barrier (BBB after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI in rats. Methods: Forty male healthy Wister rats were selected. The focal CIRI models were established using middle cerebral artery occlusion and 30 rats were divided into sham-operation group (n=10, normal saline group (NS group (n=10 and Ang-1 treatment group (n=10. The rats were killed 48 h after reperfusion, and brain water content, BBB permeability, cerebral infarction volume and neurological severity scores in rats were detected respectively. Results: 48 h after reperfusion, both the brain water content and Evans blue (EB content in Ang-1 treatment group were significantly lower than in NS control [(68.69±4.46 % vs. (79.08±4.12 %, P<0.001; (98.60±10.56 μg/g vs. (379.90±21.64 μg/g, P<0.001], and there was no statistical significance by comparison to those in sham-operation group [(65.37±3.28 %; (89.62±8.65 μg/g, P>0.05]. The cerebral infarction volume in Ang-1 treatment group was markedly smaller than in NS group [(0.119±0.022 cm3 vs. (0.407±0.036 cm3, P<0.001], and no significant difference was presented when compared with sham-operation group [(0.104±0.011 cm3, P>0.05]. Besides, the neurological severity scores in Ang-1 treatment group were notably lower than in NS group [(1.83±0.29 points vs. (2.87±0.34 points, P<0.001], but higher than in sham-operation group [(0.79±0.11 points, P<0.001]. Conclusion: Ang-1 can decrease BBB permeability after focal CIRI in rats, so it has a protective effect on CIRI.

  15. Latest Application of High-performance Nonwovens to Facial Protective Filtration Media%高性能非织造布在面部防护过滤介质上的最新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦长椿

    2015-01-01

    防护面罩是个人健康防护及特殊工种作业人员安全防护的重要工具,大量高性能非织造布应用于此。本文重点介绍了熔喷非织造布、纺粘非织造布以及聚合物纳米纤维的技术特征及在外科手术面罩、呼吸器过滤介质等面部防护装备中的应用现状,并详细分析了现阶段全球个人面部防护装置市场的发展形势以及我国个人防护装备行业面临的机遇和挑战。%Protective facemask is an important part of personal protective equipment, and lots of high-performance nonwovens have been used in this industry. Technique features of meltblown nonwovens, spunbond nonwovens and nanofiber which are used in protective facemask are introduced in this article, as well as the latest applications of the above three to surgical mask, dust respirator and other facial protective equipments. The developing trend of personal facial protective equipment at home and abroad is also discussed.

  16. Protective effects of organoselenium compounds against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain mitochondrial-enriched fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Meinerz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of 1-100 µM of four organoselenium compounds: diphenyl diselenide, 3’3-ditri-fluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide, p-methoxy-diphenyl diselenide, and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide, against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in mitochondrial-enriched fractions from adult Swiss mouse brain. Methylmercury (10-100 µM significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, which occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, hydroperoxide formation (xylenol orange assay and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS. The co-incubation with diphenyl diselenide (100 µM completely prevented the disruption of mitochondrial activity as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by methylmercury. The compound 3’3-ditrifluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide provided a partial but significant protection against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (45.4 ± 5.8% inhibition of the methylmercury effect. Diphenyl diselenide showed a higher thiol peroxidase activity compared to the other three compounds. Catalase blocked methylmercury-induced TBARS, pointing to hydrogen peroxide as a vector during methylmercury toxicity in this model. This result also suggests that thiol peroxidase activity of organoselenium compounds accounts for their protective actions against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress. Our results show that diphenyl diselenide and potentially other organoselenium compounds may represent important molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of methylmercury as well as other mercury compounds.

  17. Periodic 17β-estradiol pretreatment protects rat brain from cerebral ischemic damage via estrogen receptor-β.

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    Ami P Raval

    Full Text Available Although chronic 17β-estradiol (E2 has been shown to be a cognition-preserving and neuroprotective agent in animal brain injury models, concern regarding its safety was raised by the failed translation of this phenomenon to the clinic. Previously, we demonstrated that a single bolus of E2 48 hr prior to ischemia protected the hippocampus from damage in ovariectomized rats via phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, which requires activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β. The current study tests the hypothesis that long-term periodic E2-treatment improves cognition and reduces post-ischemic hippocampal injury by means of ER-β activation. Ovariectomized rats were given ten injections of E2 at 48 hr intervals for 21 days. Hippocampal-dependent learning, memory and ischemic neuronal loss were monitored. Results demonstrated that periodic E2 treatments improved spatial learning, memory and ischemic neuronal survival in ovariectomized rats. Additionally, periodic ER-β agonist treatments every 48 hr improved post-ischemic cognition. Silencing of hippocampal ER-β attenuated E2-mediated ischemic protection suggesting that ER-β plays a key role in mediating the beneficial effects of periodic E2 treatments. This study emphasizes the need to investigate a periodic estrogen replacement regimen to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women.

  18. Protective effects of organoselenium compounds against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain mitochondrial-enriched fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Meinerz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of 1-100 µM of four organoselenium compounds: diphenyl diselenide, 3’3-ditri-fluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide, p-methoxy-diphenyl diselenide, and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide, against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in mitochondrial-enriched fractions from adult Swiss mouse brain. Methylmercury (10-100 µM significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, which occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, hydroperoxide formation (xylenol orange assay and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS. The co-incubation with diphenyl diselenide (100 µM completely prevented the disruption of mitochondrial activity as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by methylmercury. The compound 3’3-ditrifluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide provided a partial but significant protection against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (45.4 ± 5.8% inhibition of the methylmercury effect. Diphenyl diselenide showed a higher thiol peroxidase activity compared to the other three compounds. Catalase blocked methylmercury-induced TBARS, pointing to hydrogen peroxide as a vector during methylmercury toxicity in this model. This result also suggests that thiol peroxidase activity of organoselenium compounds accounts for their protective actions against methylmercury-induced oxidative stress. Our results show that diphenyl diselenide and potentially other organoselenium compounds may represent important molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of methylmercury as well as other mercury compounds.

  19. Protective

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    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  20. Does ascorbate/L-Cys/L-Met mixture protect different parts of the rat brain against chronic alcohol toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanvermez, Ramazan; Agara, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    , methionine, and vitamin C may play a protective role in the central nervous system against oxidative damage caused by alcohol consumption. In addition, the mean alcohol level was increased in the alcoholic group compared with the control group. The level of total glutathione was significantly decreased in the cerebellum of the alcoholic group, and oxidative damage was noted in various parts of the brain in this group. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pathogenetic role in brain damage related to chronic alcoholism.

  1. Voluntary exercise protects against stress-induced decreases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlard, P A; Cotman, C W

    2004-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recognized as an intervention that can reduce CNS dysfunctions such as cognitive decline, depression and stress. Previously we have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is increased in the hippocampus following exercise. In this study we tested the hypothesis that exercise can counteract a reduction in hippocampal BDNF protein caused by acute immobilization stress. Since BDNF expression is suppressed by corticosterone (CORT), circulating CORT levels were also monitored. In animals subjected to 2 h immobilization stress, CORT was elevated immediately following, and at 1 h after the cessation of stress, but remained unchanged from baseline up to 24 h post-stress. The stress protocol resulted in a reduction in BDNF protein at 5 and 10 h post-stress that returned to baseline at 24 h. To determine if exercise could prevent this stress-induced reduction in BDNF protein, animals were given voluntary access to running wheels for 3 weeks prior to the stress. Stressed animals, in the absence of exercise, again demonstrated an initial elevation in CORT (at 0 h) and a subsequent decrease in hippocampal BDNF at the 10 h time point. Exercising animals, both non-stressed and stressed, demonstrated circulating CORT and hippocampal BDNF protein levels that were significantly elevated above control values at both time points examined (0 and 10 h post-stress). Thus, the persistently high CORT levels in exercised animals did not affect the induction of BDNF with exercise, and the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF protein was overcome. To examine the role of CORT in the stress-related regulation of BDNF protein, experiments were carried out in adrenalectomized (ADX) animals. BDNF protein was not downregulated as a result of immobilization stress in ADX animals, while there continued to be an exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF. This study demonstrates that CORT modulates stress-related alterations in BDNF protein. Further, exercise

  2. Comparative study of the two types of limb remote ischemic per-conditioning on the brain protection

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    ZENG Xian-wei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning (LRPC has been recognized as an applicable strategy in protecting against cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury. However, widely used invasive limb remote ischemic per-conditioning (LRPC-I is traumatic, limiting the possibility of long-term application and making it more difficult to achieve the conversion from basic research to clinical practice. Because of this, if non-invasive limb remote ischemic per-conditioning (LRPC-N has the same effect of brain protection as LRPC-I, it may be more beneficial to clinical practice. Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established by the suture method in mice. In the beginning of the ischemia, the LRPC-I and LRPC-N were respectively carried out by three cycles of 10 min distal airbag pressurization or clamping the distant limb artery (ischemia /10min reperfusion. Neurological functional deficits after procedure were evaluated, and the cerebral infarct volumes and the degree of cerebral edema were quantified by TTC staining. Results Compared with the control group, the neurological functional outcomes of LRPC-N group and LRPC-I group were improved significantly ( P = 0.041, 0.035; the edema volumes were much smaller ( P = 0.040, 0.028; the infarct volumes reduced significantly ( P = 0.001, 0.019. However, there were no significant differences between LRPC-N group and LRPC-I group on the functional neurological outcomes, edema volumes and the infarct volumes (P = 0.754, 0.946, 0.667. Conclusion Both the LRPC-N and LRPC-I have protective effects on animal models of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and there is no obvious difference between each other.

  3. [Protective effect of hypothermia on brain neurons of rats exposed to ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R Ia; Ignat'ev, D A; Mel'nikova, E B; Rogachevskiĭ, V V; Kraev, I V; Hutsian, S S

    2007-01-01

    The conditions of the protein-synthesizing system in neurons of the hippocampus (areas CA1 and C A3) and of the cortex (sensomotor region) in rats subjected to y-irradiation at a dose of 8 Gy under hypothermia (16 - 18 degrees C) and hypoxia-hypercapnia were investigated by fluorescent and electron microscopy. Under hypothermia, the protein-synthesizing system was shown to be damaged to a lesser degree and to be restored faster in comparison with similar neurons in rats irradiated at room temperature. In rats irradiated under hypothermia, the rRNA biogenesis and the protein-synthesizing activity of polyribosomes were restored in two days. The protective influence of hypothermia did not spread to changes in membrane structures (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgy apparatus); i.e., a partial loss of integrity and possible transformation of their structure caused by the irradiation and the restoration of these structures occurred at a lower rate.

  4. Custom cerium oxide nanoparticles protect against a free radical mediated autoimmune degenerative disease in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Karin L; DeCoteau, William; Estevez, Ana; Reed, Kenneth J; Costanzo, Wendi; Sanford, David; Leiter, James C; Clauss, Jennifer; Knapp, Kylie; Gomez, Carlos; Mullen, Patrick; Rathbun, Elle; Prime, Kelly; Marini, Jessica; Patchefsky, Jamie; Patchefsky, Arthur S; Hailstone, Richard K; Erlichman, Joseph S

    2013-12-23

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles are potent antioxidants, based on their ability to either donate or receive electrons as they alternate between the +3 and +4 valence states. The dual oxidation state of ceria has made it an ideal catalyst in industrial applications, and more recently, nanoceria's efficacy in neutralizing biologically generated free radicals has been explored in biological applications. Here, we report the in vivo characteristics of custom-synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in an animal model of immunological and free-radical mediated oxidative injury leading to neurodegenerative disease. The CeNPs are 2.9 nm in diameter, monodispersed and have a -23.5 mV zeta potential when stabilized with citrate/EDTA. This stabilizer coating resists being 'washed' off in physiological salt solutions, and the CeNPs remain monodispersed for long durations in high ionic strength saline. The plasma half-life of the CeNPs is ∼4.0 h, far longer than previously described, stabilized ceria nanoparticles. When administered intravenously to mice, the CeNPs were well tolerated and taken up by the liver and spleen much less than previous nanoceria formulations. The CeNPs were also able to penetrate the brain, reduce reactive oxygen species levels, and alleviate clinical symptoms and motor deficits in mice with a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, CeNPs may be useful in mitigating tissue damage arising from free radical accumulation in biological systems.

  5. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Covarrubias-Pinto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS. Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus protects against post-stroke depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Hao; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wei-Yun; Fang, Ma-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Yuan-Shu; Ding, Ming-Xing; Fu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. A BDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippocampus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open field test in these rats as well. These findings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

  7. Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus protects against post-stroke depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-hao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. A BDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippocampus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open field test in these rats as well. These findings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

  8. Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus protects against post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-hao Chen; Ning Zhang; Wei-yun Li; Ma-rong Fang; Hui Zhang; Yuan-shu Fang; Ming-xing Ding; Xiao-yan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. ABDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippo-campus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open ifeld test in these rats as well. These ifndings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

  9. Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes for effective filtration of fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zhu, Zhigao; Sheng, Junlu; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2014-08-15

    The worldwide demands are rising for an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach that can provide advanced nanofibrous membranes with high filtration performance and superior antifouling properties. Here we report a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) modified nanofibrous membrane optimized to achieve oil and non-oil aerosol particle filtration. By employing the FPU incorporation, the polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane (PAN/PU) composite membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 154° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Morphology, surface wettability, porous structure, and filtration performance could be manipulated by tuning the solution composition as well as the hierarchical structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes can capture, for the first time, a range of different oil aerosol particles in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% filtration efficiency, by using the combined contribution of fiber diameter and surface roughness acting on the objective particles. Exemplified here by the construction of superamphiphobic nanofibrous membrane, numerous applications of this medium includes high efficiency particulate air filters, ultra-low penetration air filters, and respiratory protection equipment.

  10. Novel filtration mode for fouling limitation in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinling; Le-Clech, Pierre; Stuetz, Richard M; Fane, Anthony G; Chen, Vicki

    2008-08-01

    A novel filtration mode is presented to reduce fouling propensity in membrane bioreactors (MBR). During this mode, an elevated high instantaneous flux (60Lm(-2)h(-1)) is initially applied for a short time (120s), followed by a longer filtration (290s) at lower flux (10.3Lm(-2)h(-1)) and a backwash in each filtration cycle. The mixed mode is expected to limit irreversible fouling as the reversible fouling created during the initial stage appears to protect the membrane. Hydraulic performance and the components of foulants were analyzed and compared with conventional continuous and backwash modes. It was found that the mixed mode featured lower trans-membrane pressure (TMP) after 24h of filtration when compared to other modes. The mixed mode was effective in preventing soluble microbial products (SMP) attaching directly onto the membrane surface, keeping the cake layer weakly compressed, and reducing the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) accumulation on the membrane. This strategy reduced the resistances of both the cake layer and the gel layer. A factorial experimental design was carried out for eight runs with different conditions to identify the major operational parameters affecting the hydraulic performances. The results showed that the value of the flux in the initial high-flux period had the most effect on the performance of the mixed mode: high initial flux (60Lm(-2)h(-1)) led to improved performance.

  11. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees - a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material - can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  12. 40 CFR 142.64 - Variances and exemptions from the requirements of part 141, subpart H-Filtration and Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of part 141, subpart H-Filtration and Disinfection. 142.64 Section 142.64 Protection of...—Filtration and Disinfection. (a) No variances from the requirements in part 141, subpart H are permitted. (b) No exemptions from the requirements in § 141.72 (a)(3) and (b)(2) to provide disinfection are...

  13. Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Christopher M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Roberts, Kelly N; Ansari, Mubeen; Scheff, Stephen W

    2016-02-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC) is a patented mix of bioflavonoids with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we showed that PYC administration to rats within hours after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury significantly protects against the loss of several synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effects of PYC on CA3-CA1 synaptic function following CCI. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received an ipsilateral CCI injury followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of saline vehicle or PYC (10 mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from the injured (ipsilateral) and uninjured (contralateral) hemispheres were prepared at seven and fourteen days post-CCI for electrophysiological analyses of CA3-CA1 synaptic function and induction of long-term depression (LTD). Basal synaptic strength was impaired in slices from the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hemisphere at seven days post-CCI and susceptibility to LTD was enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere at both post-injury timepoints. No interhemispheric differences in basal synaptic strength or LTD induction were observed in rats treated with PYC. The results show that PYC preserves synaptic function after CCI and provides further rationale for investigating the use of PYC as a therapeutic in humans suffering from neurotrauma.

  14. Triggering of protection mechanism against Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapôso, Catarina; Odorissi, Paulo Alexandre Miranda; Savioli, Stefania Fioravanti; Hell, Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues; Simões, Gustavo Ferreira; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta R; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents caused by the "armed" spider Phoneutria nigriventer cause neurotoxic manifestations in victims. In experiments with rats, P. nigriventer venom (PNV) temporarily disrupts the properties of the BBB by affecting both the transcellular and the paracellular route. However, it is unclear how cells and/or proteins participate in the transient opening of the BBB. The present study demonstrates that PNV is a substrate for the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) in cultured astrocyte and endothelial cells (HUVEC) and increases mrp1 and cx43 and down-regulates glut1 mRNA transcripts in cultured astrocytes. The inhibition of nNOS by 7-nitroindazole suggests that NO derived from nNOS mediates some of these effects by either accentuating or opposing the effects of PNV. In vivo, MRP1, GLUT1 and Cx43 protein expression is increased differentially in the hippocampus and cerebellum, indicating region-related modulation of effects. PNV contains a plethora of Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+) channel-acting neurotoxins that interfere with glutamate handling. It is suggested that the findings of the present study are the result of a complex interaction of signaling pathways, one of which is the NO, which regulates BBB-associated proteins in response to PNV interference on ions physiology. The present study provides additional insight into PNV-induced BBB dysfunction and shows that a protective mechanism is activated against the venom. The data shows that PNV has qualities for potential use in drug permeability studies across the BBB.

  15. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs.

  16. Protective Prevention Effects on the Association of Poverty With Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Gray, Joshua C; Yu, Tianyi; Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Galván, Adrianna; MacKillop, James; Windle, Michael; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood. In the rural southeastern United States, African American parents and their 11-year-old children were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families randomized prevention trial or to a control condition. Parents provided data used to calculate income-to-needs ratios when children were aged 11 to 13 years and 16 to 18 years. When the participants were aged 25 years, hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Household poverty was measured by income-to-needs ratios. Young adults' whole hippocampal, dentate gyrus, and CA3 hippocampal subfields as well as amygdalar volumes were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 667 participants in the Strong African American Families randomized prevention trial, 119 right-handed African American individuals aged 25 years living in rural areas were recruited. Years lived in poverty across ages 11 to 18 years forecasted diminished left dentate gyrus (simple slope, -14.20; standard error, 5.22; P = .008) and CA3 (simple slope, -6.42; standard error, 2.42; P = .009) hippocampal subfields and left amygdalar (simple slope, -34.62; standard error, 12.74; P = .008) volumes among young adults in the control condition (mean [SD] time, 2.04 [1.88] years) but not among those who participated in the Strong African American Families program (mean [SD] time, 2.61 [1.77] years). In this study, we described how participation in a randomized

  17. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  18. Neurovascular protection by telmisartan via reducing neuroinflammation in stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rat brain after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Syoichiro; Kurata, Tomoko; Sato, Kota; Omote, Yoshio; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2015-03-01

    Telmisartan is a highly lipid-soluble angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces triglyceride levels and, thus, is called metabo-sartan. We examined the effects of telmisartan on neurovascular unit (N-acetylglucosamine oligomer [NAGO], collagen IV, and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) and neuroinflammation (matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9] and inflammasome) in brain of stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR-SR). At 12 weeks of age, SHR-SR received transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 minutes and were divided into the following 3 groups, that is, vehicle group, low-dose telmisartan group (.3 mg/kg/d), and high-dose telmisartan group (3 mg/kg/d, postoral). Immunohistologic analysis at ages 6, 12, and 18 months showed progressive decreases of NAGO-positive endothelium and collagen IV-positive basement membrane and progressive increases of MMP-9-positive neurons, GFAP-positive astrocytes, and NLRP3-positive inflammasome in the cerebral cortex of vehicle group. Low-dose telmisartan reduced such changes without lowering blood pressure (BP), and high-dose telmisartan further improved such changes with lowering BP. The present findings suggest that a persistent hypertension caused a long-lasting inflammation after tMCAO in SHR-SR, which accelerated neurovascular disruption and emergent inflammasome, and that telmisartan greatly reduced such inflammation and protected the neurovascular unit via its pleiotropic effects in living hypertensive rat brain after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  20. Glomerular Filtration Barrier Assembly: An insight

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Ehtesham; Nihalani, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    A glomerulus is the network of capillaries that resides in the Bowman’s capsule that functions as a filtration unit of kidney. The glomerular function ensures that essential plasma proteins are retained in blood and the filtrate is passed on as urine. The glomerular filtration assembly is composed of three main cellular barriers that are critical for the ultrafiltration process, the fenestrated endothelium, glomerular basement membrane and highly specialized podocytes. The podocytes along wit...

  1. Triggering of protection mechanism against Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Rapôso

    Full Text Available Severe accidents caused by the "armed" spider Phoneutria nigriventer cause neurotoxic manifestations in victims. In experiments with rats, P. nigriventer venom (PNV temporarily disrupts the properties of the BBB by affecting both the transcellular and the paracellular route. However, it is unclear how cells and/or proteins participate in the transient opening of the BBB. The present study demonstrates that PNV is a substrate for the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1 in cultured astrocyte and endothelial cells (HUVEC and increases mrp1 and cx43 and down-regulates glut1 mRNA transcripts in cultured astrocytes. The inhibition of nNOS by 7-nitroindazole suggests that NO derived from nNOS mediates some of these effects by either accentuating or opposing the effects of PNV. In vivo, MRP1, GLUT1 and Cx43 protein expression is increased differentially in the hippocampus and cerebellum, indicating region-related modulation of effects. PNV contains a plethora of Ca(2+, K(+ and Na(+ channel-acting neurotoxins that interfere with glutamate handling. It is suggested that the findings of the present study are the result of a complex interaction of signaling pathways, one of which is the NO, which regulates BBB-associated proteins in response to PNV interference on ions physiology. The present study provides additional insight into PNV-induced BBB dysfunction and shows that a protective mechanism is activated against the venom. The data shows that PNV has qualities for potential use in drug permeability studies across the BBB.

  2. Persistent homology in graph power filtrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Allen D; Marchette, David J

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of homological features in simplicial complex representations of big datasets in R (n) resulting from Vietoris-Rips or Čech filtrations is commonly used to probe the topological structure of such datasets. In this paper, the notion of homological persistence in simplicial complexes obtained from power filtrations of graphs is introduced. Specifically, the rth complex, r ≥ 1, in such a power filtration is the clique complex of the rth power G(r) of a simple graph G. Because the graph distance in G is the relevant proximity parameter, unlike a Euclidean filtration of a dataset where regional scale differences can be an issue, persistence in power filtrations provides a scale-free insight into the topology of G. It is shown that for a power filtration of G, the girth of G defines an r range over which the homology of the complexes in the filtration are guaranteed to persist in all dimensions. The role of chordal graphs as trivial homology delimiters in power filtrations is also discussed and the related notions of 'persistent triviality', 'transient noise' and 'persistent periodicity' in power filtrations are introduced.

  3. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  4. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... not increase in proportion with square root time when e.g. sewage sludge and manure are filtered. Different explanations have been suggested. However, organic slurries are complex mixtures and it is therefore difficult to evaluate the suggested explanations and develops new models. One possible solution...

  5. Gene therapy with brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a protection: retinal ganglion cells in a rat glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Zack, Donald J; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Klein, Ronald L; Hauswirth, William W

    2003-10-01

    To develop a modified adenoassociated viral (AAV) vector capable of efficient transfection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to test the hypothesis that use of this vector to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be protective in experimental glaucoma. Ninety-three rats received one unilateral, intravitreal injection of either normal saline (n = 30), AAV-BDNF-woodchuck hepatitis posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE; n = 30), or AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-WPRE (n = 33). Two weeks later, experimental glaucoma was induced in the injected eye by laser application to the trabecular meshwork. Survival of RGCs was estimated by counting axons in optic nerve cross sections after 4 weeks of glaucoma. Transgene expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and direct visualization of GFP. The density of GFP-positive cells in retinal wholemounts was 1,828 +/- 299 cells/mm(2) (72,273 +/- 11,814 cells/retina). Exposure to elevated intraocular pressure was similar in all groups. Four weeks after initial laser treatment, axon loss was 52.3% +/- 27.1% in the saline-treated group (n = 25) and 52.3% +/- 24.2% in the AAV-GFP-WPRE group (n = 30), but only 32.3% +/- 23.0% in the AAV-BDNF-WPRE group (n = 27). Survival in AAV-BDNF-WPRE animals increased markedly and the difference was significant compared with those receiving either AAV-GFP-WPRE (P = 0.002, t-test) or saline (P = 0.006, t-test). Overexpression of the BDNF gene protects RGC as estimated by axon counts in a rat glaucoma model, further supporting the potential feasibility of neurotrophic therapy as a complement to the lowering of IOP in the treatment of glaucoma.

  6. Early treatment with lyophilized plasma protects the brain in a large animal model of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang; Sillesen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well as the assoc......Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well...

  7. Protective effects of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A. W. Hill leaf extract on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Shreya R; Patil, Rahul B; Pillai, Meena M

    2009-05-01

    With an aim to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of P. crispum (Parsley) leaves on the D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in the brain of mouse, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) involved in oxygen radical (OR)-detoxification and antiperoxidative defense were measured in conjunction with an index of lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial fraction of various regions of the mouse brain. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in D-galactose-stressed mice, while catalase activity was increased. Treatment of D-galactose-stressed mice with the ethanolic extract of P. crispum showed protection against the induced oxidative stress in brain regions. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive product was greatly elevated in D-galactose stress-induced mice and was significantly reduced in the brain regions of these mice upon treatment with P. crispum. It is postulated that parsley shows a protective effect against mitochondrial oxidative damage in the mouse brain.

  8. Tangential flow filtration of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andre F; Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P(50)) and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (alpha) and beta (beta) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the alpha and beta globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the alpha- and beta- globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC-grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers.

  9. Neuronal deletion of caspase 8 protects against brain injury in mouse models of controlled cortical impact and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Krajewska

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury is an important health problem. Given the critical position of caspase 8 at the crossroads of cell death pathways, we generated a new viable mouse line (Ncasp8(-/-, in which the gene encoding caspase 8 was selectively deleted in neurons by cre-lox system.Caspase 8 deletion reduced rates of neuronal cell death in primary neuronal cultures and in whole brain organotypic coronal slice cultures prepared from 4 and 8 month old mice and cultivated up to 14 days in vitro. Treatments of cultures with recombinant murine TNFα (100 ng/ml or TRAIL (250 ng/mL plus cyclohexamide significantly protected neurons against cell death induced by these apoptosis-inducing ligands. A protective role of caspase 8 deletion in vivo was also demonstrated using a controlled cortical impact (CCI model of traumatic brain injury (TBI and seizure-induced brain injury caused by kainic acid (KA. Morphometric analyses were performed using digital imaging in conjunction with image analysis algorithms. By employing virtual images of hundreds of brain sections, we were able to perform quantitative morphometry of histological and immunohistochemical staining data in an unbiased manner. In the TBI model, homozygous deletion of caspase 8 resulted in reduced lesion volumes, improved post-injury motor performance, superior learning and memory retention, decreased apoptosis, diminished proteolytic processing of caspases and caspase substrates, and less neuronal degeneration, compared to wild type, homozygous cre, and caspase 8-floxed control mice. In the KA model, Ncasp8(-/- mice demonstrated superior survival, reduced seizure severity, less apoptosis, and reduced caspase 3 processing. Uninjured aged knockout mice showed improved learning and memory, implicating a possible role for caspase 8 in cognitive decline with aging.Neuron-specific deletion of caspase 8 reduces brain damage and improves post-traumatic functional outcomes, suggesting an important role for this

  10. Energy metabolisme and brain damage : Investigations by positron emission tomography (PET); the role of ketone bodies in cerebral protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenen, Gerardus Hyacinthus Maria

    1992-01-01

    In a general sense this thesis comprises three subjects: a) the changes in energy metabolism of the brain during cerebral pathology, b) the effect of alterations in energy metabolism on the extent of brain damage, and c) measures to prevent or limit brain damage. In this context the formation of

  11. Ischemic postconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury by up-regulation of acid-sensing ion channel 2a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-sheng Duanmu; Liu Cao; Jing-yu Chen; Hong-fei Ge; Rong Hu; Hua Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning renders brain tissue tolerant to brain ischemia, thereby alleviating ischemic brain injury. However, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, a rat model of global brain ischemia was subjected to ischemic postconditioning treat-ment using the vessel occlusion method. After 2 hours of ischemia, the bilateral common carotid arteries were blocked immediately for 10 seconds and then perfused for 10 seconds. This procedure was repeated six times. Ischemic postconditioning was found to mitigate hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage in rats with brain ischemia, and up-regulate acid-sensing ion channel 2a expression at the mRNA and protein level. These ifndings suggest that ischemic postconditioning up-regulates acid-sensing ion channel 2a expression in the rat hippo-campus after global brain ischemia, which promotes neuronal tolerance to ischemic brain injury.

  12. 外源性神经节苷脂对脑损伤的保护作用%Protection function of ectogenesis ganglioside to brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 韩冰; 董珠

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate protection function of ectogenesis ganglioside (GM1)to brain injury of epilepsy rats. METHODS: Inducing rat epilepsy model with sulfo-semicarbazide(7.5mg/kg), dynamically observe nerve growth factor (NGF) expression of epilepsy group and GM1 intervention group in Hippocampus and cerebral cortex nerve cell 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d after epileptic attack and control group after 72 h with immunohistochemistry method. At same time we observed change of nerve cell shape and structure with electron microscope techniques. RESULTS: Electron microscope showed nerve cell injury of epilepsy rats but injury relieved after GM1 intervention. CONCLUSION: GM1 play some protective function to brain injury of epilepsy rats through induced NGF expression increase.

  13. Protective effects of riboflavin and selenium on brain microsomal Ca2+-ATPase and oxidative damage caused by glyceryl trinitrate in a rat headache model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Bütün, Ayşe

    2015-03-01

    Migraine headaches are considered to be associated with increased mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is also important in migraine headache pathophysiology although riboflavin and selenium (Se) induced a modulator role on mitochondrial oxidative stress in the brain. The current study aimed to determine the effects of Se with/without riboflavin on the microsomal membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (MMCA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, and electroencephalography (EEG) values in glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced brain injury rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was used as the control, and the second group was the GTN group. Se and Se plus oral riboflavin were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 10 days prior to GTN administration. The second, third, and fourth groups received GTN to induce headache. Ten hours after the administration of GTN, the EEG records and brain cortex samples were obtained for all groups. Brain cortex microsomes were obtained from the brain samples. The brain and microsomal lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the GTN group compared to the control group, whereas they were decreased by selenium and selenium + riboflavin treatments. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations of the brain and MMCA, GSH and glutathione peroxidase values of microsomes were decreased by the GTN administration, although the values and β-carotene concentrations were increased by Se and Se + riboflavin treatments. There was no significant change in EEG records of the four groups. In conclusion, Se with/without riboflavin administration protected against GTN-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radicals and the modulation of MMCA activity and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

  14. The Specific Protein Kinase R (PKR) Inhibitor C16 Protects Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Brain Damages by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in a Neonatal Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinglei; Tan, Yongchang; Li, Yinjiao; Luo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain injuries induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonates contribute to increased mortality and lifelong neurological dysfunction. The specific PKR inhibitor C16 has been previously demonstrated to exert a neuroprotective role in adult brain injuries. However, there is no recent study available concerning its protective role in hypoxia-ischemia-induced immature brain damage. Therefore, we investigated whether C16 protects against neonatal hypoxia-ischemia injuries in a neonatal rat model. Material/Methods Postnatal day 7 (P7) rats were used to establish classical hypoxia-ischemia animal models, and C16 postconditioning with 100 ug/kg was performed immediately after hypoxia. Western blot analysis was performed to quantify the phosphorylation of the PKR at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and phosphorylation of NF-κB 24h after hypoxia exposure. The TTC stain for infarction area and TUNEL stain for apoptotic cells were assayed 24 h after the brain hypoxia. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was performed at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. Results The level of PKR autophosphorylation was increased dramatically, especially at 3 h (C16 group vs. HI group, P<0.01). Intraperitoneal C16 administration reduced the infarct volume and apoptosis ratio after this insult (C16 group vs. HI group<0.01), and C16 reduced proinflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, partly through inhibiting NF-κB activation (C16 group vs. HI group<0.05). Conclusions C16 can protect immature rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by modulating neuroinflammation. PMID:28008894

  15. Protective effects of melatonin against 12C6+ beam irradiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA injury in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R.; Liu, B.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, W. P.; Feng, H. Y.; Xue, L. G.; Hao, J. F.; Niu, B. T.; Wang, Z. H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced brain damages in mice induced by heavy ion beams. Kun-Ming mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, irradiation control group, and three different doses of melatonin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) treated groups. Apart from the normal control group, the other four groups were exposed to whole-body 4.0 Gy carbon ion beam irradiation (approximately 0.5 Gy/min) after i.p. administration of normal saline or melatonin 1 h before irradiation. The oxidative redox status of brain tissue was assessed by measurement of malondiadehyde (MDA) levels, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD, SOD1) and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, SOD2) activities at 8 h after irradiation. DNA damages were determined using the Comet assay and apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometric analyses. A dramatic dose-dependent decrease in MDA levels, tail moment, rates of tailing cells, and apoptosis, and a dose-dependent increase in T-SOD and SOD2 activities, in brain tissues in the melatonin-treated groups were detected compared with the irradiation only group. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the percentage of brain cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased significantly, while those in the S and G2/M stage increased dramatically, with mice pretreated with melatonin compared to the irradiation control group. These data indicate that melatonin has protective effects against irradiation-induced brain injury, and that its underlying protective mechanisms may relate to modulation of oxidative stress induced by heavy ionirradiation.

  16. The Effect of Ventilation, Filtration and Passive Sorption on Indoor Air Quality in Museum Storage Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, M.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in five storage rooms at the National Museum of Denmark, in which the effect on indoor air quality of mechanical ventilation, filtration and passive sorption was investigated. Mechanical ventilation and recirculation/filtration was initiated by introducing new ventilation...... and filtration units. Passive sorption was initiated by hanging sheets of sorptive materials oil walls. The control strategies were evaluated in terms of their ability to lower the concentration of internally, generated pollutants, and the indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratio of outdoor pollutants. The overall...... environmental impact for each method was evaluated by the use of material dosimeters. It was found that passive sorption performed better in a small room compared to a large room. Mechanical ventilation and filtration with activated charcoal gave a high protection against ozone, but were less effective...

  17. Galanin Protects from Caspase-8/12-initiated Neuronal Apoptosis in the Ischemic Mouse Brain via GalR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Mei, Zhu; Liu, Shuiqiao; Wang, Tong; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Han, Song; Yang, Yutao; Li, Junfa; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2017-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) plays key role in many pathophysiological processes, but its role in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, the models of 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/1-7 d reperfusion (R)-induced ischemic stroke and in vitro cell ischemia of 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation in primary cultured cortical neurons were used to explore GAL’s effects and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed significant increases of GAL protein levels in the peri-infarct region (P) and infarct core (I) within 48 h R of MCAO mice (p<0.001). The RT-qPCR results also demonstrated significant increases of GAL mRNA during 24-48 h R (p<0.001), and GAL receptors GalR1-2 (but not 3) mRNA levels in the P region at 24 h R of MCAO mice (p<0.001). Furthermore, the significant decrease of infarct volume (p<0.05) and improved neurological outcome (p<0.001-0.05) were observed in MCAO mice following 1 h pre- or 6 h post-treatment of GAL during 1-7 d reperfusion. GalR1 was confirmed as the receptor responsible for GAL-induced neuroprotection by using GalR2/3 agonist AR-M1896 and Lentivirus-based RNAi knockdown of GalR1. GAL treatment inhibited Caspase-3 activation through the upstream initiators Capsases-8/-12 (not Caspase-9) in both P region and OGD-treated cortical neurons. Meanwhile, GAL’s neuroprotective effect was not observed in cortical neurons from conventional protein kinase C (cPKC) γ knockout mice. These results suggested that exogenous GAL protects the brain from ischemic injury by inhibiting Capsase-8/12-initiated apoptosis, possibly mediated by GalR1 via the cPKCγ signaling pathway. PMID:28203483

  18. Estrogen regulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system in protection against angiotensin II-induced sensitization of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Hay, Meredith; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2014-07-15

    This study investigated sex differences in the sensitization of angiotensin (ANG) II-induced hypertension and the role of central estrogen and ANG-(1-7) in this process. Male and female rats were implanted for telemetered blood pressure (BP) recording. A subcutaneous subpressor dose of ANG II was given alone or concurrently with intracerebroventricular estrogen, ANG-(1-7), an ANG-(1-7) receptor antagonist A-779 or vehicle for 1 wk (induction). After a 1-wk rest (delay), a pressor dose of ANG II was given for 2 wk (expression). In males and ovariectomized females, subpressor ANG II had no sustained effect on BP during induction, but produced an enhanced hypertensive response to the subsequent pressor dose of ANG II during expression. Central administration of estrogen or ANG-(1-7) during induction blocked ANG II-induced sensitization. In intact females, subpressor ANG II treatment produced a decrease in BP during induction and delay, and subsequent pressor ANG II treatment given during expression produced only a slight but significant increase in BP. However, central blockade of ANG-(1-7) by intracerebroventricular infusion of A-779 during induction restored the decreased BP observed in females during induction and enhanced the pressor response to the ANG II treatment during expression. RT-PCR analyses indicated that estrogen given during induction upregulated mRNA expression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antihypertensive components, whereas both central estrogen and ANG-(1-7) downregulated mRNA expression of RAS hypertensive components in the lamina terminalis. The results indicate that females are protected from ANG II-induced sensitization through central estrogen and its regulation of brain RAS.

  19. Investigation of the effects of acrylamide applied during pregnancy on fetal brain development in rats and protective role of the vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, M E; Turkoz, Y; Altinoz, E; Elibol, E; Dogan, Z

    2016-12-01

    A liberal amount of acrylamide (AA) is produced as a result of frying or baking foods in high temperatures, and individuals take certain amounts of AA everyday by consuming these food items. Pregnant women are also exposed to AA originating from food during pregnancy and their fetus are probably affected. The rats were divided into five different groups: control (C), corn oil (CO), vitamin E (Vit E), AA, and Vit E + AA, with eight pregnant rats in each group. On the 20th day of pregnancy, fetuses were removed and brain tissues of fetuses were examined for biochemical and histological changes. AA caused degeneration in neuron structures in fetal brain tissue and caused hemorrhagic damages; dramatically decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels; increased malondialdehyde, total oxidant capacity levels; and decreased reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity levels (p E, a neuroprotectant and a powerful antioxidant, suppressed the effects of AA on fetal development and fetal brain tissue damage for the above-mentioned parameters (p E as a protection to minimize the toxic effects of food-oriented AA on fetus development due to the widespread nature of fast-food culture in today's life and the impossibility of protection from AA toxicity.

  20. Shear Stress Induces Differentiation of Endothelial Lineage Cells to Protect Neonatal Brain from Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury through NRP1 and VEGFR2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injuries disrupt the integrity of neurovascular structure and lead to lifelong neurological deficit. The devastating damage can be ameliorated by preserving the endothelial network, but the source for therapeutic cells is limited. We aim to evaluate the beneficial effect of mechanical shear stress in the differentiation of endothelial lineage cells (ELCs from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and the possible intracellular signals to protect HI injury using cell-based therapy in the neonatal rats. The ASCs expressed early endothelial markers after biochemical stimulation of endothelial growth medium. The ELCs with full endothelial characteristics were accomplished after a subsequential shear stress application for 24 hours. When comparing the therapeutic potential of ASCs and ELCs, the ELCs treatment significantly reduced the infarction area and preserved neurovascular architecture in HI injured brain. The transplanted ELCs can migrate and engraft into the brain tissue, especially in vessels, where they promoted the angiogenesis. The activation of Akt by neuropilin 1 (NRP1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 was important for ELC migration and following in vivo therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, the current study demonstrated importance of mechanical factor in stem cell differentiation and showed promising protection of brain from HI injury using ELCs treatment.

  1. Phenolic alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum rhizome protect against brain ischemia injury via regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yang; Sun, Xi; Zhou, Mei; Ding, Jie; Zhan, Jin-Jin; Guo, Lian-Jun

    2012-03-06

    Menispermum dauricum rhizome has been widely used in China to treat various cardiovascular and thrombosis disorders. Some studies have reported that the phenolic alkaloids of Menispermum dauricum rhizome (PAM) have protective effects against brain ischemia injury, but the mechanism of this action remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms of action of PAM on experimental brain ischemia injury. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat primary cortical cultures and middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were used to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. The results suggested that PAM protected rat primary cortical cultures against OGD-reoxygenation induced cytotoxicity. PAM decreased extracellular glutamate content and markedly prevented the effects induced by OGD on protein level of GLT-1 and EAAC1 glutamate transporters. In addition, it reduced intracellular ROS generation. In vivo, PAM significantly reduced cerebral infarct area and ameliorated neurological functional deficits at different time points. Our findings revealed that the possible mechanism of action of PAM protected against brain ischemia injury involves regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS generation.

  2. Phenolic Alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum Rhizome Protect against Brain Ischemia Injury via Regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Jun Guo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Menispermum dauricum rhizome has been widely used in China to treat various cardiovascular and thrombosis disorders. Some studies have reported that the phenolic alkaloids of Menispermum dauricum rhizome (PAM have protective effects against brain ischemia injury, but the mechanism of this action remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms of action of PAM on experimental brain ischemia injury. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD in rat primary cortical cultures and middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were used to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. The results suggested that PAM protected rat primary cortical cultures against OGD-reoxygenation induced cytotoxicity. PAM decreased extracellular glutamate content and markedly prevented the effects induced by OGD on protein level of GLT-1 and EAAC1 glutamate transporters. In addition, it reduced intracellular ROS generation. In vivo, PAM significantly reduced cerebral infarct area and ameliorated neurological functional deficits at different time points. Our findings revealed that the possible mechanism of action of PAM protected against brain ischemia injury involves regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS generation.

  3. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  4. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  5. Inhibition of Peripheral TNF-α and Downregulation of Microglial Activation by Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Etanercept Protect Rat Brain Against Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Huang, Chao-Ching; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Nan-Kai; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic stroke, caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, would initiate microglia activation which contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could be a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid and etanercept given either singly or in combination in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Both α-lipoic acid and etanercept markedly reduced cerebral infarct, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neurological motor deficits with the former drug being more effective with the dosage used. Furthermore, when used in combination, the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the brain levels of microglial activation (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α) was observed with the combined drug treatment as compared to the drugs given separately. We conclude that inhibition of peripheral tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as downregulation of brain microglial activation by alpha-lipoic acid or etanercept protect rat brain against ischemic stroke. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the stroke recovery was promoted more extensively.

  6. Telmisartan-mediated metabolic profile conferred brain protection in diabetic hypertensive rats as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, behavioral studies and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Firas M; Blumenthal-Katzir, Tamar; Hollander, Kenneth; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudakic, Roza; Rosenthal, Talma

    2016-10-15

    Type 2 diabetes and hypertension are associated with cognitive dysfunction that includes pathological changes in brain tissue. It was speculated that the beneficial hypotensive effect of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor 1 blocker, and its unique hypoglycemic effect due to its PPARγ-activation, could ameliorate the ​ pathological changes in the brain​ that accompany​ these diseases. We examined the effect of telmisartan on brain changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted scans, and behavioral and histological findings in the Cohen-Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive (CRDH) rat. Baseline and post-treatment values with telmisartan/vehicle (3 months) of blood pressure, blood glucose levels, behavioral tests, brain MRI scanning and immunohistological staining were obtained. Telmisartan significantly lowered blood pressure and blood glucose levels; induced consistent T2 reduction in specific gray and white regions including hippocampus, corpus callosum, amygdala and cortical regions; and significantly improved performance on behavioral tasks. Immunohistological analysis of the brain revealed significant amelioration of diabetes/hypertension-induced changes in white matter regions and microglia, evidenced by preserved myelin (LBF marker), and improved microglial neuronal markers GFAP, GAP43 and Iba1 expression. In conclusion, the behavioral performance, longitudinal MRI study and histology staining revealed the protective effects of telmisartan on brain microstructure and cognitive function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. Crucial role of maternal thyroxine but not of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the protection of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, R; Obregón, M J; Ruiz de Oña, C; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1990-09-01

    To study the protective effects of maternal thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in congenital hypothyroidism, we gave pregnant rats methimazole (MMI), an antithyroid drug that crosses the placenta, and infused them with three different doses of T4 or T3. The concentrations of both T4 and T3 were determined in maternal and fetal plasma and tissues (obtained near term) by specific RIAs. Several thyroid hormone-dependent biological end-points were also measured. MMI treatment resulted in marked fetal T4 and T3 deficiency. Infusion of T4 into the mothers increased both these pools in a dose-dependent fashion. There was a preferential increase of T3 in the fetal brain. Thus, with a T4 dose maintaining maternal euthyroidism, fetal brain T3 reached normal values, although fetal plasma T4 was 40% of normal and plasma TSH was high. The infusion of T3 pool into the mothers increased the total fetal extrathyroidal T3 pool in a dose-dependent fashion. The fetal T4 pools were not increased, however, and this deprived the fetal brain (and possibly the pituitary) of local generation of T3 from T4. As a consequence, fetal brain T3 deficiency was not mitigated even when dams were infused with a toxic dose of T3. The results show that (a) there is a preferential protection of the brain of the hypothyroid fetus from T3 deficiency; (b) maternal T4, but not T3, plays a crucial role in this protection, and (c) any condition which lowers maternal T4 (including treatment with T3) is potentially harmful for the brain of a hypothyroid fetus. Recent confirmation of transplacental passage of T4 in women at term suggests that present results are relevant for human fetuses with impairment of thyroid function. Finding signs of hypothyroidism at birth does not necessarily mean that the brain was unprotected in utero, provided maternal T4 is normal. It is crucial to realize that maintainance of maternal "euthyroidism" is not sufficient, as despite hypothyroxinemia, the mothers may be

  8. Protection against 1,2-di-methylhydrazine-induced systemic oxidative stress and altered brain neurotransmitter status by probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 secreting pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels.

  9. The protective role of isorhamnetin on human brain microvascular endothelial cells from cytotoxicity induced by methylglyoxal and oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Chen, Zhigang; Yan, Min; He, Ping; Chen, Zhong; Dai, Haibin

    2016-02-01

    As the first target of stroke, cerebral endothelial cells play a key role in brain vascular repair and maintenance, and their function is impeded in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl produced during glucose metabolism, accumulates in diabetic patients. MGO and MGO-induced advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) could ameliorate stroke-induced brain vascular damage, closely related with ECs dysfunction. Using MGO plus oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic diabetic stroke, we reported the protective effect of isorhamnetin on OGD-induced cytotoxicity after MGO treatment on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and explored the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly enhanced 3-h OGD-induced HBMEC toxic effect, which was inhibited by pretreatment of isorhamnetin (100 μmol/L). Moreover, the protective effect of isorhamnetin is multiple function dependent, which includes anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis effects. Besides its well-known inhibition on the mitochondria-dependent or intrinsic apoptotic pathway, isorhamnetin also reduced activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, as characterized by the decreased expression and activity of caspase 3 and caspase 8. Furthermore, pretreatment with isorhamnetin specifically inhibited FAS/FASL expression and suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicated that isorhamnetin protected against OGD-induced cytotoxicity after MGO treatment in cultured HBMEC due to its multiple protective effects and could inhibit Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptosis. Therefore, isorhamnetin is a promising reagent for the treatment of hyperglycemia and ischemia-induced cerebral vascular degeneration. A proposed model of the potential protective mechanism of isorhamnetin, a metabolite of quercetin, on methylglyoxal (MGO) treatment plus oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) exposure-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human

  10. Sulforaphane preconditioning of the Nrf2/HO-1 defense pathway protects the cerebral vasculature against blood-brain barrier disruption and neurological deficits in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Alessio; Srivastava, Salil; Siow, Richard C M; Cash, Diana; Modo, Michel; Duchen, Michael R; Fraser, Paul A; Williams, Steven C R; Mann, Giovanni E

    2013-12-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral edema are the major pathogenic mechanisms leading to neurological dysfunction and death after ischemic stroke. The brain protects itself against infarction via activation of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, and we here report the first evidence that sulforaphane-mediated preactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cerebral vasculature protects the brain against stroke. To induce ischemic stroke, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 70 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 4, 24, or 72 h reperfusion. Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression was upregulated in cerebral microvessels of peri-infarct regions after 4-72 h, with HO-1 preferentially associated with perivascular astrocytes rather than the cerebrovascular endothelium. In naïve rats, treatment with sulforaphane increased Nrf2 expression in cerebral microvessels after 24h. Upregulation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane treatment prior to transient MCAo (1h) was associated with increased HO-1 expression in perivascular astrocytes in peri-infarct regions and cerebral endothelium in the infarct core. BBB disruption, lesion progression, as analyzed by MRI, and neurological deficits were reduced by sulforaphane pretreatment. As sulforaphane pretreatment led to a moderate increase in peroxynitrite generation, we suggest that hormetic preconditioning underlies sulforaphane-mediated protection against stroke. In conclusion, we propose that pharmacological or dietary interventions aimed to precondition the brain via activation of the Nrf2 defense pathway in the cerebral microvasculature provide a novel therapeutic approach for preventing BBB breakdown and neurological dysfunction in stroke. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metal reduction at bulk chemical filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toru; Daikoku, Shusaku; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Murakami, Tetsuya

    2017-03-01

    OK73 thinner and cyclohexanone, both of which were spiked with metals were passed through Nylon 6,6 filter, varying flow rate, which include the conditions of both point-of-use and bulk filtrations. The influent and effluent metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS for metal removal efficiency of the filtration. As a result, removal efficiency for some metals descended depending on the flow rate, while others maintained. Slower flow rate is recommended to maintain low metal concentration in bulk filtration based on the result. Metals in cyclohexanone were reduced at higher efficiency than in OK73 thinner, agrees with a metal removal model of hydrophilic adsorbent in organic solvent, evidenced in our previous paper. Further, metal reduction on 300 mm φ Si wafer after coating organic solvents with Nylon 6,6 filtration was evidenced with TREX analysis.

  12. Filtration in coal liquefaction - Influence of filtration conditions in non-hydrogenated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. W.; Rantell, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out to study the effects of filtration conditions upon the rate of filtration of non-hydrogenated coal digests. The results show the dependence of cake resistivity on both the filtration temperature and pressure. Filter cakes were found to be compressible, resulting in smaller increases in rate with increasing pressure than with incompressible cakes. The filtration temperature determines the packing of residual solids in the cake which in turn affects the cake resistivity. An empirical relation has been derived between filtration temperature and resistivity. With increasing temperature there is an increase in filtration rate due to the reduced viscosity, but a reduction owing to a higher packing density of solids in the filter cake.

  13. Complications and Management of the Filtration Bleb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clement; W; N; Chan

    1992-01-01

    Filtration surgery is the commonest operation performed for closed angle or open angle glaucoma when medical treatment or laser trabeculoplasty has failed to control the intraocular pressure. It is characterized by the formation of an artificial drainage fistula between the anterior chamber and subconjunctival space. The successful operation is evidenced by the appearance of a subconjunctival filtration bleb which in turn depends on the patency of this pathway. Despite numerous modification, the procedu...

  14. The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav C. Menon; Chuang, Peter Y.; Cijiang John He

    2012-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte). Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well...

  15. Properties of the filtrate from treatment of pig manure by filtration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents properties of filtrate obtained from pig manure using the AMAK treatment process, which includes the mineralization of macro- and microfertilizer components by the hydrolyzing of organic matter into forms that are bioavailable to plants. Filtration produced two products, sediment and filtrate. The quality of the filtrate allowed for its use as a substitute of water to irrigate crops. Concentrations of heavy metals are very low and therefore the quality of the filtrate fully complies with European standard concerning fertilizers. The used mineralization process practically eliminated odors from the filtrate. The reduction of specific odor emission by 99.1-99.5% in samples taken from above the filtrate, respectively compared to the odor concentration found in samples taken from above raw pig manure. Sediment could be used as raw material for production of mineral-organic fertilizer. Filtrate and filtration sediments analyses show that the majority of nitrogen and other fertilizing compounds included in raw pig manure remains in sediment.

  16. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yea-Hwey [Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chern, Chang-Ming [Division of Neurovascular Disease, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Kuo-Tong [Department of Chinese Martial Arts, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chang [Department of Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan General Hospital, Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioscience Technology, Chuan-Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Peng, Yu-Ta [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yuh-Chiang, E-mail: yuhcs@nricm.edu.tw [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 {mu}g/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91{sup phox}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91{sup phox} and iNOS via activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-{kappa}B activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. Black

  17. Efficient and reusable polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets membrane with bimodal structures for air filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Shichao; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Nanofibrous media that both possess high airborne particle interception efficiency and robust air permeability would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from individual protection and industrial security to environmental governance; however, creating such filtration media has proved extremely challenging. Here we report a strategy to construct the bio-based polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets (PA-56 NFN) membranes with bimodal structures for effective air filtration via one-step electrospinning/netting. The PA-56 membranes are composed of completely covered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin (∼20 nm) nanonets which are optimized by facilely regulating the solution concentration, and the bonded scaffold fibers constructed cavity structures which are synchronously created by using the CH3COOH inspiration. With integrated properties of small aperture, high porosity, and bonded scaffold, the resulting PA-56 NFN membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.995%, low pressure drop of 111 Pa, combined with large dust holding capacity of 49 g/m(2) and dust-cleaning regeneration ability, for filtrating ultrafine airborne particles in the most safe manner involving sieving principle and surface filtration. The successful synthesis of PA-56 NFN medium would not only make it a promising candidate for air filtration, but also provide new insights into the design and development of nanonet-based bimodal structures for various applications.

  18. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration... the processing of food, under the following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration...

  19. High-protein diet induces oxidative stress in rat brain: protective action of high-intensity exercise against lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Camiletti-Moir??n, Daniel; Aparicio Garc??a-Molina, Virginia A.; Nebot Valenzuela, Elena; Medina, Gerardo; Mart??nez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Andrade, Ana; Porres-Foulquie, Jes??s; L??pez-Jurado, Mar??a; Aranda Ram??rez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    diets as well as aerobic exercise could promote antioxidant capacity and consequently reduce free radicals overproduction on brain. However, little is know regarding to the high-protein diets and high intensity exercise on oxidative stress production. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of high-protein diets and high-intensity exercise (HIE) on brain oxidative stress markers. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed i...

  20. Measured performance of filtration and ventilation systems for fine and ultrafine particles and ozone in an unoccupied modern California house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Delp, W W; Black, D R; Walker, I S

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250 m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration provided indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors. Supply ventilation with MERV13 filtration provided slightly less protection, whereas supply MERV16 filtration reduced PM2.5 by 97-98% relative to outdoors. Supply filtration systems used little energy but provided no benefits for indoor-generated particles. Systems with MERV13-16 filter in the recirculating heating and cooling unit (FAU) operating continuously or 20 min/h reduced PM2.5 by 93-98%. Across all systems, removal percentages were higher for ultrafine particles and lower for black carbon, relative to PM2.5 . Indoor ozone was 3-4% of outdoors for all systems except an electronic air cleaner that produced ozone. Filtration via the FAU or portable filtration units lowered PM2.5 by 25-75% when operated over the hour following cooking. The energy for year-round operation of FAU filtration with an efficient blower motor was estimated at 600 kWh/year.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT--BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, W.L. GORE ASSOC., INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center evaluates the performance of baghouse filtration products used primarily to control PM2.5 emissions. This verification statement summarizes the test results for W.L. Gore & Assoc....

  2. The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav C. Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte. Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well as experimental injury models of this barrier have helped to unravel this interdependence. Key among the consequences of interference with the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier is the appearance of significant amounts of proteins in the urine. Proteinuria correlates with kidney disease progression and cardiovascular mortality. With specific reference to proteinuria in human and animal disease phenotypes, the following review explores the roles of the endothelial cell, glomerular basement membrane, and the podocyte and attempts to highlight examples of essential crosstalk within this barrier.

  3. Maize genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lance E; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; O'Shaughnessy, Andrew L; Balija, Vivekanand S; Nascimento, Lidia U; Dike, Sujit; de la Bastide, Melissa; Martienssen, Robert A; McCombie, W Richard

    2003-12-19

    Gene enrichment strategies offer an alternative to sequencing large and repetitive genomes such as that of maize. We report the generation and analysis of nearly 100,000 undermethylated (or methylation filtration) maize sequences. Comparison with the rice genome reveals that methylation filtration results in a more comprehensive representation of maize genes than those that result from expressed sequence tags or transposon insertion sites sequences. About 7% of the repetitive DNA is unmethylated and thus selected in our libraries, but potentially active transposons and unmethylated organelle genomes can be identified. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction can be used to finish the maize transcriptome.

  4. The Perspective of Riverbank Filtration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Zuo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable drinking water supply can affect the health of people, and the surrounding ecosystems. According to statistics of the monitoring program of drinking water sources in 309 at or above prefecture level of China in 2013, the major pollutants index were total phosphorus, ammonia and manganese in surface drinking water sources, respectively, iron, ammonia and manganese in groundwater drinking water sources, respectively. More than 150 drinking water emergency environmental accidents happened since 2006, 52 of these accidents led to the disruption of water supply in waterworks, and a population of over ten million were affected. It indicated that there is a potential risk for people's health by the use of river water directly and it is necessary to require alternative techniques such as riverbank filtration for improving the drinking water quality. Riverbank filtration is an inexpensive natural process, not only smoothing out normal pollutant concentration found in surface water but also significantly reducing the risk from such emergency events as chemical spill into the river. Riverbank filtration technique has been used in many countries more than 100 years, including China. In China, in 1950s, the bank infiltration technique was first applied in northeast of China. Extensive bank infiltration application was conducted in 1980s, and more than 300 drinking water sources utilities bank infiltration established mainly near the Songhua River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, Haihe River Basin. However, the comparative lack of application and researches on riverbank filtration have formed critical scientific data gap in China. As the performance of riverbank filtration technique depend on not only the design and setting such as well type, pumping rate, but also the local hydrogeology and environmental properties. We recommend more riverbank filtration project and studies to be conducted to collect related significant environmental geology data in China

  5. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  6. Industrial investigations of the liquid steel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes have given good results. The obtained results of filtration have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location considering the limitation of the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  7. Projective Dimension in Filtrated K-Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentmann, Rasmus Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Under mild assumptions, we characterise modules with projective resolutions of length n∈N in the target category of filtrated K-theory over a finite topological space in terms of two conditions involving certain Tor -groups. We show that the filtrated K-theory of any separable C∗dash-algebra over...... any topological space with at most four points has projective dimension 2 or less. We observe that this implies a universal coefficient theorem for rational equivariant KK-theory over these spaces. As a contrasting example, we find a separable C∗dash-algebra in the bootstrap class over a certain five...

  8. Projective Dimension in Filtrated K-Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentmann, Rasmus Moritz

    2013-01-01

    any topological space with at most four points has projective dimension 2 or less. We observe that this implies a universal coefficient theorem for rational equivariant KK-theory over these spaces. As a contrasting example, we find a separable C∗dash-algebra in the bootstrap class over a certain five......-point space, the filtrated K-theory of which has projective dimension 3. Finally, as an application of our investigations, we exhibit Cuntz-Krieger algebras which have projective dimension 2 in filtrated K-theory over their respective primitive spectrum....

  9. Elevation of brain glutathione by gamma-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester protects against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer; Kanski, Jaroslaw; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Tsoras, Maria; Butterfield, D Allan

    2002-06-15

    Elevation of glutathione (GSH) has been recognized as an important method for modulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. We investigated the antioxidant properties of gamma-glu-cys-ethyl ester (GCEE) in vitro and its ability to increase GSH levels upon in vivo i.p. injection. GCEE displays antioxidant activity similar to GSH as assessed by various in vitro indices such as hydroxyl radical scavenging, dichlorofluorescein fluorescence (DCF), protein specific spin labeling, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and protein carbonyls. Intraperitoneal injection of GCEE to gerbils resulted in a 41% increase in brain total GSH levels in vivo as determined by the DTNB-GSH reductase recycling method. Gerbils injected with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, had 40% less total brain glutathione. Gerbils injected with BSO followed by a GCEE injection had GSH levels similar to vehicle-injected controls, suggesting that GCEE upregulates GSH biosynthesis by providing gamma-glutamylcysteine and not cysteine. Cortical synaptosomes from GCEE-injected animals were less susceptible to peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage as assessed by DCF fluorescence, protein-specific spin labeling, and GS activity. These experiments suggest that GCEE is effective in increasing brain GSH levels and may potentially play an important therapeutic role in attenuating oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress such as Alzheimer disease.

  10. Mechanisms of pressure filtration of liquid aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.

    2006-12-01

    The Prefil Footprinter, a portable pressure filtration instrument, is usually used to detect the quality of liquid aluminum alloys. However, no investigations have ever been done to calculate the cake resistance to date. Based on the identification and classification of flow behavior using the first derivative method for filtrate mass vs filtration time curves, conventional filtration equations are successfully employed to understand the filtration behaviors. From the analyses of the variations of cake resistance with filtration time, the filtration mechanisms are discussed in detail over the different filtration stages. During the steady stage, either incompressible or compressible cake mode is the main mechanism. At the initial and terminal transient stages, however, deep-bed filtration, complete straining, and solidification clogging may appear. Solid inclusions in liquid metal have significant influence on the cake structures and properties. Some important issues related to the heterogeneity of filter media and test methodology are highlighted in this work.

  11. Argon protects against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats through activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailin; Mitchell, Sian; Ciechanowicz, Sarah; Savage, Sinead; Wang, Tianlong; Ji, Xunming; Ma, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) has a high mortality rate with neuropsychological impairment. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of argon against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. In vitro cortical neuronal cell cultures derived from rat foetuses were subjected to an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) challenge for 90 minutes and then exposed to 70% argon or nitrogen with 5% carbon dioxide and balanced with oxygen for 2 hours. In vivo, seven-day-old rats were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxic (8% oxygen balanced with nitrogen) insult for 90 minutes. They were exposed to 70% argon or nitrogen balanced with oxygen for 2 hours. In vitro, argon treatment of cortical neuronal cultures resulted in a significant increase of p-mTOR and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2(Nrf2) and protection against OGD challenge. Inhibition of m-TOR through Rapamycin or Nrf2 through siRNA abolished argon-mediated cyto-protection. In vivo, argon exposure significantly enhanced Nrf2 and its down-stream effector NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase, Quinone 1(NQO1) and superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1). Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death were significantly decreased and brain infarction was markedly reduced. Blocking PI-3K through wortmannin or ERK1/2 through U0126 attenuated argon-mediated neuroprotection. These data provide a new molecular mechanism for the potential application of argon as a neuroprotectant in HIE. PMID:27016422

  12. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion induces reperfusion and blood-brain barrier protection in the photothrombotic stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviv Levi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The treatment of stroke remains a challenge. Animal studies showing that electrical stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG exerts beneficial effects in the treatment of stroke have led to the initiation of clinical studies. However, the detailed effects of SPG stimulation on the injured brain are not known. METHODS: The effect of acute SPG stimulation was studied by direct vascular imaging, fluorescent angiography and laser Doppler flowmetry in the sensory motor cortex of the anaesthetized rat. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the rose bengal (RB photothrombosis method. In chronic experiments, SPG stimulation, starting 15 min or 24 h after photothrombosis, was given for 3 h per day on four consecutive days. Structural damage was assessed using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cortical functions were assessed by quantitative analysis of epidural electro-corticographic (ECoG activity continuously recorded in behaving animals. RESULTS: Stimulation induced intensity- and duration-dependent vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow in both healthy and photothrombotic brains. In SPG-stimulated rats both blood brain-barrier (BBB opening, pathological brain activity and lesion volume were attenuated compared to untreated stroke animals, with no apparent difference in the glial response surrounding the necrotic lesion. CONCLUSION: SPG-stimulation in rats induces vasodilation of cortical arterioles, partial reperfusion of the ischemic lesion, and normalization of brain functions with reduced BBB dysfunction and stroke volume. These findings support the potential therapeutic effect of SPG stimulation in focal cerebral ischemia even when applied 24 h after stroke onset and thus may extend the therapeutic window of currently administered stroke medications.

  13. The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rolipram protects from ischemic stroke in mice by reducing blood-brain-barrier damage, inflammation and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Peter; Schwarz, Tobias; Göb, Eva; Heydenreich, Nadine; Brede, Marc; Meuth, Sven G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption, inflammation and thrombosis are important steps in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke but are still inaccessible to therapeutic interventions. Rolipram specifically inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Rolipram has been shown to relief inflammation and BBB damage in a variety of neurological disorders. We investigated the therapeutic potential of rolipram in a model of brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Treatment with 10mg/kg rolipram, but not 2 mg/kg rolipram, 2 h after 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) reduced infarct volumes by 50% and significantly improved clinical scores on day 1 compared with vehicle-treated controls. Rolipram maintained BBB function upon stroke as indicated by preserved expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5. Accordingly, the formation of vascular brain edema was strongly attenuated in mice receiving rolipram. Moreover, rolipram reduced the invasion of neutrophils as well as the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα but increased the levels of TGFβ-1. Finally, rolipram exerted antithrombotic effects upon stroke and fewer neurons in the rolipram group underwent apoptosis. Rolipram is a multifaceted antiinflammatory and antithrombotic compound that protects from ischemic neurodegeneration in clinically meaningful settings.

  14. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve:viscoelasticity characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-man Lv; Yan Liu; Fei Wu; Yi Yuan; Min Luo

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  15. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  16. Ecdysterone protects gerbil brain from temporal global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via preventing neuron apoptosis and deactivating astrocytes and microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Feng, Wan-Yu; Wang, Zhan-You; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Ecdysterone (EDS), a common derivative of ecdysteroid, has shown its effects on alleviating cognitive impairment and improving the cognition and memory. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. Using temporal global forebrain ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain injury as a model system, we investigated the roles of EDS in improving cognitive impairment in gerbil. Our results demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of EDS obviously increased the number of surviving neuron cells by Nissl and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining. Indeed, the protecting effects of EDS are because of its ability to prevent the apoptosis of neuron cells as evidenced by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 deactivation in the brain of temporal global forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-treated gerbil. Moreover, EDS administration suppressed the ischemia stimulated activity of astrocytes and microglia cells by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in the brain of gerbil. More importantly, these actions of neurons and astrocytes/microglia cells in response to EDS treatment played pivotal roles in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in the ischemia/reperfusion-injured gerbil. In view of these observations, we not only decipher the mechanisms of EDS in reducing the syndrome of ischemia, but also provide novel perspectives to combat ischemic stroke.

  17. Enhancing Brain Pregnenolone May Protect Cannabis Intoxication but Should Not Be Considered as an Anti-addiction Therapeutic: Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Blockade and Promoting Anti- Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication. Some research into those harms will be reviewed here and misgivings about the use of Pregnenolone, to treat cannabis addiction and intoxication explained. Pregnenolone considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, has recently been shown to protect the brain from Cannabis intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC enhances Pregnenolone synthesis in the brain via stimulation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1 receptor. This steroid has been shown to inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee et al., incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. In this hypothesis, we caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718 have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. Blocking CB1 receptors would result in reduced neuronal release of Dopamine by disinhibition of GABA signaling. Longterm blockade of cannabinoid receptors could occur with raising Pregnenolone brain levels, may induce a hypodopaminergic state, and lead to aberrant substance and nonsubstance (behavioral addictions.

  18. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  19. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects mouse brain against D-galactose induced aging via suppression of oxidative stress response and advanced glycation end products formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinhang; Bai, Fuliang; Wang, Wenfei; Liu, Yaonan; Yuan, Qingyan; Qu, Susu; Zhang, Tong; Tian, Guiyou; Li, Siming; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted predominantly in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. Recently, it has been reported that FGF21-Transgenic mice can extend their lifespan compared with wild type counterparts. Thus, we hypothesize that FGF21 may play some roles in aging of organisms. In this study d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice were used to study the mechanism that FGF21 protects mice from aging. The three-month-old Kunming mice were subcutaneously injected with d-gal (180mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 8weeks and administered simultaneously with FGF21 (1, 2 or 5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Our results showed that administration of FGF21 significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in water maze task and step-down test, reduced brain cell damage in the hippocampus, and attenuated the d-gal-induced production of MDA, ROS and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At the same time, FGF21 also markedly renewed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), and decreased the enhanced total cholinesterase (TChE) activity in the brain of d-gal-treated mice. The expression of aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and member-anchored receptor for AGEs (RAGE) declined significantly after FGF21 treatment. Furthermore, FGF21 suppressed inflamm-aging by inhibiting IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, decreased significantly. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF21 protects the aging mice brain from d-gal-induced injury by attenuating oxidative stress damage and decreasing AGE formation.

  1. Comparison of nonwoven fiberglass and stainless steel microfiber media in aerosol coalescence filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Gabriel

    Coalescing filters are used to remove small liquid droplets from air streams. They have numerous industrial applications including dehumidification, cabin air filtration, compressed air filtration, metal working, CCV, and agriculture. In compressed air systems, oils used for lubrication of compressor parts can aerosolize into the main air stream causing potential contamination concerns for downstream applications. In many systems, humid air can present problems to sensitive equipment and sensors. As the humid air cools, small water drops condense and can disrupt components that need to be kept dry. Fibrous nonwoven filter media are commonly used to coalesce small drops into larger drops for easier removal. The coalescing performance of a medium is dependent upon several parameters including permeability, porosity, and wettability. In many coalescing filters, glass fibers are used. In this work, the properties of steel fiber media are measured to see how these properties compare to glass fiber media. Steel fiber media has different permeability, porosity and wettability to oil and water than fiber glass media. These differences can impact coalescence performance. The impact of these differences in properties on coalescence filtration performance was evaluated in a coalescence test apparatus. The overall coalescence performance of the steel and glass nonwoven fiber media are compared using a filtration efficiency and filtration index. In many cases, the stainless steel media performed comparably to fiber glass media with efficiencies near 90%. Since stainless steel media had lower pressure drops than fiber glass media, its filtration index values were significantly higher. Broader impact of this work is the use of stainless steel fiber media as an alternative to fiber glass media in applications where aerosol filtration is needed to protect the environment or sensitive equipment and sensors.

  2. Aerosol filtration - performance of filter media; Filtration des aerosols - performances des medias filtrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, D.; Regnier, R. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Dept. Ingenierie des Procedes, 75 - Paris (France); Calle, S.; Thomas, D.; Simon, X.; Appert-Collin, J.Ch. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-15

    Set up in 2000, the Laboratoire de Filtration des Aerosols in Nancy (LFA), associating research teams from INRS (Institut National de Recherche et de Securite and LSGC (Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique - CNRS), has been commissioned to provide expertise in the aerosol filtration field to both CRAM (Caisse Regionale de l'Assurance Maladie) prevention specialists and industrialists. Following a theoretical review of fibre medium filtration, this paper summarises the different actions undertaken by the LFA: filter performance during clogging with liquid and solid aerosols, modelling, pneumatic unclogging of baghouse dust collectors, influence of micro-leaks, etc. (authors)

  3. Prevention of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction with leucocyte filtrated concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shu-ming; XIANG Guo-chun; ZHANG Jia-si; CHENG Xiao-ling; LI Ru-qing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficiency of the transfusion of leucocyte filtrated RBC concentrates to prevent febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs). Methods: One hundred patients with liver cirrhosis, gastric ulcer or cancer were subjected to receive RBC concentrates after leucocyte filtration.Another 50 patients with similar diseases were selected to receive non-filtrated RBC concentrates. The incidence of FNHTRs in all patients was investigated. Results: There was no FNHTR in 100 transfusions with leucocyte filtrated RBC concentrates, while FNHTRs occurred in 8 of 50 patients with non-filtrated RBC concentrates, with the incidence of 160%. Conclusion: FNHTRs to RBC transfusion can be prevented with leucocyte filtration.

  4. Experimental study of the protective effect of Edaravone on brain after traumatic brain injury%脑创伤后Edaravone脑保护作用机制的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹立国; 崔建忠; 高俊玲; 赵雅宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible action mechanism of protective effect of Edaravone on brain after traumatic brain injury .Methods The middle degree closed diffused craniocerebral injury models in rats were established by improved Marmarou's method.After the models were successfully established ,the free radical in cortex of the rats ,Cyt-c and apoptosis cell numbers were detected and observed dynamically by TAB ,immunohistochemry,TUNEL,respectively.Results Edaravone could decrease obviously the levels of free radical ,the expression of Cyt-c and apoptosis nerve cells after traumatic brain injury Conclusion Edaravone is effective in treating traumatic brain injury ,and one of action mechanisms is to reduce generation of free radical,inhibit opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP),reduce releasing of Cytc,and then decrease nerve cell apoptosis .%目的:探讨Edaravone对脑创伤后保护作用的可能机制。方法采用改进的Marmarou’ s法建立大鼠中度闭合性弥漫性颅脑损伤模型,应用TAB法、免疫组化,TUNEL法对大鼠伤后皮质自由基、细胞色素C及凋亡细胞数进行动态观察。结果伤后给予Edaravone 能明显减少自由基水平,降低细胞色素 c表达和神经元细胞凋亡数。结论 Edaravone对颅脑创伤有治疗作用,其机制之一是通过减少自由基生成,抑制线粒体膜通透性转换孔( MPTP)开放,减少细胞色素c释放,进而减少神经细凋亡。

  5. Protective effect of ultrashortwave versus radix salviae miltiorrhizae on brains of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Zhang; Zhiqiang Wang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xiuhua Yuan; Xiaojie Tong

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: How to control the effect of oxygen-derived free radicals on development of cerebral injury and cerebral edema is a key factor for treating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the protective effects, synergistic action and mechanisms of ultrashortwave (USW) and radix salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) on the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries in rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, First Hospital affiliated to China Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 160 healthy Wistar rats of both genders and aged 18-20 weeks weighing 250-300 gof clean grade were selected in this study. 5 mL/ampoule RSM injection fluid was produced by the First Pharmaceutical Corporation of Shanghai (batch number: 011019, 0.01 mL/g). The USW therapeutic device was produced by Shanghai Electronic Device Factory with the frequency of 40.68 MHz and the maximal export power of 40 W. The first channel of power after modulation was 11 W.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Rehabilitation Medicine Department of the First Hospital affiliated to China Medical University from May 2002 to January 2003. Focal ischemia-reperfusion model was established in rats by reversible right middle cerebral artery occlusion with filament. Right cerebral ischemia was for 2 hours and then with 24 hours reperfusion. The scores of neurological deficits were evaluated by 0 to 4 scales. After surgery, 64 successful rats models were divided into four groups according to digital table: control group, USW group, RSM group and RSM + USW group with 16 cases in each group.Rats in control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of saline (0.1 mL/g); rats in USW group were given small dosage of USW on head for 10 minutes at 6 hours after reperfusion; rats in RSM group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.01 mL/g RSM solution at 30 minutes before reperfusion; rats in RSM + USW group were

  6. Ischemic brain cell-derived conditioned medium protects astrocytes against ischemia through GDNF/ERK/NF-kB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lan-Feng; Wang, Wei-Ti; Ghanta, Vithal K; Lin, Chi-Hsin; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Hsueh, Chi-Mei

    2008-11-06

    Conditioned medium (CM) collected from cultures of ischemic microglia, astrocytes, and neurons were protective to astrocytes under the in vitro ischemic condition (deprivation of oxygen, glucose and serum). Molecular and signaling pathway(s) responsible for the CMs protective activity were investigated. Results showed that CMs from the ischemic microglia (MCM), astrocytes (ACM) and neurons (NCM) contained glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which protects astrocytes against the in vitro ischemia. Expression of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) by GDNF led to the inhibition of apoptosis of the ischemic astrocytes in a caspase 3-independent manner. However, CMs- and GDNF-mediated protection of the ischemic astrocytes was protein kinase B (Akt) independent. These results provided mechanistic data regarding how GDNF- and CMs-mediated protection of the ischemic astrocytes is taking place. These observations provide information for the use of GDNF and GDNF containing CMs in the control of cerebral ischemia.

  7. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  8. Filtration of engineered nanoparticles using porous membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzaskus, Krzystof

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at providing a better understanding of the fundamental aspects responsible for nanoparticle removal and fouling development during filtration of engineered nanoparticles. The emphasis is put on the role of interparticle interactions in the feed solution,

  9. Organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelkamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the main removal mechanisms (adsorption and biodegradation) for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal during river bank filtration (RBF) and the possibility of developing a predictive model of this process for OMP removal during RBF. Chapter 2 analysed

  10. [Clinical experience of automated double filtration plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C T; Chuang, F R; Hsu, K T; Lam, K K; Liao, S C; Liu, C C; Chen, J B; Jang, S W; Chien, Y S; Pan, H H

    1996-12-01

    Double filtration plasmapheresis, one kind of fractionation plasmapheresis, was developed from membrane type plasmapheresis to remove only the pathogen and return the normal protein back to the patient. We started our automated double filtration plasmapheresis since December 1993. There were 13 patients who received one hundred treatments totally during one year period. And they are myasthenia gravis (8 patients); acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (1 patient), multiple myeloma (1 patient); acquired factor VIII inhibitor (1 patient); autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1 patient); systemic lupus erythematous (1 patient). Technically double filtration plasmapheresis is easy to perform and time-saving. It also makes necessity of replacement fluid less frequent. Incidence of complication is rare, and this includes hypotension 2%, palpitation 1%, headache 1%, hemolysis 4%, air emboli 1%, high secondary pressure 2%, and no motality during our treatment. Clinical response is documented in cases of myasthenia gravis; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acquired factor VIII inhibitor in our study. In conclusion, double filtration plasmapheresis is a time-saving, convenient, and safe therapeutic modality with rare complication. Because its effectiveness on limited kinds of diseases and costs relatively high price, thus plasmapheresis should be used in selected cases and treat aggressively if indicated.

  11. Advances in hot gas filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.

    The past decade has seen the introduction of new filter media specifically designed for 'hot-gas' filtration. These media are available as woven or knitted fabrics and as non-wovens, i.e. needled felts. Needlefelted fabrics have proven so highly successful in the dedusting of hot gases that they are widely used nowadays in this new and necessary technology. Hot-gas filtration offers advantages in, for example, the saving or recycling of energy, the elimination of the cooling process, and the short-circuiting of process steps. This paper gives a survey of the types of textile fibres available for hot-gas filtration from the more recently developed organic fibres to refractory fibres. It describes, compares and contrasts their salient properties and lists the uses to which they may be put. It concentrates on such fibres which are generally referred to as 'high performance materials', since they are expected to provide satisfactory performance under extreme conditions of temperature, chemical environment and mechanical stress. It touches on filtration theory governing the collection mechanism. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Using Digital Filtration for Hurst Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prochaska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to estimate the Hurst parameter. The method exploits the form of the autocorrelation function for second-order self-similar processes and is based on one-pass digital filtration. We compare the performance and properties of the new method with that of the most common methods.

  13. Inhibition of aminoacylase 3 protects rat brain cortex neuronal cells from the toxicity of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mercapturate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bragin, Anatol [Department of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Faull, Kym [Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cascio, Duilio [Institute of Genomics and Proteomics, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Damoiseaux, Robert; Schibler, Matthew J. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Pushkin, Alexander, E-mail: apushkin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) and acrolein (ACR) are highly reactive neurotoxic products of lipid peroxidation that are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Conjugation with glutathione (GSH) initiates the 4HNE and ACR detoxification pathway, which generates the mercapturates of 4HNE and ACR that can be excreted. Prior work has shown that the efficiency of the GSH-dependent renal detoxification of haloalkene derived mercapturates is significantly decreased upon their deacetylation because of rapid transformation of the deacetylated products into toxic compounds mediated by β-lyase. The enzymes of the GSH-conjugation pathway and β-lyases are expressed in the brain, and we hypothesized that a similar toxicity mechanism may be initiated in the brain by the deacetylation of 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. The present study was performed to identify an enzyme(s) involved in 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate deacetylation, characterize the brain expression of this enzyme and determine whether its inhibition decreases 4HNE and 4HNE-mercapturate neurotoxicity. We demonstrated that of two candidate deacetylases, aminoacylases 1 (AA1) and 3 (AA3), only AA3 efficiently deacetylates both 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. AA3 was further localized to neurons and blood vessels. Using a small molecule screen we generated high-affinity AA3 inhibitors. Two of them completely protected rat brain cortex neurons expressing AA3 from the toxicity of 4HNE-mercapturate. 4HNE-cysteine (4HNE-Cys) was also neurotoxic and its toxicity was mostly prevented by a β-lyase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate. The results suggest that the AA3 mediated deacetylation of 4HNE-mercapturate may be involved in the neurotoxicity of 4HNE.

  14. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Marinho, Jéssica Pereira; Abujamra, Ana Lúcia; Dani, Caroline; Quincozes-Santos, André; Funchal, Cláudia

    2015-09-01

    Acai offers health benefits associated with its high antioxidante capacity, phytochemical composition, nutritional and sensory value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage via modulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brain tissue. The rats were treated via oral (gavage) daily with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days at a dose of 7 μL/g. On the 15th day, the animals in each group received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3.0 mL/kg or the same volume of mineral oil. After 4 h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and homogenated to evaluate the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. It was observed that CCl4 increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in all brain tissues, and that acai frozen pulp was able to prevent this increase. IL-6 and IL-10 brain tissue levels remained unchanged during all treatments. CCl4 experimental model was suitable to investigate brain tissue anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acai frozen pulp prevented an increase in IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, while IL-6 and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. The precise pathway by which inflammation contribute to hepatic encephalopathy, as well as to how this pathway can be modulated, is still under investigation.

  15. Role of Transporters in Central Nervous System Drug Delivery and Blood-Brain Barrier Protection: Relevance to Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Brzica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The only approved pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke is thrombolysis via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA. A short therapeutic window and serious adverse events (ie, hemorrhage, excitotoxicity greatly limit r-tPA therapy, which indicates an essential need to develop novel stroke treatment paradigms. Transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB provide a significant opportunity to advance stroke therapy via central nervous system delivery of drugs that have neuroprotective properties. Examples of such transporters include organic anion–transporting polypeptides (Oatps and organic cation transporters (Octs. In addition, multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps are transporter targets in brain microvascular endothelial cells that can be exploited to preserve BBB integrity in the setting of stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on stroke pharmacotherapy and demonstrate how endogenous BBB transporters can be targeted for improvement of ischemic stroke treatment.

  16. Protective effects of ω-3 PUFA on the second liver injury in rats with traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许会彬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of preconditioning withω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid(ω-3 PUFA)on the second liver injury in rats with traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock(TBIS)and explore the underlying mechanism.Methods Total of 36 male Wistar rats were assigned randomly(random number)into 3 groups(n=12 in each):sham

  17. Arctigenin Treatment Protects against Brain Damage through an Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism after Needle Insertion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) infuses drugs directly into brain tissue. Needle insertion is required and results in a stab wound injury (SWI). Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines, which have dramatic consequences on the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary ...

  18. Particle contamination of parenteralia and in-line filtration of proteinaceous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Benjamin Patrick; Winter, Gerhard

    2015-12-30

    Protein drug products play an important role in the treatment of severe diseases. However, due to the instability of these complex molecules, protein aggregates can form which can compromise drug safety and efficacy including immunogenic reactions. In-line filtration during the administration of these drugs can serve as a final safeguarding step to protect patients from risks associated with proteinaceous particles. A unique analysis of more than 300 marketed protein drug products revealed that already around 16% of all these products are filtered during preparation or administration. Further, the research revealed that no standardized filtration practice exists. Broad variances regarding filter membrane or pore size are found and sometimes no specifications are mentioned at all. The benefits as well as possible negative impacts of filtration like filter shedding, extractables or drug adsorption are critically assessed. Several proposals to improve the current filtration practice and to expand the number of in-line filtered protein drug products are made. The suggestions include the demand for the specific usage of one filter membrane type, the establishment of a filtration routine for unfiltered protein drugs and a statistical analysis between filtered and non-filtered products with similar formulations to identify possible differences in the immunogenicity rate.

  19. Transplanted bone marrow stromal cells protect neurovascular units and ameliorate brain damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Taku; Maruichi, Katsuhiko; Kawabori, Masahito; Nakayama, Naoki; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) could ameliorate brain damage when transplanted into the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). The BMSC or vehicle was stereotactically engrafted into the striatum of male SHR-SP at 8 weeks of age. Daily loading with 0.5% NaCl-containing water was started from 9 weeks. MRIs and histological analysis were performed at 11 and 12 weeks, respectively. Wistar-Kyoto rats were employed as the control. As a result, T2-weighted images demonstrated neither cerebral infarct nor intracerebral hemorrhage, but identified abnormal dilatation of the lateral ventricles in SHR-SP. HE staining demonstrated selective neuronal injury in their neocortices. Double fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed that they had a decreased density of the collagen IV-positive microvessels and a decreased number of the microvessels with normal integrity between basement membrane and astrocyte end-feet. BMSC transplantation significantly ameliorated the ventricular dilatation and the breakdown of neurovascular integrity. These findings strongly suggest that long-lasting hypertension may primarily damage neurovascular integrity and neurons, leading to tissue atrophy and ventricular dilatation prior to the occurrence of cerebral stroke. The BMSC may ameliorate these damaging processes when directly transplanted into the brain, opening the possibility of prophylactic medicine to prevent microvascular and parenchymal-damaging processes in hypertensive patients at higher risk for cerebral stroke.

  20. Arctigenin Treatment Protects against Brain Damage through an Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism after Needle Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Kong, Liang; Yao, Ying-Jia; Jiao, Ya-Nan; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Lian, Guan; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) infuses drugs directly into brain tissue. Needle insertion is required and results in a stab wound injury (SWI). Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines, which have dramatic consequences on the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary brain injury and the determination of the underlying mechanism of action in a mouse model of SWI that mimics the process of CED. After CED, mice received a gavage of ARC from 30 min to 14 days. Neurological severity scores (NSS) and wound closure degree were assessed after the injury. Histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluated the extent of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect universal apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to test the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Gene levels of inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) and apoptosis (Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using these, we analyzed ARC's efficacy and mechanism of action. ARC treatment improved neurological function by reducing brain water content and hematoma and accelerating wound closure relative to untreated mice. ARC treatment reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and the number of allograft inflammatory factor (IBA)- and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells and increased the levels of IL-10. ARC-treated mice had fewer TUNEL+ apoptotic neurons and activated caspase-3-positive neurons surrounding the lesion than controls, indicating increased neuronal survival. ARC treatment confers neuroprotection of brain tissue

  1. Arctigenin Treatment Protects against Brain Damage through an Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism after Needle Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-feng; Kong, Liang; Yao, Ying-Jia; Jiao, Ya-Nan; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Lian, Guan; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) infuses drugs directly into brain tissue. Needle insertion is required and results in a stab wound injury (SWI). Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines, which have dramatic consequences on the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary brain injury and the determination of the underlying mechanism of action in a mouse model of SWI that mimics the process of CED. After CED, mice received a gavage of ARC from 30 min to 14 days. Neurological severity scores (NSS) and wound closure degree were assessed after the injury. Histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluated the extent of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect universal apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to test the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Gene levels of inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) and apoptosis (Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using these, we analyzed ARC’s efficacy and mechanism of action. Results: ARC treatment improved neurological function by reducing brain water content and hematoma and accelerating wound closure relative to untreated mice. ARC treatment reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and the number of allograft inflammatory factor (IBA)- and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells and increased the levels of IL-10. ARC-treated mice had fewer TUNEL+ apoptotic neurons and activated caspase-3-positive neurons surrounding the lesion than controls, indicating increased neuronal survival. Conclusions: ARC treatment confers

  2. Regional mild hypothermia in the protection of the ischemic brain A hipotermia regional moderada na proteção do encéfalo isquêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirto Nelso Prandini

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate that mild hypothermia can be a protective element when an ischemic onset occurs in rabbit brains. Methods: A rabbit model of focal ischemia was used to test the protection provided by mild hypothermia regionally produced by means of the placement of ice bag on the scalp of a hemicranium which has had previously its bone removed. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups as follows: (A a control group where an ischemic lesion was produced by coagulation of the middle cerebral artery and (B a brain protected group where mild hypothermia was provided during 80 to 100 minutes after the same ischemic lesion. The brains slices were stained with 2,3,5-Triphenyletrazolium (TTC. The sections were photographed with a digital camera and the infarct volume was measured through a computer program. Results: The average of infarct volume was 70.53 mm³ in the control group. In the protected group, the average of infarct volume was 41,30 mm³ only in five animals. Five animals of this group did not demonstrate macroscopically and microscopically infarct area. Conclusions: We concluded that mild hypothermia regionally produced may protect ischemic brains of rabbits.Objetivo: Demonstrar a proteção que a hipotermia moderada pode fornecer em casos de isquemia em encéfalos de coelhos. Métodos: Foi utilizado um modelo de isquemia focal em coelhos, para avaliar a proteção fornecida por meio de hipotermia moderada, produzida através da colocação de pedras de gelo contidas no interior de um pequeno saco plástico, em contato com o couro cabeludo de um hemicrânio onde a tábua óssea foi previamente removida. Vinte coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, pesando de 3,100 Kg a 3,750 Kg foram divididos em dois grupos: (A um grupo controle onde foi produzida uma lesão isquêmica por meio da coagulação da artéria cerebral média e (B um grupo submetido a neuroproteção por hipotermia moderada regional durante 80 a

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING THE FILTRATE DISTILLERY DREGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various factors affecting the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs are investigated. Rational conditions for the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs in a spray dryer are obtained.

  4. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  5. Blockade of CXCR1/2 chemokine receptors protects against brain damage in ischemic stroke in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fonseca da Cunha Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ischemic stroke may result from transient or permanent reductions of regional cerebral blood flow. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been described as the earliest inflammatory cells to arrive in ischemic tissue. CXCR1/2 receptors are involved in the recruitment of these cells. However, the contribution of these chemokine receptors during transient brain ischemia in mice remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the effects of reparixin, an allosteric antagonist of CXCR1/2 receptors, in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice treated with reparixin or vehicle were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion procedure 1 h after the treatment. Ninety minutes after ischemia induction, the monofilament that prevented blood flow was removed. Twenty-four hours after the reperfusion procedure, behavioral changes, including motor signs, were analyzed with the SmithKline/Harwell/lmperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment (SHIRPA battery. The animals were sacrificed, and brain tissue was removed for histological and biochemical analyses. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, neutrophil infiltration was estimated by myeloperoxidase activity and the inflammatory cytokine IL-iβ was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with reparixin reduced the motor deficits observed in this model of ischemia and reperfusion. Myeloperoxidase activity and IL-iβ were reduced in the reparixin-treated group. Histological analysis revealed that ischemic injury was also attenuated by reparixin pre-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the blockade of the CXCR1/2 receptors by reparixin promotes neuroprotective effects by reducing the levels of polymorphonuclear infiltration in the brain and the tissue damage associated with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion.

  6. Origins of the poor filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Steeneken, P.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of wheat starch components on the filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates were investigated with a model-based approach. The filtration rate was not affected by the removal of the pentosans or by altering the conformation of the protein. On the other hand, the filtration

  7. Schistosoma co-infection protects against brain pathology but does not prevent severe disease and death in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Kirsten; Dietz, Klaus; Lackner, Peter; Pasche, Bastian; Fendel, Rolf; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ben-Smith, Anne; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H

    2011-01-01

    Co-infections of helminths and malaria parasites are common in human populations in most endemic areas. It has been suggested that concomitant helminth infections inhibit the control of malaria parasitemia but down-modulate severe malarial disease. We tested this hypothesis using a murine co-infection model of schistosomiasis and cerebral malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 8-9 weeks later, when Schistosoma infection was patent, mice were co-infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. We found that a concomitant Schistosoma infection increased parasitemia at the beginning of the P. berghei infection. It did not protect against P. berghei-induced weight loss and hypothermia, and P. berghei-mono-infected as well as S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals showed a high case fatality between days 6 and 8 of malarial infection. However, co-infection significantly reduced P. berghei-induced brain pathology. Over 40% of the S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals that died during this period were completely protected against haemorrhaging, plugging of blood vessels and infiltration, indicating that mortality in these animals was not related to cerebral disease. Schistosoma mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected mice had elevated plasma concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13 and on day 6 lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) than P. berghei-mono-infected mice. We conclude that in P. berghei infections, disease and early death are caused by distinct pathogenic mechanisms, which develop in parallel and are differentially influenced by the immune response to S. mansoni. This might explain why, in co-infected mice, death could be induced in the absence of brain pathology.

  8. Nanoparticles filtration by leaked fibrous filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Guillaume; Calle-Chazelet, Sandrine; Thomas, Dominique; Appert-Collin, Jean-Christophe [Nancy-Universite/LSGC/CNRS - 1 rue Grandville - BP 20451 - F-54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sandrine.calle@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Bemer, Denis [INRS - Avenue de Bourgogne - F-54501 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is first to measured nanoparticles penetration through three different fiberglass filters intentionally-pierced with calibrated needles at different filtration velocity. Then a semi-empirical model based on the air flow resistances of the new and perforated filter media and on the mechanism of Brownian diffusion for the collection of ultrafine particles by the media enables to well predict the efficiency observed for all tested operating conditions. Results show that the increase of particles penetration is all the more important that the pinhole is large and that the particle diameter is low. Another result is that the filtration efficiency of the new filter media controlled the penetration. A high efficiency filter with a high resistance to air flow will be more damaged than a low efficiency filter when being perforated.

  9. Integrative filtration research and sustainable nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Drew Thompson; David Y.H.Pui

    2013-01-01

    With the wide applications of nanomaterials in an array of industries,more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace,and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems.Studies on environmental,health and safety (EHS) issues of nanomaterials play a significant role in public acceptance,and eventual sustainability,of nanotechnology.We present research results on three aspects of the EHS studies:characterization and measurement of nanoparticles,nanoparticle emission and exposure at workplaces,and control and abatement of nanoparticle release using filtration technology.Measurement of nanoparticle agglomerates using a newly developed instrument,the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer,is discussed.Nanoparticle emission and exposure measurement results for carbon nanotubes in the manufacture of nanocomposites and for silicon nanoparticles in their production at a pilot scale facility are presented.Filtration of nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates are also studied.

  10. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  11. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  12. Breakthrough of cyanobacteria in bank filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazouki, Pirooz; Prévost, Michèle; McQuaid, Natasha; Barbeau, Benoit; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    The removal of cyanobacteria cells in well water following bank filtration was investigated from a source water consisting of two artificial lakes (A and B). Phycocyanin probes used to monitor cyanobacteria in the source and in filtered well water showed an increase of fluorescence values demonstrating a progressive seasonal growth of cyanobacteria in the source water that were correlated with cyanobacterial biovolumes from taxonomic counts (r = 0.59, p cyanobacteria. Of cyanobacteria that passed through bank filtration, smaller cells were significantly more frequent in well water samples (p cyanobacteria to wells. Winter samples demonstrated that cyanobacteria accumulate within bank filters, leading to continued passage of cells beyond the bloom season. Although no concentrations of total microcystin-LR were above detection limits in filtered well water, there is concern that cyanobacterial cells that reach the wells have the potential to contain intracellular toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Brain Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage by Electromagnetic Field in Rat: Ultrastructural Study by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki Arash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basil herb (Ocimum basilicum has long been used in human nutrition. Nowadays antioxidant role of this herb is known more. The aim of this study was to study the anti-oxidative property of sweet basil to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic field (EMF and its affective sequences. Materials and Methods: Forty Albino male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups, 10 rats per each. Group 1 received normal diet (control group, group 2 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF for 8 weeks (EMF group. Group 3 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF and fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks (treatment group and group 4 was fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks and named as herbal group. At the end of eighth week 5 mL blood was taken from all rats for biochemical analysis and for ultra structural study of brain neuron samples was taken. Results: The results showed level of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH peroxidase and catalase activity (CAT were significantly increased in herbal and treatment groups as compared to EMF group (P < 0.05. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased in treatment group as compare to EMF group (P < 0.05. Ultra structural evaluation of EMF group showed brain nucleus has a lot of heterochromatic changes and mitochondria have been ovulated and have swelling figure this changes were less in treatment group. Conclusion: Antioxidant capacity of basil extract can cause to decrease oxidative effects of EMF on brain tissue and in rats.

  14. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations--Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki; Ishida, Yusuke; Ogiwara, Yukihiko; Inazu, Masato; Kuroda, Masahiko; Karlsson, Michael; Sjovall, Fredrik; Elmér, Eskil; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    The pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is complex and remains incompletely elucidated. Dysregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial-mediated necrotic-apoptotic pathway have been proposed as part of the pathogenesis. The present study aimed at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE), and sham-operated (Sham). Mice in CLPV and CLPE were injected with saline or edaravone intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily. The treatments were initiated 4 days prior to the surgical procedure. Mortality, histological changes, electron microscopy (EM), and expression of Bcl-2 family genes (Bcl-2 and Bax) were analyzed in selected brain regions. CLPE showed significant improvement in survival compared with CLPV 18 h postinduction of sepsis (P free radical scavenger edavarone reduces mortality of septic mice and protects against sepsis-induced neuronal cell death.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects neurons from GdCl3-induced impairment in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd3+) complexes are important contrast agents in medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of great potential value in brain research. In order to better understand the mechanisms of the action of Gd3+ on neurons in the complex central nervous system (CNS), the neurotoxic actions of GdCl3 have been investigated in both neuron monoculture and astrocyte-neuron co-culture systems. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase release showed that GdCl3 causes significant cell death of monocultured neurons as a result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, GdCl3 does not affect the viability and BDNF expression of astrocytes. Both co-culturing of neurons with astrocytes and addition of BDNF ameliorated GdCl3-induced neurotoxicity by decreasing ROS generation and facilitating recovery of BDNF levels. The results obtained suggest that astrocytes in the CNS may protect neurons from GdCl3-induced impairment through secreting BDNF and thus up-regulating BDNF expression and interfering with Gd3+-induced cell signaling in neurons. A possible molecular mechanism is suggested which should be helpful in understand- ing the neurotoxic actions of gadolinium probes .

  16. Protective effects of compound FLZ, a novel synthetic analogue of squamosamide, on β-amyloid-induced rat brain mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang FANG; Geng-tao LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylamide (compound FLZ), a novel synthetic analogue of squamosamide, on the dysfunction of rat brain mitochondria induced by Aβ25-35 in vitro.Methods: Isolated rat brain mitochondria were incubated with aged Aβ25-35 for 30 min in the presence and absence of FLZ (1-100 μmol/L). The activities of key mitochondrial enzymes, the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O.-2), and the levels of glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria were examined. Mitochondrial swelling and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were assessed by biochemical and Western blot methods, respectively.Results: Incubation of mitochondria with aged Aβ25-35 inhibited the activities of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH),pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and respiratory chain complex IV. It also resulted in increased H2O2 and O.-2 production,and decreased the GSH level in mitochondria. Furthermore, it induced mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. The addition of FLZ (100 μmol/L) prior to treatment with Aβ25-35 significantly prevented these toxic effects of Aβ25-35 on the mitochondria.Conclusion: FLZ has a protective effect against Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

  17. The filtration properties of a dimorphic yeast

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Anthony A

    2001-01-01

    A dimorphic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianu var. marxianus NRRLy2415 which exhibits a wide range of mean morphological forms was used as a model organism to investigate the role of cell morphology on the dead-end and crossflow filtration behaviour. Varying the culturing conditions produced cell suspensions of different mean morphology. Batch fermentations were used to produce yeast-like morphologies and continuous cultures produced cells more mycelial in nature. Semi-automated image analysis was...

  18. Symptomatic hyponatremia during glomerular filtration rate testing

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Hyponatremia affects nearly one in five of all hospitalized patients. Severe hyponatremia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and is therefore important to recognize. Prior reports have linked duloxetine with hyponatremia, but it is uncommon. In this case report, we describe a research subject taking duloxetine who developed severe symptomatic hyponatremia during glomerular filtration rate testing despite having undergone such testing uneventfully in the past.

  19. Depletion of brain histamine produces regionally selective protection against thiamine deficiency-induced lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; McRee, Robert Carter; Nalwalk, Julia A; Hough, Lindsay B

    2002-09-01

    Breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the subsequent accumulation of free radicals, lactate, and glutamate appear to be the immediate causes of thiamine deficiency (TD)-induced damage to thalamus. The mechanisms triggering these events are unknown but recent evidence suggests an important role of histamine. We therefore studied the effects of histamine depletion on thalamic lesions in the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficient (PTD) rat. Chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v., 7 days) infusion of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), combined with bilateral ibotenate destruction of the histamine-containing neurons in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus and bolus i.c.v. infusion of 48/80, a potent mast cell degranulating agent, was used to deplete brain histamine levels. PTD rats receiving combined FMH + 48/80 + TM lesions developed acute neurological symptoms, including spontaneous seizures, approximately 1 day earlier than PTD rats treated with i.c.v. infusion of vehicle and sham lesions of the TM. When examined 1 week after restoration of thiamine, the PTD vehicle + sham lesion animals contained severe neuronal loss and gliosis in midline, intralaminar, ventral, lateral, and posterior nuclei. PTD animals treated with FMH + 48/80 + TM lesions had little evidence of neuronal loss or microglial proliferation in thalamus except in the gelatinosus and anteroventral nuclei, in which there was complete neuronal loss. These data demonstrate a significant and regionally selective role of histamine in the development of thalamic lesions in a rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy. Furthermore, these data suggest either a dissociation between seizures and thalamic lesions or a significant role of histamine in seizure-related damage to the thalamus.

  20. Pinocembrin Protects Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Fibrillar Amyloid- β1−40 Injury by Suppressing the MAPK/NF- κ B Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ peptides in Alzheimer’s disease (AD may contribute to disease progression through Aβ-induced microvascular endothelial pathogenesis. Pinocembrin has been shown to have therapeutic effects in AD models. These effects correlate with preservation of microvascular function, but the effect on endothelial cells under Aβ-damaged conditions is unclear. The present study focuses on the in vitro protective effect of pinocembrin on fibrillar Aβ1−40 (fAβ1−40 injured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs and explores potential mechanisms. The results demonstrate that fAβ1−40-induced cytotoxicity in hBMECs can be rescued by pinocembrin treatment. Pinocembrin increases cell viability, reduces the release of LDH, and relieves nuclear condensation. The mechanisms of this reversal from Aβ may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response, involving inhibition of MAPK activation, downregulation of phosphor-IKK level, relief of IκBα degradation, blockage of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, and reduction of the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Pinocembrin does not show obvious effects on regulating the redox imbalance after exposure to fAβ1−40. Together, the suppression of MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathways play a significant role in the anti-inflammation of pinocembrin in hBMECs subjected to fAβ1−40. This may serve as a therapeutic agent for BMEC protection in Alzheimer’s-related deficits.

  1. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  2. Nanofiber filter media for air filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bharath Kumar

    Nanofibers have higher capture efficiencies in comparison to microfibers in the submicron particle size range of 100-500 nm because of small fiber diameter and increased surface area of the fibers. Pressure drop across the filter increases tremendously with decrease in fiber diameter in the continuum flow regime. Nanofibers with fiber diameter less than 300 nm are in the slip flow regime as a consequence of which steep increase in pressure drop is considerably reduced due to slip effect. The outlet or inlet gases have broad range of particle size distribution varying from few micrometers to nanometers. The economic benefits include capture of a wide range of particle sizes in the gas streams using compact filters composed of nanofibers and microfibers. Electrospinning technique was used to successfully fabricate polymeric and ceramic nanofibers. The nanofibers were long, continuous, and flexible with diameters in the range of 200--300 nm. Nanofibers were added to the filter medium either by mixing microfibers and nanofibers or by directly electrospinning nanofibers as thin layer on the surface of the microfiber filter medium. Experimental results showed that either by mixing Nylon 6 nanofibers with B glass fibers or by electrospinning Nylon 6 nanofibers as a thin layer on the surface of the microfiber medium in the surface area ratio of 1 which is 0.06 g of nanofibers for 2 g of microfibers performed better than microfiber filter media in air filtration tests. This improved performance is consistent with numerical modeling. The particle loading on a microfibrous filter were studied for air filtration tests. The experimental and modeling results showed that both pressure drop and capture efficiency increased with loading time. Nanofiber filter media has potential applications in many filtration applications and one of them being hot gas filtration. Ceramic nanofibers made of alumina and titania nanofibers can withstand in the range of 1000°C. Ceramic nanofibers

  3. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  4. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  5. Study on the application of starch derivatives as the regulators of potassium drilling fluids filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Rupinski, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Zbigniew K.; Uliasz, Malgorzata

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives of starch, such as graft copolymer of acrylamide onto starch, carbamoylethylated starch, carbamoylethyl-dihydroxypropylated starch, and dihydroxypropylated starch have been tested for their properties as components of drilling fluids used for clay inhibition and for the regulation of their rheology. The influence of modified starch and their blends with tylose as protective agents in the filtration of drilling fluids, as well as replacement of tylose, by modified starch w...

  6. Protection of Momordica charantia polysaccharide against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through JNK3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Li, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Su-Hua, Qi

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented that Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) has multiple biological effects such as immune enhancement, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. However, the potential protective effects of MCP on stroke damage and its relative mechanisms remain unclear. Our present study demonstrated that MCP could scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intra-cerebral hemorrhage damage, significantly attenuating the neuronal death induced by thrombin in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that MCP prevented the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3), c-Jun and caspase-3, which was caused by the intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury. Taken together, our study demonstrated that MCP had a neuroprotective effect in response to intra-cerebral hemorrhage and its mechanisms involved the inhibition of JNK3 signaling pathway.

  7. Aluminium-induced imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant determinants in brain regions of female rats: protection by centrophenoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehru, Bimla; Bhalla, Punita

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of centrophenoxine in modulating aluminium-induced neurotoxicity. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered aluminium chloride orally (40 mg/kg b.w./day) for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of respective treatment, various markers of oxidative stress were determined in four different regions of brain: cerebrum cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and hypothalamus. Lipid peroxidation assay was also carried out using standard techniques. Simultaneously, the centrophenoxine group (100 mg/kg b.w./day) for 6 weeks was also run long to understand the role in ameliorating oxidative damage. A significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase was noticed in all the four regions, the most significant being in the hypothalamus (0.603 +/- .06) and cerebrum (0.038 +/- .01). Due to aluminium toxicity, peroxidation of lipids was also found to be elevated in cerebrum (0.424 +/- .03), cerebellum (0.341 +/- .03), hypothalamus (1.018 +/- .007), and medulla oblongata (0.304 +/- .05). However, posttreatment with centrophenoxine significantly elevated the superoxide and catalase activities in different regions. In addition, lipid peroxidation status of membranes was significantly reduced after centrophenoxine posttreatment to aluminium-exposed animals. Centrophenoxine has proved to be beneficial in combating the damage caused by aluminium toxicity. However, further research is needed to have a better understanding of the molecular basis of aluminium-induced oxidative damage. In addition, the different aspects of centrophenoxine need to be unmasked.

  8. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Knockdown Blocks the Angiogenic and Protective Effects of Angiotensin Modulation After Experimental Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Alhusban, Ahmed; Ishrat, Tauheed; Pillai, Bindu; Eldahshan, Wael; Waller, Jennifer L; Ergul, Adviye; Fagan, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to be neuroprotective and neurorestorative in experimental stroke. The mechanisms proposed include anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic effects, as well as stimulation of endogenous trophic factors leading to angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. We aimed to investigate the involvement of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in ARB-mediated functional recovery after stroke. To achieve this aim, Wistar rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral particles or nontargeting control (NTC) vector, to knock down BDNF in both hemispheres. After 14 days, rats were subjected to 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and received the ARB, candesartan, 1 mg/kg, or saline IV at reperfusion (one dose), then followed for another 14 days using a battery of behavioral tests. BDNF protein expression was successfully reduced by about 70 % in both hemispheres at 14 days after bilateral shRNA lentiviral particle injection. The NTC group that received candesartan showed better functional outcome as well as increased vascular density and synaptogenesis as compared to saline treatment. BDNF knockdown abrogated the beneficial effects of candesartan on neurobehavioral outcome, vascular density, and synaptogenesis. In conclusion, BDNF is directly involved in candesartan-mediated functional recovery, angiogenesis, and synaptogenesis.

  9. The protective effect of erdosteine on short-term global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerol, Elif; Bilgic, Sedat; Iraz, Mustafa; Cigli, Ahmet; Ilhan, Atilla; Akyol, Omer

    2009-02-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that free radicals play a major role on neuronal injury during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Erdosteine is a thioderivative endowed with mucokinetic, mucolytic and free-radical-scavenging properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of erdosteine treatment against short-term global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The study was carried out on Wistar rats divided into four groups. (i) Control group, (ii) ischemia/reperfusion group, (iii) ischemia/reperfusion+erdosteine group, and (iv) erdosteine group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analysed in erythrocyte and plasma of rats. Plasma NO levels were significantly higher in the ischemia/reperfusion group than the other groups. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased, while TBARS levels increased in the ischemia/reperfusion group compared to other groups in both plasma and erythrocyte. The erythrocyte CAT activity was higher in erdosteine group and there was a statistically significant increase, when compared with the erdosteine plus ischemia/reperfusion group. By treating the rats with erdosteine, the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and increase of TBARS and NO levels were prevented. This study, therefore, suggests that erdosteine reduces parameters of oxidative stress is well supported by the data.

  10. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  11. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Jakir; Islam, Saiful

    2016-01-01

    Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots) extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414 ± 12 ng/g of extract) and phytochemicals such as total polyphenols (12.0 ± 1.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract) and flavonoids (11.0 ± 1.4 mg catechin equivalent/g of extract). The antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed by its DPPH- (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-) free radical scavenging activity where we observed that germosprout extract had considerable antioxidative potentials. To evaluate antihemolytic effect of the extract, freshly prepared erythrocytes were incubated with either peroxynitrite or Fenton's reagent in the absence or presence of the extract. We observed that erythrocytes pretreated with the extract exhibited reduced degree of in vitro hemolysis. To support the proposition that germosprout extract could act as a good antioxidative agent, we also induced in vitro oxidative stress in erythrocyte membranes and in the aorta, brain, heart, and liver tissue homogenates in the presence of the extract. As expected, germosprout extract decreased oxidative stress almost to the same extent as that of vitamin E, as measured by lipid peroxide levels, in all the mentioned tissues. We conclude that rice germosprout extract could be a good natural source of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress-induced hemolysis and damage of blood vessels and other tissues. PMID:27413391

  12. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdat Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414±12 ng/g of extract and phytochemicals such as total polyphenols (12.0±1.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract and flavonoids (11.0±1.4 mg catechin equivalent/g of extract. The antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed by its DPPH- (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- free radical scavenging activity where we observed that germosprout extract had considerable antioxidative potentials. To evaluate antihemolytic effect of the extract, freshly prepared erythrocytes were incubated with either peroxynitrite or Fenton’s reagent in the absence or presence of the extract. We observed that erythrocytes pretreated with the extract exhibited reduced degree of in vitro hemolysis. To support the proposition that germosprout extract could act as a good antioxidative agent, we also induced in vitro oxidative stress in erythrocyte membranes and in the aorta, brain, heart, and liver tissue homogenates in the presence of the extract. As expected, germosprout extract decreased oxidative stress almost to the same extent as that of vitamin E, as measured by lipid peroxide levels, in all the mentioned tissues. We conclude that rice germosprout extract could be a good natural source of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress-induced hemolysis and damage of blood vessels and other tissues.

  13. Measured performance of filtration and ventilation systems for fine and ultrafine particles and ozone in an unoccupied modern California house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Black, Douglas R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration produced indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors. Supply ventilation with MERV13 filtration provided slightly less protection whereas supply MERV16 filtration reduced PM2.55 by 97-98% relative to outdoors. Supply filtration systems used little energy but provided no benefits for indoor-generated particles. Systems with MERV13-16 filters in the recirculating heating and cooling unit (FAU) operating continuously or 20 min/h reduced PM2.5 by 93-98%. Across all systems, removal percentages were higher for ultrafine particles and lower for black carbon, relative to PM2.5. Indoor ozone was 3-4% of outdoors for all systems except an electronic air cleaner that produced ozone. Filtration via the FAU or portable filtration units lowered PM2.5 by 25-75% when operated over the hour following cooking. The energy for year-round operation of FAU filtration with an efficient blower motor was estimated at 600 kWh/year.

  14. Transfer and transport of aluminum in filtration unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum salt coagulants were used prevalently in various water works. In this article, the effects of filtration on residual aluminum concentration and species distribution were researched by determining the concentration of different Aluminum species before and after single layer filter, double layer filter, and membrane filtration units. In the research, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to separate colloidal and soluble aluminum, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) was used to separate organic and inorganic aluminum, and inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the aluminum concentration. The results showed that the rapid filtration process had the ability of removing residual aluminum from coagulant effluent water, and that double layer filtration was more effective in residual aluminum removal than single layer filtration, while Nano filtration was more effective than micro filtration. It was found that when the residual aluminum concentration was below 1mg/L in sediment effluent, the residual aluminum concentration in treated water was above 0.2 mg/L. The direct rapid filtration process mainly removed the suspended aluminum. The removal of soluble and colloidal aluminum was always less than 10% and the natural small particles that adsorbed the amount of soluble or small particles aluminum on their surface were difficult to be removed in this process. Micro filtration and nano filtration were good technologies for removing aluminum; the residual aluminum concentration in the effluent was less than 0.05 mg/L.

  15. Protective Effect of Isoflurane and Sevoflurane on Ischemic Neurons and Expression of Bcl-2 and ICE Genes in Rat Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the protective effect of volatile anesthetics, isoflurane and sevoflurane, on ischemic neurons after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods Rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was developed by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and bilateral common carotid arteries (CCAs) 1 h after reperfusion. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and Northern blot hybridization, we calculated the number of apoptotic bodies and detected the expression of bcl-2 mRNA and interleukin-1 β converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA. Results The apoptotic bodies in hippocampus analyzed by FCM peaked at appeared 24 h after reperfusion, and decreased about 54% and 40%, respectively,after treatment with isoflurane and sevoflurane, as compared with ischemic group. There was no significant difference in the expression of bcl-2 mRNA and ICE mRNA between the inhaled anesthetic groups and ischemic group in hippocampus 24 hafter MCA/CCAs occlusion. Conclusion Isoflurane and sevoflurane partially inhibit apoptosis but have no significant effect on the expression of bcl-2 and ICE genes.

  16. Martingale representation property in progressively enlarged filtrations

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanblanc, M

    2012-01-01

    Consider $\\mathbb{G}$ the progressive enlargement of a filtration $\\mathbb{F}$ with a random time $\\tau$. Assuming that, in $\\mathbb{F}$, the martingale representation property holds, we examine conditions under which the martingale representation property holds also in $\\mathbb{G}$. It is noted that the classical results on this subject are no more sufficient to deal with all examples coming from credit risk modeling. In this paper, we introduce a new methodology which extends the various classical results and applies on recent examples.

  17. Evaluation of Some Biochemical Parameters and Brain Oxidative Stress in Experimental Rats Exposed Chronically to Silver Nitrate and the Protective Role of Vitamin E and Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroui, Mouna; Kechrid, Zine

    2016-01-01

    Due to undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to silver on certain biochemical and some oxidative stress parameters with histopathological examination of brain, as well as the possible protective role of selenium and/or vitamin E as nutritional supplements. Thirty six male rats were divided into six groups of six each: the first group used as a control group. Group II given both vitamin E (400 mg/kg) of diet and selenium (Se) (1 mg/L) in their drinking water. Group III given silver as silver nitrate (AgNO3) (20 mg/L). Group IV given vitamin E and AgNO3. Group V given both AgNO3 and selenium. Group VI given AgNO3, vitamin E and Se. The animals were in the same exposure conditions for 3 months. According to the results which have been obtained; there was an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipase activities and cholesterol level, a decrease in serum total protein, calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in Ag-intoxicated rats. Moreover, the findings showed that Ag+ ions affected antioxidant defense system by decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increasing vitamin E concentration with a high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain tissue. The histological examination also exhibited some nervous tissue alterations including hemorrhage and cytoplasm vacuolization. However, the co-administration of selenium and/or vitamin E ameliorated the biochemical parameters and restored the histological alterations. In conclusion, this study indicated that silver could cause harmful effects in animal body and these effects can be more toxic in high concentrations or prolonged time exposure to this metal. However, selenium and vitamin E act as powerful antioxidants which may exercise adverse effect against the toxicity of this metal.

  18. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB by 6-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester protects brain against injury in a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wanglin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated an inflammatory response associated with the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in cerebral ischemia have been documented. When screening natural compounds for drug candidates in this category, we isolated 6-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester (ND02, an iridoid glucoside compound, from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth. Kudo. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of ND02 on a cultured neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, in vitro, and on experimental ischemic stroke in vivo. Methods For TNF-α-stimulated SH-SY5Y cell line experiments in vitro, SH-SY5Y cells were pre-incubated with ND02 (20 μM or 40 μM for 30 min and then incubated with TNF-α (20 ng/ml for 15 min. For in vivo experiments, rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 23 h. Results ND02 treatment of SH-SY5Y cell lines blocked TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and IκB-α phosphorylation and increased Akt phosphorylation. LY294002 blocked TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of Akt and reduced the phosphorylation of both IκB-α and NF-κB. At doses higher than 10 mg/kg, ND02 had a significant neuroprotective effect in rats with cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R. ND02 (25 mg/kg demonstrated significant neuroprotective activity even after delayed administration 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after I/R. ND02, 25 mg/kg, attenuated histopathological damage, decreased cerebral Evans blue extravasation, inhibited NF-κB activation, and enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Conclusion These data show that ND02 protects brain against I/R injury with a favorable therapeutic time-window by alleviating cerebral I/R injury and attenuating blood-brain barrier (BBB breakdown, and that these protective effects may be due to blocking of neuronal inflammatory cascades through an Akt-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, L.D.; Marin, L.M.; Visscher, J.T.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF) in a multi-stage filtration (MSF) plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It s

  20. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Kattenbelt, Carolien; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump effici

  1. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by minimi

  2. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  3. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tailoring Supramolecular Nanofibers for Air Filtration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Skrybeck, Dominik; Misslitz, Holger; Nardini, David; Kern, Alexander; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2016-06-15

    The demand of new materials and processes for nanofiber fabrication to enhance the performance of air filters is steadily increasing. Typical approaches to obtain nanofibers are based on top-down processes such as melt blowing, centrifugal spinning, and electrospinning of polymer materials. However, fabrication of polymer nanofibers is limited with respect to either a sufficiently high throughput or the smallest achievable fiber diameter. This study reports comprehensively on a fast and simple bottom-up process to prepare supramolecular nanofibers in situ inside viscose/polyester microfiber nonwovens. Here, selected small molecules of the materials class of 1,3,5-benzenetrisamides are employed. The microfiber-nanofiber composites exhibit a homogeneous nanofiber distribution and morphology throughout the entire nonwoven scaffold. Small changes in molecular structure and processing solvent have a strong influence on the final nanofiber diameter and diameter distribution and, consequently, on the filtration performance. Choosing proper processing conditions, microfiber-nanofiber composites with surprisingly high filtration efficiencies of particulate matter are obtained. In addition, the microfiber-nanofiber composite integrity at elevated temperatures was determined and revealed that the morphology of supramolecular nanofibers is maintained compared to that of the utilized polymer nonwoven.

  5. Renal filtration function in patients with gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study circadian blood pressure (BP profile in patients with gout depending on the presence of arterial hypertension (HT and their relationship to the renal filtration function.Material and methods. Patients with gout (n=87 were included into the study. All the patients underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM with the assessment of circadian BP profile, determination of uric acid serum levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR was evaluated by CKD-EPI method. Depending on GFR level, all the patients were divided into 2 groups - with renal dysfunction or without one.Results. ABPM revealed circadian BP dysregulation in 55% of gout patients both with HT and without HT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was revealed in 72.4% of male patients, with the prevalence in patients with HT (76.6 vs 61%; p<0.001. Correlations between uric acid levels and some ABPM indicators and GFR were determined.Conclusion. Obtained data suggest the contribution of hyperuricemia in disorders of systemic and renal hemodynamics, leading to the early development of CKD.

  6. Riverbed Clogging and Sustainability of Riverbank Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grischek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration (RBF sites in field tests and using an analytical solution. Results were compared with data from similar experiments in the early 1970s and 1991–1993. In the 1980s, severe river water pollution in conjunction with high water abstraction led to partly unsaturated conditions beneath the riverbed. A leakage coefficient L of 5 × 10−7 s−1 was determined. After water quality improvement, L increased to 1–1.5 × 10−6 s−1. An alternative, cost and time efficient method is presented to estimate accurate leakage coefficients. The analytical solution is based on groundwater level monitoring data from observation wells next to the river, which can later feed into numerical models. The analytical approach was able to reflect long-term changes as well as seasonal variations. Recommendations for its application are given based on experience.

  7. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S. [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-long; Meng, Jun; Li, Gui-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. The physicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bed filtration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemical forces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the microflocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and the experimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoretical prediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that the regulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of the physicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate the interaction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  9. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  10. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Wastewater is usually treated biologically, and a by-product from this treatment is waste-activated sludge with high water content. Sludge is therefore often filtrated to reduce the volume for handling and disposal, and to minimise the water content before incineration of the sludge. However...... a function of pressure as assumed when using the conventional models. Moreover, it is shown how the existing filtration models can be modified and the filtration process for activated sludge simulated....

  11. Analysis of fouling development under dynamic membrane filtration operation

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mubashir; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Spagni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This research is a contribution towards evaluating the appropriate fouling mechanism responsible for the flux decline under dynamic membrane (DM) filtration and its formation mechanism by using gravity-driven filtration in a specifically designed experimental setup. Series of extended short term filtration experiments were performed at varying operating conditions of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations, trans-membrane pressures (TMP) and mesh pore sizes. Blocking models were a...

  12. Removal of cytomegalovirus DNA from donor blood by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; Cobain, T; Dunstan, R A

    1993-04-01

    Blood from five donors, previously shown to be positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, was filtered through commercially available leucocyte filters. Analysis of pre- and post-filtration samples by PCR with ethidium bromide staining has shown that filtration was successful in removing CMV DNA from all samples. This is evidence that leucocyte filtration of red cell concentrates may greatly decrease the risk of CMV disease following transfusion to susceptible patients.

  13. The abolishment of anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by timely protection of mitochondria in the developing rat brain: the importance of free oxygen radicals and mitochondrial integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, A; Starr, JA; Sanchez; Lunardi, N; DiGruccio, MR; Ori, C; Erisir, A; Trimmer, P; Bennett, J; Jevtovic-Todorovic

    2011-01-01

    Early exposure to general anesthesia (GA) causes developmental neuroapoptosis in the mammalian brain and long-term cognitive impairment. Recent evidence suggests that GA also causes functional and morphological impairment of the immature neuronal mitochondria. Injured mitochondria could be a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, if not scavenged in timely fashion, may cause excessive lipid peroxidation and damage of cellular membranes. We examined whether early exposure to GA results in ROS upregulation and whether mitochondrial protection and ROS scavenging prevent GA-induced pathomorphological and behavioral impairments. We exposed 7-day-old rats to GA with or without either EUK-134, a synthetic ROS scavenger, or R(+) pramipexole (PPX), a synthetic aminobenzothiazol derivative that restores mitochondrial integrity. We found that GA causes extensive ROS upregulation and lipid peroxidation, as well as mitochondrial injury and neuronal loss in the subiculum. As compared to rats given only GA, those also given PPX or EUK-134 had significantly downregulated lipid peroxidation, preserved mitochondrial integrity, and significantly less neuronal loss. The subiculum is highly intertwined with the hippocampal CA1 region, anterior thalamic nuclei, and both entorhinal and cingulate cortices; hence, it is important in cognitive development. We found that PPX or EUK-134 co-treatment completely prevented GA-induced cognitive impairment. Because mitochondria are vulnerable to GA-induced developmental neurotoxicity, they could be an important therapeutic target for adjuvant therapy aimed at improving the safety of commonly used GAs. PMID:22198380

  14. rAAV-mediated delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes neurite outgrowth and protects neurodegeneration in focal ischemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yu, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zichao; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Luran; Zhao, Jiexu

    2011-06-20

    Stroke is one of the neurological diseases which lead to permanently neuronal damage after temporary or long-term occlusion of vessels or after heart attack. However, there are few efficient strategies to prevent or treat this kind of insult in clinical because the consequence is irreversible and could be long-lasting after the onset of stroke. Gene therapy especially using viral system has long been addressed to be of great potential to reduce the damage. Here, we generated recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Cells infected with rAAV-BDNF could be able to produce functional BDNF which promoted neurite outgrowth and protected neurons from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Further more, single injection of rAAV showed neuroprotection against cell death in focal ischemic model. These results showed that rAAV-mediated gene delivery is functional, which shed light to the future application of viral system-based gene therapy in clinical.

  15. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Water purification technologies such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles, or so-called diffusiophoresis. Due to the large diffusion potential built up by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Our findings suggest a means to separate particles without membranes or filters, thus reducing operating and maintenance costs. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits very low pressure drop and is essentially free from fouling.

  16. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  17. Pattern recognition using inverse resonance filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Sofina, Olga; Kvetnyy, Roman

    2010-01-01

    An approach to textures pattern recognition based on inverse resonance filtration (IRF) is considered. A set of principal resonance harmonics of textured image signal fluctuations eigen harmonic decomposition (EHD) is used for the IRF design. It was shown that EHD is invariant to textured image linear shift. The recognition of texture is made by transfer of its signal into unstructured signal which simple statistical parameters can be used for texture pattern recognition. Anomalous variations of this signal point on foreign objects. Two methods of 2D EHD parameters estimation are considered with the account of texture signal breaks presence. The first method is based on the linear symmetry model that is not sensitive to signal phase jumps. The condition of characteristic polynomial symmetry provides the model stationarity and periodicity. Second method is based on the eigenvalues problem of matrices pencil projection into principal vectors space of singular values decomposition (SVD) of 2D correlation matrix....

  18. Gravity filtration of suspensions: permeability effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Wang, Mengyu; Ward, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the filtration rates of mono-modal suspensions as a function of time and a cake layer builds up through theory and experimentation. Darcy's Law, which describes fluid flow through porous media, was applied along with the Kynch theory of sedimentation, which provides the basis for analyzing low concentration (ϕ filter media. A CCD camera was used to capture images of the cake formation and fluid drainage processes, and subsequent image and theoretical analysis found the fluid flow experienced a constant pressure loss due to the permeability of the filter media, whereas the experienced pressure loss due to the cake formation varies as a function of time, ϕ and d. The rate of cake formation was also found to be independent of ϕ but dependent on d which can be attributed to a change in porosity affecting permeability. Studies on similar systems with multi-modal suspensions are in-progress.

  19. [Role of sodium cromoglycate in brain protection and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ning; Gan, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Hu-Yu; He, Zi-Qing

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the role of sodium cromoglycate in brain protection and its effects on brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) expressions after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in gerbils. Twenty-four healthy male gerbils were randomized into 3 equal groups, namely the sham-operated group with isolation of the bilateral carotid arteries but without occlusion, IR injury model group with bilateral carotid artery occlusion, and sodium cromoglycate treatment group with bilateral carotid artery occlusion and sodium cromoglycate administration at 25 mg/kg via the lingual vein as soon as the reperfusion start with another dose 1 h later. The animals were then sacrificed and the thalamus were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and sliced for observation under light microscope with HE staining. The rest brain tissues were prepared into homogenate to determine the content of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The right hemispheres of the gerbils were measured for wet weight and dry weight to calculate the water content in the brain. The water content in the brain of the gerbils in the model group was the highest among the groups, and that in sodium cromoglycate treatment group was significantly less than that of the model group (PIR injury possibly by lowering the TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in the brain tissues.

  20. Investigations into the fouling mechanism of parvovirus filters during filtration of freeze-thawed mAb drug substance solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James G; Kahn, David; Cetlin, David; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2014-03-01

    Filtration to remove viruses is one of the single most expensive steps in the production of mAb drug products. Therefore, virus filtration steps should be fully optimized, and any decline in flow rates warrants investigation into the causes of such membrane fouling. In the current study, it was found that freezing and thawing of a mAb bulk drug solution caused a substantial decrease in viral filter membrane flow rate. Freezing and thawing also caused formation of aggregates and particles across a broad size range, including particles that could be detected by microflow imaging (≥1 μm in size). However, removal of these particles offered little protection against flow rate decline during viral filtration. Further investigation revealed that trace amounts of aggregates (ca. 10⁻⁶ of the total mass of protein in solution) approximately 20-40 nm in size were primarily responsible for the observed membrane fouling.

  1. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: protective effects of myo-inositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-10-01

    The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of the expression of the Nrf2, Maf G1 (rather than Maf G2 gene) and PKCd genes, suggesting that de novo synthesis of those factors is required for the protracted induction of such antioxidant genes. However, the modulation of Keap1a (rather than Keap1b) of fish brain under Cu exposure might be used to turn off of the signaling cascade and avoid harmful effects. Interestingly, pre-treatment of fish with MI prevented the fish brain

  2. Transient cooling during early reperfusion attenuates delayed edema and infarct progression in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat. Distribution and time course of regional brain temperature change in a model of postischemic hypothermic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasako, Toshiaki; Zhao, Liang; Pulsinelli, William A; Nowak, Thaddeus S

    2007-12-01

    The temperature threshold for protection by brief postischemic cooling was evaluated in a model of transient focal ischemia in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat, using an array of epidural probes to monitor regional brain temperatures. Rats were subjected to 90 mins tandem occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and common carotid artery. Systemic cooling to 32 degrees C was initiated 5 mins before recirculation, with simultaneous brain cooling to temperatures ranging from 28 degrees C to 32 degrees C within the MCA territory by means of a temperature-controlled saline drip. Rewarming was initiated at 2 h recirculation and was complete within 30 mins. Tissue damage and edema volume showed clear temperature-dependent reductions when evaluated at 3 days survival, with no protection evident in the group at 32 degrees C but progressive effects on both parameters after deeper cooling. A particularly striking effect was the essentially complete elimination of edema progression between 1 and 3 days. Temperature at distal sites within the MCA territory better predicted reductions in lesion volume, indicating that protection required effective cooling of the penumbral regions destined to be spared. These results show that even brief cooling can be highly protective when initiated at the time of recirculation after focal ischemia, but indicate a substantially lower temperature threshold for hypothermic protection than has been reported for other strains, occlusion methods, and cooling durations.

  3. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  4. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more.

  5. Analysis of the Medium Resistance for Constant Pressure Filtration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕翔; 王碧玉

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model for constant pressure filtration is established. The distribution of hydraulic pressure within the cake and the medium resistance are measured. The medium resistance Rm is calculated from the suppositional filtration time Ore. It is demonstrated that Rm is nearly a constant for a given filter cloth.

  6. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  7. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  8. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly stringen

  9. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly

  10. Simulation of impaction filtration by a porous filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, B.J.; Stolz, S.; Winkelmann, C.; Vafai, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new numerical approach for estimating filtration through porous media from first principles. We numerically simulate particle motion as arises in a carrier gas flow. The filtration we look at occurs due to impaction of particles with obstructing surfaces that are contained in the solid

  11. Model and optimization of electromagnetic filtration of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Golak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic buoyancy force causes the movement of non-conducive particles in a conducting liquid under electromagnetic field. The phenomenon allows filtration of small inclusions from molten metals. This paper presents a mathematical model of the filtration process under alternating electromagnetic field and the methodology for maximizing its efficiency.

  12. Riverbank filtration in China: A review and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Teng, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zuo, Rui; Li, Jiao; Chen, Haiyang

    2016-10-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) for water supplies is used widely throughout the world because it guarantees a sustainable quantity and improves water quality. In this study, the development history and the technical overview of RBF in China are reviewed and summarized. Most RBF systems in China were constructed using vertical wells, horizontal wells, and infiltration galleries in flood plains, alluvial fans, and intermountain basins. Typical pollutants such as NH4+, pathogens, metals, and organic materials were removed or diluted by most RBF investigated. There have recently been many investigations of the interaction between groundwater and surface water and biogeochemical processes in RBF. Comprehensive RBF applications should include not only the positive but also negative effects. Based on a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages, the perspectives of China's RBF technology development were proposed. To protect the security of water supply, China's RBF systems should establish a management system, monitoring system and forecasting system of risk. Guidelines of RBF construction and management should also be issued on the basic of relevant fundamental investigations such as climate influence, clogging, and purification mechanism of water-quality improvement.

  13. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-long; MENG Jun; LI GUI-ping; LUAN Zhao-kun; TANG Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. Thephysicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bedfiltration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemicalforces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the micro-flocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and theexperimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoreticalprediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that theregulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of thephysicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate theinteraction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  14. Long-term changes in brain cholinergic system and behavior in rats following gestational exposure to lead: protective effect of calcium supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Chand D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6–21 of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure. Male offspring treated with Pb showed marginal alterations in developmental landmarks such as unfolding of pinnae, lower and upper incisor eruption, fur development, eye slit formation and eye opening on postnatal day (PND 1, whereas significant alterations were found in the righting reflex (PNDs 4–7, slant board behavior (PNDs 8–10 and forelimb hang performance (PNDs 12–16. Biochemical analysis showed decrease in synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and an increase in acetylcholine (ACh levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus on PND 14, PND 21, PND 28 and in the four-month age group of rats following Pb exposure. Significant deficits were also observed in total locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and open field behavior in selected age groups of Pb-exposed rats. These alterations were found to be maximal on PND 28, corresponding with the greater blood lead levels observed on PND 28. Addition of 0.02% Ca to Pb reversed the Pb-induced impairments in the cholinergic system as well as in behavioral parameters of rats. In conclusion, these data suggest that gestational exposure to Pb is able to induce long-term changes in neurological functions of offspring. Maternal Ca administration reversed these neurological effects of Pb later in life, suggesting a protective effect of

  15. Screening culture filtrates of fungi for activity against Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Viera, A.; Stchigel, A. M.; Sorribas, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    Culture filtrates of 20 fungi isolated from citrus soils were screened for their activity against Tylenchulus semipenetrans in both in vitro and greenhouse tests. The filtrates of Talaromyces cyanescens (isolates 2-4 and 2-5), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Chaetomium robustum, Acremonium strictum, Engyodontium album, Myrothecium verrucaria, Emericella rugulosa, and Tarracomyces gigaspora consistently inhibited the motility of second-stage juveniles at various concentrations of the filtrate. Dose-response models were used to determine the filtrate concentration required to inhibit the motility of 50% of the juveniles (CI50). The culture filtrate of P. lilacinus showed the highest activity with a CI50 value of 58% that differed from that of C. robustum (CI50 = 68%), and A. strictum CI50 = 82%. The culture filtrates of P. lilacinus, E. album, and T. cyanescens 2-5 maintained their activity when autoclaved at 120 degree centigrade for 20 min. The autoclaved filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4 was more effective at inhibiting juvenile motility (CI50 = 28%) than that of T. cyanescens 2-5 (CI50 = 80%), C. robustum (CI50 = 72 %) and P. lilacinus (CI50 = 72%). The culture filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4 also inhibited egg hatching. Nematode reproduction on Cleopatra mandarin and Carrizo citrange were respectively reduced by the culture filtrate of P. lilacinus and the autoclaved filtrate of T. cyanescens 2-4. These results support the hypothesis that soil fungi may contribute to regulate nematode densities by the production of secondary metabolites with nematicidal activity. (Author) 30 refs.

  16. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Hu, Kai [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Li, Shu-Hong [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: xqzhouqq@tom.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  17. 循证护保性药物治疗颅脑损伤%Evidence-based protection medicine therapy of brain injured patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道佩; 零达尚

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Reviews the domestic and foreign protection medicine treatment brain to injure the patient foresightedness stochastic double blind clinical research, for soon develops the similar province scientific research to set up a topic to prepare. METHODS Draws support specialized database: Cochrane in library homepage RCT database (E-maail:Injuries@shtm.Ac.Uk), wanfang databases digitization periodical, Qinghuatongfang CHKD periodical entire library. In the comparison, the induction carries on the analysis with in the extract related content foundation. RESULTS Collects overseas to has completed with the medicine treatment brain injure medicine treatment related system appraises 6; domestic related memoir 3, translation 3, special course 6. Domestic related memoir demonstration, The hydrochloride naloxone, the magnesium ion, the glycerol and fructose and so on injure the patient to the brain to be effective; But overseas has completed in more than 200 clinical multi- central stochastic double blind foresightedness research, The unusual medicine was confirmed injures the patient to the brain to have the affirmation the curative effect. CONCLUSION Some many factors disturbance clinical research effect. Improves this kind of research the methodology is removes the disturbance factor the effective method. Must observe the principle below this kind of clinical research process:(1) Must be the stochastic double blind foresightedness clinical research;(2) The clinical treatment must standardize;(3) Collects the clinical material to have objective to be strict;(4) Is clear about the medicine effective treatment window;(5) Is clear about the medicine to organize the Chinese native medicine density and the security in sickness human brain;(6) GOS ( Glasgow Outcome Scale) to take the curative effect judgment primary standard;(7) Wound latter 6 months achievement curative effect judgment time.%目的复习国内外保护性药物治疗颅脑损伤病人前瞻性随机双盲

  18. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Bedell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  19. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  20. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2016-12-30

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  1. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Garasto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at reviewing age-related changes in kidney structure and function, methods for estimating kidney function, and impact of reduced kidney function on geriatric outcomes, as well as the reliability and applicability of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in older patients. CKD is associated with different comorbidities and adverse outcomes such as disability and premature death in older populations. Creatinine clearance and other methods for estimating kidney function are not easy to apply in older subjects. Thus, an accurate and reliable method for calculating eGFR would be highly desirable for early detection and management of CKD in this vulnerable population. Equations based on serum creatinine, age, race, and gender have been widely used. However, these equations have their own limitations, and no equation seems better than the other ones in older people. New equations specifically developed for use in older populations, especially those based on serum cystatin C, hold promises. However, further studies are needed to definitely accept them as the reference method to estimate kidney function in older patients in the clinical setting.

  2. Pulmonary interstitial compliance and microvascular filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H S

    1980-08-01

    Static and dynamic properties governing the fluid movement into the pulmonary interstitium were examined in isolated canine lobes. The system was driven by altering intravascular presure (Piv) when the lobe was isogravimetric (change in weight (W) = 0) and allowing the lobe to become isogravimetric again. By making use of an analogy to charging a capacitor across a resistor, calculation of the filtration coefficient for transvascular fluid movement (KF) and determination of the pressure-volume relationship of the pulmonary interstitial space (Pis-Vis), with a minimum of untested assumptions, was possible. KF was found to be the same for fluid moving out of or into the intravascular space, and when the relationship between Piv and alveolar pressure (PAlv) was constant, KF was independent of transpulmonary pressure (PL). When PAlv exceeded Piv, changes in Piv did not influence KF, suggesting no significant change in either surface area available for fluid transudation or vascular permeability. The Pis-Vis curve for increasing values of Vis and Pis is best described by an exponential relationhip and is independent of PL. However, the Pis-Vis curve with decreasing values of Vis and Pis is dependent on PL.

  3. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Joseph A; Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rholfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  4. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  5. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  6. Herbal Extract Incorporated Nanofiber Fabricated by an Electrospinning Technique and its Application to Antimicrobial Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongan; Yang, Byeong Joon; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-18

    Recently, with the increased attention to indoor air quality, antimicrobial air filtration techniques have been studied widely to inactivate hazardous airborne microorganisms effectively. In this study, we demonstrate herbal extract incorporated (HEI) nanofibers synthesized by an electrospinning technique and their application to antimicrobial air filtration. As an antimicrobial herbal material, an ethanolic extract of Sophora flavescens, which exhibits great antibacterial activity against pathogens, was mixed with the polymer solution for the electrospinning process. We measured various characteristics of the synthesized HEI nanofibers, such as fiber morphology, fiber size distribution, and thermal stability. For application of the electrospun HEI nanofibers, we made highly effective air filters with 99.99% filtration efficiency and 99.98% antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The pressure drop across the HEI nanofiber air filter was 4.75 mmH2O at a face air velocity of 1.79 cm/s. These results will facilitate the implementation of electrospun HEI nanofiber techniques to control air quality and protect against hazardous airborne microorganisms.

  7. THE STUDY OF THE FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF FILTER MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Ruiqing; Wang Luping; Wu Xueping

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the course of the filtration is analyzed.In order to study the filtration efficiency of the filter material, the computer program was edited.According to the results of the computer program, some important parameters of the filter material are discussed.It shows that the filtration efficiency is closely related to the diameter (d) and the size (b).In addition, by using these results and the computer program, we can analysis the relationship between the fiber structure and filter properties quantitatively.

  8. Additive Difference Schemes for Filtration Problems in Multilayer Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ayrjan, E A; Pavlush, M; Fedorov, A V

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper difference schemes for solution of the plane filtration problem in multilayer systems are analyzed within the framework of difference schemes general theory. Attention is paid to splitting the schemes on physical processes of filtration along water-carring layers and vertical motion between layers. Some absolutely stable additive difference schemes are obtained the realization of which needs no software modification. Parallel algorithm connected with the solving of the filtration problem in every water-carring layer on a single processor is constructed. Program realization on the multi-processor system SPP2000 at JINR is discussed.

  9. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  10. Identification of three elicitins and a galactan-based complex polysaccharide from a concentrated culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans efficient against Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubeau, Guillaume; Gaillard, Fanny; Legentil, Laurent; Nugier-Chauvin, Caroline; Ferrières, Vincent; Andrivon, Didier; Val, Florence

    2014-09-26

    The induction of plant immunity by Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) constitutes a powerful strategy for crop protection. PAMPs indeed induce general defense responses in plants and thus increase plant resistance to pathogens. Phytophthora infestans culture filtrates (CCFs) are known to induce defense responses and decrease the severity of soft rot due to Pectobacterium atrosepticum in potato tubers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the active compounds from P. infestans filtrate. The filtrate was fractionated by gel filtration, and the protection effects against P. atrosepticum and the ability to induce PAL activity were tested for each fraction. The fraction active in protection (F1) also induced PAL activity, as did the whole filtrate. Three elicitins (INF1, INF4 and INF5) were identified in F1b, subfraction of F1, by MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS analyses. However, deproteinized F1b still showed biological activity against the bacterium, revealing the presence of an additional active compound. GC-MS analyses of the deproteinized fraction highlighted the presence of a galactan-based complex polysaccharide. These experiments demonstrate that the biological activity of the CCF against P. atrosepticum results from a combined action of three elicitins and a complex polysaccharide, probably through the activation of general defense responses.

  11. Identification of Three Elicitins and a Galactan-Based Complex Polysaccharide from a Concentrated Culture Filtrate of Phytophthora infestans Efficient against Pectobacterium atrosepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Saubeau

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The induction of plant immunity by Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs constitutes a powerful strategy for crop protection. PAMPs indeed induce general defense responses in plants and thus increase plant resistance to pathogens. Phytophthora infestans culture filtrates (CCFs are known to induce defense responses and decrease the severity of soft rot due to Pectobacterium atrosepticum in potato tubers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the active compounds from P. infestans filtrate. The filtrate was fractionated by gel filtration, and the protection effects against P. atrosepticum and the ability to induce PAL activity were tested for each fraction. The fraction active in protection (F1 also induced PAL activity, as did the whole filtrate. Three elicitins (INF1, INF4 and INF5 were identified in F1b, subfraction of F1, by MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS analyses. However, deproteinized F1b still showed biological activity against the bacterium, revealing the presence of an additional active compound. GC-MS analyses of the deproteinized fraction highlighted the presence of a galactan-based complex polysaccharide. These experiments demonstrate that the biological activity of the CCF against P. atrosepticum results from a combined action of three elicitins and a complex polysaccharide, probably through the activation of general defense responses.

  12. Filtration performance of microporous ceramic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouatek, Aissa; Ouagued, Abdellah; Belhakem, Mustapha; Addou, Ahmed

    2008-04-24

    The use of inorganic membranes in pollution treatment is actually limited by the cost of such membranes. Advantages of inorganic membranes are their chemical, thermal and pH properties. The purpose of this work was the development of microporous ceramic materials based on clay for liquid waste processing. The supports or ceramic filters having various compositions were prepared and thermally treated at 1100 degrees C. The results show that, at the temperature studied, porosity varied according to the support composition from 12% for the double-layered (ceramic) support to 47% for the activated carbon- filled support with a mean pore diameter between 0.8 and 1.3 microm, respectively. Volumes of 5 l of distilled water were filtered tangentially for 3 h under an applied pressure of 3.5 and 5.5 bar. The retention of tubular supports prepared was tested with molecules of varying size (Evans blue, NaCl and Sacharose). The study of the liquid filtration and flow through these supports showed that the retention rate depends on support composition and pore diameter, and solute molecular weight. The S1 support (mixture of barbotine and 1% (w/w) activated carbon) gave a flux for distilled water of 68 L/m2 h while the double-layered support resulted in a flux of 8 L/m2 h for the same solution at the pressure of 3.5 bar. At a pressure of 5.5 bar an increase in the distilled water flux through the various supports was observed. It was significant for the S1 support (230 L/m h).

  13. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  14. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  15. Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghelle, Daniel; Slungaard, Torbjørn; Sønju, Otto K

    2007-06-18

    High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration is comparable to those of bag filters. The granular filter can operate with high filtration velocities compared to bag filters and maintain high efficiency and a low residual pressure. This work is a part of the BioSOFC-up project that has a goal of utilizing the producer gas from the gasification plant in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The BioSOFC-up project will continue to the end of 2007.

  16. Effect of lithium therapy on glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, P; Oliver, J A; Sciacca, R R; Colt, E; Fieve, R R

    1983-08-01

    Patients taking lithium had a slightly higher serum creatinine concentration than controls. Creatinine concentration was independent of lithium level or therapy length, suggesting that lithium decreases glomerular filtration but that this effect is small, noncumulative, and of marginal clinical significance.

  17. Performance of multistage filtration using different filter media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of multistage filtration using different filter media against conventional water treatment systems. ... horizontal flow roughing filter (HRF)) as an alternative water treatment technology to the conventional one. A pilot- ... Article Metrics.

  18. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Membrane filtration technologies have emerged as cost competitive and viable techniques in drinking and industrial water production. Despite advancements in membrane manufacturing and technology, membrane scaling and fouling remain major problems and may limit future growth in the industry. Scaling

  19. Advanced treatment of WWTP effluent with filtration leading to a pretreatment technique for membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrenberg, S M; te Kloeze, A M; Janssen, A N; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2010-01-01

    In 2000 the European Union introduced the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The aim of the WFD is having an ecological and chemical balance for all surface waters in Europe in 2015. The European Commission identified 33 priority substances and their maximum allowable concentrations, FHI-values (Fraunhofer Institute), which are specified in the Annex of the WFD. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of suspended solids, nitrogen and total phosphorus together with priority substances. All these substances will be removed in one filter called a "One Step Total Effluent Polishing filter" i.e. 1-STEP(®) filter. For this purpose a filter pilot plant was tested at the WWTP Horstermeer. The results show that the filter can fulfil the target values in the filtrate water for total nitrogen (2.2 mg Ntotal/L) and total phosphorus (0.15 mg Ptotal/L). The majority of the priority (hazardous) substances in the WWTP effluent are already below the detection limit. Due to the low concentration ranges, the results on the removal of medicine and pesticides are only indicative. A decreasing tendency in the removal efficiency is shown for all measured compounds. The average specific ultrafiltration resistance (SUR) value decrease of the filter is 55% and the final value is always below 5·10(12) m(-2). This indicates that the filtrate water of the filter is very well filterable and can be used as ultrafiltration feedwater.

  20. Propofol post-conditioning protects the blood brain barrier by decreasing matrix metalloproteinase-9 and aquaporin-4 expression and improves the neurobehavioral outcome in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Feng-Tao; Liang, Jian-Jun; Miao, Li-Ping; Wu, Qiang; Cao, Ming-Hui

    2015-08-01

    Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic, inhibits neuronal apoptosis induced by ischemic stroke, protects the brain from ischemia/reperfusion injury and improves neuronal function. However, whether propofol is able to protect the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the underlying mechanisms have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established, using a thread embolism to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion. Rats were treated with propofol (propofol post-conditioning) or physiological saline (control) administered by intravenous injection 30 min following reperfusion. Twenty-four hours following reperfusion, neurobehavioral manifestations were assessed. The levels of cephaloedema, damage to the BBB and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (pJNK) were determined in order to evaluate the effects of propofol on the BBB. In comparison to the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, the levels of brain water content and Evans blue content, as well as the expression levels of MMP-9, AQP-4 and pJNK were significantly reduced in the propofol post-conditioning group. These results indicated that propofol post-conditioning improved the neurobehavioral manifestations and attenuated the BBB damage and cephaloedema induced following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. This effect may be due to the inhibition of MMP-9 and AQP-4 expression, and the concurrent decrease in JNK phosphorylation.

  1. Effect of Nanofibers on Spore Penetration and Lunar Dust Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Phil Gibson, Ph.D.; Heidi Schreuder-Gibson, Ph.D.; Robert Stote; Margaret Roylance, Ph.D.; Cathy Capone; Masami Nakagawa, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    The results of two separate studies on biological spore penetration and simulated lunar dust filtration illustrate the use of nanofibers in some nonstandard filtration applications (nanofibers are generally defined as having diameters of less than a micron). In the first study, a variety of microporous liners containing microfibers and nanofibers were combined with cotton-based fabrics in order to filter aerosolized spores. The aerosol penetration resistance of the nanofiber-lined fabrics was...

  2. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  3. Pesticide removal by combined ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Since the seventies, new water treatment processes have been introduced in the production of drinking water from surface water. Their major aim was to adequately cope with the disinfection of this water, and/or with the removal of pesticides and other organic micropollutants from it. This research focused on Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filtration, which is a combination of ozonation and GAC filtration. Its general goal was identification and understanding of the mechanisms that underlie...

  4. Filtration ATF in automatic transmissions (AT) of cars

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Dziubak; Paweł Szczepaniak

    2014-01-01

    Functions and conditions of work of suction ATF filters are presented. Requirements ofATF filters are discussed. Sources of contaminations ATF are presented. ATF filtration system wascharacterized. Classification of ATF filters and their selection of design solutions are presented. Filtermaterials used for the production of ATF suction filters are presented and characterized. Conditions ofthe work of suction ATF filters were analyzed. Hydraulic and filtration characteristics are discussed.[b]...

  5. Sampling Rate Independent Filtration Approach for Automatic ECG Delineation

    CERN Document Server

    Chereda, Hryhorii; Tymoshenko, Yury

    2016-01-01

    In this paper different types of ECG automatic delineation approaches were overviewed. A combination of these approaches was used to create sampling rate independent filtration algorithm for automatic ECG delineation that is capable of distinguishing different morphologies of T and P waves and QRS complexes. Created filtration algorithm was compared with algorithme \\`a trous. It was investigated that continuous wavelets transform with proposed automatic adaptation for different sampling rates procedure can be used for delineation problem.

  6. Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

  7. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  8. C*-Algebras over Topological Spaces: Filtrated K-Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    We define the filtrated K-theory of a C*-algebra over a finite topological space X and explain how to construct a spectral sequence that computes the bivariant Kasparov theory over X in terms of filtrated K-theory. For finite spaces with totally ordered lattice of open subsets, this spectral sequence becomes an exact sequence as in the Universal Coefficient Theorem, with the same consequences for classification. We also exhibit an example where filtrated K-theory is not yet a complete invariant. We describe a space with four points and two C*-algebras over this space in the bootstrap class that have isomorphic filtrated K-theory but are not KK(X)-equivalent. For this particular space, we enrich filtrated K-theory by another K-theory functor, so that there is again a Universal Coefficient Theorem. Thus the enriched filtrated K-theory is a complete invariant for purely infinite, stable C*-algebras with this particular spectrum and belonging to the appropriate bootstrap class.

  9. Potent protection of Danshensu(β-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid)against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy on developing mouse fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingen Shen; Lijian Yu; Rundi Ma; Yongping Zhang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Juanzhi Fang; Tingxi Yu

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that ferulic acid[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid]and sodium ferulate produce protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in adult mice.Danshensu(β-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid)has a similar molecular structure and pharmacological action to caffeic acid.This study aimed to validate the protection conferred by Danshensu against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at late stages of pregnancy in the developing mouse fetal brain.Behavioral tests,as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of hippocampi were performed in filial mice.Results revealed that maternal intragastric administration of excessive monosodium glutamate(1.0,2.0,4.0 g/kg body weight)at a late stage of pregnancy resulted in a series of behavioral disorders(hyperactivity,lesions of learning and memory,and disturbance in cooperation of movement ability under high-altitude stress),histopathological impairment(neuronal edema,degeneration,necrosis,and hyperplasia)and molecular cellular biological changes(upregulated expression of N-methyI-D-aspartate receptor type 1 and neuropeptide Y in the hippocampal region of the brain of the filial mice from mothers treated with monosodium glutamate).Simultaneous administration of sodium Danshensu partially reversed the effects of monosodium glutamate on the above mentioned phenomena.These findings indicate that sodium Danshensu exhibits obvious protective effects on the excitotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.

  10. PREPARATION MICRO-FILTRATION CERAMIC MEMBRANE FROM NATURAL ZEOLITE FOR PROCION RED MX8B AND METHYLENE BLUE FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Choiriyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of ceramic membrane fabrication from natural zeolite and its utilization for filtration of procion red MX8B and methylene blue has been investigated. The purposes of this study are to determine the effect of pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity and utilize natural zeolite as ceramic membranes procion red MX8B and methylene blue filtration. The membrane was prepared by metide press pellets and then calcined at 850 oC. The membranes were characterized by mechanical test, flux and rejection of dye. The compression test of the membrane found the values of 1369.178 psi in dry conditions to 1388.933 psi in wet conditions. The flux test found that the higher the pressure applied, the flux was increase. However, the high pressure also decreased the selectivity. Rejection test found that the rejection of methylene blue filtration up to 70 %. Meanwhile, procion red MX8B filtration has rejectivity less than 20 %.

  11. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  13. A comparison of facemask and respirator filtration test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Shaffer, Ronald; Williams, Brandon; Smit, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    NIOSH published a Federal Register Notice to explore the possibility of incorporating FDA required filtration tests for surgical masks (SMs) in the 42 CFR Part 84 respirator certification process. There have been no published studies comparing the filtration efficiency test methods used for NIOSH certification of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFRs) with those used by the FDA for clearance of SMs. To address this issue, filtration efficiencies of "N95 FFRs" including six N95 FFR models and three surgical N95 FFR models, and three SM models were measured using the NIOSH NaCl aerosol test method, and FDA required particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) and bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) methods, and viral filtration efficiency (VFE) method. Five samples of each model were tested using each method. Both PFE and BFE tests were done using unneutralized particles as per FDA guidance document. PFE was measured using 0.1 µm size polystyrene latex particles and BFE with ∼3.0 µm size particles containing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. VFE was obtained using ∼3.0 µm size particles containing phiX 174 as the challenge virus and Escherichia coli as the host. Results showed that the efficiencies measured by the NIOSH NaCl method for "N95 FFRs" were from 98.15-99.68% compared to 99.74-99.99% for PFE, 99.62-99.9% for BFE, and 99.8-99.9% for VFE methods. Efficiencies by the NIOSH NaCl method were significantly (p = PFE, BFE, and VFE methods produced no significant difference. The above results show that the NIOSH NaCl method is relatively conservative and is able to identify poorly performing filtration devices. The higher efficiencies obtained using PFE, BFE and VFE methods show that adding these supplemental particle penetration methods will not improve respirator certification.

  14. Protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lirong Jin; Zhen Hong; Chunjiu Zhong; Yang Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease have solely focused on in vivo animal models. Because of the number of influencing factors, it has been difficult to determine a consistent outcome. OBJECTIVE: To establish an injury model in brain slices of substantia nigra and striatum using 1-methyl-4-phenylpytidinium ion (MPP+), and to investigate the effect of MSCs on dopaminergic neurons following MPP+ induced damage.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An in vitro, randomized, controlled, animal experiment using immunohistochemistry was performed at the Laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, Fudan University between January 2004 and December 2006.MATERIALS: Primary MSC cultures were obtained from femurs and tibias of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Organotypic brain slices were isolated from substantia nigra and striatum of 1-day-old Sprague Dawley rat pups. Monoclonal antibodies for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, 1:5 000) were from Santa Cruz (USA); goat anti-rabbit IgG antibodies labeled with FITC were from Boster Company (China).METHODS: Organotypic brain slices were cultured for 5 days in whole culture medium supplemented with 50% DMEM, 25% equine serum, and 25% Tyrode's balanced salt solution. The medium was supplemented with 5 μg/mL Ara-C, and the culture was continued for an additional 5 days. The undergrowth of brain slices was discarded at day 10. Eugonic brain slices were cultured with basal media for an additional 7 days. The brain slices were divided into three groups: control, MPP+ exposure, and co-culture. For the MPP+ group, MPP+ (30 μmol/L) was added to the media at day 17 and brain slices were cultured for 4 days, followed by control media. For the co-culture group, the MPP+ injured brain slices were placed over MSCs in the well and were further cultured for 7 days.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After 28 days in culture, neurite outgrowth was examined in the brain slices under phase

  15. Protective effect of L-Theanine against aluminium induced neurotoxicity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain - histopathological, and biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Thangarajeswari, Mohan; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    L-Theanine is an amino acid derivative primarily found in tea. It has been reported to promote relaxation and have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the status of antioxidant system in the management of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced brain toxicity in various rat brain regions and further to elucidate the potential role of L-Theanine in alleviating such negative effects. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation and the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with L-Theanine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane bound enzymes and also decreased the level of LPO and the activities of marker enzymes, when compared with aluminium induced rats. Aluminium induction also caused histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat brain which was reverted by pretreatment with L-Theanine. The present study clearly indicates the potential of L-Theanine in counteracting the damage inflicted by aluminium on rat brain regions.

  16. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of secondary energy failure and protects brain in neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Charlagorla, Pradeep; Matsukevich, Dzmitry A; Sosunov, Sergey A; Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Ratner, Veniamin I; Polin, Richard A; Starkov, Anatoly A; Ten, Vadim S

    2012-02-01

    Reperfusion triggers an oxidative stress. We hypothesized that mild hypoxemia in reperfusion attenuates oxidative brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In neonatal HI-mice, the reperfusion was initiated by reoxygenation with room air (RA) followed by the exposure to 100%, 21%, 18%, 15% oxygen for 60 minutes. Systemic oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain mitochondrial respiration and permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, markers of oxidative injury, and cerebral infarcts were assessed. Compared with RA-littermates, HI-mice exposed to 18% oxygen exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume, oxidative injury in the brain mitochondria and tissue. This was coupled with improved mitochondrial tolerance to mPTP opening. Oxygen saturation maintained during reperfusion at 85% to 95% was associated (r=0.57) with the best neurologic outcome. Exposure to 100% or 15% oxygen significantly exacerbated brain injury and oxidative stress. Compared with RA-mice, hyperoxia dramatically increased reperfusion CBF, but exposure to 15% oxygen significantly reduced CBF to values observed during the HI-insult. Mild hypoxemia during initial reperfusion alleviates the severity of HI-brain injury by limiting the reperfusion-driven oxidative stress to the mitochondria and mPTP opening. This suggests that at the initial stage of reperfusion, a slightly decreased systemic oxygenation (SaO(2) 85% to 95%) may be beneficial for infants with birth asphyxia.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ...

  1. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Yawno, Tamara; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2013-10-24

    In the research, clinical, and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however, this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical, and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form teratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  2. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  3. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  4. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  5. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  6. Enhancement of fine particle filtration with efficient humidification☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Zhang; Weidong Zhang; Zhengyu Yang; Junteng Liu; Fushen Yang; Ning Li; Le Du⁎

    2016-01-01

    Filtration is one of the most effective methods to remove suspended fine particles from air. In filtration processes, pressure drop of compact dust cake causes problems in efficiency and economy, which has received increasing at-tention and stil remains chal enging. In this study, we developed a novel technique to intensify the filtration of fine particles with efficient humidification. Two strategies for humidification, including ultrasonic atomization and steam humidification (control ing of ambient humidity), were employed and proved to be both effective. The re-generation frequency of the filter could be reduced by 55%with ultrasonic atomization, while steam humidification could lead to a 78%reduction in regeneration frequency. The effect of operating conditions on pressure drop and the mass loading during filtration were investigated. The dust cake showed a loose and porous structure with an opti-mized droplet-to-particle ratio. With the ratio of 1.53 and 0.0282, the maximum mass loading was 552 g·m−2 upon the ultrasonic atomization and 720 g·m−2 upon the steam humidification. The results show that humidification could slow down the increase of pressure drop during filtration and improve the efficiency of process.

  7. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta and the glomerular filtration barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ghayur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of chronic kidney disease worldwide and recent advancements in the understanding of pathologic events leading to kidney injury have opened up new potential avenues for therapies to further diminish progression of kidney disease by targeting the glomerular filtration barrier and reducing proteinuria. The glomerular filtration barrier is affected by many different metabolic and immune-mediated injuries. Glomerular endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane, and podocytes—the three components of the filtration barrier—work together to prevent the loss of protein and at the same time allow passage of water and smaller molecules. Damage to any of the components of the filtration barrier can initiate proteinuria and renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is a pleiotropic cytokine strongly associated with the fibrogenic response. It has a known role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In this review we will highlight what is known about TGF-β and how it interacts with the components of glomerular filtration barrier and causes loss of function and proteinuria.

  9. Effect of Nanofibers on Spore Penetration and Lunar Dust Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Gibson, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of two separate studies on biological spore penetration and simulated lunar dust filtration illustrate the use of nanofibers in some nonstandard filtration applications (nanofibers are generally defined as having diameters of less than a micron. In the first study, a variety of microporous liners containing microfibers and nanofibers were combined with cotton-based fabrics in order to filter aerosolized spores. The aerosol penetration resistance of the nanofiber-lined fabrics was measured, and some analysis was conducted of where the particles are captured within the fabric layers. Testing was conducted with aerosolized living spores, in order to evaluate the efficacy of various fabric treatments on spore viability within the fabric layers after exposure. Reported are the results of studies on fabrics with and without a removable electrospun nanofiber liner, and the fate of the spores within the fabric layers. In the second study, non-instrumented filtration testing using simulated lunar dust determined the comparative filtration efficiency of various nonwoven filtration media. Nanofiber witness media, combined with scanning electron microscope images, showed that an electrospun nonwoven filter layer effectively filtered out all the large and fine particles of the simulated lunar dust.

  10. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  11. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethys-mography of supine health male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n equals 6) and during placebo infusion (n equals 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 plus or minus 4 to 2,568 plus or minus 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion; mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3 percent respectively, relative to pre-infusion baseline values (p is less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20 percent with ANP infusion, wheras blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, phamacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  12. A high-affinity, dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95 bivalently interacts with PDZ1-2 and protects against ischemic brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders*; Clausen, Bettina H; Møller, Magda;

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of the ternary protein complex of the synaptic scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a potential strategy for treating ischemic brain damage, but high-affinity inhibitors...

  13. Tamoxifen mediated estrogen receptor activation protects against early impairment of hippocampal neuron excitability in an oxygen/glucose deprivation brain slice ischemia model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huaqiu; Xie, Minjie; Gary P. Schools; Feustel, Paul F.; Wang, Wei; Lei, Ting; Kimelberg, Harold K.; Zhou, Min

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment of ovarectomized rats with estrogen shows long-term protection via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). However, it remains unknown whether activation of the ER can provide protection against early neuronal damage when given acutely, we simulated ischemic conditions by applying oxygen and glucose deprived (OGD) solution to acute male rat hippocampal slices and examined the neuronal electrophysiological changes. Pyramidal neurons and interneurons showed a time-dependent membr...

  14. Filtration des fluides de forage à travers les parois du puits - Bibliographie Filtration of Drilling Fluids Through Borehole Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce document résume un certain nombre de données déjà publiées, relatives à la filtration du fluide de forage, de l'annulaire vers les formations traversées, durant l'approfondissement du puits. On considère : - d'une part, les phénomènes de filtration : . le long des parois (filtration dynamique durant les périodes de circulation - filtration statique durant les arrêts, . sous l'outil ; - d'autre part, certaines de leurs conséquences, en particulier leur influence : . sur la vitesse d'avancement, . sur les risques de coincement de la garniture par pression différentielle, . sur l'envahissement des zones poreuses et perméables. Les phénomènes et leurs conséquences dépendent de très nombreux facteurs dont certains jouent des rôles d'importance très voisine. Leurs études nécessitent des moyens expérimentaux bien adaptés, permettant une simulation suffisamment rigoureuse des conditions de forage. Les résultats ne peuvent être généralisés et doivent être exprimés en fonction des paramètres opératoires choisis. This article reviews varions data which have already been published and which concern the filtration of drilling fluid from the annular space into the formations crossed through during the drilling of a borehole. The following aspects are considered: (i filtration phenomena along borehole walls (dynamic filtration during circulation, and static filtration during shutdowns and underneath the bit; (ii some of the consequences of this filtration, and especially its influence on the rate of penetration, on risks of drill string sticking as the result of differential pressure, and on the invasion of porous and permeable zones. Such phenomena and their consequences depend on a great many factor, some which play roles of quite similar importance. Resaerch on such phenomena requires well suited experimental facilities enabling the sufficiently cllose simulation of drilling conditions. the results of such research

  15. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma.

  16. The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

    2003-07-01

    The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF KIESELGUHR FILTRATION ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Looks of beer is an important factor which is associated with high clarity. Clarity of beer is a basic precondition of its good marketability and consumer satisfaction. Beer filtration is ideal tool to create required optical properties. There is a high accent on this operation in brewery and minibrewery. The process of filtering removes unwanted haze-active substances in order to increase clarity and overall stability of beer. Objective method to expressing clarity of beer is nephelometric determination of turbidity, which is highly sensitive and achieved by reliable results directly in the units used to express the turbidity values in beer. The objective of our study was to measure haze before and after filtration in various types of beer with different length of lagering. Kieselguhr was used as filtration material. Haze of beer was measured by haze meter in determination under 2 angles and values were expressed in European Brewery Convention units directly.

  18. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  19. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jezierska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. This article demonstrates the possibilities of using study on the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation in aqueous solutions to develop a new method for determining the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. Based on the measurements of absorbance of ascorbic acid a new parameters WCW (Coeffi cient of Water Purity and SF (Filtration Degree were defined. Correlations between the SF and the amount of filtered water (filter usage were investigated. With the filter usage decreasing effectiveness of calcium ions removal and drop of differences in conductivity between the tap and filtered water were observed. SF decreases proportionally to the filter usage and therefore the proposed method can be an effective tool to determine the effectiveness of domestic water filters.

  20. The renal handling of hemoglobin. I. Glomerular filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, H F; Esham, W T; Bull, R W

    1969-05-01

    The glomerular filtration of hemoglobin (alpha(2)beta(2)) was studied under conditions in which its dissociation into alphabeta dimers was experimentally altered. Rats receiving hemoglobin treated with the sulfhydryl reagent bis(N-maleimidomethyl) ether (BME) showed a much lower renal excretion and prolonged plasma survival as compared with animals injected with untreated hemoglobin. Plasma disappearance was also prolonged in dogs receiving BME hemoglobin. Gel filtration data indicated that under physiological conditions, BME hemoglobin had impaired subunit dissociation. In addition, BME hemoglobin showed a very high oxygen affinity and a decreased rate of auto-oxidation. Glomerular filtration was enhanced under conditions which favor the dissociation of hemoglobin into dimers. Cat hemoglobin, which forms subunits much more extensively than canine hemoglobin, was excreted more readily by the rat kidney. The renal uptake of (59)Fe hemoglobin injected intra-arterially into rabbits varied inversely with the concentration of the injected dose.

  1. Deashing of coal liquids by sonically assisted filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomka, B.J.

    1994-10-01

    This project seeks to improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of coal liquefaction by novel applications of sonic and ultrasonic energy. The specific purpose of this project is to develop and improve means for the economical removal of dispersed solid particles of ash, unreacted coal, and spent catalyst from direct and indirect coal liquefaction resids by using sonic or ultrasonic waves. Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. Direct coal liquefaction processes generate liquid products which contain solids including coal-originated mineral matter, unreacted coal, and spent dispersed catalyst. The removal of these solids from a product stream is one of the most difficult problems in direct coal liquefaction processes. On this report, results are discussed for sonically assisted crossflow filtration of V-1067 resid, diluted with No. 2 fuel oil, and sonically assisted batch filtrations of solids concentrates from continuous cross-flow filtration experiments.

  2. A novel insight into membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration: Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qian; Zhang, Meijia; Shen, Liguo; Li, Renjie; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-09-15

    This study linked the chemical potential change to high specific filtration resistance (SFR) of gel layer, and then proposed a novel membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration, namely, Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism. A mathematical model for this mechanism was theoretically deduced. Agar was used as a model polymer for gel formation. Simulation of the mathematical model for agar gel showed that volume fraction of polymer and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were the two key factors governing the gel SFR, whereas, pH and ionic strength were not related with the gel SFR. Filtration tests of gel layer showed that the total SFR value, effects of pH and ionic strength on the gel SFR well agreed with the perditions of model's simulation, indicating the real occurrence of this mechanism and the feasibility of the proposed model. This mechanism can satisfactorily explain the extremely high SFR of gel layer, and improve fundamental insights into membrane fouling regarding gel layer filtration.

  3. A novel insight into membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration: Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qian; Zhang, Meijia; Shen, Liguo; Li, Renjie; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-09-01

    This study linked the chemical potential change to high specific filtration resistance (SFR) of gel layer, and then proposed a novel membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration, namely, Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism. A mathematical model for this mechanism was theoretically deduced. Agar was used as a model polymer for gel formation. Simulation of the mathematical model for agar gel showed that volume fraction of polymer and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were the two key factors governing the gel SFR, whereas, pH and ionic strength were not related with the gel SFR. Filtration tests of gel layer showed that the total SFR value, effects of pH and ionic strength on the gel SFR well agreed with the perditions of model’s simulation, indicating the real occurrence of this mechanism and the feasibility of the proposed model. This mechanism can satisfactorily explain the extremely high SFR of gel layer, and improve fundamental insights into membrane fouling regarding gel layer filtration.

  4. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  5. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  6. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...

  7. Depot effect of bioactive components in experimental membrane filtrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, D.; Peshev, D.; Peev, G.; Peeva, L.

    2017-01-01

    Depot effects were found to be accompanying phenomena of membrane separation processes. Accumulation of target species in the membrane matrix during feasibility tests can hamper proper conclusions or compromise the filtration results. Therefore, we investigated the effects of delayed membrane release of chlorogenic acid and caffeine, considered as key compounds of interest in spent coffee products’ recovery treatment. Permeate fluxes and key components release were studied in course of 24 hours via nanofiltration of pure solvent, both immediately after the mock solution filtration and after idle stay. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations advised for proper analysis of experimental data on membrane screening.

  8. Filtration ATF in automatic transmissions (AT of cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Dziubak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functions and conditions of work of suction ATF filters are presented. Requirements ofATF filters are discussed. Sources of contaminations ATF are presented. ATF filtration system wascharacterized. Clas