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Sample records for filtration process evaluation

  1. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  2. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-long; Meng, Jun; Li, Gui-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. The physicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bed filtration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemical forces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the microflocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and the experimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoretical prediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that the regulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of the physicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate the interaction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  3. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-long; MENG Jun; LI GUI-ping; LUAN Zhao-kun; TANG Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. Thephysicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bedfiltration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemicalforces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the micro-flocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and theexperimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoreticalprediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that theregulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of thephysicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate theinteraction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING THE FILTRATE DISTILLERY DREGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various factors affecting the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs are investigated. Rational conditions for the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs in a spray dryer are obtained.

  5. A Study on Enhancement of Filtration Process with Filter Aids Diatomaceous Earth and Wood Pulp Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都丽红; 陈旭; 李文苹; 朱企新

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a study to enhance the filtration for solid/liquid materials difficult to be filtered, such as highly viscous, highly compactible or gel like materials, is presented. Filter aids diatomaceous earth and wood pulp cellulose are used to enhance the filtration by improving filter cake structure and properties in the filtration of a biological health product and a highly viscous chemical fiber polymer melt product. The property of solid/liquidsystems, filtration at different flow rates, specitic cake resistance, cake wetness, filtration rate, filtrate turbidity for filter aid selection and evaluation, and operation optimization are investigated. The results are successfully applied to industrial process, .and can be used as a reference for similar filtration applications.

  6. Evaluation of Filtration and UV Disinfection for Inactivation of Viruses in Non-Community Water Systems in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated filtration and disinfection processes for removal and inactivation of pathogens in non-community water systems (NCWS) in two surface water supplies. Pretreatment systems included 1) pressure sand filtration, and 2) granular activated carbon adsorption, and 3...

  7. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  8. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, S N; Imamura, Y; Tsuchiya, F; Ohsato, K

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270 degrees C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  10. Culture: A Filtration Process during Communication in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Rudi

    This paper focuses on the filtration process of culture during communication in education with reference to visual elements. An introduction provides a review of some communication models--graphic representations of theories that attempt to predict and explain the process of communication. These simple models are discussed: Aristotle's model of…

  11. Modelling Real World Using Stochastic Processes and Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available First we give an implementation in Mizar [2] basic important definitions of stochastic finance, i.e. filtration ([9], pp. 183 and 185, adapted stochastic process ([9], p. 185 and predictable stochastic process ([6], p. 224. Second we give some concrete formalization and verification to real world examples.

  12. Membrane device and process for mass exchange, separation, and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L.

    2016-11-15

    A membrane device and processes for fabrication and for using are disclosed. The membrane device may include a number of porous metal membranes that provide a high membrane surface area per unit volume. The membrane device provides various operation modes that enhance throughput and selectivity for mass exchange, mass transfer, separation, and/or filtration applications between feed flow streams and permeate flow streams.

  13. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  14. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  15. Evaluation of emerging factors blocking filtration of high-adjunct-ratio wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Zhu, Linjiang; Zheng, Feiyun; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2014-08-20

    Corn starch has become a common adjunct for beer brewing in Chinese breweries. However, with increasing ratio of corn starch, problems like poor wort filtration performance arise, which will decrease production capacity of breweries. To solve this problem, factors affecting wort filtration were evaluated, such as the size of corn starch particle, special yellow floats formed during liquefaction of corn starch, and residual substance after liquefaction. The effects of different enzyme preparations including β-amylase and β-glucanase on filtration rate were also evaluated. The results indicate that the emerging yellow floats do not severely block filtration, while the fine and uniform-shape corn starch particle and its incompletely hydrolyzed residue after liquefaction are responsible for filtration blocking. Application of β-amylase preparation increased the filtration rate of liquefied corn starch. This study is useful for our insight into the filtration blocking problem arising in the process of high-adjunct-ratio beer brewing and also provides a feasible solution using enzyme preparations.

  16. Membrane filters and membrane-filtration processes for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudailey, W A

    1983-11-01

    The development of membrane-filtration processes is reviewed, and current types and uses of membrane filtration in health care is discussed. Development of adequate support structures for filters and of disposable filtration devices has facilitated development of filtration processes for pharmaceutical industry, manufacturing in hospital pharmacies, and direct patient care. Hydrophobic filters have also been developed; aqueous solutions cannot wet the pore structures of these filters and therefore cannot pass. Sterility-testing systems have also been developed. There are two types of filters: depth (constructed of compacted fibers) and membrane (which have a homogeneous internal structure). Depth filters retain only a portion of particles in a particular size range and are generally not acceptable for use in health care. Membrane filters retain all particles of a given size. Types of membrane filters are selected for specific uses based on needed flow rates, particulate load, and retention capability. Membrane filters may be validated using bacterial-passage, bubble-point, and diffusion tests. Most membrane filters used in health care are microporous filters that retain particles in the 0.1-10-micron size range. Applications are currently being developed for ultrafilters, which retain both particles and substances with large molecular structures such as proteins, and reverse-osmosis filter membranes, which allow only water or water-miscible solvents of very low molecular weights to pass. Experience in engineering designs, quality assurance, and test procedures has led to the development of many safe, reliable, and effective membrane products for health care.

  17. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY PROCESS MODIFICATION TO COAGULATION/FILTRATION. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT LIDGERWOOD, ND. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Lidgerwood, North Dakota site. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of process modifications to an e...

  18. Development and evaluation of low cost honey heating-cum-filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Shafiq; Sharma, D K; Sehgal, V K; Arora, M; Bhatia, S

    2014-11-01

    A fully mechanized honey heating-cum-filtration system was designed, developed, fabricated and evaluated for its performance. The system comprised of two sections; the top heating section and the lower filtering section. The developed system was evaluated for its performance at different process conditions (25 kg and 50 kg capacity using processing condition: 50 °C heating temperature and 60 °C heating temperature with 20 and 40 min holding time, respectively) and it was found that the total time required for heating, holding and filtration of honey was 108 and 142 min for 25 kg and 50 kg capacity of machine, respectively, irrespective of the processing conditions. The optimum capacity of the system was found to be 50 kg and it involved an investment of Rs 40,000 for its fabrication. The honey filtered through the developed filtration system was compared with the honey filtered in a high cost honey processing plant and raw honey for its microbial and biochemical (reducing sugars (%), moisture, acidity and pH) quality attributes. It was observed that the process of filtering through the developed unit resulted in reduction of microbes. The microbiological quality of honey filtered through the developed filtration system was better than that of raw honey and commercially processed honey. The treatment conditions found best in context of microbiological counts were 60 °C temperature for 20 min. There was 1.97 fold reductions in the plate count and 2.14 reductions in the fungal count of honey processed through the developed filtration system as compared to the raw honey. No coliforms were found in the processed honey. Honey processed through developed unit witnessed less moisture content, acidity and more reducing sugars as compared to raw honey, whereas its quality was comparable to the commercially processed honey.

  19. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc. (United States)

    1996-08-15

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  20. Processamento e avaliação das propriedades de tubos cerâmicos porosos para microfiltração de emulsões Processing and evaluation of porous ceramics for micro filtration of emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Rosa

    2006-06-01

    from oil, and in the separation of proteins of the milk. The objective of this work is the production of porous ceramics tubes for fuel micro filtration. The first stage of the research was the production of porous ceramics by colloidal processing and evaluation of its final physical, fluid dynamic and mechanical properties. In a second stage the performance of these ceramic tubes during the micro filtration of fuel was analysed. The final properties of porous ceramics were evaluated according to the changes in the composition and sintering conditions. After firing, the ceramic tubes had their porosity in the range of 48 to 65%-vol, narrow distribution with pore diameters bellow than 1 µm and constants of Darcian (k1 and nonDarcian (k2 permeability of 10-15 m² and 10-11 m, respectively. These properties are similar to the commercial imported products and therefore these ceramics have a great potential of application in micro filtration processes.

  1. [Evaluation of preoperative anxiety in patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, S; Blumen-Ohana, E; Akesbi, J; Laplace, O; Nordmann, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety is often expressed by patients requiring filtration surgery for their glaucoma. So far, there has been no scale for screening this group of patients for preoperative anxiety. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-evaluation questionnaire which has been used in specialties other than ophthalmology and which makes it possible to identify the adult patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety over an upcoming surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to estimate the preoperative anxiety in glaucoma patients requiring filtration surgery. We performed a prospective study of 36 adult patients with chronic glaucoma not responding to medical treatment and who were about to undergo filtration surgery (trabeculectomy or deep sclerectomy). The APAIS questionnaire was given to the patients after discussing the indication for surgery. A global anxiety score (ranging from 4 to 20) above 10 defined patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety. We attempted to identify among these patients the factors related to filtration surgery which caused them anxiety (lack of control of intraocular pressure, risk of blindness, presence of the filtering bleb). In our sample of patients, we found that glaucoma was a source of anxiety. That was also true for the surgical procedure, though most patients believe that once the decision had been made, their psychological status was not modified by the upcoming procedure. The patient-clinician relationship is important in any chronic disease, all the more so in glaucoma, since this disease remains asymptomatic for a long time. When filtration surgery is necessary, the patients are going to express less preoperative anxiety if they trust their physician and if individualized information has been given to them The French version of the APAIS is a quick scale, easily completed, that can be recommended for evaluating anxiety and patients' need for information prior to filtering

  2. Ozone and membrane filtration based strategies for the treatment of cork processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, F. Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: javben@unex.es; Acero, Juan L.; Leal, Ana I.; Real, Francisco J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-03-21

    The degradation of the pollutant organic matter present in the cork processing wastewater was studied by combining chemical treatments, which used ozone and some Advanced Oxidation Processes, and membrane filtration procedures. Two schemes were conducted: firstly, a single ozonation stage followed by an UF stage; and secondly, a membrane filtration stage, using different MF and UF membranes, followed by a chemical oxidation stage, where ozone, UV radiation, and the AOPs constituted by ozone plus UV radiation and ozone plus hydrogen peroxide, were used. The membrane filtration stages were carried out in tangential filtration laboratory equipment, and the membranes used were two MF membranes with pores sizes of 0.65 and 0.1 {mu}m, and three UF membranes with molecular weights cut-off of 300, 10, and 5 kDa. The effectiveness of the different stages (conversions in the chemical procedures and rejection coefficients in the membrane processes) were evaluated in terms of several parameters which measure the global pollutant content of the wastewater: COD, absorbance at 254 nm, tannins content, color, and ellagic acid. In the ozonation/UF combined process the following removals were achieved: 100% for ellagic acid and color, 90% for absorbance at 254 nm, more than 80% for tannins, and 42-57% for COD reduction. In the filtration/chemical oxidation combined process, 100% elimination of ellagic acid, more than 90% elimination in color, absorbance at 254 nm and tannins, and removal higher than 80% in COD were reached, which indicates a greater purification power of this combination.

  3. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue

    2015-01-01

    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance.

  4. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  5. Evaluation of gravimetric techniques to estimate the microvascular filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2011-06-01

    Microvascular permeability to water is characterized by the microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)). Conventional gravimetric techniques to estimate K(f) rely on data obtained from either transient or steady-state increases in organ weight in response to increases in microvascular pressure. Both techniques result in considerably different estimates and neither account for interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. We therefore developed a theoretical framework to evaluate K(f) estimation techniques by 1) comparing conventional techniques to a novel technique that includes effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return, 2) evaluating the ability of conventional techniques to reproduce K(f) from simulated gravimetric data generated by a realistic interstitial fluid balance model, 3) analyzing new data collected from rat intestine, and 4) analyzing previously reported data. These approaches revealed that the steady-state gravimetric technique yields estimates that are not directly related to K(f) and are in some cases directly proportional to interstitial compliance. However, the transient gravimetric technique yields accurate estimates in some organs, because the typical experimental duration minimizes the effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. Furthermore, our analytical framework reveals that the supposed requirement of tying off all draining lymphatic vessels for the transient technique is unnecessary. Finally, our numerical simulations indicate that our comprehensive technique accurately reproduces the value of K(f) in all organs, is not confounded by interstitial storage and lymphatic return, and provides corroboration of the estimate from the transient technique.

  6. Suitability Evaluation of River Bank Filtration along the Second Songhua River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Second Songhua River is the biggest river system in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, the rapid economic development in this area has increased the prominence of water resources and water-related environmental problems; these include surface water pollution and the overexploitation of groundwater resources. Bank infiltration on the floodplains of the Second Songhua River is an important process of groundwater-surface water exchange under exploitation conditions. Understanding this process can help in the development of water resource management plans and strategies for the region. In this research, a multi-criteria evaluation index system was developed with which to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration along the Second Songhua River. The system was comprised of main suitability indexes for water quantity, water quality, the interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resources. The index system was integrated into GIS (Geographic Information System to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration (RBF in the study area was divided into five grades. Although the evaluation index system and evaluation method are applicable only to the Second Songhua River basin, the underlying principle and techniques it embodies can be applied elsewhere. For future generalization of the evaluation index system, the specific evaluation index and its scoring criteria should be modified appropriately based on local conditions.

  7. Removal of diclofenac by conventional drinking water treatment processes and granular activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of conventional drinking water treatment processes with and without pre-oxidation with chlorine and chlorine dioxide and the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration for the removal of diclofenac (DCF). Water treatment was performed using the Jar test with filters on a lab scale, employing nonchlorinated artesian well water prepared with aquatic humic substances to yield 20HU true color, kaolin turbidity of 70 NTU and 1mgL(-1) DCF. For the quantification of DCF in water samples, solid phase extraction and HPLC-DAD methods were developed and validated. There was no removal of DCF in coagulation with aluminum sulfate (3.47mgAlL(-1) and pH=6.5), flocculation, sedimentation and sand filtration. In the treatment with pre-oxidation and disinfection, DCF was partially removed, but the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was unchanged and byproducts of DCF were observed. Chlorine dioxide was more effective than chorine in oxidizing DCF. In conclusion, the identification of DCF and DOC in finished water indicated the incomplete elimination of DCF through conventional treatments. Nevertheless, conventional drinking water treatment followed by GAC filtration was effective in removing DCF (⩾99.7%). In the oxidation with chlorine, three byproducts were tentatively identified, corresponding to a hydroxylation, aromatic substitution of one hydrogen by chlorine and a decarboxylation/hydroxylation. Oxidation with chlorine dioxide resulted in only one byproduct (hydroxylation).

  8. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  9. The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-06-23

    or above, the ferrous sulfato tost was negative anc: tho ph«holdl»ulfoBlc’ IfSt test indicated Less than 100 ppm., of niträte ion in the distillates...to Ü.5). 5. With the exception of two of the early runs, when the pH of the filtrate waa 2.0 or abovt- the ferrous sulfato test in the distillate

  10. Relationships between the Processing Parameters of Melt Blown Nonwoven Fabric and Its Structure and Filtration Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莺; 王善元

    2001-01-01

    Based on the processing experiment and sodium flame test this paper deals with the relationship between processing parameters, structure, and filtration property of melt blown fabric. Through the image analysis of Questar micro-images in combination with the SEM observation and the measurement of some macrostructure indices, the relationship between the processing parameters and the structure especially the microstructure is emphasized Finally the effect of somestructure factors on filtration properties is discussed theoretically.

  11. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jezierska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. This article demonstrates the possibilities of using study on the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation in aqueous solutions to develop a new method for determining the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. Based on the measurements of absorbance of ascorbic acid a new parameters WCW (Coeffi cient of Water Purity and SF (Filtration Degree were defined. Correlations between the SF and the amount of filtered water (filter usage were investigated. With the filter usage decreasing effectiveness of calcium ions removal and drop of differences in conductivity between the tap and filtered water were observed. SF decreases proportionally to the filter usage and therefore the proposed method can be an effective tool to determine the effectiveness of domestic water filters.

  12. Detection of damage of a filter by visualization of filtration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with testing of filters on the basis of visualization of filtration process. A filtration material can be damaged by flow of the filtered medium, high pressure drop and long-term adverse conditions. These negative effects can cause extensive damage of the filtration textile and filtration efficiency decreases. The filter can be also fractured during manufacturing, processing or by improper manipulation. A testing of a purposely damaged filtration textile is described in the article. Experiments were performed on the filtration setup which permits an optical entrance to the position where a sample of filter is placed. A laser sheet is directed into this place. Scattered light from seeding particles in front of and behind the filter is captured by a digital camera. Images from the camera are analyzed and the filtration efficiency versus time and also versus position can be obtained. Measuring chain including light scattering theory and measuring of light intensity by a digital camera are also discussed in the article.

  13. Detection of damage of a filter by visualization of filtration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, P.; Šidlof, P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with testing of filters on the basis of visualization of filtration process. A filtration material can be damaged by flow of the filtered medium, high pressure drop and long-term adverse conditions. These negative effects can cause extensive damage of the filtration textile and filtration efficiency decreases. The filter can be also fractured during manufacturing, processing or by improper manipulation. A testing of a purposely damaged filtration textile is described in the article. Experiments were performed on the filtration setup which permits an optical entrance to the position where a sample of filter is placed. A laser sheet is directed into this place. Scattered light from seeding particles in front of and behind the filter is captured by a digital camera. Images from the camera are analyzed and the filtration efficiency versus time and also versus position can be obtained. Measuring chain including light scattering theory and measuring of light intensity by a digital camera are also discussed in the article.

  14. STUDY ON FIBROUS COMPOSITES BEHAVIOUR IN HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESS OF WINE FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nechita

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the implementation and performance evaluation of fibrous composites in sterile filtration of wine. Conditions of preparation were established having in view that the separation of particulate contaminants from liquids by depth filtration is occurring by mechanical entrapment into structural pores and by electrokinetic adsorption, and both retention mechanisms are influenced by various factors. Functional characteristics and behaviour of the filtering composite in industrial filtration of wine were evaluated. It was found that the effectiveness with which micro-organisms were retained was substantially improved by a porous structure characterized by small pores, and respectively by high resistance to air filtration, as well as by a higher content of cationic charges in the system.

  15. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-08-01

    This technology evaluation was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program. The objective was to quantify the benefits side stream filtration provides to a cooling tower system. The evaluation assessed the performance of an existing side stream filtration system at a cooling tower system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source research facility. This location was selected because it offered the opportunity for a side-by-side comparison of a system featuring side stream filtration and an unfiltered system.

  16. Comparative toxicities of oxygen, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chlorine bleaching filtrates - microtox toxicities of raw and processed filtrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ard, T.A.; McDonough, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    It has claimed that effluents from the bleaching of kraft pulp with chlorine and its compounds have deleterious effects on the aquatic environment. It has been further suggested that bleaching without the use of chlorine or its compounds will produce innocuous effluents. To obtain information on the validity of these claims, we have conducted a laboratory study of the toxicity of filtrates from chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching processes. We have also examined two related issues. The first is whether any toxicants generated during bleaching are rendered harmless (by neutralization, storage, and biological treatment) before being discharged to the environment. The second related issue is whether any toxicity observed in mill effluents actually originates in the bleaching process, as opposed to being due to raw material components or compounds formed during the pulping step that precedes bleaching. Several conclusions were drawn from this study. (1) There is a background level of toxicity which originates in the oxygen stage, process steps prior to bleaching, or in the wood raw material. It is decreased by neutralization and storage, but residual toxicity may still be detected after two weeks. (2) If the sum of the first and second stage toxicities is taken as an indicator of overall toxicity, the untreated filtrates may be ranked as follows: Control (Background) > D(EO) > Z(EO) > C(EO). However, these toxicities are of no importance in regard to environmental effects because of their ephemeral nature and the likelihood of their being reduced or eliminated prior to effluent discharge. Evidence for this statement is the ease with which all except the C(EO) were detoxified by neutralization and storage. (3) After neutralization and storage for two weeks at room temperature the ranking of toxicities becomes: C(EO) > D(EO) > Z(EO) > Background. The last three are similar in magnitude.

  17. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  18. Filtration treatment of processing kapuas river's water by coral sands/kaolinite/activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasri, Risya; Wahyuni, Nelly; Utomo, Kiki Prio

    2017-03-01

    Filtration treatment of processing Kapuas river's water in the Sepuk Keladi village, West Kalimantan has been conducted. The aims of the treatments to process kapuas river's water with the characteristics of peat into clean water. Processing method using flow-up-flow filtration system with filter media coral sands / kaolinite / activated carbon. Coral sands was obtained from Kijing beach and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and BET method. The XRD spectrum showed strongest peak at 33.09°, 52.40°, 29.34° and it can be concluded that mineral was verified corresponding to calcium consisting of calcite phase. While the result of BET plot point that surface area of coral sands was 4.954 m2/g. The effectiveness of the filtration media was determined by testing parameters such as pH, total suspended solid (TSS), total dissolved solid (TDS), chloride as Cl, and iron as Fe, before and after filtration of Kapuas river's water. The result show that kapuas river's water after filtration treatment was increased pH from 6,53 to 7,2. Filtration using this systems resulted in an average 43,53% reduction in TSS, 91,63% reduction in TDS, 83,63% reduction in content of chloride as Cl and 33,56 % reduction in content iron as Fe, respectively.

  19. Using experimental designs for modelling of intermittent air filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the optimal operating conditions and evaluation of their robustness are critical issues for industrial processes.A standard procedure,for modelling a laboratory-scale wire-to-cylinder electrostatic precipitator and for guiding the research of the set point,is presented.The procedure consists of formulating a set of recommendations regarding the choice of parameter values for electrostatic precipitation.The experiments were carried out on a laboratory cylindrical precipitator,built by one of the authors,with samples of wood particles.The parameters considered are the applied high voltage U,the air flow F,and the quantity of dust in air m.Several"one-factor-at-a-time"followed by factorial composite design experiments were performed,based on the following three-step strategy:1)Identify the domain of variation of the variables;2)Determine the mathematical model of the process outcome:3)Validation of the mathematical model and optimisation of the process.

  20. Filtration Consistent Nonlinear Expectations and Evaluations of Contingent Claims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shige Peng

    2004-01-01

    We will study the following problem. Let Xt, t ∈ [0, T], be an Rd–valued process de.ned on atime interval t ∈ [0, T]. Let Y be a random value depending on the trajectory of X. Assume that, at each .xedtime t ≤ T, the information available to an agent (an individual, a .rm, or even a market) is the trajectory ofX before t. Thus at time T , the random value of Y (ω) will become known to this agent. The question is: howwill this agent evaluate Y at the time t?We will introduce an evaluation operator εt[Y] to deffine the value of Y given by this agent at time t. This operator εt[Y ]. Assigns an (Xs)0≤s≤T-dependent andom variable Y to an (Xs)0≤s≤T-dependent random variableεt[Y ]. We will mainly treat the situation in which the process X is a solution of a SDE (see equation (3.1)) withthe drift coe.cient b and di.usion coe.cient σ containing an unknown parameter θ = θt. We then consider theso called super evaluation when the agent is a seller of the asset Y . We will prove that such super evaluation is a.ltration consistent nonlinear expectation. In some typical situations, we will prove that a .ltration consistentnonlinear Markovian situation.

  1. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of heat-resistant cast steel filtration from the results of structure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asłanowicz M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Filtration guarantees castings characterised by high quality and free from any non-metallic inclusions, which are formed at the stage of melting and pouring of liquid metal. This article discusses the problem of the effectiveness of filtration process taking as an example heat-resistant cast steel poured into ceramic moulds. In investigations, foamed zircon filters made by FerroTerm Sp. z o.o. The effectiveness of filtration was described and examined using the results of metallographic examinations, including macro- and micro-structure examinations of metal and of cast metal/ceramic filter interface, and measurements of the content of non-metallic inclusions. The methods of investigations were presented, the obtained results were described, and relevant conclusions were drawn, all of them unmistakably indicating a very beneficial effect that filtration has on molten metal quality. Łódź, Poland, were used.

  3. Evaluation of particulate filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.

    2009-10-15

    In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.

  4. Nanoparticle Filtration in a RTM Processed Epoxy/Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Micham, Logan; Copa, Christine C.; Criss, James M., Jr.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Several epoxy matrix composite panels were fabricated by resin transfer molding (RTM) E862/W resin onto a triaxially braided carbon fiber pre-form. Nanoparticles including carbon nanofiber, synthetic clay, and functionalized graphite were dispersed in the E862 matrix, and the extent of particle filtration during processing was characterized. Nanoparticle dispersion in the resin flashing on both the inlet and outlet edges of the panel was compared by TEM. Variation in physical properties such as Tg and moisture absorption throughout the panel were also characterized. All nanoparticle filled panels showed a decrease in Tg along the resin flow path across the panel, indicating nanoparticle filtration, however there was little change in moisture absorption. This works illustrates the need to obtain good nano-particle dispersion in the matrix resin to prevent particle agglomeration and hence particle filtration in the resultant polymer matrix composites (PMC).

  5. Modeling, estimation and optimal filtration in signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najim, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide graduate students and practitioners with traditional methods and more recent results for model-based approaches in signal processing.Firstly, discrete-time linear models such as AR, MA and ARMA models, their properties and their limitations are introduced. In addition, sinusoidal models are addressed.Secondly, estimation approaches based on least squares methods and instrumental variable techniques are presented.Finally, the book deals with optimal filters, i.e. Wiener and Kalman filtering, and adaptive filters such as the RLS, the LMS and the

  6. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  7. An evaluation of the filtration performance of paediatric breathing system filters at low flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, C A; Wilkes, A R; Hall, J E; Gildersleve, C

    2007-05-01

    The filtration performance of five different types of filter intended for use in paediatric anaesthesia was measured. A total of 120 unused filters (24 samples of each filter type) were evaluated. The pressure drop and filtration performance, using challenges of sodium chloride particles, were measured for each filter at 3 l min(-1) and 15 l min(-1). The pressure drop was less at the lower flow; there was a wide variation in the pressure drop across some filters. The filtration performance of all filter types showed an improvement at 3 l min(-1) compared to 15 l min(-1). Four filter types had filtration efficiencies greater than 95% at 15 l min(-1) and greater than 99% at 3 l min(-1). The remaining filter type had a filtration efficiency less than 90% at 15 l min(-1) and greater than 95% at 3 l min(-1). These levels of performance are comparable to that of breathing system filters intended for use in adult anaesthesia using flows representing mean inspiratory flow.

  8. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  9. Reducing bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) defects: optimizing and decoupling the filtration and dispense process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Martin, Gary; Simmons, Sean; Batchelder, Traci

    2006-03-01

    Semiconductor device manufacturing is one of the cleanest manufacturing operations that can be found in the world today. It has to be that way; a particle on a wafer today can kill an entire device, which raises the costs, and therefore reduces the profits, of the manufacturing company in two ways: it must produce extra wafers to make up for the lost die, and it has less product to sell. In today's state-of-the-art fab, everything is filtered to the lowest pore size available. This practice is fairly easy for gases because a gas molecule is very small compared to the pore size of the filter. Filtering liquids, especially photochemicals such as photoresists and BARCs, can be much harder because the molecules that form the polymers used to manufacture the photochemicals are approaching the filter pore size. As a result, filters may plug up, filtration rates may drop, pressure drops across the filter may increase, or a filter may degrade. These conditions can then cause polymer shearing, microbubble formation, gel particle formation, and BARC chemical changes to occur before the BARC reaches the wafer. To investigate these possible interactions, an Entegris(R) IntelliGen(R) pump was installed on a TEL Mk8 TM track to see if the filtration process would have an effect on the BARC chemistry and coating defects. Various BARC chemicals such as DUV112 and DUV42P were pumped through various filter media having a variety of pore sizes at different filtration rates to investigate the interaction between the dispense process and the filtration process. The IntelliGen2 pump has the capability to filter the BARC independent of the dispense process. By using a designed experiment to look at various parameters such as dispense rate, filtration rate, and dispense volume, the effects of the complete pump system can be learned, and appropriate conditions can be applied to yield the cleanest BARC coating process. Results indicate that filtration rate and filter pore size play a

  10. Optimization of gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration process for seawater pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Hochstrasser, Florian; Akhondi, Ebrahim; Ambauen, Noëmi; Tschirren, Lukas; Burkhardt, Michael; Fane, Anthony G; Pronk, Wouter

    2016-04-15

    Seawater pretreatment by gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration at 40 mbar has been investigated. In this system, a beneficial biofilm develops on the membrane that helps to stabilize flux. The effects of membrane type, prefiltration and system configuration on stable flux, biofilm layer properties and dissolved carbon removal were studied. The results show that the use of flat sheet PVDF membranes with pore sizes of 0.22 and 0.45 μm in GDM filtration achieved higher stabilized permeate fluxes (7.3-8.4 L/m(2)h) than that of flat sheet PES 100 kD membranes and hollow fibre PVDF 0.1 μm membranes. Pore constriction and cake filtration were identified as major membrane fouling mechanisms, but their relative contributions varied with filtration time for the various membranes. Compared to raw seawater, prefiltering of seawater with meshes at sizes of 10, 100 and 1000 μm decreased the permeate flux, which was attributed to removal of beneficial eukaryotic populations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed that the porosity of the biofouling layer was more significantly related with permeate flux development rather than its thickness and roughness. To increase the contact time between the biofilm and the dissolved organics, a hybrid biofilm-submerged GDM reactor was evaluated, which displayed significantly higher permeate fluxes than the submerged GDM reactor. Although integrating the biofilm reactor with the membrane system displayed better permeate quality than the GDM filtration cells, it could not effectively reduce dissolved organic substances in the seawater. This may be attributed to the decomposition/degradation of solid organic substances in the feed and carbon fixation by the biofilm. Further studies of the dynamic carbon balance are required.

  11. Suitability Evaluation on River Bank Filtration of the Second Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixue; Ye, Xueyan; Du, Xinqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Second Songhua River is the biggest river with the most economic value in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, water resources and water environment problem is getting prominent, including surface water pollution and over exploitation of groundwater resources, etc. By means of bank filtration, the Second Songhua River basin might realize the combined utilization of regional groundwater and surface water, and thus has important significance for the guarantee of water demand for industrial and agricultural production planning in the basin. The following steps were adopted to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration nearby the Scond Songhua River : Firstly, in order to focus on the most possible area, the evaluation area was divided based on the aspects of natural geographical conditions and hydraulic connection extent between river water and groundwater. Second, the main suitability indexes including water quantity, water quality, interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resource, and nine sub-indexes including hydraulic conductivity, aquifer thickness, river runoff, the status of groundwater quality, the status of surface water quality, groundwater hydraulic gradient, possible influence zone width of surface water under the condition of groundwater exploitation, permeability of riverbed layer and groundwater depth were proposed to establish an evaluation index system for the suitability of river bank filtration. Thirdly, Combined with the natural geography, geology and hydrogeology conditions of the Second Songhua River basin, the ArcGIS technology is used to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration in the study area is divided into five grades. The evaluation index system and evaluation method established in this article are applicable to the Second Songhua

  12. Visualization and evaluation of flow during water filtration: Parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with visualization and evaluation of flow during filtration of water seeded by artificial microscopic particles. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF is a wide spread method for visualization and non-invasive characterization of flow. However the method uses fluorescent dyes or fluorescent particles in special cases. In this article the flow is seeded by non-fluorescent monodisperse polystyrene particles with the diameter smaller than one micrometer. The monodisperse sub-micron particles are very suitable for testing of textile filtration materials. Nevertheless non-fluorescent particles are not useful for PLIF method. A water filtration setup with an optical access to the place, were a tested filter is mounted, was built and used for the experiments. Concentration of particles in front of and behind the tested filter in a laser light sheet measured is and the local filtration efficiency expressed is. The article describes further progress in the measurement. It was carried out sensitivity analysis, parameterization and performance of the method during several simulations and experiments.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the filtration leaching for uranium recovery from uranium ore

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes taking place in filtration leaching of uranium from uranium ore sample by sulphuric acid solution have been studied by modern physico-chemical methods (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, optical emission spectroscope, ICP OES). Column leaching test was carried out for ore samples obtained from a uranium in-situ leaching (ISL) mining site using deluted sulphuricacid to study the evolution of various elements conc...

  14. Influence of melting and filtration processes on the structure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article are presented the results of the study on the applied upgrading processes such as refining, modification and filtration of thenear eutectics alloy EN AC- 44000, AlSi11, (AK11, cast into the chill. The upgrading processes applied to the said alloy caused, incomparison to the alloy which was not upgraded, significant differences in the shape of the crystallization curves, obtained in the graphicrecord of the ATD-AED method. It was demonstrated the existence of connections between the thermal and electric phenomena duringsolidification and crystallization of the studied silumin. The obtained results of the metallographic analysis showed the occurrence of theimpurities within the alloy structure in the form of porosity and oxides following the metallurgical processing (in pig sows. The primarystudies on microstructure of the cast ceramic filters have demonstrated the purposefulness of introduction of the filtration process to thetechnology of aluminum alloys manufacturing. The microstructures of the filters cast with the studied alloys illustrate the extent anddeployment of the impurities retained (in the filter during the process of samples casting for measurement of the mechanical strengthproperties. On the example of the near eutectics alloy AK11, it has been demonstrated, that in comparison to the refined alloy there isa possibility to obtain significant improvement of mechanical properties, and especially elongation A5 and impact strength KCV.

  15. MODEL REPRESENTATION OF THE SPRAY DRYING PROCESS OF THE DISTILLERY STILLAGE FILTRATE BASED ON NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying of solutions and suspensions is among the most common methods of producing a wide range of powdered products in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. For the drying of heat-sensitive materials, which is fully applicable to the distillery stillage filtrate continuous-flow type of contact of drying agent and the solution droplets is examined. Two-phase simulation method of computational hydrodynamics in a stationary state for studying the process of drying of the distillery stillage filtrate in the pilot spray dryer under the following assumptions was used. The components form an ideal mixture, the properties of which are calculated directly from the properties of the components and their proportions. The droplets were presented in spherical form. The density and specific heat of the solution and the coefficient of vapors diffusion in the gas phase remained unchanged. To solve the heat exchange equations between the drying agent and the drops by the finite volume method the software package ANSYS CFX was used. The bind between the two phases was established by Navier-Stokes equations. The continuous phase (droplets of the distillery stillage filtrate was described by the k-ε turbulence model. The results obtained showed that the interaction of "drop-wall" causes a significant change of velocity, temperature and humidity both of a drying agent and the product particles. The behavior of the particles by spraying, collision with walls and deposition of the finished product allowed to determine the dependence of physical parameters of the drying process, of the geometric dimensions of the dryer. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed satisfactory convergence of the results: for the temperature of the powder 10% its humidity of 12% and temperature of the spent drying agent at the outlet from the drier of 13%. The possibility of using the model in the spray dryers designing, and control of the drying process

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the filtration leaching for uranium recovery from uranium ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolat Uralbekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical processes taking place in filtration leaching of uranium from uranium ore sample by sulphuric acid solution have been studied by modern physico-chemical methods (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, optical emission spectroscope, ICP OES. Column leaching test was carried out for ore samples obtained from a uranium in-situ leaching (ISL mining site using deluted sulphuricacid to study the evolution of various elements concentration in the pregnant leach solution. It has been shown that the uranium in pregnant solutions appears by dissolution of calcium and magnesium carbonates and uranium minerals as well. It was found the decreasing of filtration coefficient from 0.099 m day-1 to 0.082 m day-1, due to the presence of mechanical and chemical mudding. Partial extraction of uranium (85% from the ore has been explained by the slow diffusion of sulfuric acid to the uranium minerals locates in the cracks of silicate minerals. It was concluded that the studied uranium ore sample according to adverse geotechnical parameters is not suitable for uranium extraction by filtration leaching.

  17. Percolation properties of 3-D multiscale pore networks: how connectivity controls soil filtration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Perrier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the connectivity of pore networks is a key issue not only for modelling fluid flow and solute transport in porous media but also for assessing the ability of soil ecosystems to filter bacteria, viruses and any type of living microorganisms as well inert particles which pose a contamination risk. Straining is the main mechanical component of filtration processes: it is due to size effects, when a given soil retains a conveyed entity larger than the pores through which it is attempting to pass. We postulate that the range of sizes of entities which can be trapped inside soils has to be associated with the large range of scales involved in natural soil structures and that information on the pore size distribution has to be complemented by information on a Critical Filtration Size (CFS delimiting the transition between percolating and non percolating regimes in multiscale pore networks. We show that the mass fractal dimensions which are classically used in soil science to quantify scaling laws in observed pore size distributions can also be used to build 3-D multiscale models of pore networks exhibiting such a critical transition. We extend to the 3-D case a new theoretical approach recently developed to address the connectivity of 2-D fractal networks (Bird and Perrier, 2009. Theoretical arguments based on renormalisation functions provide insight into multi-scale connectivity and a first estimation of CFS. Numerical experiments on 3-D prefractal media confirm the qualitative theory. These results open the way towards a new methodology to estimate soil filtration efficiency from the construction of soil structural models to be calibrated on available multiscale data.

  18. Percolation properties of 3-D multiscale pore networks: how connectivity controls soil filtration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Perrier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the connectivity of pore networks is a key issue not only for modelling fluid flow and solute transport in porous media but also for assessing the ability of soil ecosystems to filter bacteria, viruses and any type of living microorganisms as well inert particles which pose a contamination risk. Straining is the main mechanical component of filtration processes: it is due to size effects, when a given soil retains a conveyed entity larger than the pores through which it is attempting to pass. We postulate that the range of sizes of entities which can be trapped inside soils has to be associated with the large range of scales involved in natural soil structures and that information on the pore size distribution has to be complemented by information on a critical filtration size (CFS delimiting the transition between percolating and non percolating regimes in multiscale pore networks. We show that the mass fractal dimensions which are classically used in soil science to quantify scaling laws in observed pore size distributions can also be used to build 3-D multiscale models of pore networks exhibiting such a critical transition. We extend to the 3-D case a new theoretical approach recently developed to address the connectivity of 2-D fractal networks (Bird and Perrier, 2009. Theoretical arguments based on renormalisation functions provide insight into multi-scale connectivity and a first estimation of CFS. Numerical experiments on 3-D prefractal media confirm the qualitative theory. These results open the way towards a new methodology to estimate soil filtration efficiency from the construction of soil structural models to be calibrated on available multiscale data.

  19. Study of the combining adsorption-micro filtration process for the treatment of coloured waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addaou, A.; Laajeb, A.; Lahsini, A.; Bentama, J.; Rodriguez, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    Generally textile effluents are highly coloured, contain non-biodegradable compounds and they have high content of solid wastes, comprising fibres and paper wastes. The discharge of such effluents in the environment is worrying for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. The aim of the present work is to study the performances of the combining micro filtration-adsorption process for the treatment of coloured waters. Methylene Blue (MB) was used as model compound. The effects of significant operating parameters such as transmembrane pressure (TMP) and bentonite concentration on the process performance characterized by flux and rejection factor were investigated. Experiments carried out with Methylene Blue solutions confirmed the potential of this combined process for the treatment of dyed waters. (Author) 13 refs.

  20. Experimental Study on the Influence of DPF Micropore Structure and Particle Property on Its Filtration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single layer filtration system was developed to investigate the filtration and regeneration performance of diesel particle filter (DPF. The particle layer thickness was directly measured online to analyze the different filtration stages. The influence of particle property on particle layer stage performance was also investigated. The results indicate that the filtration velocity can greatly affect the deep bed filtration stage, and the deposited particle layer can be compressed even in very low filtration velocity and higher filtration velocity trends to form denser particle layer. Optimizing the pore structure can effectively shorten the deep bed filtration stage and reduce the pressure drop eventually. An empirical function was proposed to relate the pore structure and the initial increment rate of pressure drop, which presented that reducing the pore size distribution range (3σ can result in low DPF filtration pressure drop. The filtration stage could be further divided into four stages, and the value of particle layer thickness ranging within 15~20 μm has been found to be critical number for the shift from the transient stage to the cake filtration stage. Particle with large primary diameter and BET surface was beneficial to form loose particle layer.

  1. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

    1999-10-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  2. Evaluation of Flocculation and Filtration Procedures Applied to WSRC Sludge: A Report from B. Yarar, Colorado School of Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2001-06-04

    This report, addresses fundamentals of flocculation processes shedding light on why WSRC researchers have not been able to report the discovery of a successful flocculant and acceptable filtration rates. It also underscores the importance of applying an optimized flocculation-testing regime, which has not been adopted by these researchers. The final part of the report proposes a research scheme which should lead to a successful choice of flocculants, filtration aids (surfactants) and a filtration regime, as well recommendations for work that should be carried out to make up for the deficiencies of the limited WSRC work where a better performance should be the outcome.

  3. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar, temperature (°C and flow rate (L/min on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The best retention coefficients (%R for free glycerol and soap were 97.5% and 96.6% respectively. Further, the physical properties measured were comparable to those obtained in ASTMD6751-03 and EN14214 standards.

  4. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Thi Qar University, Nasiriyah (Iraq); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo888@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  5. Prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the small membrane filtration method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-López, Edward; Manabe, Yukari C; Palaci, Moises; Kayiza, Carol; Armstrong, Derek; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ssengooba, Willy; Gaeddert, Mary; Kubiak, Rachel; Almeida Júnior, Pedro; Alland, David; Dietze, Reynaldo; Joloba, Moses; Ellner, Jerrold J; Dorman, Susan E

    2014-07-01

    Smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity, and there is a need to improve its performance since it is commonly used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the small membrane filtration (SMF) method, an approach that uses a vacuum manifold and is designed to concentrate bacilli onto a filter that can be examined microscopically. We enrolled hospitalized adults suspected to have pulmonary TB in Kampala, Uganda. We obtained a clinical history and three spontaneously expectorated sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct, concentrated, and SMF), MGIT (mycobacterial growth indicator tube) 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) cultures, and Xpert MTB/RIF testing. We performed per-specimen (primary) and per-patient analyses. From October 2012 to June 2013, we enrolled 212 patients (579 sputum specimens). The participants were mostly female (63.2%), and 81.6% were HIV infected; their median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl. Overall, 19.0%, 20.4%, 27.1%, 25.2%, and 25.9% of specimens tested positive by direct smear, concentrated smear, MGIT culture, LJ culture, and Xpert test, respectively. In the per-specimen analysis, the sensitivity of the SMF method (48.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.4 to 59.6) was lower than those of direct smear (60.9%; 51.4 to 70.5 [P = 0.0001]) and concentrated smear (63.3%; 53.6 to 73.1 [P filtration failure rate.

  6. Evaluation of Riverbank Filtration Efficiency with Radial Collector Well Systems near the Nakdong River, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.; Choi, D.; Kim, G.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF) with radial collector well system near the Nakdong River, Korea is performed. We investigated the groundwater flow response to pumping at a radial collector well located in a RBF facility and measured the drawdowns and well yield. The distribution of water flux extracted from each horizontal arm and the removal efficiency of contaminants in the river water through the RBF are calculated through the numerical simulations. Sensitivity analyses about hydraulic conductivity, well flow coefficient, and retardation coefficients are performed to assess the effect of variations in the hydraulic conditions of the wells in the RBF facility on groundwater drawdowns and RBF. Simulation results indicate that the drawdowns and amount of recharged surface water change with the hydraulic conductivity and the well flow coefficient. The retardation coefficient and decay coefficient, which determine the amount of the contaminant filtrated during the RBF, play critical role in the efficiency of RBF. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be practically used for estimating the efficiency of the radial collector well for RBF.

  7. An approximate analytical solution to the ultra-filtration profile in a hemodialysis process between parallel porous plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU JunFeng; LU WenQiang

    2008-01-01

    In a hemodialysis process, the blood that runs through straight channels exchanges substances with the dialysate through a semi-permeable membrane. The waste products, such as urea and creatinine, are therefore removed from the plasma by the membrane. In the analysis of this process, determination of the ultra-filtration profile along the porous membrane surface remains a difficult problem. In this work, an analytical solution to the derivation of such a profile was detailed, and the feasibility of this solution was discussed. The ultra-filtration profile was found to be in a cosine shape.

  8. The "true" pore size of textile filter media and its relevance for the filtration process with respect to the interaction with apparatus and suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Anlauf, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The success of a filtration process depends on the filter medium itself but also on the apparatus design and the process conditions. Here the discussion is focussed on woven media for cake filtration, but the principle findings seem to be transferable to vleeces depth filter media or membranes. Particle retention and the flow resistance are representing the main properties of a filter medium relevant for the filtration process. For an optimal filter operation further properties like mechanica...

  9. Continuous Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Suspensions via Dynamic Cross-Flow Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Toschkoff, Gregor; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Over the last years, continuous manufacturing has created significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Continuous filtration at low flow rates and high solid loadings poses, however, a significant challenge. A commercially available, continuously operating, dynamic cross-flow filtration device (CFF) is tested and characterized. It is shown that the CFF is a highly suitable technology for continuous filtration. For all tested model active pharmaceutical ingredients, a material-specific strictly linear relationship between feed and permeate rate is identified. Moreover, for each tested substance, a constant concentration factor is reached. A one-parameter model based on a linear equation is suitable to fully describe the CFF filtration performance. This rather unexpected finding and the concentration polarization layer buildup is analyzed and a basic model to describe the observed filtration behavior is developed.

  10. Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF: An Innovative Technology in Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Saeedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new biological domestic wastewater treatment process, which has been presented these days in activated sludge modification, is Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF. This process is aerobic and acts by using a sludge blanket in the separator of sedimentation tank. All biological flocs and suspended solids, which are presented in the aeration basin, pas through this blanket. The performance of a single stage USBF process for treatment of domestic wastewater was studied in laboratory scale.Methods: The pilot of USBF has been made from fiberglass and the main electromechanical equipments consisted of an air com­pressor, a mixing device and two pumps for sludge return and wastewater injection. The wastewater samples used for the experiments were prepared synthetically to have qualitative characteristics similar to a typical domestic wastewater (COD= 277 mg/l, BOD5= 250 mg/l and TSS= 1 mg/l.Results: On the average, the treatment system was capable to remove 82.2% of the BOD5 and 85.7% of COD in 6 h hydraulic re­tention time (HRT. At 2 h HRT BOD and COD removal efficiencies dramatically reduced to 50% and 46.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Even by increasing the concentrations of pollutants to as high as 50%, the removal rates of all pollutants were re­mained similar to the HRT of 6 h.

  11. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrůza Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  12. Spunlaced and chemically bonded nonwovens for filtration applications: Performance evaluation and comparison

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boguslavsky, L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main function of textile filter media in air filtration is to control air pollution. Air filtration plays an important role in improving air quality and hygiene. The demands for air quality and hygiene at work places have increased greatly due...

  13. Clinical use of estimated glomerular filtration rate for evaluation of kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Bo; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Estimating glomerular filtration rate by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formulas gives a reasonable estimate of kidney function for e.g. classification of chronic kidney disease. Additionally the estimated glomerular filtration rate...

  14. Validation of a novel rinse and filtration method for efficient processing of fresh produce samples for microbiological indicator enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Solís-Soto, Luisa; Venegas, Fabiola; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Leon, Juan S; García, Santos

    2015-03-01

    Several methods have been described to prepare fresh produce samples for microbiological analysis, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel combined rinse and membrane filtration method to two alternative sample preparation methods for the quantification of indicator microorganisms from fresh produce. Decontaminated cantaloupe melons and jalapeño peppers were surface inoculated with a cocktail containing 10(6) CFU/ml Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Samples were processed using a rinse and filtration method, homogenization by stomacher, or a sponge-rubbing method, followed by quantification of bacterial load using culture methods. Recovery efficiencies of the three methods were compared. On inoculated cantaloupes, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery of coliforms (0.95 log CFU/ml higher recovery, P = 0.0193) than the sponge-rubbing method. Similarly, on inoculated jalapeños, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery for coliforms (0.84 log CFU/ml higher, P = 0.0130) and E. coli (1.46 log CFU/ml higher, P filtration method outperformed the homogenization method for all three indicators (0.79 to 1.71 log CFU/ml higher, P values ranging from 0.0075 to 0.0002). The precision of the three methods was also compared. The precision of the rinse and filtration method was similar to that of the other methods for recovery of two of three indicators from cantaloupe (E. coli P = 0.7685, E. faecalis P = 0.1545) and was more precise for recovery of two of three indicators from jalapeño (coliforms P = 0.0026, E. coli P = 0.0243). Overall, the rinse and filtration method performed equivalent to, and sometimes better than, either of the compared methods. The rinse and filtration method may have logistical advantages when processing large numbers of samples, improving sampling efficiency and facilitating microbial detection.

  15. PART 2: LARGE PARTICLE MODELLING Simulation of particle filtration processes in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Boiger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In filtration processes it is necessary to consider both, the interaction of thefluid with the solid parts as well as the effect of particles carried in the fluidand accumulated on the solid. While part 1 of this paper deals with themodelling of fluid structure interaction effects, the accumulation of dirtparticles will be addressed in this paper. A closer look is taken on theimplementation of a spherical, LAGRANGIAN particle model suitable forsmall and large particles. As dirt accumulates in the fluid stream, it interactswith the surrounding filter fibre structure and over time causes modificationsof the filter characteristics. The calculation of particle force interactioneffects is necessary for an adequate simulation of this situation. A detailedDiscrete Phase Lagrange Model was developed to take into account thetwo-way coupling of the fluid and accumulated particles. The simulation oflarge particles and the fluid-structure interaction is realised in a single finitevolume flow solver on the basis of the OpenSource software OpenFoam.

  16. Filtration Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ken; Hunsaker, Scot

    1997-01-01

    Examines how choice of commercial swimming-pool filtration systems is driven by the project-specific needs of the pools. Also highlighted are definitions of specific terms used when discussing filtration systems. Questions that pool designers can answer to make filtration-system purchasing decisions are listed. (GR)

  17. Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Stability-Improving Additives for JP-8, Phase 2 - Specification, Materials, Filtration, and Fit-For-Purpose Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    outside-in for the separators. Both coalescer technologies use glass to generate larger water droplets and Teflon separator screens to repel any water ...mainly to anomalous or nebulous data relating to filtration and water separation. It is recommended that these additives undergo additional filtration... water separation testing and that the results of the testing in this program be combined with any new data to re- evaluate AFRL’s position regarding

  18. Simulations of a dielectrophoretic membrane filtration process for removal of water droplets from water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Shahnawaz H; Masliyah, Jacob H; Bhattacharjee, Subir

    2005-07-01

    A novel separation technique based on simultaneous application of AC dielectrophoresis and preferential transport through a semipermeable hydrophilic membrane is proposed for separation of small amounts of emulsified water droplets from a water-in-oil emulsion. Embedding an array of parallel microelectrodes on a membrane matrix, followed by application of an AC potential to these electrodes, can result in capturing the water droplets onto the membranes from the emulsion during a crossflow filtration process. The present paper describes the theoretical principles underlying such a process, and describes a simple mathematical framework based on trajectory analysis for assessing the separation efficiency of such a technique. The results indicate that superimposition of an AC dielectrophoretic field can significantly enhance the preferential transport of the emulsified water through the membrane in a crossflow filtration device. This can lead to a highly efficient continuous separation process for dilute emulsions.

  19. Hydrodynamic filtration in microfluidic channels as size-selection process for giant unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Youngjun; Heo, Youhee; Shin, Kwanwoo; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2013-04-01

    We have developed hydrodynamic filtration method in microfluidic device for the efficient size-selection of polydisperse lipid vesicles for giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), in which vesicles were formed by electroformation method. Combining pinched flow channel design before hydrodynamic filtration, GUVs were flowed and guided to filtration channels, in which small lipid vesicles were further filtered and GUV were remained in main flow channels. For increasing the selectivity of GUV in outlets, length of slit section, or relative flow rate were controlled and drain channels were introduced for avoiding back flow. At higher flow rate in a pinched flow, the fraction of recovered GUVs (>10 microm) were increased, in which most of small vesicles were filtered.

  20. Selective removal/recovery of RCRA metals from waste and process solutions using polymer filtration{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals are found in a number of process and waste streams at many DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and industrial facilities. RCRA metals consist principally of chromium, mercury, cadmium, lead, and silver. Arsenic and selenium, which form oxyanions, are also considered RCRA elements. Discharge limits for each of these metals are based on toxicity and dictated by state and federal regulations (e.g., drinking water, RCRA, etc.). RCRA metals are used in many current operations, are generated in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, and are also present in old process wastes that require treatment and stabilization. These metals can exist in solutions, as part of sludges, or as contaminants on soils or solid surfaces, as individual metals or as mixtures with other metals, mixtures with radioactive metals such as actinides (defined as mixed waste), or as mixtures with a variety of inert metals such as calcium and sodium. The authors have successfully completed a preliminary proof-of-principle evaluation of Polymer Filtration{trademark} (PF) technology for the dissolution of metallic mercury and have also shown that they can remove and concentrate RCRA metals from dilute solutions for a variety of aqueous solution types using PF technology. Another application successfully demonstrated is the dilute metal removal of americium and plutonium from process streams. This application was used to remove the total alpha contamination to below 30 pCi/L for the wastewater treatment plant at TA-50 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from nitric acid distillate in the acid recovery process at TA-55, the Plutonium Facility at LANL (ESP-CP TTP AL16C322). This project will develop and optimize the PF technology for specific DOE process streams containing RCRA metals and coordinate it with the needs of the commercial sector to ensure that technology transfer occurs.

  1. Evaluation of ExPress glaucoma filtration device in Indian patients with advanced glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Angmo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ExPress glaucoma filtration device (GFD has recently become available in India as a surgical option for glaucoma patients. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of ExPress GFD in 12 eyes with advanced glaucoma with intraocular pressures (IOPs not controlled on maximal tolerable medical therapy. The mean preoperative IOP of 29.58 ± 7.13 mmHg decreased to 17.0 ± 2.67 and 17.40 ± 0.89 mmHg at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Absolute success (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with no additional glaucoma medications was achieved in eight cases (66.7% and qualified success (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with additional glaucoma medications in two cases (16.7% at 1-year after surgery. Early intervention was needed in 4 patients; two underwent anterior chamber reformation while the other two required needling. Two patients required resurgery. There was no significant change in the best corrected visual acuity postoperatively (P = 0.37. ExPress GFD does not seem to offer a benefit over standard trabeculectomy in patients with advanced glaucomatous disease in terms of IOP control or complication rate. However, due to the small sample size with a heterogeneous mixture of primary and secondary glaucoma′s, we await further studies with a larger sample size and long-term follow-up, to see how the device performs.

  2. Evaluation of a new microporous filtration membrane system for therapeutic plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S R; Carey, P M; McGill, M; Pineda, A A; Zaroulis, C G; Case, M T

    1987-01-01

    A new therapeutic plasma exchange device developed by Sarns Inc./3M was evaluated in plasmapheresis of 20 healthy volunteers and in a multicenter clinical study of therapeutic plasma exchange that included 49 patients. Safety and efficacy of plasma separation from whole blood were assessed for a module that contains Durapore microporous surfactant-free polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass., USA). The extra-corporeal volume was 80 ml. Citrate and heparin anticoagulants were utilized. Mean plasma separation efficiency was 62% with unhindered passage of plasma proteins through the membrane pores and no hemolysis or activation of complement as measured by total hemolytic complement (CH50) and C3 conversion. Mean decrease in platelet count after procedures was 10%. No severe reactions occurred, and citrate effects (13%) were comparable to values reported with centrifugal instruments. The Sarns Inc./3M Therapore device is a rapid, safe and efficient system for plasma exchange and potentially for source plasma collection. The principal benefits are small extracorporeal volume and cell-free filtrate.

  3. Evaluation of cystatin C as an endogenous marker of glomerular filtration rate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Frederic S; Christopher, Mary M; King, Don P; Brown, Scott A

    2002-01-01

    Cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor produced by all nucleated cells. It is freely filtered by the glomerulus and is unaffected by nonrenal factors such as inflammation and gender. Because of greater sensitivity and specificity, cystatin C has been proposed to replace creatinine as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in humans. The aims of this study were to validate an automated assay in canine plasma and to evaluate the usefulness of cystatin C as a marker of GFR in dogs. Western blotting was used to demonstrate cross-reactivity of an anti-human cystatin C antibody. An immunoturbidimetric assay was used to detect cystatin C in 25 clinically healthy dogs and 25 dogs with renal failure. Mean cystatin C concentration in the healthy dogs and the dogs with renal failure was 1.08 +/- 0.16 mg/L and 4.37 +/- 1.79 mg/L respectively. Intra- and interassay variability was exogenous creatinine clearance had been determined previously. In the remnant kidney model, cystatin C was better correlated with GFR than creatinine (r = .79 versus .54) but was less well correlated with GFR in volume-depleted dogs (r = .54 versus .95). GFR measurements were repeated in the remnant kidney model dogs 60 days after initial GFR measurements. At this time, cystatin C and creatinine concentrations correlated equally well with GFR (r = .891 versus .894, respectively). Cystatin C concentration is a reasonable alternative to creatinine for screening dogs with decreased GFR due to chronic renal failure.

  4. The evaluation of gluomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patients based on serum CysC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the applicability of several formulas for gluomerular filtration rate(GFR)evaluation based on serum CystatinC(CysC)in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD).Methods According to the method of laboratory appliance reseach,three hundred and four hospitalized CKD patients(162 males,142 females,aged from 14-year-old to 80-year-old)in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University hospital dating from October 2010 to October 2011 were selected.

  5. Process Performance of Secondary Effluent Granular Media Filtration with and without Preozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Rion; De Las Casas, Carla; Henneman, Seppi; Witzgall, Robert; Yu, William; Ramberg, Steve; Parker, Denny; Ohlinger, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    A 10-month pilot study compared the performance of conventional granular media filtration (CGMF) with granular media filtration with preozonation (OGMF) to determine the effects of preozonation on filter performance. Filtration recoveries were lower for OGMF compared to CMGF when operated at a loading rate of 18.3 m/h. Operation at 18.3 m/h met turbidity requirements for California Department of Public Health Title 22 unrestricted reclaimed water requirements for both OGMF and CGMF. Preozonated secondary effluent at a transferred dose of 3 mg/L resulted in an increase in ultraviolet transmissivity (UVT) of approximately 6% and greater than 5-log inactivation of male-specific bacteriophage MS2. Wet weather flow events resulted in UVT decrease and a decline in MS2 inactivation to less than 3 log attributed to higher ozone demand in the secondary effluent. Preozonation increased N-nitrosodimethlyamine (NDMA) concentration approximately 10 times, but subsequent filtration reduced levels to secondary effluent values. A net increase in NDMA was observed at times.

  6. Interactive remote data processing using Pixelize Wavelet Filtration (PWF-method) and PeriodMap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Robert; Nakariakov, Valery; Anfinogentov, Sergey

    Wavelet analysis is suitable for investigating waves and oscillating in solar atmosphere, which are limited in both time and frequency. We have developed an algorithms to detect this waves by use the Pixelize Wavelet Filtration (PWF-method). This method allows to obtain information about the presence of propagating and non-propagating waves in the data observation (cube images), and localize them precisely in time as well in space. We tested the algorithm and found that the results of coronal waves detection are consistent with those obtained by visual inspection. For fast exploration of the data cube, in addition, we applied early-developed Period- Map analysis. This method based on the Fast Fourier Transform and allows on initial stage quickly to look for "hot" regions with the peak harmonic oscillations and determine spatial distribution at the significant harmonics. We propose the detection procedure of coronal waves separate on two parts: at the first part, we apply the PeriodMap analysis (fast preparation) and than, at the second part, use information about spatial distribution of oscillation sources to apply the PWF-method (slow preparation). There are two possible algorithms working with the data: in automatic and hands-on operation mode. Firstly we use multiply PWF analysis as a preparation narrowband maps at frequency subbands multiply two and/or harmonic PWF analysis for separate harmonics in a spectrum. Secondly we manually select necessary spectral subband and temporal interval and than construct narrowband maps. For practical implementation of the proposed methods, we have developed the remote data processing system at Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk. The system based on the data processing server - http://pwf.iszf.irk.ru. The main aim of this resource is calculation in remote access through the local and/or global network (Internet) narrowband maps of wave's sources both in whole spectral band and at significant harmonics. In addition

  7. Comparison of glomerular filtration rate measured between anterior and posterior image processing using Gates’ method in an ectopic pelvic kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Baojun; Liang, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of an ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior image processing using Gates’ method of renal dynamic imaging. Methods A total of 10 patients were studied retrospectively, with a single ectopic kidney in the pelvic cavity and a contralateral kidney at its normal anatomical position confirmed by ultrasound, computed tomography, renal dynamic imaging, etc. All images of ectopic kidneys were processed, and GFRs were measured using anterior and posterior Gates’ method of renal dynamic imaging, respectively. The contralateral normal kidney was only processed on posterior imaging. The total GFRant of one patient, which was equal to the sum of the GFR of a normal kidney on posterior imaging and the GFR of an ectopic kidney on anterior imaging, was compared with the total GFRpost of two kidneys on posterior imaging, with the GFRtwo-sample from the two-sample method, and with the estimated GFR in the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. All correlation analyses were carried out between GFRs obtained from three methods, and all patients were followed up. For statistical analysis, nonparametric rank tests were used, Bland-Altman graphs were plotted. Results The mean GFR of the ectopic kidney on anterior imaging was 27.48±12.24 ml/min/1.73 m2. It was higher than the GFR (10.71±4.74 ml/min/1.73 m2) on posterior imaging (t=−2.803, P0.05), but there were statistical differences in the accuracy within 10% of the total GFRant and that of the total GFRpost (Pectopic pelvic kidney in renal dynamic imaging. PMID:26867167

  8. Enlargements of filtrations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corcuera, J M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review some old and new results about the enlargement of filtrations problem, as well as their applications to credit risk and insider trading problems. The enlargement of filtrations problem consists in the study of conditions under which a semimartingale remains a semimartingale when the filtration is enlarged, and, in such a case, how to find the Doob-Meyer decomposition. Filtrations may be enlarged in different ways. In this paper we consider initial and progressive filtration enlargements made by random variables and processes. Keywords: Credit Risk, Insider Trading, Enlargement of Filtrations

  9. Development of an ELP-Z based mAb affinity precipitation process using scaled-down filtration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rahul D; Bhut, Bharat V; Jin, Mi; Li, Zhengjian; Chen, Wilfred; Cramer, Steven M

    2014-12-20

    In this work, a proof of concept elastin-like polypeptide-Z domain fusion (ELP-Z) based monoclonal antibody (mAb) affinity precipitation process is developed using scaled-down filtration techniques. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is examined for the recovery of ELP-Z-mAb precipitates formed during the mAb binding step and the ELP-Z precipitates formed during the mAb elution step. TFF results in complete precipitate recovery during both stages of the process and high host cell protein and DNA impurity clearance after diafiltration. Total recycle TFF experiments are then employed to determine permeate flux as a function of the precipitate concentration for both stages of the process. While the ELP-Z-mAb precipitate recovery step resulted in high permeate flux (550-600L/m(2)/h/bar), the ELP-Z precipitates are shown to severely foul the TFF membrane, causing rapid flux decay. Confocal microscopy of the ELP-Z-mAb and ELP-Z precipitates suggests significant differences in the morphology and the kinetics of formation of these precipitates, which is likely responsible for their different behavior during TFF. Finally, an alternative normal flow filtration strategy is developed for the ELP-Z precipitate recovery step during mAb elution, using a combination of 5μm and a 0.45/0.2μm filters. Using this approach, the ELP-Z precipitates are separated from the final mAb elution pool at high volumetric throughputs and high ELP-Z recovery (96%) is obtained after resolubilization from the filter. This study demonstrates that the ELP-Z affinity precipitation process can be readily scaled up using conventional membrane processing.

  10. Comparison of fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques for evaluation of microleakage in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apical leakage assessment is a way to compare the efficiency of a filling material to seal the apical region of the tooth. Many microleakage testing techniques have been introduced through the years, but there has been no agreement as to which technique gives the most accurate results. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques in the assessment of the apical sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and calcium enriched mixture (CEM. Materials and Methods: A sample of 34 extracted single-rooted human teeth were selected and prepared. The samples were divided in to 2 experimental groups. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected at 90° to its long axis and root end preparation was done with ultrasonic tips to a depth of 3 mm and filled with MTA and CEM, respectively. Assessment of apical sealing ability was done with fluid filtration technique and bacterial leakage technique along 90 days with Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. P less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was no significant difference in apical sealing ability between MTA and CEM in bacterial leakage and fluid filtration techniques. Samples which had bacterial leakage showed higher leakage values by fluid filtration technique. Conclusion: Both techniques showed same results and there was no significant difference between fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques in assessment of apical microleakage.

  11. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC, and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  12. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  13. Supplier Evaluation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how supplier evaluation practices are linked to supplier performance improvements. Specifically, the paper investigates how performance information travelling between the evaluating buyer and the evaluated suppliers is shaped and reshaped...... in the evaluation process. Design/methodology/approach – The paper relies on a multiple, longitudinal case research methodology. The two cases show two companies' efforts in designing, implementing, and using supplier evaluation in order to improve supplier performance. Findings – The findings show how the dynamics...... of representing, reducing, amplifying, dampening, and directing shape and reshape supplier evaluation information. In both companies, evaluation practices were defined, redefined, and re-directed by the involved actors' perception and decision making, as well as organisational structures, IT systems...

  14. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Fourth quarterly technical progress report: June 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hogg, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fonseca, A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The main objectives of the project are to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20 percent moisture. The program consist of three phases, Model Development, Laboratory Studies, and Field Testing. The Pennsylvania State University is leading efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and Consol Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations are involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University is developing a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky is conducting experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in phase 1 and 2 will be tested in a Consol Inc. coal preparation plant using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  15. Shortening filtrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ENOCHS Edgar E.

    2012-01-01

    Let C be a set of modules.We argue that there is an ordinal κ such that if a module has a filtration by modules in C,then it has a filtration of length κ by direct sums of modules in C.As an application we give another way to prove a result of Saorín and (S)(t)oví(c)ek and of (S)(t)oví(c)ek.

  16. Evaluating Discourse Processing Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1994-01-01

    In order to take steps towards establishing a methodology for evaluating Natural Language systems, we conducted a case study. We attempt to evaluate two different approaches to anaphoric processing in discourse by comparing the accuracy and coverage of two published algorithms for finding the co-specifiers of pronouns in naturally occurring texts and dialogues. We present the quantitative results of hand-simulating these algorithms, but this analysis naturally gives rise to both a qualitative evaluation and recommendations for performing such evaluations in general. We illustrate the general difficulties encountered with quantitative evaluation. These are problems with: (a) allowing for underlying assumptions, (b) determining how to handle underspecifications, and (c) evaluating the contribution of false positives and error chaining.

  17. Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2009-11-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

  18. Performance Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the performance evaluation process and human resource development (HRD). "Assessing the Effectiveness of OJT (On the Job Training): A Case Study Approach" (Julie Furst-Bowe, Debra Gates) is a case study of the effectiveness of OJT in one of a high-tech manufacturing company's product…

  19. Development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria; Martínez, Manuel Rosendo; Schielen, Wilhelmus Joseph Gerardus

    2010-09-14

    In many countries, foot and mouth disease (FMD) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (NCP); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against NCP. Vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. We have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (FAL-ELISA), to detect and quantify NCP in vaccine-antigen batches regardless of its volume and composition. Samples are filtered through PVDF-filter microplates pre-coated with a monoclonal antibody against NCP. Filtration removes all unbound components in the sample and captured NCP are detected by anti-NCP conjugate followed by incubation with the substrate, luminol/peroxide. Analytical detection limit was 2 ng for purified NCP and 4 ng for vaccine-antigen batches spiked with NCP, which makes this assay sensitive enough to be applied to purity control of FMD vaccines. Vaccine components did not interfere with the antibody and substrate reactions in the assay. FAL-ELISA is an alternative for the in vivo tests, observing the objective to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals for quality control of immunobiologicals.

  20. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Through Combined Process Adsorption and Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in palm oil production also leads to an Increase in the production of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Nowadays, POME was treated using an open lagoon but this method is ineffectiveness in complying with the standards for water disposal. Therefore, efficient and cohesive treatment system is highly desired to ensure the final discharge of the treated water meets the effluent discharge standards. Initially, the POME was treated through adsorption, followed by UF membranes roomates were intended to reduce COD, TSS and turbidity up to 88%, 99%, and 98%, while the final treatment of RO membranes can reduce BOD, COD and color up to 92%, 98% and 99%. To determine the optimum condition of the RO membrane, response surface methodology (RSM was used. The results showed there was correlation between all key variables. POME concentration, trans-membrane pressure, pH and time would give significant effects in reducing the parameters in POME treatment with the optimum condition of 15.77% for POME concentration, 3.73 for pH, 0.5 bar trans-membrane pressure and 5 hours for filtration time. To predict COD removal, the results were analyzed by applying the artificial neural network (ANN to derive a mathematical model.

  1. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Candace S.-J., E-mail: candace.umass@gmail.com [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States); Echevarria-Vega, Manuel E. [University of Puerto Rico Mayagueez, Industrial Engineering Department (Puerto Rico); Sotiriou, Georgios A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (Switzerland); Santeufemio, Christopher [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Campus Materials Characterization Laboratory (United States); Schmidt, Daniel [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Department of Plastic Engineering (United States); Demokritou, Philip [Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology at the Harvard School of Public Health (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO{sub 2} ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95%.

  2. A re-evaluation of the determinants of glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1995-01-01

    mechanism, while larger changes in the APR cause near parallel changes in the GFR mainly because of the effect on tubular pressure. The hydraulic resistance in the distal nephron segments is an additional factor in regulating GFR, through its effect on proximal tubular pressure. The stimulus to the TGF...... advocated here, TGF-mediated changes in afferent arteriolar resistance and angiotensin-mediated changes in efferent arteriolar resistance and APR cooperate in counteracting perturbations in proximal tubular pressure and Henle loop flow. However, because of the biphasic proximal effect of angiotensin II......Several factors are potentially able to change the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and thereby participate in its regulation, but only a few factors seem to be physiologically important. The variable nature of proximal tubular pressure should be recognized as important in the regulation of GFR...

  3. Retrospective Evaluation of Low-pH Viral Inactivation and Viral Filtration Data from a Multiple Company Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, John; Clark, Mike; Liu, Shengjiang; Pieracci, John; Gervais, Thomas R; Wilson, Eileen; Galperina, Olga; Li, Xinfang; Roush, David; Zoeller, Konstantin; Brough, Helene; Simpson-Platre, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Considerable resources are spent within the biopharmaceutical industry to perform viral clearance studies, which are conducted for widely used unit operations that are known to have robust and effective retrovirus clearance capability. The collaborative analysis from the members of the BioPhorum Development Group Viral Clearance Working Team considers two common virus reduction steps in biopharmaceutical processes: low-pH viral inactivation and viral filtration. Analysis included eight parameters for viral inactivation and nine for viral filtration. The extensive data set presented in this paper provides the industry with a reference point for establishing robust processes in addition to other protocols available in the literature (e.g., ASTM Std. E2888-12 for low-pH inactivation). In addition, it identifies points of weakness in the existing data set and instructs the design and interpretation of future studies. Included is an abundance of data that would have been difficult to generate individually but collectively will help support modular viral clearance claims.

  4. Anaerobic bio-digestion of concentrate obtained in the process of ultra filtration of effluents from tilapia processing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alves de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the process of biodigestion of the protein concentrate resulting from the ultrafiltration of the effluent from a slaughterhouse freezer of Nile tilapia. Bench digesters were used with excrements and water (control in comparison with a mixture of cattle manure and effluent from the stages of filleting and bleeding of tilapias. The effluent obtained in the continuous process (bleeding + filleting was the one with highest accumulated population from the 37th day, as well as greatest daily production. Gases composition did not differ between the protein concentrates, but the gas obtained with the use of the effluent from the filleting stage presented highest methane gas average (78.05% in comparison with those obtained in the bleeding stage (69.95% and in the continuous process (70.02% or by the control method (68.59%.

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  6. Evaluation of bank filtration as a pretreatment method for the provision of hygienically safe drinking water in Norway: results from monitoring at two full-scale sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Myrmel, Mette; Fiksdal, Liv; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2017-08-01

    Two case studies were carried out in central Norway in order to assess the performance of bank filtration systems in cold-climate fluvial aquifers relying on recharge from humic-rich surface waters with moderate microbial contamination. Three municipal wells and two surface-water sources at operative bank filtration systems were monitored for naturally occurring bacteriophages, fecal indicators, natural organic matter (NOM) and physico-chemical water quality parameters during a 4-month period. Aquifer passage effectively reduced the microorganism and NOM concentrations at both study sites. Bacteriophages were detected in 13 of 16 (81%) surface-water samples and in 4 of 24 (17%) well-water samples, and underwent 3 ± 0.3 log10 reduction after 50-80-m filtration and 20-30 days of subsurface passage. NOM reductions (color: 74-97%; dissolved organic carbon: 54-80%; very hydrophobic acids: 70%) were similar to those achieved by conventional water-treatment processes and no further treatment was needed. Both groundwater dilution and sediment filtration contributed to the hygienic water quality improvements, but sediment filtration appeared to be the most important process with regard to microbial and NOM reductions. A strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis showed that bank filtration technology has a high potential as a pretreatment method for the provision of hygienically safe drinking water in Norway.

  7. Study on an integrated process combining ozonation with ceramic ultra-filtration for decentralized supply of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Fan, Xiao J; Tao, Yi; Wei, De Q; Zhang, Xi H

    2014-09-19

    An integrated process was specifically developed for the decentralized supply of drinking water from micro-polluted surface water in the rural areas of China. The treatment process combined ozonation with ceramic ultra-filtration (UF), coagulation for pre-treatment and granular activated carbon filtration. A flat-sheet ceramic membrane was used with a cut-off of 60 nm and the measurement of 254 mm (length) × 240 mm (width) × 6 mm (thickness). Ozonation and ceramic UF was set up whthin one reactor. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiencies of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and ammonia were 80%, 76%, 70% and 90%, respectively; that the turbidity of the product water was below 0.2 NTU and the particle count number (particles larger than 2 μm) was less than 50 counts per mL. The result also showed that all the pathogenic microorganisms were retained by the ceramic and that UF. Ozonation played a critical role in the control of membrane fouling and the removal of contaminants. Exactly, the membrane fouling can be controlled in situ with 3 mg L(-1) ozone at the permeate flux of 80 L m(-2) h(-1), yet the required dosage of ozone was dependent on the quality of the raw water. Therefore, this study is able to provide a highly compacted system for decentralized supply of high-quality drinking water in terms of both chemical and microbiological safety for the rural areas in China.

  8. Towards sustainable membrane filtration of palm oil mill effluent: analysis of fouling phenomena from a hybrid PAC-UF process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade

    2016-10-01

    Sustainability of a membrane process depends on many factors of which fouling mitigation is the most central. Because membrane fouling phenomenon is very complex, extent of fouling potential of a feedwater with respect to a membrane has to be identified right from the design stage. This will acquaint engineers with the proper fouling mitigation measures during operation. This study presents a preliminary fouling data from the ultrafiltration of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) after an upstream adsorption process. The flux decline is studied in a typical constant-pressure experiments with a cross-flow ultrafiltration of biotreated POME through Sartocon® polyethersulfone membranes (MWCOs 1, 5 and 10 kDa) at applied pressures of 40, 80 and 120 kPa. Results are examined, within the frame of the common blocking mechanisms and it was found that the blocking index η decreased from 2 to 0. Pore blocking phenomenon was successively observed from complete blocking (η = 2) down to cake filtration (η = 0), and the early blockage of the pores and a formation of a cake resulted in a limiting cake height. Thus, cake filtration could be best used to explain the fouling mechanisms of biotreated POME on the ultrafiltration membranes based on the R 2 values at all applied pressures. This demonstrates that the fouling was as a result of gradual reversible cake deposition which could easily be removed by less onerous cleaning methods. In addition, it could be concluded that the upstream adsorption reduced the particulate deposition on the membrane surface.

  9. Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Yunlan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater.

  10. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” – often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level.

  11. Evaluating the effects of granular and membrane filtrations on chlorine demand in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veeriah Jegatheesan; Seung Hyun Kim; C. K. Joo; GAO Baoyu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, chlorine decay experiments were conducted for the raw water from Nakdong river that is treated by Chilseo Water Treatment Plant (CWTP) situated in Haman, Korea as well as the effluents from sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) filters of CWTP and fitted using a chlorine decay model. The model estimated the fast and slow reacting nitrogenous as well as organic/inorganic compounds that were present in the water. It was found that the chlorine demand due to fast and slow reacting (FRA and SRA) organic/inorganic substances was not reduced significantly by sand as well as GAC filters. However, the treated effluents from those filters contained FRA and SRA that are less reactive and had small reaction rate constants. For the effluents from microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration the chlorine demand due to FRA and SRA were further reduced but the reaction rate constants were larger compared to those of sand and GAC filter effluents. This has implications in the formation of disinfection by products (DBPs). If DBPs are assumed to form due to the interactions between chlorine and SRA, then it is possible that the DBP formation potential in the effluents from membrane filtrations could be higher than that in the effluents from granular media filters.

  12. Suspended material availability and filtration-biodeposition processes performed by a native and invasive bivalve species in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.L.; First, M.R.; Covich, A.P.; Opsahl, S.P.; Golladay, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are among the most threatened group of freshwater organisms globally. They are known for their ability to filter food particles from flowing and standing waters. However, invasive bivalve species, such as the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) in North America, have the potential to overlap in feeding and potentially out-compete the native species. Yet, the feeding preferences of unionid mussels and C. fluminea are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that Elliptio crassidens (native) and C. fluminea (invasive) would select for specific organic components present within seston. We examined changes in seston (dry mass and ash-free dry mass) resulting from bivalve feeding activity for three size classes of material that were isolated using gravimetric filtration. The treatments were also sub-sampled for flow cytometry (FC) which separated the suspended materials in the stream water into five categories: detritus, heterotrophic bacteria, picoautotrophs, nanoautotrophs, and heterotrophic nanoeukaryotes. Our results indicated that both species of bivalve showed preferences for organic and living materials. E. crassidens preferentially filtered nanoeukaryotes, whose decreases were associated with an increase in bacteria. In contrast, C. fluminea preferred smaller materials through selective filtration of picoautotrophs. In addition, both species increased the concentration of large materials toward the end of the experiment because of the suspension of their pseudofeces biodeposits. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine grazing by bivalve species on natural stream particulate matter using FC. Our results suggest that native and non-native mussels have different functional roles, which has important implications for organic matter processing and food webs in streams. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Numerical simulation on trapping efficiency of steady filtration process in diesel particulate filter and its experimental verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂菊; 鄂加强; 左青松; 龚金科; 左威; 袁文华

    2015-01-01

    Taking wall-flow diesel particulate filter(DPF) as the research objective and separately assuming its filtering wall to be composed of numerous spherical or cylindrical elements, two different mathematical models of steady filtration for wall-flow diesel particulate filter were developed and verified by experiments as well as numerically solved. Furthermore, the effects of the macroand micro-structural parameters of filtering wall and exhaust-flow characteristic parameters on trapping efficiency were also analyzed and researched. The results show that: 1) The two developed mathematical models are consistent with the prediction of variation of particulate size; the influence of various factors on the steady trapping efficiency is exactly the same. Compared to model 2, model 1 is more suitable for describing the steady filtration process of wall-flow diesel particulate filter; 2)The major influencing factors on steady trapping efficiency of wall-flow diesel particulate filter are the macro-and micro-structural parameters of filtering wall; and the secondary influencing factors are the exhaust-flow characteristic parameters and macro-structural parameters of filter; 3)The steady trapping efficiency will be improved by increasing filter body volume, pore density as well as wall thickness and by decreasing exhaust-flow, but effects will be weakened when particulate size exceeds a certain critical value; 4) The steady trapping efficiency will be significantly improved by increasing exhaust-flow temperature and filtering wall thickness, but effects will be also weakened when particulate size exceeds a certain critical value; 5) The steady trapping efficiency will approximately linearly increase with reducing porosity, micropore aperture and pore width.

  14. Evaluation of media for simultaneous enumeration of total coliform and Escherichia coli in drinking water supplies by membrane filtration techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dunling; FIESSEL Wanda

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated three different dehydrated media for simultaneous detection and enumeration of total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coil in drinking water samples with a standard membrane filtration procedure.The experiment indicated that the differential coliform agar (DCA) medium was the most effective among the tested media in enumerating TC and E.coli,without the need for extensive accompanying confirmation tests.The results for DCA medium were highly reproducible for both TC and E.coli with standard deviation of 6.0 and 6.1,respectively.A high agreement (82%) was found between DCA and m-Endo media on 152 drinking water samples in terms of TC positive.The DCA medium also reduced concealment of background bacteria.

  15. Modeling process of embolization arteriovenous malformation on the basis of two-phase filtration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Gologush, T. S.; Ostapenko, V. V.; Petrenko, I. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    Arteriovenous malformation is a chaotic disordered interlacement of very small diameter vessels, performing reset of blood from the artery into the vein. In this regard it can be adequately modeled using porous medium. In this model process of embolization described as penetration of non-adhesive substance ONYX into the porous medium, filled with blood, both of these fluids are not mixed with each other. In one-dimensional approximation such processes are well described by Buckley-Leverett equation. In this paper Buckley-Leverett equation is solved numerically by using a new modification of Cabaret scheme. The results of numerical modeling process of embolization of AVM are shown.

  16. A re-evaluation of the determinants of glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1995-12-01

    Several factors are potentially able to change the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and thereby participate in its regulation, but only a few factors seem to be physiologically important. The variable nature of proximal tubular pressure should be recognized as important in the regulation of GFR. It is argued that a distinction should be made between the terms 'autoregulation of GFR' and 'regulation of GFR'. The tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (TGF) is an important factor for autoregulatory control of GFR. When perturbations result in major increases in tubular flow, the TGF saturates. Proximal tubular pressure then increases and becomes the major factor responsible for the stabilization of GFR. Changes in the proximal reabsorption rate (APR) are important for long-term variations in GFR (regulation of GFR). Small changes in the APR cause near parallel changes in the GFR mainly through the TGF mechanism, while larger changes in the APR cause near parallel changes in the GFR mainly because of the effect on tubular pressure. The hydraulic resistance in the distal nephron segments is an additional factor in regulating GFR, through its effect on proximal tubular pressure. The stimulus to the TGF mechanism also depresses renin release. The resulting local angiotensin II concentration has effects both on the arteriolar resistances and on the APR. The renin-angiotensin system and TGF are therefore considered to be integrated parts of a common control system regulating GFR. According to the hypothesis advocated here, TGF-mediated changes in afferent arteriolar resistance and angiotensin-mediated changes in efferent arteriolar resistance and APR cooperate in counteracting perturbations in proximal tubular pressure and Henle loop flow. However, because of the biphasic proximal effect of angiotensin II, a major unresolved question is whether physiological increases in endogenous local angiotensin II concentrations stimulate or inhibit proximal reabsorption.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of membrane filtration for the recovery and re-use of tanning chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, W; Lucas, M

    2003-04-01

    The majority of pollution generated from leather manufacturing can be contributed to the inefficiency of chemical use in leather processing and to organic substances derived from the hides during processing. In particular, the overall tanning processes performed in drums can be characterized by a high consumption of water and chemicals, most of which are found in the final wastewater. To ensure full penetration and reaction of chemicals with collagen, chemicals are added in excess and are only partly up-taken by the leather. Significant savings of chemicals can be achieved by recovery and recycling of chemicals and water from part streams, thus reducing environmental impacts. This research formed an integrated approach to investigate and exploit the potential of a closed loop operation for various part streams of tanneries. Each of the process streams was separately collected, treated and purified by membrane technologies to obtain a recyclable liquor which can be re-used operationally. In this way a complete recovery of process liquors can be achieved for immediate operational re-use. Membrane technology has been applied to recover chemicals from un-hairing, vegetable tanning, chrome liquors and to polish saline part streams for re-use. By applying membrane filtration up to 90% of the treated liquors can be recovered giving a remaining concentrate volume of only 10%. The permeate obtained from several process areas contained to a high extent chemicals, which were re-used for leather processing.

  18. Analysis of effectiveness of spectrum of energy and image quality evaluation by aluminium filter in the added compound filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Dignostic Radiology, Seoul National University hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study analysed the effectiveness of aluminium(Al) filter in the added compound filtration for the removal of characteristic radiation by energy spectrum and image evaluation. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm copper with and without 1 mm Al were evaluated. The energy spectrum was measured using the GATE and evaluated separately by each energy. Image quality was evaluated by PSNR, MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis was performed by seven items for resolution and contrast from chest x-ray criteria of National Cancer Screening and Cardiovascular evaluation table. In the analysis of the quality of the energy per photon spectrum with the exception of a low energy region, without Al were superior in all area. PSNR MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis were the same or slightly better. PSNR was over 30 dB and all significant and the p>0.05 in the T-test of qualitative analysis. The energy spectrum and image quality have little difference between before and after use of Al filter. Therefore, it is effective to use the Al filter for the radiation dose management with the compensation capability of DR system.

  19. Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  20. Load Electricity Impact on Process of Dust Filtration%荷电对粉尘过滤过程影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹亮亮; 卢锦奎; 翁煜彬

    2011-01-01

    Based on the requirement of technical development of electrical bag complex precipitator,tested load elec-tricity impact on process of dust filtration is made.The result shows that the load electricity makes an impact on the filtration pressure reduction of dust and filtration classification efficiency and particle could generate a certain accumulation phenomena in transportation.%针对电袋复合除尘器工程技术开发的需求,进行了粉尘荷电对过滤过程影响的测试实验。测试结果显示,荷电对粉尘的过滤压降等都会产生一定影响,并且在荷电条件下,粉尘颗粒在输送过程中会产生一定程度的聚并现象。

  1. Ionizer assisted air filtration for collection of submicron and ultrafine particles-evaluation of long-term performance and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingbing; Ekberg, Lars

    2015-06-02

    Previous research has demonstrated that unipolar ionization can enhance the filter performance to collect airborne particles, aeroallergens, and airborne microorganisms, without affecting the filter pressure drop. However, there is a lack of research on the long-term system performance as well as the influence of environmental and operational parameters. In this paper, both field and laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the long-term particle collection efficiency of a synthetic filter of class M6 with and without ionization. The effect of air velocity, temperature, relative humidity, and particle concentration were further investigated in laboratory tests. Results showed that ionization enhanced the filtration efficiency by 40%-units during most of the operation time. When the ionization system was managed by periodically switching the ionizer polarity, the filtration efficiency against PM0.3-0.5 was maintained above 50% during half a year. Furthermore, the pressure drop of the ionizer-assisted M6 filter was 25-30% lower than that of a filter of class F7. The evaluation of various influencing factors demonstrated that (1) air moisture reduced the increase of filtration efficiency; (2) higher upstream particle concentration and air velocity decreased the filtration efficiency; and (3) the air temperature had very limited effect on the filtration efficiency.

  2. Hybrid flotation--membrane filtration process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C; Dorda, J; Mavrov, V; Chmiel, H; Lazaridis, N K; Matis, K A

    2003-09-01

    A promising process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions involves bonding the metals firstly to a special bonding agent and then separating the loaded bonding agents from the wastewater stream by separation processes. For the separation stage, a new hybrid process of flotation and membrane separation has been developed in this work by integrating specially designed submerged microfiltration modules directly into a flotation reactor. This made it possible to combine the advantages of both flotation and membrane separation while overcoming the limitations. The feasibility of this hybrid process was proven using powdered synthetic zeolites as bonding agents. Stable fluxes of up to 80l m(-2)h(-1) were achieved with the ceramic flat-sheet multi-channel membranes applied at low transmembrane pressure (copper, nickel and zinc, were reduced from initial concentrations of 474, 3.3 and 167mg x l(-1), respectively, to below 0.05 mg x l(-1), consistently meeting the discharge limits.

  3. Biorefinery of microalgal soluble proteins by sequential processing and membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, C.; Olivieri, G.; Pina Campos, Rui; Engelen-Smit, N.; Mulder, W.J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.

    2017-01-01

    A mild biorefinery process was investigated on the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, to obtain an enriched fraction of water soluble proteins free from chlorophyll. After harvesting, a 100 g.L−1 solution of cells was first subjected to cell disruption by either high-pressure

  4. Electron microscopic time-lapse visualization of surface pore filtration on particulate matter trapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanui, Ryoko; Hanamura, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the particulate matter (PM) trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) walls at a micro scale as 'time-lapse' images corresponding to the increase in pressure drop simultaneously measured through the DPF. This visualization and pressure drop measurement led to the conclusion that the PM trapping in surface pores was driven by PM bridging and stacking at constricted areas in porous channels. This caused a drastic increase in the pressure drop during PM accumulation at the beginning of the PM trapping process. The relationship between the porous structure of the DPF and the depth of the surface pore was investigated in terms of the porosity distribution and PM penetration depth near the wall surface with respect to depth. The pressure drop calculated with an assumed surface pore depth showed a good correspondence to the measured pressure drop.

  5. Coal cinder filtration as pretreatment with biological processes to treat pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Hao, Zhi-ming; Wang, Dong-bo; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at coupling coal cinder filter with biological process to improve pharmaceutical wastewater quality and reduce the disposal cost. In the coal cinder filter, the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5), SS and color were 90+/-2%, 72+/-2%, 95+/-2% and 80+/-2%, respectively. The results attribute to the big specific surface area and strong adsorption ability. Coal cinder filter removes a large portion of the pollutants in the influent wastewater, which would strongly stable the effluent waste water quality, and reduce the load of follow-up biological treatment process. The average removal efficiencies for COD, BOD(5), SS and color of the combined process were about 99.7+/-3%, 98.2+/-4%, 98.5+/-3% and 96.3+/-2%, respectively, with the average effluent quality of COD 16+/-1 mg/L, BOD(5) 11+/-1 mg/L, SS 10+/-0.6 mg/L and color 22+/-1 (multiple), which are consistent with the national requirements of the waste pollutants for pharmaceutical industry of chinese traditional medicine discharge standard (GB 21906-2008). The results indicated that the combined procedure could offer an attractive solution for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment with considerable low cost.

  6. A new efficient empirical correlation for filtrate flux in slurry bubble column reactor of a gas-to-liquid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Mohammad Reza [Entekhab Petrochemical Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodagholi, Mohammad Ali [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Gas to Liquid has recently become of great interest. In this technology slurry bubble column reactors are favored for many reasons. Separation of liquid wax from the slurry is still a major problem that may be done by internal or external filtration. A system of sintered metal candle filters are designed and operated to collect experimental data of internal filtration. Data for 4 and 8 micron filter elements with different pressure differences and kinematic viscosity were collected. Data analysis revealed that these data could be correlated as a simple function of time, pressure drop and kinematic viscosity. This new and efficient correlation shows excellent ability to reproduce original data at moderate filtration conditions, but it is less precious in severe conditions. It was understood that main reason for this behavior is different filtrate flux regimes through filter media pores, led to inability of a single correlation to fit both regimes properly.

  7. Biorefinery of microalgal soluble proteins by sequential processing and membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, C; Olivieri, G; Campos, R P; Engelen-Smit, N; Mulder, W J; van den Broek, L A M; Sijtsma, L

    2017-02-01

    A mild biorefinery process was investigated on the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, to obtain an enriched fraction of water soluble proteins free from chlorophyll. After harvesting, a 100g.L(-1) solution of cells was first subjected to cell disruption by either high-pressure homogenization (HPH) or enzymatic treatment (ENZ). HPH resulted in a larger release of proteins (49%) in the aqueous phase compared to the Alcalase incubation (35%). In both cases, an ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) was then performed on the supernatant obtained from cell disruption by testing different membrane cut-off (1000kDa, 500kDa and 300kDa). After optimising the process conditions, the combination of ENZ→UF/DF ended in a larger overall yield of water soluble proteins (24.8%) in the permeate compared to the combination of HPH→UF/DF (17.4%). A gel polarization model was implemented to assess the maximum achievable concentration factor during ultrafiltration and the mass transfer coefficient related to the theoretical permeation flux rate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation.

  9. Advanced water processing system (AWPS), including advanced filtration system (AFS) and advanced ion selective system (AISS) for improved utility (PWR/BWR) water processing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark S. [ATG, Inc.(United States); Vance, Jene N. [V and V, Inc. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The advanced water processing system (AWPS) has the potential for wide spread success on a worldwide scale in both PWR and BWRs. The AWPS incorporates the advanced features (patent pending) of advanced filtration and advanced ion selective technologies (patented). Typical problems encountered in current filtration systems include: (1) poor effluent quality, (2) short run lengths on filters, (3) frequent filter change-outs/backwashes, (4) large waste volumes, and (5) failed filter cartridges. The advanced filtration system (AFS) features reduced waste production per million gallons of water processed, cleaner water for recycle or release to the environment, filter element volume 100 times less than that of competitive filters, and a far lower capital cost compared to systems with similar performance. The AWPS should be of interest to plants that are upgrading, or to new plants to lower both their capital and operating costs, as well as total curie discharge levels. In addition, the AWPS will function in non-nuclear, as well as nuclear, applications of water purification, specially where pre coat filtration/ion exchange or reverse osmosis (RO) is being applied to process water with high concentrations of colloidal contaminants. Pilot testing has been successfully completed in the U. S. at the Byron (PWR), LaSalle (BWR), and Dresden(BWR) nuclear plants for Commonwealth Edison, and the Bruce several spent filters in a High Integrated Container these bench- and pilot-scale demonstrations will be presented herein. Full-scale designs or systems have been shipped to these locations. In all cases, the testing demonstrated: (1) longer run lengths (300,000 gallons between backwashes--a 100 fold improvement), (2) recoverability of cartridge filters after backwash (cartridge lives of approximately 6 months to a year--a 5 to 10 fold improvement in filter life), (3) large removal efficiencies for colloidal particles (reduced discharge curies), and (4) reduced waste volumes

  10. Nanomembrane Canister Architectures for the Visualization and Filtration of Oxyanion Toxins with One-Step Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelmagd, Ahmed; El-Safty, Sherif A; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Elshehy, Emad A; Khairy, Mohamed; Sakaic, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Nanomembrane canister-like architectures were fabricated by using hexagonal mesocylinder-shaped aluminosilica nanotubes (MNTs)-porous anodic alumina (PAA) hybrid nanochannels. The engineering pattern of the MNTs inside a 60 μm-long membrane channel enabled the creation of unique canister-like channel necks and cavities. The open-tubular canister architecture design provides controllable, reproducible, and one-step processing patterns of visual detection and rejection/permeation of oxyanion toxins such as selenite (SeO3(2-)) in aquatic environments (i.e., in ground and river water sources) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. The decoration of organic ligand moieties such as omega chrome black blue (OCG) into inorganic Al2O3@tubular SiO2/Al2O3 canister membrane channel cavities led to the fabrication of an optical nanomembrane sensor (ONS). The OCG ligand was not leached from the canister as observed in washing, sensing, and recovery assays of selenite anions in solution, which enabled its multiple reuse. The ONS makes a variety of alternate processing analyses of selective quantification, visual detection, rejection/permeation, and recovery of toxic selenite quick and simple without using complex instrumentation. Under optimal conditions, the ONS canister exhibited a high selectivity toward selenite anions relative to other ions and a low-level detection limit of 0.0093 μM. Real analytical data showed that approximately 96% of SeO3(2-) anions can be recovered from aquatic and wastewater samples. The ONS canister holds potential for field recovery applications of toxic selenite anions from water. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    the distribution of N and P on the fields. Filtration is a useful method for such a separation. Furthermore, chemicals can be added to flocculate the solids and thereby increase the filterability i.e. the specific filter-cake resistance can be reduced from 1015 m/kg to 1011 m/kg. Both the amount of added chemicals......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...... that the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour is due to a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). This can also explain the observed behaviour when flocculated manure is filtered. The filtration data can be simulated if cake creep is adopted in the filtration...

  12. Rapid sample processing for intracellular metabolite studies in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123.824: the FiltRes-device combines cold filtration of methanol quenched biomass with resuspension in extraction solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabl, Pamela; Artmann, Desiree J; Schinagl, Christoph W; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Many issues concerning sample processing for intracellular metabolite studies in filamentous fungi still need to be solved, e.g. how to reduce the contact time of the biomass to the quenching solution in order to minimize metabolite leakage. Since the required time to separate the biomass from the quenching solution determines the contact time, speeding up this step is thus of utmost interest. Recently, separation approaches based on cold-filtration were introduced as promising alternative to cold-centrifugation, which exhibit considerably reduced contact times. In previous works we were unable to obtain a compact pellet from cold methanol quenched samples of the filamentous fungus Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123.824 via centrifugation. Therefore our aim was to establish for this organism a separation technique based on cold-filtration to determine intracellular levels of a selected set of nucleotides. We developed a cold-filtration based technique as part of our effort to revise the entire sample processing method and analytical procedure. The Filtration-Resuspension (FiltRes) device combined in a single apparatus (1) a rapid cold-filtration and (2) a rapid resuspension of the biomass in hot extraction solution. Unique to this is the injection of the extraction solution from below the membrane filter (FiltRes-principle). This caused the mycelial cake to detach completely from the filter membrane and to float upwards so that the biomass could easily be transferred into preheated tubes for metabolite extraction. The total contact time of glucose-limited chemostat mycelium to the quenching solution could be reduced to 15.7 ± 2.5 s, whereby each washing step added another 10-15 s. We evaluated critical steps like filtration time, temperature profile, reproducibility of results, and using the energy charge (EC) as a criterion, effectiveness of enzyme destruction during the transition in sample temperature from cold to hot. As control we used total broth samples

  13. Silicon production process evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  14. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  15. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  16. Computer Processed Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, George H.; Kapp, George H.

    A student testing system was developed consisting of computer generated and scored equivalent but unique repeatable tests based on performance objectives for undergraduate chemistry classes. The evaluation part of the computer system, made up of four separate programs written in FORTRAN IV, generates tests containing varying numbers of multiple…

  17. Evaluation of dust cake filtration at high temperature with effluence from an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, R.A.

    1990-08-01

    In the spring of 1989, two separate test series were simultaneously conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to examine applied and fundamental behavior of dust cake filtration under high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) conditions. The purpose was to provide information on dust-cake filtration properties to gas stream cleanup researchers associated with the Tidd 70 megawatt (MW) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The two test facilities included (1) a high-pressure natural-gas combustor with injected particulate, which was fed to two full-size candle filters; and (2) an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) with coal and limestone sorbent to generate a particulate-laden combustion exhaust gas, which was sent to a single full-size candle filter and a small-scale disc filter. Several major conclusions from these studies are noted below. On average reducing the mean particulate size by 33% and the associated loading carried in the filtrate will increase the dust cake specific flow resistance (K{sub 2}) by 498%. High-temperature and high-pressure filtration can be successfully performed with ceramic candle filters at moderate filtration face velocities and reasonable system pressure drops. Off-line filter cleaning can produce a filter system with a higher apparent permeability than that produced from on-line filter cleaning at the same face velocity. 19 refs., 89 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

  19. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  20. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment and membrane filtration processes of various feedstocks to isolate hemicelluloses for biopolymer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand

    Hemicelluloses (HC) are the second most abundant plant polysaccharides after cellulose, constituting 25-30% of plant materials. In spite of their abundance, HC are not effectively utilized. Recently, considerable interest has been directed to HC-based biomaterials because of their high oxygen barrier properties, which has potential in food packaging applications. In this study, HC were extracted from sugarcane bagasse and southern yellow pine using a hydrothermal technique which utilizes hot compressed water without catalyst. The parameters affecting the yield of extracted HC such as temperature, time and pressure, were tested and optimized. Eighty four percent of xylose was extracted from sugarcane bagasse at the optimum condition, 180 °C 30 min and 1 MPa pressure. In the case of southern yellow pine, 79% of the mannose was extracted at 190 °C for 10 min and 2 MPa pressure. Concentration and isolation of HC from bagasse and southern yellow pine HC extract were performed by membrane filtration and freeze drying systems. Isolated HC were characterized by FT-IR and 13C NMR techniques and used as a starting material for film preparation. Films were prepared in 0/100, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 80/20% ratios of HC and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Thirty five percent of sorbitol (w/w of HC and CMC weight) was also added as a plasticizer. Films were evaluated by measuring water absorption, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile property and oxygen barrier capability. At 55% relative humidity (RH) and 25 °C the water absorption of both sugarcane bagasse and southern yellow pine HC-based films tended to increase as HC content increased. The lowest WVP of sugarcane bagasse (3.84e-12 g/Pa h m) and southern yellow pine HC films (2.18e-12 g/Pa h m) were determined in 60/40 HC/CMC films. Tensile test results showed that as HC content increases the Young's modulus decreases, deflection at maximum load and percentage of strain at break increase. It implies that the film

  1. Functional evaluation of hydronephrosis by diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient and split glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoshima, S.; Noguchi, K.; Seto, H.; Shimizu, M.; Watanabe, N. [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-11-01

    To determine the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging and split renal function determined by renal scintigraphy in patients with hydronephrosis. Material and Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging on a 1.5 T MR unit and renal scintigraphy were performed in 36 patients with hydronephrosis (45 hydronephrotic kidneys, 21 non-hydronephrotic kidneys). ADC values of the individual kidneys were measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Split renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) was determined by renal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. The relationship between ADC values and split GFR was examined in 66 kidneys. The hydronephrotic kidneys were further classified into three groups (severe renal dysfunction, GFR <10 ml/min, n=7; moderate renal dysfunction, GFR 10-25 ml/min, n=10; normal renal function, GFR >25 ml/min, n=28), and mean values for ADCs were calculated. Results: In hydronephrotic kidneys, there was a moderate positive correlation between ADC values and split GFR (R2=0.56). On the other hand, in non-hydronephrotic kidneys, poor correlation between ADC values and split GFR was observed (R2=0.08). The mean values for ADCs of the dysfunctioning hydronephrotic kidneys (severe renal dysfunction, 1.32x10{sup -3}{+-}0.18x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; moderate renal dysfunction, 1.38x10{sup -3}{+-}0.10x10{sup -3} mm2/s) were significantly lower than that of the normal functioning hydronephrotic kidneys (1.63x10{sup -3}{+-}0.12{+-}10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Conclusion: These results indicated that measurement of ADC values by diffusion-weighted MR imaging has a potential value in the evaluation of the functional status of hydronephrotic kidneys.

  2. One-sample determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. An evaluation based on 75 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim. From a clinical point of view determination of glomerular filtration rate (clearance) is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the one-sample clearance to reference multiple-sample (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in consecutively referred children suspected of ...

  3. Load Electricity Impact on Process of Dust Filtration%废弃啤酒酵母对重金属离子的吸附特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利祥; 孙志武; 吴宁; 戚秀云

    2011-01-01

    重金属污染问题已成为当今世界性的水污染治理难题,也是全球性的环境问题之一。实验采用发酵工业产生的废啤酒酵母为生物吸附材料,通过静态吸附实验,研究其对重金属离子Cu2+和Pb2+的吸附可行性及各种实验条件对吸附性能的影响,得出最佳工艺条件并对其动力学和热力学吸附过程进行分析。为下一步实验及扩大生产应用奠定了重要基础。%Based on the requirement of technical development of electrical bag complex precipitator, tested load electricity impact on process of dust filtration is made. The result shows that the load electricity makes an impact on the filtration pressure reduction of dust and filtration classification efficiency and particle could generate a certain accumulation phenomena in transportation.

  4. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process consisting in the adsorption with activated carbon and physical filtration of fish oil in order to reduce...

  5. Robust scale-up of dead end filtration: impact of filter fouling mechanisms and flow distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Michael E; Brooks, Ralph P; Gayton, Marshall; Pujar, Narahari S

    2005-11-05

    Robust design of a dead end filtration step and the resulting performance at manufacturing scale relies on laboratory data collected with small filter units. During process development it is important to characterize and understand the filter fouling mechanisms of the process streams so that an accurate assessment can be made of the filter area required at manufacturing scale. Successful scale-up also requires integration of the lab-scale filtration data with an understanding of flow characteristics in the full-scale filtration equipment. A case study is presented on the development and scale-up of a depth filtration step used in a 2nd generation polysaccharide vaccine manufacturing process. The effect of operating parameters on filter performance was experimentally characterized for a diverse set of process streams. Filter capacity was significantly reduced when operating at low fluxes, caused by both low filtration pressure and high stream viscosity. The effect of flux on filter capacity could be explained for a variety of diverse streams by a single mechanistic model of filter fouling. To complement the laboratory filtration data, the fluid flow and distribution characteristics in manufacturing-scale filtration equipment were carefully evaluated. This analysis identified the need for additional scale-up factors to account for non-uniform filter area usage in large-scale filter housings. This understanding proved critical to the final equipment design and depth filtration step definition, resulting in robust process performance at manufacturing scale. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mainstream Smoke Gas Phase Filtration Performance of Adsorption Materials Evaluated With A Puff-by-Puff Multiplex GC-MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainstream smoke filtration performance of activated carbon, silica gel and polymeric aromatic resins for gas-phase components was evaluated using a puff-by-puff multiplex gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis method (1. The sample 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes were modified by placing the adsorbents in a plug/space/plug filter configuration. Due to differences in surface area and structural characteristics, the adsorbent materials studied showed different levels of filtration activities for the twenty-six constituents monitored. Activated carbon had significant adsorption activity for all the gas-phase smoke constituents observed except ethane and carbon dioxide, while silica gel had significant activities for polar components such as aldehydes, acrolein, ketones, and diacetyl. XAD-16 polyaromatic resins showed varied levels of activity for aromatic compounds, cyclic dienes and ketones.

  7. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  8. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration... the processing of food, under the following prescribed conditions; (a)(1) Ultra-filtration...

  9. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs.

  10. Treatment efficiency and economic feasibility of biological oxidation, membrane filtration and separation processes, and advanced oxidation for the purification and valorization of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L; Michael-Kordatou, I; Fattas, S C; Eusebio, A; Ribeiro, B; Rusan, M; Amer, A R B; Zuraiqi, S; Waismand, M; Linder, C; Wiesman, Z; Gilron, J; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2017-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major waste stream resulting from numerous operations that occur during the production stages of olive oil. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact can be notable. The present work aims at investigating the efficiency of (i) jet-loop reactor with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system (Jacto.MBR), (ii) solar photo-Fenton oxidation after coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment and (iii) integrated membrane filtration processes (i.e. UF/nanofiltration (NF)) used for the treatment of OMW. According to the results, the efficiency of the biological treatment was high, equal to 90% COD and 80% total phenolic compounds (TPh) removal. A COD removal higher than 94% was achieved by applying the solar photo-Fenton oxidation process as post-treatment of coagulation/flocculation of OMW, while the phenolic fraction was completely eliminated. The combined UF/NF process resulted in very high conductivity and COD removal, up to 90% and 95%, respectively, while TPh were concentrated in the NF concentrate stream (i.e. 93% concentration). Quite important is the fact that the NF concentrate, a valuable and polyphenol rich stream, can be further valorized in various industries (e.g. food, pharmaceutical, etc.). The above treatment processes were found also to be able to reduce the initial OMW phytotoxicity at greenhouse experiments; with the effluent stream of solar photo-Fenton process to be the least phytotoxic compared to the other treated effluents. A SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) analysis was performed, in order to determine both the strengths of each technology, as well as the possible obstacles that need to overcome for achieving the desired levels of treatment. Finally, an economic evaluation of the tested technologies was performed in an effort to measure the applicability and viability of these systems at real scale; highlighting that the cost cannot be regarded as

  11. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  12. Assessment of the efficacy of membrane filtration processes to remove human enteric viruses and the suitability of bacteriophages and a plant virus as surrogates for those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Murai, K

    2017-02-24

    Here, we evaluated the efficacy of direct microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) to remove three representative human enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus [AdV] type 40, coxsackievirus [CV] B5, and hepatitis A virus [HAV] IB), and one surrogate of human caliciviruses (i.e., murine norovirus [MNV] type 1). Eight different MF membranes and three different UF membranes were used. We also examined the ability of coagulation pretreatment with high-basicity polyaluminum chloride (PACl) to enhance virus removal by MF. The removal ratios of two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) and a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) were compared with the removal ratios of the human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of these viruses to be used as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The virus removal ratios obtained with direct MF with membranes with nominal pore sizes of 0.1-0.22 μm differed, depending on the membrane used; adsorptive interactions, particularly hydrophobic interactions between virus particles and the membrane surface, were dominant factors for virus removal. In contrast, direct UF with membranes with nominal molecular weight cutoffs of 1-100 kDa effectively removed viruses through size exclusion, and >4-log10 removal was achieved when a membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 1 kDa was used. At pH 7 and 8, in-line coagulation-MF with nonsulfated high-basicity PACls containing Al30 species had generally a better virus removal (i.e., >4-log10 virus removal) than the other aluminum-based coagulants, except for φX174. For all of the filtration processes, the removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV were comparable and strongly correlated with each other. The removal ratios of MS2 and PMMoV were comparable or smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, and were strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. The removal ratios obtained with coagulation-MF for φX174 were markedly smaller than

  13. Comparison of a sand and membrane filtration unit for drinking water production –focus on the arsenic removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic removal from groundwater by help of micro- (pore size of 1 µm) and ultrafiltration (pore size of 0,04 µm) was evaluated and compared with sand filtration. The dead-end filtration enabled to compare MF/UF with conventional sand filter. The results indicate that none of membrane processes w...

  14. Glomerular filtration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  15. Studies on new process procedures in plasma fractionation and industrial scale. III. Removal of precipitates by filtration through a horizontal leaf filter with centrifugal cleaning (Funda filter) as an alternative to tubular-bowl centrifuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, H; Mauerhofer, M; Faes, A; Kistler, P

    1976-10-01

    The possibilities for replacing the time-consuming and labor-intensive centrifugation step in the plasma fractionation process with a filtration technique using filter aids were explored using a Funda filter (pat. Dr. Ing. Hans Müller). The filtration technique proved effective in the separation of the impure plasma fractions. On the other hand, its use in the separation of pure albumin and gamma-globulin fractions appears doubtful.

  16. Glomerular Filtration Barrier Assembly: An insight

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Ehtesham; Nihalani, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    A glomerulus is the network of capillaries that resides in the Bowman’s capsule that functions as a filtration unit of kidney. The glomerular function ensures that essential plasma proteins are retained in blood and the filtrate is passed on as urine. The glomerular filtration assembly is composed of three main cellular barriers that are critical for the ultrafiltration process, the fenestrated endothelium, glomerular basement membrane and highly specialized podocytes. The podocytes along wit...

  17. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  18. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... not increase in proportion with square root time when e.g. sewage sludge and manure are filtered. Different explanations have been suggested. However, organic slurries are complex mixtures and it is therefore difficult to evaluate the suggested explanations and develops new models. One possible solution...

  19. Rotary filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  20. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  1. Filtration properties of nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gador, W; Jankowska, E

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions from experimental investigations concerning filtration properties of nonwovens. The needled nonwovens were made from polyester fibres (PTE) with average fibre diameter 12 micrometres and polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 32 micrometres. Nonwovens were produced out of each of those fibres or out of a mixture of polyester and polypropylene fibres. This paper also presents investigations of nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 2.6 micrometres, which was formed according to melt-blown technology. Oil mist, as challenge aerosol, was used to evaluate the performance of filter media at various aerosol velocities. The average oil mist test aerosol particle diameter was 0.3 micrometre. Filter penetration was measured at oil mist concentration 0.24 g/m(3).

  2. Polymeric microspheres with N-methyl-D-glucamine ligands for boron removal from water solution by adsorption-membrane filtration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Joanna; Bryjak, Marek; Kabay, Nalan

    2010-08-01

    Polymeric microspheres with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) ligands have been tested in the adsorption-membrane filtration process for boron removal from aqueous solutions. The chelating resins were synthesized by reacting NMDG with the vinylbenzyl chloride-styrene-1,4-divinylbenzene (VBC/S/DVB) copolymer at the reflux temperature and in the microwave reactor. VBC/S/DVB spheres with a gel structure that contained 6 wt% DVB were obtained by membrane emulsification followed by suspension polymerization. By selecting the optimal emulsification and polymerization parameters, it was possible to obtain 25-microm-diameter particles with a narrow size distribution. Resins obtained by microwave modification showed the higher boron adsorption capacity.

  3. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating environment and the performance goals for the gas turbine. Selection of these systems can be a challenging task. This paper provides a review of the considerations for selecting an inlet filtration system by covering (1 the characteristics of filters and filter systems, (2 a review of the many types of filters, (3 a detailed look at the different environments where the gas turbine can operate, (4 a process for evaluating the site where the gas turbine will be or is installed, and (5 a method to compare various filter system options with life cycle cost analysis.

  4. Stormwater filtration of toxic heavy metal ions using lignocellulosic materials selection process, fiberization, chemical modification, and mat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han

    1999-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials were evaluated for their effectiveness in filtering toxic heavy metals from stormwater. Kenaf, alfalfa, juniper, and aspen fibers were used as models to evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of chemical modification and the extent of fiber degradation. Individual and mixed aqueous solutions of nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium in various...

  5. Mobile surface water filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Vatsyayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To design a mobile system for surface water filtrationMethodology: the filtration of surface impurities begins with their retraction to concentrated thickness using non ionising surfactants, then isolation using surface tension property and sedimentation of impurities in process chamber using electrocoagulation. Result:following studies done to determine the rate of spreading of crude oil on water a method for retraction of spread crude oil to concentrated volumes is developed involving addition of non -ionising surfactants in contrast to use of dispersants. Electrocoagulation process involves multiple processes taking place to lead to depositionof impurities such as oil, grease, metals. Studies of experiments conducted reveals parameters necessary for design of electrocoagulation process chamber though a holistic approach towards system designing is still required. Propeller theory is used in determining the required design of propeller and the desired thrust, the overall structure will finally contribute in deciding the choice of propeller.

  6. Evaluation of the long-term effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in large breeding herds in swine-dense regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Cano, Jean Paul; Spronk, Gordon; Reicks, Darwin; Ruen, Paul; Pitkin, Andrea; Polson, Dale

    2012-05-01

    Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a long‑term sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated.

  7. The role of a combined coagulation and disk filtration process as a pre-treatment to microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in a municipal wastewater pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kangmin; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, Seung Joon; Jang, Am

    2014-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the performance of a municipal wastewater reclamation plant consisting of a combined coagulation-disk filtration (CC-DF) process, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, in terms of the removal of water contaminants and changes in characteristics of effluent organic matter (EfOM). The CC-DF and MF membranes were not effective for the removal of dissolved water contaminants. However, they could partially reduce the turbidity associated with the cake layer formation by particulate materials on the membrane surfaces. Furthermore, most of water contaminants were completely removed by the RO membranes. Although the CC-DF process could remove approximately 20% of turbidity, the aluminium concentrations considerably increased after the CC-DF process due to the residual coagulants complexed with both carboxylic acid and alcohol functional groups of EfOM. Those aluminium-EfOM complexes had a lower negative charge and higher molecular weight (>0.1 μm pore size of the MF membranes) compared to non-complexed EfOM. These results indicate that the control of the formation of the aluminium-EfOM complexes should be considered as a key step to use the CC-DF process as a pre-treatment of the MF and RO membranes for mitigation of membrane fouling in the tested pilot plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Hussain, Irshad; Khalid, Zafar M

    2008-10-01

    Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological-coagulation-filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%) was also observed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process followed by coagulation and filtration. Untreated effluent was found to be toxic, whereas the treated effluents by either of the above two processes were found to be non-toxic when exposed to the fish for 72h. The resultant effluent from FBR-coagulation-sand filtration system meets National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks.

  9. 15 CFR 286.7 - Evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation process. 286.7 Section 286... VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.7 Evaluation process. (a) Each applicant requesting to be evaluated under NVCASE is expected to initiate the process and assume...

  10. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  11. Properties of the filtrate from treatment of pig manure by filtration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents properties of filtrate obtained from pig manure using the AMAK treatment process, which includes the mineralization of macro- and microfertilizer components by the hydrolyzing of organic matter into forms that are bioavailable to plants. Filtration produced two products, sediment and filtrate. The quality of the filtrate allowed for its use as a substitute of water to irrigate crops. Concentrations of heavy metals are very low and therefore the quality of the filtrate fully complies with European standard concerning fertilizers. The used mineralization process practically eliminated odors from the filtrate. The reduction of specific odor emission by 99.1-99.5% in samples taken from above the filtrate, respectively compared to the odor concentration found in samples taken from above raw pig manure. Sediment could be used as raw material for production of mineral-organic fertilizer. Filtrate and filtration sediments analyses show that the majority of nitrogen and other fertilizing compounds included in raw pig manure remains in sediment.

  12. Efficiencies of residual organic pollutants removal from secondary effluent by switching of coagulation- air flotation -filtration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Zhang, J; Ma, L; Jiang, A; Kong, X J; Li, X K; Bao, L

    2006-01-01

    It is an essential task to remove the residual organic pollutants (ROP) from secondary effluent of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in wastewater reclamation and reuse processes. Four different compared flow schemes would be achieved for further purification of the secondary effluent by switching of different valves. In order to mainly remove non-biodegradable residual organic pollutants under various operating conditions, the optimum technology and economic process was obtained in the advanced purification flow scheme at a flow of 3200 m(3)/d in Harbin Wenchang WWTP. Conclusions under a lot of experiments show that: choosing the coagulation-settler plus biofilm filter for advanced purification process is reasonable; during the stable operation phase, this process showed good performance in removing the COD, BOD5, TP, NH3-N and SS; the removal rates are 50%, 39%, 67%, 50%, 80% respectively. The effluent is able to excel the requirements for wastewater reuse standards. The unit cost of the water is 0.542 yuan/m(3), which is far below the fee paid for supply water, long-distance transfer water or seawater desalination through economic analysis.

  13. Analysis of effluent filtrate in the hydro-entanglement process for producing cotton nonwovens: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of hydro-entangled cotton nonwoven fabrics were produced on commercial equipment, using UltraCleanTM Cotton (T.J. Beall Company). Polypropylene “sock” filters were used in the production trials to clean the effluent water for recycling it in the hydro-entanglement process. After each trial ...

  14. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Influence of the Filtration Process on the Aluminum Resistivity%过滤工艺对铝电阻率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪吾; 刘顺华; 周永江; 周文龙; 王桂芹; 李长茂; 刘士魁

    2001-01-01

    主要研究了过滤器孔径、工作压头及温度等工艺因素对铝电阻率的影响。研究结果表明合理的过滤工艺可以有效地降低铝的电阻率。工业纯铝和含硼铝经细孔过滤器过滤,可以降低电阻率0.32%和1.34%。为高电导率铝合金的开发应用提供必要的参考数据。%Influence of process factors including hole diameter of filter,pressurised head and temperature, on the specific resistivity of aluminum was studied. It is shown that the resistivity of aluminum can be decreased effectively using reasonable filtration process. The resistivities of fine hole filter treated pure aluminum and aluminum with B are decreased by 0.32% and 1.34%respectively,which provide a reference for development and application of aluminum alloy with high electric-conductivity.

  16. Magnetic filtration with magnetized granular beds: Basic principles and filter performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teymuraz; Abbasov

    2007-01-01

    This study is devoted to the explanation of different characteristics of magnetic filtration and the way these characteristics affect the important filtration parameters. Magnetic fields in pores and the force effect of these fields on magnetic particles and the magnetization properties of packed beds composed of ferromagnetic spheres and metal chips are evaluated. The profile of accumulation and capture regions of the particles, the variation of the fluid velocity in these regions and analytic expressions of particle capture radius are presented. The effects of filtration regime parameters on magnetic filter performance were investigated. An analytical expression has been obtained for the dependence of the logarithmic efficiency coefficient on filtration velocity, the geometry of filter elements, the particle size and other parameters of filtration. The stationary and non-stationary equations of the magnetic filtration processes are given. An expression of magnetic filter performance is shown with dimensionless parameters obtained from the filtration system. These relations are useful for calculations in engineering practice, including the design of magnetic filters, provision of suggestions on construction, and optimization and control of filter operation.

  17. Comparison of parabolic filtration methods for 3D filtered back projection in pulsed EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J

    2014-11-01

    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (Pulse EPRI) is a robust method for noninvasively measuring local oxygen concentrations in vivo. For 3D tomographic EPRI, the most commonly used reconstruction algorithm is filtered back projection (FBP), in which the parabolic filtration process strongly influences image quality. In this work, we designed and compared 7 parabolic filtration methods to reconstruct both simulated and real phantoms. To evaluate these methods, we designed 3 error criteria and 1 spatial resolution criterion. It was determined that the 2 point derivative filtration method and the two-ramp-filter method have unavoidable negative effects resulting in diminished spatial resolution and increased artifacts respectively. For the noiseless phantom the rectangular-window parabolic filtration method and sinc-window parabolic filtration method were found to be optimal, providing high spatial resolution and small errors. In the presence of noise, the 3 point derivative method and Hamming-window parabolic filtration method resulted in the best compromise between low image noise and high spatial resolution. The 3 point derivative method is faster than Hamming-window parabolic filtration method, so we conclude that the 3 point derivative method is optimal for 3D FBP. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Process-oriented evaluation of agile business processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Agile enterprises are built based on agile business processes.Simultaneously,agile enterprises must be able to utilize agile business processes to rapidly respond market opportunities and maintain enterprises'competitions.But how to evaluate and choose agile business processes is a key problem about building agile enterprises.The paper proposes a goal driven method and an evaluation architecture for business processes' agility.Furthermore,a four-layer configuring model for agile business processes is developed based on the evaluation architecture and it can evaluate and configure agile business processes among alternatives.

  19. Enhanced magnetic cleaning in magnetic enhanced flocculation membrane filtration process%磁絮凝膜过滤工艺中附加磁场强化清洗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷; 杨军; 贾辉; 张宏伟

    2014-01-01

    基于磁强化絮凝膜过滤(MEFMF)工艺中磁絮体和含磁滤饼层的特性,设计了在线(on-line)和离线(off-line)磁强化清洗(MEC)工艺。在磁场和曝气剪切的协同作用下,含磁滤饼层脱离膜纤维表面,膜通量恢复率较常规物理清洗(RC)明显提高。在离线磁强化清洗时,设计反洗装置中心的磁感应强度为6 mT,曝气强度为500 L·m−2·min−1,控制清洗时间为5 min,维持反洗压力0.04 MPa,可达到最佳的膜清洗效果,通量恢复率达97%以上。在外加磁场强化清洗过程中,滤饼层中的磁种发生磁化作用,滤饼层表现出微弱的宏观磁性,在磁场的作用下向磁极运动,使得膜通量恢复率明显提高。此外,在MEFMF工艺中采用间歇磁强化清洗,可以更加有效地去除引起不可逆膜污染的胶体和有机物,降低膜污染速率,减缓膜污染。%On the basis of the characteristics of magnetic flocs and cake layer in the magnetic enhanced flocculation membrane filtration (MEFMF) process, processes of on-line and off-line magnetic enhanced cleaning (MEC) were designed. Magnetic cake layer was separated from fiber surface under the synergistic effect of magnetic field force and aeration shear force, in which way the goal of optimization of membrane cleaning was achieved. The magnetic enhanced cleaning process was added to magnetic enhanced flocculation membrane filtration for off-line cleaning of fouled membrane module in MEFMF process. In the magnetic cleaning process with device’s magnetic induction 6 mT, aeration intensity 500 L·m−2·min−1, washing time to 5 min, backwash pressure 0.04 MPa, optimum cleaning effect could be achieved for flux recovery rate over 97%. In the enhanced cleaning process with magnetic field the magnetic seeding in the cake layer was magnetized, rendering the cake layer weak macro magnetism. Under the effect of the attached magnetic field the magnetized cake

  20. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....

  1. Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2011-04-04

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

  2. Combined coagulation-disk filtration process as a pretreatment of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane for wastewater reclamation: an autopsy study of a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kangmin; Kim, Seung Joon; Moon, Jihee; Cho, Jaeweon

    2012-04-15

    The effects of the combined coagulation-disk filtration (CC-DF) process on the fouling characteristics and behavior caused by interactions between effluent organic matter (EfOM) and the membrane surfaces of the ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in a pilot plant for municipal wastewater reclamation (MWR) were investigated. The feed water from secondary effluents was treated by the CC-DF process used as a pretreatment for the UF membrane to mitigate fouling formation and the permeate from the CC-DF process was further filtered by two UF membrane units in parallel arrangement and fed into four RO modules in a series connection. The CC-DF process was not sufficient to mitigate biofouling but the UF membrane was effective in mitigating biofouling on the RO membrane surfaces. Fouling of the UF and RO membranes was dominated by hydrophilic fractions of EfOM (e.g., polysaccharide-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic scaling (e.g., aluminum, calcium and silica). The desorbed UF membrane foulants included more aluminum species and hydrophobic fractions than the desorbed RO membrane foulants, which was presumably due to the residual coagulants and aluminum-humic substance complexes. The significant change in the surface chemistry of the RO membrane (a decrease in surface charge and an increase in contact angle of the fouled RO membranes) induced by the accumulation of hydrophilic EfOM onto the negatively charged RO membrane surface intensified the fouling formation of the fouled RO membrane by hydrophobic interaction between the humic substances of EfOM with relatively high hydrophobicity and the fouled RO membranes with decreased surface charge and increased contract angle.

  3. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  4. [Pesticide pollution of groundwater and drinking water by the processes of artificial groundwater enrichment or coastal filtration: underrated sources of contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, W

    1994-12-01

    The research objective of this study is to monitor the degree of pesticide pollution in public drinking waters and to characterise the pathways by which these substances get into potable waters. Public drinking waters, raw waters, ground waters, and surface waters in an area with intensive agriculture were analysed for pesticides and nitrate during the years 1987-1992. The monitoring reveals that only potable waters of water works using the process of artificial ground water recharge are polluted by pesticides. The very influence of surface water on the degree of pesticide contamination can be shown up to the wells. Wells that are influenced by bank filtration or infiltration contain significantly (P water wells. Most often triazines and phenylureas are analysed. Among the tested water works the artificial ground water recharge is the main factor for the input of pesticides into the aquifer and the drinking water. Percolation experiments, and parallel seasonal changes of pesticides and nitrate in raw and infiltration water document a high mobility during the subsoil passage and an easy vulnerability of the aquifer. There is no correlation between pesticides and nitrate. So nitrates are not suited as an indicator for pesticide pollution. Almost all tested surface waters, including channels, contain pesticides in highly varying concentrations during the whole year and are thus always a possible source for an input into the recharged ground water. In addition to agricultural runoffs a remarkable contamination of rivers with the herbicide diuron caused by municipal waste waters can be observed in the summer. Because of insufficient elimination of herbicides like triazines and phenylureas during bank filtration or infiltration and because of the high loads of surface waters with pesticides a minimisation of pesticide losses within the whole catchment area, especially of runoffs into surface waters, and the abstention from the use of slowly degradable herbicides in

  5. Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical and sensory properties of winter melon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Duan, Yongping; Bai, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. The juices had low sugars (juice were significantly lower than in HP juice. The phenolic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were detected at 10-45 mg L(-1) levels, and the antioxidant activity ranged from 36 to 49 mg gallic acid L(-1) . C6 and C9 aldehydes were mainly found in HP juice, and boiling induced the accumulation of sulfur compounds and C5 aldehydes. The LPNB juice showed the highest acceptability in the sensory panel. The frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) reconstituted with LPNB was preferable to regular FCOJ for 31% of panelists and not different for 20% of panelists. The low sugar/low acid LPNB juice with 'fresh' flavor could be developed to replace water for reconstituting FCOJ with enhanced nutritional value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Self-cleaning Metal Organic Framework (MOF) based ultra filtration membranes - A solution to bio-fouling in membrane separation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J. A.; Bhuvana, S.; Anbharasi, V.; Ayyanar, N.; Boodhoo, K. V. K.; Singh, G.

    2014-10-01

    Bio-fouling is a serious problem in many membrane-based separation processes for water and wastewater treatment. Current state of the art methods to overcome this are to modify the membranes with either hydrophilic additives or with an antibacterial compound. In this study, we propose and practise a novel concept to prevent bio-fouling by developing a killing and self-cleaning membrane surface incorporating antibacterial silver nanoparticles and highly hydrophilic negatively charged carboxylic and amine functional groups. The innovative surface chemistry helps to reduce the contact angle of the novel membrane by at least a 48% and increase the pure water flux by 39.4% compared to the control membrane. The flux drop for the novel membrane is also lower (16.3% of the initial flux) than the control membrane (55.3% of the initial flux) during the long term experiments with protein solution. Moreover, the novel membrane continues to exhibit inhibition to microbes even after 1320 min of protein filtration. Synthesis of self-cleaning ultrafiltration membrane with long lasting properties opens up a viable solution for bio-fouling in ultrafiltration application for wastewater purification.

  7. 管式膜过滤过程中的流体力学研究%Study on hydromechanics in process of tubular membrane filtration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩华; 杨丽

    2013-01-01

    The relation among inlet flux, outlet pressure, pressure drop and permeate flux in the process of tubular membrane filtration is studied by experiment. The results show that permeate energy consumption is lower when outlet pressure is 0.1-0.15 MPa, and permeate energy consumption increasing trend becomes slowly when inlet flux is up to 1 000-1 200 L/h. By calculation and derivation, the formula of pressure and length and the formula of permeate flux and pressure are obtained.%通过实验方法,研究了管式膜在过滤过程中进口流量、出口压力、压力降、膜通量等工艺参数之间的相互关系.实验结果显示,出口压力在0.1~0.15 MPa时,管式膜透过液单位能耗较低;进口流量在1000~1200 L/h时,管式膜单位能耗增加较慢,是较优的运行工艺参数.通过对实验结果进行计算和推导,得到膜管压力与膜管长度的关系和通量与压力的关系.

  8. Antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic air filter with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kyoung Mi; Park, Hyun-Seol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrated an antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic (ES) air filter. Antimicrobial natural-product Sophora flavescens nanoparticles were produced using an aerosol process, and were continuously deposited onto the surface of air filter media. For the electrostatic activation of the filter medium, a corona discharge electrification system was used before and after antimicrobial treatment of the filter. In the antimicrobial treatment process, the deposition efficiency of S. flavescens nanoparticles on the ES filter was ~12% higher than that on the pristine (Non-ES) filter. In the evaluation of filtration performance using test particles (a nanosized KCl aerosol and submicron-sized Staphylococcus epidermidis bioaerosol), the ES filter showed better filtration efficiency than the Non-ES filter. However, antimicrobial treatment with S. flavescens nanoparticles affected the filtration efficiency of the filter differently depending on the size of the test particles. While the filtration efficiency of the KCl nanoparticles was reduced on the ES filter after the antimicrobial treatment, the filtration efficiency was improved after the recharging process. In summary, we prepared an antimicrobial ES air filter with >99% antimicrobial activity, ~92.5% filtration efficiency (for a 300-nm KCl aerosol), and a ~0.8 mmAq pressure drop (at 13 cm/s). This study provides valuable information for the development of a hybrid air purification system that can serve various functions and be used in an indoor environment.

  9. Evaluating Knowledge of Business Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Andra TURDASAN; Razvan PETRUSEL

    2016-01-01

    Any organization relies on processes/procedures in order to organize the operations. Those processes can be explicit (e.g. textual descriptions of workflow steps or graphical descriptions) or implicit (e.g. employees have learned by experience the steps needed to ‘get things done’). A widely acknowledged fact is that processes change due to internal and/or external factors. How can managers make sure the employees know the last version of the process? The current practice is to test employees...

  10. 熔融结晶洗涤塔内过滤过程的研究%Study on Filtration Process of Molten Crystallization Washing Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素娟; 肖剑; 宗弘元; 肖泽仪

    2011-01-01

    As for the filtration operation mode of molten crystallization washing tower,according to the surface filtration principle,the physical and mathematical models of the filtration were analyzed for the tower,and the differential equation and relevant boundary conditions were also established.Based on the solution of the differential equation,the expressions of pressure distribution and relationship between filtrate flow rate and cake thickness were deduced.This thesis show that filtrate volume flow rate in the washing tower had relation with pressure-drop,specific drainage pressure,filter medium resistance,cake thickness.According to those expressions,some factors affecting the filtration performance were also analyzed.These results revealed some structure features and operation principle of the washing tower to a certain extent.Furthermore,the mechanical squeezing behavior against the crystal bed,during being delivered upward by the screw peeler,and its effect on filtration and further liquid-removal were analyzed,and the calculation formula of filtrate volume flow rate under the combined action of the filtration and the mechanical squeezing were also deduced.%针对熔融结晶洗涤塔的过滤操作模式,根据表面过滤原理分析了洗涤塔内过滤段的物理模型和数学模型,建立了过滤微分方程和相关边界条件;通过过滤方程的求解,建立了过滤段滤饼过滤的压力分布公式以及滤液体积流率与滤饼变化厚度的关系式,并对相关主要影响因素进行了分析。结果表明,洗涤塔过滤段滤液体积流率与压力降、比滤阻、过滤介质阻力、滤饼厚度等有关,这个结果在一定程度上揭示了洗涤塔的部分结构和操作原理。又对结晶在向上输送过程中的机械压榨行为和母液进一步脱除的工作原理进行了分析计算,并推导出了过滤和压榨联合作用下的滤液体积流率的计算公式。

  11. Establishment and evaluation of estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨渝伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate(GFR)based on serum Cystatin C (CysC) and creatinine(Cr) concentration in Chinese adult patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)

  12. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  13. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-02-22

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration and forward osmosis have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: 1) direct microfiltration and 2) direct forward osmosis with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct microfiltration and forward osmosis, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  14. A Pilot Study to Evaluate Renal Hemodynamics in Cirrhosis by Simultaneous Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Plasma Flow, Renal Resistive Indices and Biomarkers Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J.; Christenson, Robert H.; Magder, Laurence S.; Hutson, William R.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal hemodynamic measurements are complicated to perform in patients with cirrhosis; yet they provide the best measure of risk to predict hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Currently, there are no established biomarkers of altered renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis validated by measured renal hemodynamics. Methods In this pilot study, simultaneous measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal resistive indices and biomarkers were performed to evaluate renal hemodynamic alterations in 10 patients with cirrhosis (3 patients without ascites, 5 with diuretic sensitive and 2 diuretic refractory ascites). Results Patients with diuretic refractory ascites had the lowest mean GFR (36.5 ml/min/1.73m2) and RPF (133.6 ml/min/1.73m2) when compared to those without ascites (GFR=82.9 ml/min/1.73m2, RPF=229.9 ml/min/1.73m2) and with diuretic-sensitive ascites (GFR=82.3 ml/min/1.73m2, RPF=344.1 ml/min/1.73m2). A higher mean filtration fraction (FF= GFR/RPF=0.36) was noted among those without ascites compared to those with ascites. Higher FF in patients without ascites is most likely secondary to the vasoconstriction in the efferent glomerular arterioles (normal FF≃0.20). In general, renal resistive indices were inversely related to FF. While patients with ascites had lower FF and higher right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices, those without ascites had higher FF and lower right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices. While cystatin C and beta-2 microglobulin performed better compared to Cr in estimating RPF; beta-trace protein, beta-2 microglobulin, SDMA, and (SDMA+ADMA) performed better in estimating right kidney arcuate artery resistive index. Conclusion The results of this pilot study showed that identification of non-invasive biomarkers of reduced RPF and increased renal resistive indices can identify cirrhotics at risk for HRS at a stage more amenable to therapeutic intervention, and reduce mortality from kidney

  15. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization...... positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area....... Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific...

  16. Evaluation of Geo-processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    that the high accuracy of complex equations of state (EoS) do not justify the higher computing costs compared to simple, cubic equations of state. The Peng-Robinson equation of state is the most suitable EoS with regard to pure CO2. At no stage of the process there is any evidence of plastic deformation. Both......A holistic understanding of the physicochemical processes induced by CO2 injection and storage in a reservoir is based on a geoscientific characterisation of the overall geological system consisting of reservoir rocks and cap rocks. It requires in a first step a comprehensive baseline....... The DMS provides a tool for scientific process management, data analysis, integration and visualisation, data transfer and scheduling through specialised database systems and retrieval techniques, storage technology, and efficient data access. Sedimentological (facies), mineralogical and petrophysical...

  17. Optimization of Magnetic Flocculation and Membrane Filtration Process with Response Surface Method%响应面法优化磁絮凝-膜过滤工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞治邦; 姚吉伦; 刘波; 周振

    2016-01-01

    Response surface method was applied to analyze the influencing factors and efficiency for magnetic flocculation mitigating membrane fouling. The experiments were designed by using the Design⁃Expert software in the aspect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC) dosage, magnetic particles dosage and magnetization time. Box⁃Behnken design was applied to analyze the effect of influencing factors on membrane fouling rate. The results show that the synergistic effects of PAC dosage and magnetic particles dos⁃age, magnetic particles dosage and magnetization time are significant. Response surface method can be used to predict and optimize the process of magnetic flocculation and membrane filtration, which is of relatively high fitting degree and the error is small.%应用响应面法分析磁絮凝减缓膜污染的影响因素和工艺效果。运用Design Expert软件,以聚合氯化铝(PAC)投加量、磁粉投加量和磁化时间为因素,利用中心组合设计分析了3个因素对膜污染速率的影响。试验结果表明,PAC投加量和磁粉投加量以及磁粉投加量和磁化时间之间对延缓膜污染的协同交互作用显著。响应面法建立的模型拟合程度较高、误差小,可用于磁絮凝-膜过滤工艺条件的预测和优化。

  18. Filtration by eyelashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  19. The Application of Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technology in the Process of Coal Ethylene Glycol%陶瓷膜过滤技术在煤制乙二醇工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀迁

    2014-01-01

    介绍了陶瓷膜过滤技术在煤制乙二醇工艺中应用,通过试验和分析,采用微孔陶瓷膜过滤器较好的解决了煤制乙二醇过程中微细颗粒精密过滤技术难题,提升煤制乙二醇成品的品质。%The paper briefly introduces the ceramic membrane filtration technology in coal used in ethylene glycol process ,through experiment and analysis of the microporous ceramic membrane filter better solved in the process of coal glycol micro -sized particles precision filtration problem ,promote the quality of the coal glycol products .

  20. Reflection of processes of non-equilibrium two-phase filtration in oil-saturated hierarchical medium in data of active wave geophysical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey; Khachay, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The processes of oil extraction from deposit are linked with the movement of multi-phase multi-component media, which are characterized by non-equilibrium and non-linear rheological features. The real behavior of layered systems is defined by the complexity of the rheology of moving fluids and the morphology structure of the porous medium, and also by the great variety of interactions between the fluid and the porous medium [Hasanov and Bulgakova, 2003]. It is necessary to take into account these features in order to informatively describe the filtration processes due to the non-linearity, non-equilibrium and heterogeneity that are features of real systems. In this way, new synergetic events can be revealed (namely, a loss of stability when oscillations occur, and the formation of ordered structures). This allows us to suggest new methods for the control and management of complicated natural systems that are constructed on account of these phenomena. Thus the layered system, from which it is necessary to extract the oil, is a complicated dynamical hierarchical system. A comparison is provided of non-equilibrium effects of the influence of independent hydrodynamic and electromagnetic induction on an oil layer and the medium which it surrounds. It is known that by drainage and steeping the hysteresis effect on curves of the relative phase permeability in dependence on the porous medium's water saturation in some cycles of influence (drainage-steep-drainage) is observed. Using the earlier developed 3D method of induction electromagnetic frequency geometric monitoring, we showed the possibility of defining the physical and structural features of a hierarchical oil layer structure and estimating the water saturation from crack inclusions. This effect allows managing the process of drainage and steeping the oil out of the layer by water displacement. An algorithm was constructed for 2D modeling of sound diffraction on a porous fluid-saturated intrusion of a hierarchical

  1. Transfer and transport of aluminum in filtration unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum salt coagulants were used prevalently in various water works. In this article, the effects of filtration on residual aluminum concentration and species distribution were researched by determining the concentration of different Aluminum species before and after single layer filter, double layer filter, and membrane filtration units. In the research, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to separate colloidal and soluble aluminum, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) was used to separate organic and inorganic aluminum, and inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the aluminum concentration. The results showed that the rapid filtration process had the ability of removing residual aluminum from coagulant effluent water, and that double layer filtration was more effective in residual aluminum removal than single layer filtration, while Nano filtration was more effective than micro filtration. It was found that when the residual aluminum concentration was below 1mg/L in sediment effluent, the residual aluminum concentration in treated water was above 0.2 mg/L. The direct rapid filtration process mainly removed the suspended aluminum. The removal of soluble and colloidal aluminum was always less than 10% and the natural small particles that adsorbed the amount of soluble or small particles aluminum on their surface were difficult to be removed in this process. Micro filtration and nano filtration were good technologies for removing aluminum; the residual aluminum concentration in the effluent was less than 0.05 mg/L.

  2. Study on Filtration Performance of Silica/Alumina Slurry in the Process of Recycling Mother Liquor of NaY Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yaoqing; Ma Yuelong; Deng Jinghui

    2004-01-01

    In order to recover the SiO2 contained in the mother liquor in the course of NaY zeolite synthesis to minimize pollution, the influence of various preparation conditions on the filtering velocity of gel slurry was studied using the SiO2/Al2O3 gel recovered from the NaY mother liquor in the laboratory. The results of study had shown that at a SiO2/A12O3 ratio in the feed equating to 9:1 the SiO2 recovery rate and Al2O3utilization rate were high with a faster flow velocity of the filtrate. The pH value of the system had great impact on the flow velocity of filtrate. Between the two methods for regulating the pH value, the one for formation of silica/alumina gel slurry by addition of sulfuric acid prior to adding aluminium sulfate in the solution could secure a faster filtration velocity. The filtration velocity was decreased in tandem with increasing SiO2 concentration in mother liquor, meanwhile an increase in dry filter cake yield.

  3. Influence of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by two different green unicellular algae on membrane filtration in an algae-based biofuel production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takaki; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Jyunpei; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, two strains of green algae named S1 and S2, categorized as the same species of Pseudo-coccomyxa ellipsoidea but showing 99% homology, were cultivated under the same conditions and filtrated with a microfiltration membrane. On the basis of the results of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) characteristics of these two green algae and the degree of fouling, the influence of these characteristics on the performance of membrane filtration was investigated. There was no difference in the specific growth rate between the S1 and S2 strains; however, large differences were seen in the amount and quality of EPS between S1 and S2. When the S1 and S2 strains were filtered with a membrane, the trend in the increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP) was quite different. The filtration of the S1 strain showed a rapid increase in TMP, whereas the TMP of the filtration of the S2 strain did not increase at all during the operation. This clearly demonstrated that the characteristics of each strain affect the development of membrane fouling. On the basis of the detailed characterization of solved-EPS (s-EPS) and bound-EPS (b-EPS), it was clarified that s-EPS mainly contributed to irreversible fouling for both operations and the biopolymer-like organic matter contained in b-EPS mainly contributed to reversible fouling.

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  5. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  6. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  7. GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

    2013-02-01

    When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

  8. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  9. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron(II) in rapid sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Hiemstra, T.; Hofs, B.; Nederlof, M.M.; Paassen, van J.A.M.; Reijnen, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates

  10. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron(II) in rapid sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Hiemstra, T.; Hofs, B.; Nederlof, M.M.; Paassen, van J.A.M.; Reijnen, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates h

  11. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  12. Analysis of fouling development under dynamic membrane filtration operation

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mubashir; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Spagni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This research is a contribution towards evaluating the appropriate fouling mechanism responsible for the flux decline under dynamic membrane (DM) filtration and its formation mechanism by using gravity-driven filtration in a specifically designed experimental setup. Series of extended short term filtration experiments were performed at varying operating conditions of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations, trans-membrane pressures (TMP) and mesh pore sizes. Blocking models were a...

  13. Research Progress on Performance and Filtration Process of Non-woven Filtering Material%非织造布滤料性能及过滤过程的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛帆帆; 周蓉

    2016-01-01

    对近年来非织造布滤料的研究进展做了简要综述,介绍了内部结构的研究及表征、过滤性能及其影响因素、过滤过程的计算机模拟,指出进一步发展所需要解决的问题.%Research progress of non-woven filtering material was briefly reviewed , such key points were in-troduced as internal structure ' s research and its characterization , filtration performance and its influencing ele-ments and computerized simulation of filtration process , and problems for further development were put forward .

  14. Evaluating the process of ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating the process of ecological restoration and applied it to 10 examples of restoration projects in the northern hemisphere. We identified three major phases, planning, implementation, and monitoring, in the restoration process. We found that evaluation occurred both within and between the three phases, that it included both formal and informal components, and that it often had an impact on the performance of the projects. Most evaluations were short-term and only some parts of them were properly documented. Poor or short-term evaluation of the restoration process creates a risk that inefficient methods will continue to be used, which reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of restoration. To improve the restoration process and to transfer the knowledge to future projects, we argue for more formal, sustained evaluation procedures, involving all relevant stakeholders, and increased and improved documentation and dissemination of the results.

  15. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Wastewater is usually treated biologically, and a by-product from this treatment is waste-activated sludge with high water content. Sludge is therefore often filtrated to reduce the volume for handling and disposal, and to minimise the water content before incineration of the sludge. However...... a function of pressure as assumed when using the conventional models. Moreover, it is shown how the existing filtration models can be modified and the filtration process for activated sludge simulated....

  16. Optimization of biomolecule separation by combining microscale filtration and design-of-experiment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Amir S; Kawka, Karina; Latulippe, David R

    2016-10-01

    There is considerable interest in developing microscale (i.e., high-throughput) methods that enable multiple filtration experiments to be run in parallel with smaller sample amounts and thus reduce the overall required time and associated cost to run the filtration tests. Previous studies to date have focused on simply evaluating the filtration capacity, not the separation performance. In this work, the stirred-well filtration (SWF) method was used in combination with design-of-experiment (DOE) methods to optimize the separation performance for three binary mixtures of bio-molecules: protein-protein, protein-polysaccharide, and protein-DNA. Using the parallel based format of the SWF method, eight constant-flux ultrafiltration experiments were conducted at once to study the effects of stirring conditions, permeate flux, and/or solution conditions (pH, ionic strength). Four separate filtration tests were conducted for each combination of process variables; in total, over 100 separate tests were conducted. The sieving coefficient and selectivity results are presented to match the DOE design format and enable a greater understanding of the effects of the different process variables that were studied. The method described herein can be used to rapidly determine the optimal combination of process factors that give the best separation performance for a range of membrane-based separations applications and thus obviate the need to run a large number of traditional lab-scale tests. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2131-2139. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impacts of Coagulation Pretreatment on MF Filtration and a Comparative Study of Different Membrane Module Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi-feng; Kim Seung-hyun; Yun Jong-sup; Moon Seong-yong

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory requirements and the forthcoming Disinfectant/Disinfection By-Products (D/DBP)Rule will require that drinking water treatment facilities be operated to achieve maximum removals of particles and disinfectant tolerant microorganisms as well as natural organic matter (NOM). For drinking water production, the use of membrane filtration processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) alone to satisfy the turbidity, particle and microorganism removal a requirement of the surface water treatment regulation (SWTR) is not enough. MF/UF treatment processes can achieve only nominal (10 percent) removal of disinfection by-products (DBP) precursors (James, et al., 1995). On the other hand, too fast fouling can make the filtration processes more difficult to carry on. To solve these problems, many authors have been interested in installing coagulation pretreatment before membrane filtration to improve membrane performance. However, previous studies reported conflicting results. Some supported the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, while others contended that coagulation aggravated membrane performance. This research aims to identify the effects of coagulation pretreatment on membrane filtration through a pilot study using PVDF membrane in combination with analyzing the rationale of coagulation. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the different impacts on membrane performance of using different membrane modules (the submerged module and pressured module). The results showed that coagulation pretreatment greatly improved the membrane performance, extending the filtration time as well as reducing the permeated organic level, and that the submerged module is much more efficient than the pressured module.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  19. Industrial investigations of the liquid steel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes have given good results. The obtained results of filtration have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location considering the limitation of the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  20. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S. [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. The tools for evaluating logistics processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing importance of business process approach and dynamic management is triggered by market expectations for lead time reductions and the pressure for cost cuts. An efficient process management requires measurement and assessment skills. This article is intended to present the tools used in evaluating processes and the way in which they work together under simulated conditions. Methods: The project's Authors believe that a process can be assessed by measuring its attributes: cost, time and quality. An assessment tool has been developed for each of those attributes. For costs - it could be activity based costing, for time - value stream mapping; for quality - statistical process control. Each tool allows for evaluating one of the attributes, any element in the process hierarchy. The methods presented in the paper have been supplemented with process modelling and simulation. Results: In order to show how process assessment tools are combined with process simulation the Authors show a sample process in three versions (serial, parallel and mixed. A variant simulation (using iGrafx software allows for determining the values of attributes in the entire process based on the data set for its components (activities. In the example under investigation the process variant has no impact on its quality. Process cost and time are affected. Conclusions: The tools for identifying attribute values, in combination with process modelling and simulation, can prove very beneficial when applied in business practice. In the first place they allow for evaluating a process based on the value of the attributes pertaining to its particular activities, which, on the other hand, raises the possibility of process configuration at the design stage. The solution presented in the paper can be developed further with a view to process standardization and best variant recommendation.  

  2. 76 FR 30696 - Technology Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Revisions to Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency and ] Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Evaluation Process AGENCY: Office of...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) and its evaluation as filtrate reducer; Sintese e caracterizacao de poli(metacrilato de metila-co-acetato de vinila) e sua avaliacao como redutor de filtrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Rita de Cassia P.; Pires, Renata V.; Segtovich, Iuri V.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: repires@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The drilling of petroleum well is extremely important and requires the use of suitable drilling fluids in order to ensure an efficient operation without causing rock damage. Specific polymers have been used in controlling infiltration during drilling, ensuring the operation success. In this work, spherical microparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) (PMMA-VAc), prepared by suspension polymerization, were evaluated in terms of their performance in controlling filtrate loss of aqueous fluids. A filter press test with ceramic disc, simulating the rock, was used. The performance of the synthesized materials was compared to that of commercial polymers. It was observed that the performance of the material is directly associated to the relation between particle size and pore size of rock specimen. Furthermore, when the particle size is suitable, the rubbery characteristic of the material produces a more efficient filter cake, for filtrate control. (author)

  4. Evaluating Web accessibility at different processing phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, N.; Lopes, R.; Carriço, L.

    2012-09-01

    Modern Web sites use several techniques (e.g. DOM manipulation) that allow for the injection of new content into their Web pages (e.g. AJAX), as well as manipulation of the HTML DOM tree. This has the consequence that the Web pages that are presented to users (i.e. after browser processing) are different from the original structure and content that is transmitted through HTTP communication (i.e. after browser processing). This poses a series of challenges for Web accessibility evaluation, especially on automated evaluation software. This article details an experimental study designed to understand the differences posed by accessibility evaluation after Web browser processing. We implemented a Javascript-based evaluator, QualWeb, that can perform WCAG 2.0 based accessibility evaluations in the two phases of browser processing. Our study shows that, in fact, there are considerable differences between the HTML DOM trees in both phases, which have the consequence of having distinct evaluation results. We discuss the impact of these results in the light of the potential problems that these differences can pose to designers and developers that use accessibility evaluators that function before browser processing.

  5. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  6. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Process is based on microfiltration using an asymmetric membrane. The membrane has inlet pores which are larger than the nominal pore size; pores of nominal size are located towards the membrane outlet side. The fluid is fed across the membrane. and backwashing is used for cleaning. USE-To remove...... turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving...... the quality of permeated fluids such as beer and wine. (Amended abstract week 9605)...

  7. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  8. MAC3 Evaluation: Monitoring Process, Documenting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korey, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The role of evaluation is to determine whether a project achieves what it sets out to do. Using a strategy often referred to as "backwards planning" or "backwards research design," the evaluation process operationalizes project goals and then, asking the question "What would success look like?" identifies measurable indices of success (Friedman,…

  9. Effect of filtration rate on coal-sand dual-media filter performances for microalgae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiri, Nour-Eddine; Monnier, Elodie; Raimbault, Virginie; Massé, Anthony; Séchet, Véronique; Jaouen, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    This study tested the efficiency of granular filtration using a bilayer sand filter for microalgae removal from culture dilutions ranging from 10,000 to 17,000 cells/mL. The objective is to evaluate the removal capacity of the filter without chemical coagulation. Two filter media, sand and anthracite, with mean grain sizes of 0.395 and 1.2 mm, respectively, were used in constant-flow-rate experiments (down-flow mode) with suspensions containing Heterocapsa triquetra microalga. The conventional rapid filtration which usually operates at a constant rate of approximately 5 m(3)/m(2) h is compared to high-rate filtration. Two filtration velocities (5 and 10 m/h) were investigated with bed depth of 1100 mm. Average microalgal cell removal rates were 90% at 5 m/h and 68% at 10 m/h. Turbidity removal was more than 71% at 5 m/h but just 57% at 10 m/h. Head losses did not increase significantly, and values measured at process end were 32 mbar at 5 m/h and 78 mbar at 10 m/h. Retention probabilities were calculated from experimental data. A theoretical model was used to evaluate the contributions of the different drivers of microalgae removal. Hypotheses are developed on the understanding of change in the mechanisms of retention as a function of filtration velocity.

  10. Membrane fouling and dialysate flow pattern in an internal filtration-enhancing dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Hiwatari, Michihito; Kohori, Fukashi; Sakai, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Makoto; Hiyoshi, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    For efficient removal of large molecular weight solutes by dialysis, several types of internal filtration-enhancing dialyzers (IFEDs) are commercially available. However, in a pressure-driven membrane separation process (i.e., filtration), membrane fouling caused by adhesion of plasma proteins is a severe problem. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of internal filtration on membrane fouling based on the membrane's pure-water permeability, diffusive permeability, and sieving coefficient. Hemodialysis experiments were performed with two different dialyzers, IFEDs and non-IFEDs. Local membrane fouling in each dialyzer was evaluated by measuring the pure-water permeability, the diffusive permeability, and the sieving coefficient of native membranes and membranes treated with bovine blood. The effects of packing ratio on dialysate flow pattern were also evaluated by measuring the time required for an ion tracer to reach electrodes placed in the dialyzers. In the IFED, membrane fouling caused by protein adhesion is increased because of enhanced internal filtration only at the early stage of dialysis, and this fouling tends to occur only near the dialysate outlet port. However, enhanced internal filtration has little effect on measured membrane transfer parameters.

  11. Evaluating Process Sustainability Using Flowsheet Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental metric software can be used to evaluate the sustainability of a chemical based on data from the chemical process that is used to manufacture it. One problem in developing environmental metric software is that chemical process simulation packages typically do not rea...

  12. Evaluating Process Sustainability Using Flowsheet Monitoring (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental metric software can be used to evaluate the sustainability of a chemical based upon data from the chemical process that is used to manufacture it. One problem in developing environmental metric software is that chemical process simulation packages typically do not p...

  13. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  14. Glomerular filtration rate measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance: evaluation of captopril-induced changes in hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alice Rolim Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal artery stenosis can lead to renovascular hypertension; however, the detection of stenosis alone does not guarantee the presence of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension depends on activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which can be detected by functional tests such as captopril renal scintigraphy. A method that allows direct measurement of the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA could add valuable information to the investigation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The purposes of this study were to create a protocol to measure the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using 51Cr-EDTA, and to verify whether changes in the glomerular filtration rate permit differentiation between hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis. METHODS: This prospective study included 41 consecutive patients with poorly controlled severe hypertension. All patients had undergone a radiological investigation of renal artery stenosis within the month prior to their inclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (n=21 and without renal artery stenosis, (n=20. In vitro glomerular filtration rate analysis (51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy were performed before and after captopril administration in all patients. RESULTS: The mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 48.6±21.8 ml/kg/1.73 m² in the group wuth renal artery stenosis, which was significantly lower than the GFR of 65.1±28.7 ml/kg/1.73m² in the group without renal artery stenosis (p=0.04. Captopril induced a significant reduction of the glomerular filtration rate in the group with renal artery stenosis (to 32.6±14.8 ml/kg/1.73m², p=0.001 and an insignificant change in the group without RAS (to 62.2±23.6 ml/kg/1.73m², p=0.68. Scintigraphy with technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA did not show

  15. Glomerular Filtration Rate Measured by 51Cr-EDTA Clearance: Evaluation of Captopril-Induced Changes in Hypertensive Patients with and without Renal Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Anna Alice Rolim; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Praxedes, Jose Nery; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Renal artery stenosis can lead to renovascular hypertension; however, the detection of stenosis alone does not guarantee the presence of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension depends on activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which can be detected by functional tests such as captopril renal scintigraphy. A method that allows direct measurement of the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) could add valuable information to the investigation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The purposes of this study were to create a protocol to measure the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using 51Cr-EDTA, and to verify whether changes in the glomerular filtration rate permit differentiation between hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis. METHODS: This prospective study included 41 consecutive patients with poorly controlled severe hypertension. All patients had undergone a radiological investigation of renal artery stenosis within the month prior to their inclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (n=21) and without renal artery stenosis, (n=20). In vitro glomerular filtration rate analysis (51Cr-EDTA) and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy were performed before and after captopril administration in all patients. RESULTS: The mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 48.6±21.8 ml/kg/1.73 m2 in the group wuth renal artery stenosis, which was significantly lower than the GFR of 65.1±28.7 ml/kg/1.73m2 in the group without renal artery stenosis (p=0.04). Captopril induced a significant reduction of the glomerular filtration rate in the group with renal artery stenosis (to 32.6±14.8 ml/ kg/1.73m2, p=0.001) and an insignificant change in the group without RAS (to 62.2±23.6 ml/kg/1.73m2, p=0.68). Scintigraphy with technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) did not show significant

  16. Glomerular filtration rate measured by {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance: evaluation of captopril-induced changes in hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Anna Alice Rolim; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Praxedes, Jose Nery; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit, E-mail: annaalice100@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2010-07-01

    Introduction: renal artery stenosis can lead to renovascular hypertension; however, the detection of stenosis alone does not guarantee the presence of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension depends on activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which can be detected by functional tests such as captopril renal scintigraphy. A method that allows direct measurement of the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) could add valuable information to the investigation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The purposes of this study were to create a protocol to measure the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, and to verify whether changes in the glomerular filtration rate permit differentiation between hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis. Methods: this prospective study included 41 consecutive patients with poorly controlled severe hypertension. All patients had undergone a radiological investigation of renal artery stenosis within the month prior to their inclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (n=21) and without renal artery stenosis, (n=20). In vitro glomerular filtration rate analysis ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy were performed before and after captopril administration in all patients. Results: the mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 48.6+-21.8 ml/kg/1.73 m{sup 2} in the group with renal artery stenosis, which was significantly lower than the GFR of 65.1+-28.7 ml/kg/1.73m{sup 2} in the group without renal artery stenosis (p=0.04). Captopril induced a significant reduction of the glomerular filtration rate in the group with renal artery stenosis (to 32.6+-14.8 ml/kg/1.73m{sup 2}, p=0.001) and an insignificant change in the group without RAS (to 62.2+-23.6 ml/kg/1.73m{sup 2}, p=0.68). Scintigraphy with technetium-99m dimercapto

  17. Baseline incidence and severity of renal insufficiency evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yanaga, Yumi; Oda, Seitaro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)), email: utsunomi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Awai, Kazuo (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)); Funama, Yoshinori (Dept. of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan))

    2011-06-15

    Background Although pre-existing renal insufficiency (RI) is the most important risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), the background distribution of baseline renal function has not been investigated thoroughly in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT. Purpose To investigate the incidence and severity of baseline RI evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT at an academic center. Material and Methods A total of 6586 patients (3630 men and 2956 women; mean age 57.0 +- 11.9 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced CT between January and December 2008 were retrospectively studied. Of these, 829 had cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 5116 had oncologic diseases, 178 had diabetes mellitus (DM), and 1572 had chronic liver disease (CLD). The eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) was calculated from their serum creatinine level. Mild, moderate-a, moderate-b, and severe RI were recorded at 60 < =eGFR < 90, 45 < =eGFR < 60, 30 < =eGFR < 45 and eGFR < 30, respectively. Results Of the 6586 patients, 1.6%, 3.7%, 13.7%, and 54.2% were judged to present with severe, moderate-b, moderate-a, and mild RI, respectively. While moderate-b-to-severe RI was recorded in 133 (3.2%) of 4161 patients aged 70 years or less, it was observed in 218 (9.0%) of the 2425 patients who were 71 years or older. Among the 829 CVD patients, 9.9% manifested moderate-b-to-severe- and 73.0% mild-to-moderate-a RI. The corresponding rates were 4.4% and 68.9% for oncologic disease, 16.9% and 61.2% for DM, and 4.8% and 71.5% for CLD patients. By univariate analysis, there was a significant association between moderate-b-to-severe RI and the advanced age, CVD, DM, and non-oncologic disease. Multivariate analysis showed that the advanced age, DM, and non-oncologic disease were statistically associated with moderate-b-to-severe RI. Conclusion The incidence of RI of eGFR < 45mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline was high in patients with advanced age, CVD and DM and

  18. The oxidation of As(III) in groundwater using biological manganese removal filtration columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Sun, Wenyong; Ge, Huoqing; Yao, Renda

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is known as a toxic element to humans, and has been reported to co-exist with iron and manganese in groundwater worldwide. The typical method for arsenic removal from groundwater is to oxidize trivalent (As(III)) to pentavalent (As(V)) followed by the As(V) removal. This study aims to evaluate the oxidization efficiency of As(III) in a mature biological manganese (Mn(2+)) removal filtration system with different elevated influent As(III) concentrations. The effects of influent Mn(2+) concentrations, influent As(III) concentrations, filtration rates and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the efficiency of As(III) oxidation were assessed. The results showed that As(III) oxidation can be simultaneously achieved with removing Mn(2+) in the filtration system. The oxidation efficiency was not impacted by increasing the influent As(III) concentration up to nearly 2500 µg L(-1), but the filtration rate was limited at 11 m h(-1) for maintaining the effluent As(III) concentration below 10 µg L(-1). The oxidation process followed first-order kinetics with the constant reaching 0.56-0.61 min(-1). The As(III) oxidation process was most likely to be mediated by the bacterial community initially developed for Mn(2+) removal in the filtration system, which performed the catalytic oxidation for As(III).

  19. Improving the Process of Student Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Neacşu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the process of student evaluation from “Spiru Haret” University. The process under consideration occurs according to a specific Procedure – Process of student evaluation from the Manual of Quality Assurance Procedures, “Spiru Haret” University, Edition 1, 2012. The goal of this procedure, mentioned in the Manual, is to present the student evaluation procedure by using the Blackboard educational platform and other evaluation techniques of quality learning, based on materials developed by teachers of “Spiru Haret” University, as well as corresponding responsibilities, in order to increase the learning process quality and the exigency degree in the examination process, as well as students’ satisfaction measured by accumulated competences. We appreciate that the purpose of this procedure is first and foremost to ensure transparency and objectivity in exam passing decision. After identifying the weaknesses with the “cause - effect” chart, we have sought to improve student evaluation process using PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act method, resulting in the design of a new assessment flowchart.

  20. Evaluation of two new filtration systems--Fenwal PS400 and Organon Teknika Curesis--and comparison of results with two centrifugation systems--IBM model 2997 and Haemonetics V50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, C; Couteret, Y; Pujol, J P; Kieffer, Y; Lenys, R; Panouse, J; Peters, A

    1985-07-01

    Two new filtration systems (Fenwal CPS 10TM - PS 400 and Organon Teknika Curesis - M82) were evaluated and compared with two centrifugal cell separators (IBM 2997 and Haemonetics V50). 11 patients with auto immune diseases and dermatological diseases underwent 230 consecutive plasma exchanges. For the filtration systems, the average whole blood rate was 50 ml/min and the plasma separation rate was about 21 ml/min for a transmembrane pressure about 70 mmHg. The pre/post percent reduction and sieving coefficient were calculated for some plasma and blood components. A variety of laboratory studies was monitored to assess the efficacy of plasma separators, their biocompatibility and some yields. These results show that the 2 filters appear safe and efficacious but their modules are too simple and do not offer a great security (no transmembrane pressure control or no extracorporeal fluid balance). For a blood banker, IBM 2997 seems more interesting if we take in account its characteristics during plasma exchanges and the possibility which is offered to carry out cytapheresis procedures. But for a thrombopenic patient the filtration systems keep their advantages.

  1. Evaluation of a coagulation/flocculation-lamellar clarifier and filtration-UV-chlorination reactor for removing emerging contaminants at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2013-03-15

    The presence and elimination of 25 emerging contaminants in two full-scale Spanish wastewater treatment plants was studied. The tertiary treatment systems consisted of coagulation, flocculation lamellar settlement and filtration (pulsed-bed sand filters) units, and disinfection was carried out by medium pressure UV light lamps and chlorination. Diclofenac and carbamazepine were found to be the emerging contaminants with the highest concentrations in secondary effluents. Photodegradable emerging contaminants (e.g. ketoprofen, triclosan and diclofenac) were removed by filtration-UV light radiation-chlorination whereas most hydrophobic compounds (e.g. galaxolide and tonalide) were eliminated by coagulation-flocculation followed by lamellar clarification, a unit in which a seasonal trend was observed. Overall mass removal efficiency was about 60%. 1-(8-Chlorocarbazolyl) acetic acid, an intermediate product of the photodegradation of diclofenac, was detected after filtration-UV-chlorination, but not after coagulation-flocculation and lamellar clarification. This study demonstrated potential for general applicability of two established tertiary treatment systems to eliminate emerging contaminants.

  2. Dynamic optical filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  3. Magnetic flocculation and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiacoumi, Sotira; Chin, Ching-Ju; Yin, Tung-Yu [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Tsouris, C., DePaoli, D.W.; Chattin, M.R.; Spurrier, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A model is available in predicting flocculation frequencies between particles of various properties under the influence of a magnetic field. This model provides a basic understanding of fundamental phenomena, such as particle-particle and particle-collector interactions, occurring in HGMF (high gradient magnetic field), and will be extended to describe experimental data of particle flocculation and filtration and predict the performance of high- gradient magnetic filters. It is also expected that this model will eventually lead to a tool for design and optimization of magnetic filters for environmental, metallurgical, biochemical, and other applications.

  4. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly stringen

  5. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly

  6. Model and optimization of electromagnetic filtration of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Golak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic buoyancy force causes the movement of non-conducive particles in a conducting liquid under electromagnetic field. The phenomenon allows filtration of small inclusions from molten metals. This paper presents a mathematical model of the filtration process under alternating electromagnetic field and the methodology for maximizing its efficiency.

  7. Organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelkamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the main removal mechanisms (adsorption and biodegradation) for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal during river bank filtration (RBF) and the possibility of developing a predictive model of this process for OMP removal during RBF. Chapter 2 analysed

  8. Using Digital Filtration for Hurst Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prochaska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to estimate the Hurst parameter. The method exploits the form of the autocorrelation function for second-order self-similar processes and is based on one-pass digital filtration. We compare the performance and properties of the new method with that of the most common methods.

  9. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  10. Student evaluations of the portfolio process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John E; Airey, Tatum C; Bisso, Andrea M; Slack, Marion K

    2011-09-10

    To evaluate pharmacy students' perceived benefits of the portfolio process and to gather suggestions for improving the process. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 250 first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy. Although the objectives of the portfolio process were for students to understand the expected outcomes, understand the impact of extracurricular activities on attaining competencies, identify what should be learned, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and modify their approach to learning, overall students perceived the portfolio process as having less than moderate benefit. First-year students wanted more examples of portfolios while second- and third-year students suggested that more time with their advisor would be beneficial. The portfolio process will continue to be refined and efforts made to improve students' perceptions of the process as it is intended to develop the self-assessments skills they will need to improve their knowledge and professional skills throughout their pharmacy careers.

  11. Equivalent Cake Filtration Model%等效滤饼过滤模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坦; 朱企新; 陈旭; 李文苹

    2008-01-01

    Cake filtration has been widely used in many chemical processes with more non-Newtonian, highly vis- cous and compressible materials involved. Neither traditional nor modern filtration theory can be applied in practice. "Equivalent cake filtration model" is a recently developed mathematical model to describe cake filtration for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, in either steady or unsteady filtration stages. This model has two strengths: (1) It can be used to determine equivalent capillary radii and predict filtration quality based on the properties of solid/liquid system and operation parameters; and (2) to calculate cake specific resistance and its variations with time at various cake thickness locations.

  12. In-process nondestructive evaluation of the pultrusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, David L.; Heider, Dirk; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Steiner, Karl V.

    1995-07-01

    Substantial growth potential for composite materials exists in the private sector, where high volume, low cost production is required. Post processing inspection can represent a significant percentage of the cost of composite products. Alternate ways of assuring quality must be examined. In-process inspection can be easily adapted to continuous composite manufacturing techniques such as the pultrusion process, enabling 100% inspection. Recent research efforts at the Center for Composite Materials has focused on ways of evaluating pultruded composites on-line by using ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. The most accurate method to date is based upon Lamb wave velocity measurements. This inspection technique uses two transducers positioned at normal incidence to the composite in a through-transmission mode to generate and receive ultrasonic waves which propagate through the sample. Careful processing of the waveform data reveals the degree of porosity in the composite samples. A series of tests were performed in-situ on an actual laboratory scale pultrusion process which accurately predicted the porosity in a 6.4 mm multiplied by 3.2 mm (0.25' multiplied by 0.125') cross-section pultruded rod over a range of 0.5% to 12% void volume fraction.

  13. Analysis and evaluation of collaborative modeling processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssebuggwawo, D.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and evaluation of collaborative modeling processes is confronted with many challenges. On the one hand, many systems design and re-engineering projects require collaborative modeling approaches that can enhance their productivity. But, such collaborative efforts, which often consist of the

  14. 76 FR 37344 - Technology Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Revisions to Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Evaluation Process AGENCY: Office of...

  15. 7 CFR 4284.1012 - Evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation process. 4284.1012 Section 4284.1012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Agriculture Innovation Demonstration Centers...

  16. Nano-filtration assisted by complexation: A promising process for the separation of trivalent long-lived minor actinides from lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre-Reguillon, A. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Laboratoire de chimie organique, UMR CNRS 7084, 75 - Paris (France); Sorin, A.; Pellet-Rostaing, St.; Lemaire, M. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude-Bernard, Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5181, CPE, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Bernier, G. [CEA Valrho, DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCSE, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-10-15

    For the Am/Eu separation, the chelating agent diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was used to selectively decrease the permeability of Am across the nano-filtration membrane Desal GH. Using an Am/Eu/DTPA mixture, we have showed that the difference of permeability can be explained by the chemical speciation in solution. The membrane selectivity is thus determined by the difference of the stability constants of the 1:1 complexes of Am and Eu with DTPA. The influence of DTPA concentration on the separation factor (SF) was then investigated. The SF determined with an Eu/Am initial ratio of 3700 varied within the range of 1.2-3.5. (authors)

  17. Simulation of filtration processes in deformable media Part 3.1: Basic concepts and particle-fluid force implementation of a non-spherical dirt particle solver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Boiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lagrangian solver to realistically model large, non-spherical dirt particlesand their behaviour in the vicinity of deformable filtration fibres has beenprogrammed. While this paper focuses on basic solver concepts as well asdrag force implementations, a related article, concerning the realisation ofinteraction effects and result verification, is forthcoming, [3].Within the framework of a digitally reconstructed, deformable filter fibregeometry, the solver traces the governing multi physics effects down to theoccurrence of single force- and torque vectors. In order to go from an initial,spherical particle model [2], to a more sophisticated, non-spherical model,the capabilities of a Six Degrees of Freedom Solver have been included inthe programming. A panel model and the concept of satellite help points areused to handle particles that encompass several fluid calculation cells.An innovative drag force implementation allows the consideration ofrotational- and shear flow effects on particle motion. Results are evaluatedand compared to an analytical formulation.

  18. Advances in hot gas filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.

    The past decade has seen the introduction of new filter media specifically designed for 'hot-gas' filtration. These media are available as woven or knitted fabrics and as non-wovens, i.e. needled felts. Needlefelted fabrics have proven so highly successful in the dedusting of hot gases that they are widely used nowadays in this new and necessary technology. Hot-gas filtration offers advantages in, for example, the saving or recycling of energy, the elimination of the cooling process, and the short-circuiting of process steps. This paper gives a survey of the types of textile fibres available for hot-gas filtration from the more recently developed organic fibres to refractory fibres. It describes, compares and contrasts their salient properties and lists the uses to which they may be put. It concentrates on such fibres which are generally referred to as 'high performance materials', since they are expected to provide satisfactory performance under extreme conditions of temperature, chemical environment and mechanical stress. It touches on filtration theory governing the collection mechanism. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Modus of filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Theodore H

    2006-01-01

    Experience teaches that particles larger than the pores of a filter cannot negotiate its passage. Other retention mechanisms are less obvious than sieve retention or size exclusion. They are electrical in nature, and find expression in the bonding alliances that mutually attract (or repel) filters and particles. The influence of hydrogen bonds, of van der Waals forces, of hydrophobic adsorptions, and of transient polarities on particle retentions are set forth in terms of the double electrical layer concept that also governs colloidal destabilizations. The origins of differences in membrane porosities is explained, as also the importance of the filtration conditions. The singularity of the particle-fluid-filter relationship on organism and/or pore size alteration is stressed.

  20. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several

  1. The Perspective of Riverbank Filtration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Zuo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable drinking water supply can affect the health of people, and the surrounding ecosystems. According to statistics of the monitoring program of drinking water sources in 309 at or above prefecture level of China in 2013, the major pollutants index were total phosphorus, ammonia and manganese in surface drinking water sources, respectively, iron, ammonia and manganese in groundwater drinking water sources, respectively. More than 150 drinking water emergency environmental accidents happened since 2006, 52 of these accidents led to the disruption of water supply in waterworks, and a population of over ten million were affected. It indicated that there is a potential risk for people's health by the use of river water directly and it is necessary to require alternative techniques such as riverbank filtration for improving the drinking water quality. Riverbank filtration is an inexpensive natural process, not only smoothing out normal pollutant concentration found in surface water but also significantly reducing the risk from such emergency events as chemical spill into the river. Riverbank filtration technique has been used in many countries more than 100 years, including China. In China, in 1950s, the bank infiltration technique was first applied in northeast of China. Extensive bank infiltration application was conducted in 1980s, and more than 300 drinking water sources utilities bank infiltration established mainly near the Songhua River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, Haihe River Basin. However, the comparative lack of application and researches on riverbank filtration have formed critical scientific data gap in China. As the performance of riverbank filtration technique depend on not only the design and setting such as well type, pumping rate, but also the local hydrogeology and environmental properties. We recommend more riverbank filtration project and studies to be conducted to collect related significant environmental geology data in China

  2. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  3. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  4. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  5. Process perspective on image quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

    2008-01-01

    The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

  6. Does supplier evaluation impact process improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad h c

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research explores and examines factors for supplier evaluation and its impact on process improvement particularly aiming on a steel pipe manufacturing firm in Gujarat, India. Design/Methodology/approach: The conceptual research framework was developed and hypotheses were stated considering the analysis of literature and discussions with the managers and engineers of a steel pipe manufacturing company in Gujarat, India. Data was collected using in-depth interview. The questionnaire primarily involves the perception of evaluation of supplier. Factors influencing supplier evaluation and its influence on process improvement is also examined in this study. The model testing and validation was done using partial least square method. Outcomes signified that the factors that influence evaluation of the supplier are quality, cost, delivery and supplier relationship management. Findings: The study depicted that quality and cost factors for supplier evaluation are insignificant. The delivery and supplier relationship management have significant influence on evaluation of the supplier. The research also depicted that supplier evaluation has significant influence on process improvement. Research limitations/implications: The study has been made specifically for ABC steel pipe manufacturing industry in Gujarat, India and may not be appropriate to the other industries or any parts of the world. There is a possibility of response bias as the conclusions of this research was interpreted on survey responses taken from the employees of case study company, so it is suggested that future research can overcome this problem by employing various methodologies in addition to surveys like carrying out focus group and in-depth interviews, brainstorming sessions with the experts etc. Originality/value: Many researchers have considered quality, cost and delivery as the factors for evaluating the suppliers. But for a company it is quintessential to have good

  7. Evaluation of the quality of the apical seal in Resilon/Epiphany and Gutta-Percha/AH Plus-filled root canals by using a fluid filtration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Rakesh; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    This in vitro fluid filtration study compared the apical leakage of root canals that were obturated with Resilon/Epiphany (Resilon Research LLC, Madison, CT) or gutta-percha/AH Plus (GP/AH; DENTSPLY Tulsa, Tulsa, OK) sealer using warm vertical condensation. Fluid flow rate through the filled roots was measured 7 days after the obturations by using a fluid filtration device. Measurements were made before root resection and after 3 to 11 mm of resections. Before any removal of root length, there were no significant differences between the roots filled with Resilon/Epiphany or GP/AH. Analysis of individual root resection results revealed that differences in the fluid flow rate of the two systems occurred only when 9 or 10 mm of the roots were resected with more than half the root length resected when GP/AH Plus leaked more than Resilon/Epiphany. There were no significant differences in the fluid flow rate up to and including 8 mm of root resection. It is concluded Resilon/Epiphany sealed 17-mm root canals as well as gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer and that it does not create a monoblock root filling that does not leak.

  8. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  9. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  10. Results of the detection and exposure evaluation of the effects of bank filtration on ground water. Lectures; Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Erfassung und Expositionsbewertung der Auswirkungen der Uferfiltration auf Grundwaesser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, K.P. [comp.] [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1997-02-01

    Main topics of this meeting are: bank filtration; surface water; groundwater; german rivers; water quality; organic pollutants; inorganic pollutants; pollutants transport; particulates; radiohydrometric analyses of bank filtration; mathematical models for materials balances; transport models. (SR)

  11. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more.

  12. Evaluating Process Effectiveness to Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2017-01-01

    security; loss of confidence in government; failure of publicly funded projects; damage to the environment; ethics violations, and the list goes on; with local, national and even international consequences. The Plan-Do-Check-Act process, also known as the "process approach" can be used at any time to establish and standardize a process, and it can also be used to check periodically for "process creep" (i.e., informal, unauthorized changes that have occurred over time), any necessary updates and improvements. While ISO 9001 compliance is not mandated for all government agencies, if interpreted correctly, it can be useful in establishing a framework and implementing effective management systems and processes.4 Another method that can be used to evaluate effectiveness is the scorecard definitions in Mallory's Process Management Standard5 as a basis for evaluating work on the process level on effective, and continuously improved and improving processes. With processes on the lower end of the scale, agencies are vulnerable to a great many risks, with employees and managers making up many of the rules as they go, leading to the above listed negative results. Without clear guidance for nominal operations, off-nominal situations can, and do, increase the likelihood of chaos. In an increasingly technical environment, with inter-agency communication and collaboration becoming the norm, agencies need to come to grips with the fact that processes can become rapidly outdated, and that the technical community should take on an increased role in the maturation of the agency's processes. Industry has long known that effective processes are also efficient, and process improvement methods such as Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma, 5S, and mistake proofing lead to increased productivity, improved quality, and decreased cost. Again, government agencies have different concerns, but inefficiencies and mistakes can have dire and wide reaching consequences for the public that they serve. While no one goes

  13. Communication processes, public administration and performance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Arta Musaraj

    2011-01-01

    Albanian efforts to fulfill European standards and norm in its Public Administration and service delivery, are becoming a research argument for academics and practitioners as well. Even if significant efforts have been made in this direction there is still a gap in analyzing the link between the communication process which creates and delivers the public service, effect of the used tools in service provision and delivery, the performance evaluation of this sector and the future of the sector ...

  14. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  15. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  16. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  17. Evaluation of the various methods in detecting glomerular filtration rate%肾小球滤过功能检查方法评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛岗; 李惊子

    2002-01-01

    @@ 肾小球的主要功能为滤过作用,反映其滤过功能的主要客观指标为肾小球滤过率(glomerular filtration rate,GFR).肾小球滤过率是指单位时间(min)从双肾滤过的血浆的毫升数.GFR不能直接测定,只能通过某种标志物的清除率的测定而得知.标志物的清除率是指单位时间内肾脏排出这种物质的总量,计算公式如下:

  18. Evaluation of building characteristics in 27 dwellings in Denmark and the effect of using particle filtration units on PM2.5 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal P.; Loft, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter in homes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory problems. Due to the extended time people spend at home, reducing the particle concentration in homes may be a means to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory...... problems. Use of particle filtration units (PFU's) might be an effective way for rapid removal of indoor PM.In a randomised cross-over design, the custom built PFU's ran for two weeks in each of two modes: with or without the inclusion of a HEPA filter.We assessed the association between the concentration...... concentrations. Furthermore, the winter period and a location farther from a trafficked street were associated with increased PM2.5 mass. Overall, the use of PFU led to a decrease in the concentrations of PM2.5 of 54.5% (median value).We assessed the PFU particle-removal efficiency by using the amount...

  19. Modeling of hyperbaric filtration and dewatering of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sushil

    Generalized models have been developed for continuous hyperbaric filtration to evaluate cake formation, filter capacity/filter area, cake dewatering, air consumption and residual cake saturation/residual cake moisture. Emphasis has been placed on cake structure as being a major controlling factor in fine coal dewatering by filtration. The effects of cake structure, as defined by the distributions of pore size and shape, have been reviewed. A simple model relating cake structure to feed particle characteristics is presented and applied to a practical case of fine coal dewatering. A binary packing model has been proposed to explain the existence of compressibility in non-compressible cakes. This model proposes an inner open-structure in the main cake, with the inner layer being compressible. The variation in the inner cake porosity with applied pressure has been used to explain the change in specific cake resistance and filter capacity (solids cake throughput). Process simulations have been conducted for a single stage and a two stage process, wherein the original feed has been split into a coarse fraction and a fine fraction (and then each fraction processed separately). The process simulations for a two stage process show a lot of promise as this leads to a lowering of the required filter area and the residual cake moisture. The required filter area increases, while the residual cake moisture decreases as the cut size for the two stage process is increased. However, the advantages of a two stage process are adversely affected by an inefficient separation process, which leads to an increased filter area and a higher residual cake moisture and the two stage process approaches a single stage process.

  20. 过滤罐微生物气溶胶过滤效率及其评价方法的研究%A methodological study on testing and evaluating of filtration efficiency of canister against microbial aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温占波; 赵建军; 李劲松; 王洁; 鹿建春; 李娜

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立防护面具高效过滤罐微生物气溶胶测试评价方法,对过滤罐的实际防护效果进行测试评价.方法 Serratia marcescens作为模式细菌繁殖体气溶胶、Bacillus subtilis var niger芽孢作为模式芽孢气溶胶、噬菌体f2作为模式病毒气溶胶,使用实验室建立的微生物气溶胶检测技术平台,人工发生模式微生物气溶胶,分别在过滤罐过滤前后使用空气微生物采样器进行定量采样,根据过滤前后模式微生物气溶胶的浓度分别计算细菌、芽孢、病毒气溶胶过滤效率.1-1、1-2、1-3、1-44个只含有高效过滤材料的过滤罐分别测试了Serratia marcescens、Bacillus subtilis var niger、噬菌体f2气溶胶的过滤效率.543、544 2个装有活性炭的高效过滤罐测试了对Scrratia marcescens气溶胶的过滤效率.结果 1-1、1-2、1-3 3个高效过滤罐对Serratia marcescens、Bacillus subtilis var niger芽孢、噬菌体f2的气溶胶的过滤效率为100.000%,1-4高效过滤罐对Bacillus subtilis var niger芽孢气溶胶的过滤效率为990997%、Serratia marcescerts和噬菌体f2气溶胶的过滤效率均为100.000%.加入活性炭后543、544 2个过滤罐对Serratia marcescens气溶胶的过滤效率均为100.000%.结论 建立的检测方法可以用于高效过滤罐微生物气溶胶防护效果的评价,高效过滤罐(包括装有活性炭者)微生物气溶胶防护效果均佳.%Objective To establish a testing and evaluating method for filtration efficiency of the eanister against microbial aerosol. Methods Serratia marcescens aerosol served as model of bacterial aerosol, Bacillus subtilis var niger aerosol as model of spores aerosol, bacteriophage f2 aerosol as model of viral aerosol. Employing the microbial aerosol testing platform was established in lab, models of microbial aerosol generated artificially were sampled quantitatively by air samplers before and after filtrating by canisters, respectively. Filtration

  1. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  2. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole: the influence of solvent composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Nyström, Lars

    2005-02-01

    Currently there is a great interest in new process analytical approaches to increase the process understanding of pharmaceutical unit operations. In the present study, the influence of the solvent composition on the material properties and, further, on the filtration characteristics, of different crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan-1-ol (n-propanol). The size, shape and polymorphic composition of the crystals produced were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, with a novel automated image analyser and with an X-ray powder diffractometer. All of the monitored crystal properties were found to clearly differ between the samples obtained from different solvents. The crystals produced in the batch-cooling-crystallization experiments were separated from the crystallizing solvents using a batch-type pressure Nutsche filter, and the filtration characteristics of the suspensions were evaluated on the basis of average filter-cake porosities and average specific cake resistances, which were determined from the experimentally obtained filtration data. Comparison between the calculated filtration characteristics revealed that considerable differences existed between the different suspensions, and it could therefore be concluded that the pressure-filtration process was influenced by the composition of the crystallizing solvent. The filterability of all the studied sulphathiazole suspensions was considered to be rather good on the basis of the relatively low cake porosities (0.51-0.63), which were accompanied with low average specific cake resistances [(8.7 x 10(7))-(1.2 x 10(9)) m/kg].

  3. Latest aspects of mechanical filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and unify all knowledge about mechanic filtration. The first part deals with the parameters and properties of filtration. Here some important basic concepts are explained such as pressure gradient, filter life, etc. There’s also a description of convenient filtration technology for coarse and fine materials, such as sand, smoke or soot. The second part primarily focuses on the real use and application of filters for liquid and gaseous media. The differences in construction between different types of filters for filtration of fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, air and cabin filters are described. The last section is focused mainly on new materials for the production of filters. These materials are ceramic or nanomaterials, which can actually be enriched for example with antibacterial silver or some fungicides.

  4. Additive Difference Schemes for Filtration Problems in Multilayer Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ayrjan, E A; Pavlush, M; Fedorov, A V

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper difference schemes for solution of the plane filtration problem in multilayer systems are analyzed within the framework of difference schemes general theory. Attention is paid to splitting the schemes on physical processes of filtration along water-carring layers and vertical motion between layers. Some absolutely stable additive difference schemes are obtained the realization of which needs no software modification. Parallel algorithm connected with the solving of the filtration problem in every water-carring layer on a single processor is constructed. Program realization on the multi-processor system SPP2000 at JINR is discussed.

  5. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Villafuerte-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration, temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat. Data analysis and processing are performed using MATLAB. Facial inflammation is measured by comparing three-dimensional reconstructions of inflammatory variations using the fringe projection technique. Trismus is measured by converting pixels to centimeters in a digitally obtained image of an open mouth. Blushing changes are measured by obtaining and comparing the RGB histograms from facial edema images at different times. Finally, temperature changes are measured using a thermographic camera. Some tests using controlled measurements of every variable are presented in this paper. The results allow evaluating the measurement system before its use in a real test, using the pain model approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, which consists in extracting the third molar to generate the facial edema.

  6. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  7. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  8. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  10. Indicators of mental health services evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Gonçalves Cavalcante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study was performed with the objective to evaluate the structure of the Mental Health Service Network of the Municipal Health Department of Goiania, the capital city of Goias state, Brazil. Data were collected using a semi-structured instrument and photographic records, and analyzed using Atlas.ti 6.2, and based on Donabedian’s theoretical framework. Various conditions were observed for service facilities; from structures that were precarious and unsuitable for therapy, to facilities that were welcoming and had good accessibility. The main positive aspect was the diversity of multidisciplinary teams. Making service facilities appropriate is imperative, although it is recognized that the municipality is currently undergoing reformulation, aiming at meeting the needs of the National Policy for Mental Health. Furthermore, intersectoral partnerships should be established for evaluation processes, particularly in the academia and service domains, which could generate the desired impact on health care to clients of specialized services. Descriptors: Health Services Evaluation; Mental Health; Structure of Services.

  11. Evaluating the role of soluble aluminum in manganese removal via MnOx(s)-coated filtration media in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Knocke, W R

    2017-03-15

    The Mn oxide (MnOx(s)) surfaces of water treatment filtration media are known to aid in the capture of dissolved Mn species, but the discovery of significant deposits of Al within these coatings (Tobiason et al., 2008) raised certain questions about the possible role of Al in soluble Mn removal and the formation of the MnOx(s) surface on the media. This phenomenon was addressed by conducting a series of bench-scale column studies that involved the application of solutions containing varying amounts of soluble Al and Mn to MnOx(s)-coated media. The experimental results confirmed that soluble Al was removed in significant amounts by adsorption onto the MnOx(s) media surface. The deposition of soluble Al onto the media surface did not have any significant effect on its ability to remove soluble Mn. Likewise, the relative amounts of Al incorporated into the media coating suggested that uptake of soluble Al alone cannot fully explain the levels of Al often found in real-world, MnOx(s)-coated filter media; instead, the incorporation of particulate forms of Al (routinely found in water treatment plant situations) must contribute to the formation of the MnOx(s) coatings on these media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a field appropriate membrane filtration method for the detection of Vibrio cholerae for the measurement of biosand filter performance in the Artibonite Valley, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ashley A; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2015-08-01

    Biosand filters in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti, the epicenter of the cholera epidemic that began in October 2010, were tested for total coliform and Vibrio cholerae removal efficiencies. While coliform are often used as an indicator organism for pathogenic bacteria, a correlation has never been established linking the concentration of coliform and V. cholerae, the causative agent for cholera. Hence, a method for field enumeration of V. cholerae was developed and tested. To this end, a plate count test utilizing membrane filtration technique was developed to measure viable V. cholerae cell concentration in the field. Method accuracy was confirmed by comparing plate count concentrations to microscopic counts. Additionally, biosand filters were sampled and removal efficiencies of V. cholerae and coliform bacteria compared. The correlation between removal efficiency and time in operation, biofilm ("schmutzdecke") composition, and idle time was also investigated. The plate count method for V. cholerae was found to accurately reflect microscope counts and was shown to be effective in the field. Overall, coliform concentration was not an appropriate indicator of V. cholerae concentration. In 90% of the influent samples from the study, coliform underestimated V. cholerae concentration (n = 26). Furthermore, coliform removal efficiency was higher than for V. cholerae hence providing a conservative measurement. Finally, time in operation and idle time were found to be important parameters controlling performance. Overall, this method shows promise for field applications and should be expanded to additional studies to confirm its efficacy to test for V. cholerae in various source waters.

  13. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  14. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...

  15. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system..., and does not meet all of the criteria in § 141.71 (a) and (b) for avoiding filtration, must...

  16. Pesticide removal by combined ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Since the seventies, new water treatment processes have been introduced in the production of drinking water from surface water. Their major aim was to adequately cope with the disinfection of this water, and/or with the removal of pesticides and other organic micropollutants from it. This research focused on Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filtration, which is a combination of ozonation and GAC filtration. Its general goal was identification and understanding of the mechanisms that underlie...

  17. Econometric Methodology of Monopolization Process Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrijs Skoruks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research “Econometric Methodology of Monopolization Process Evaluation” gives a perspective description of monopolization process’ nature, occurrence source, development procedure and internal conjuncture specifics, as well as providing an example of modern econometrical method application within a unified framework of market competition analysis for the purpose of conducting a quantitative competition evaluation on an industry level for practical use in both private and public sectors. The main question of the aforementioned research is the definition and quantitative analysis of monopolization effects in modern day globalized markets, while con- structing an empirical model of the econometric analysis, based on the use of in- ternational historical experience of monopoly formations standings, with the goal of introducing a further development scheme for the use of both econometrical and statistical instruments in line with the forecasting and business research need of enterprises and regulatory functions of the public sector. The current research uses a vast variety of monopolization evaluation ratios and their econometrical updates on companies that are involved in the study procedure in order to detect and scallar measure their market monopolizing potential, based on the implemented acquired market positions, turnover shares and competition policies.

  18. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

  19. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of chemisorption processes on semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, A.; Komem, Y.; Ashkenasy, N.

    2002-12-01

    This article presents a method for numerical computation of the degree of coverage of chemisorbates and the resultant surface band bending as a function of the ambient gas pressure, temperature, and semiconductor doping level. This method enables quantitative evaluation of the effect of chemisorption on the electronic properties of semiconductor surfaces, such as the work function and surface conductivity, which is of great importance for many applications such as solid- state chemical sensors and electro-optical devices. The method is applied for simulating the chemisorption behavior of oxygen on n-type CdS, a process that has been investigated extensively due to its impact on the photoconductive properties of CdS photodetectors. The simulation demonstrates that the chemisorption of adions saturates when the Fermi level becomes aligned with the chemisorption-induced surface states, limiting their coverage to a small fraction of a monolayer. The degree of coverage of chemisorbed adions is proportional to the square root of the doping level, while neutral adsorbates are independent of the doping level. It is shown that the chemisorption of neutral adsorbates behaves according to the well-known Langmuir model, regardless of the existence of charged species on the surface, while charged adions do not obey Langmuir's isotherm. In addition, it is found that in depletive chemisorption processes the resultant surface band bending increases by 2.3kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature) when the gas pressure increases by one order of magnitude or when the doping level increases by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Membrane filtration process and bioreactor for elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons from industrial effluents; Membranfiltration und Bioreaktor zur Eliminierung chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierenbeck, A.

    2003-07-01

    Selective separation and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons from industrial effluents directly at the production site was to be achieved by a combined process including membrane technology and biodegradation. This way, closed cycle processes can be designed which will be a major contribution to environmental protection integrated in production processes. First, chlorinated hydrocarbons are characterized in terms of occurrence and biodegradability. Two model substances are discussed (3-chlorobenzoic acid and 4-chlorophenol), and a practical example is presented. The fundamentals of the processes used for treatment of industrial effluents are outlined, and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed, with particular regard to integrated application in production processes. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung einer Verfahrenstechnik, bei der durch die Kombination der Membrantechnik mit dem biologischen Abbau die selektive Abtrennung und Eliminierung chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus dem Industrieabwasser schon am Ort des Entstehens realisiert werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Technik wird die Schliessung von Wasserkreislaeufen moeglich. Dies stellt fuer alle Bereiche, in denen chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe in das Abwasser gelangen koennen, einen wichtigen Beitrag zum produktionsintegrierten Umweltschutz dar. Dazu wird zunaechst die Problemstoffgruppe der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe hinsichtlich ihres Auftretens und der biologischen Abbaubarkeit charakterisiert. Zwei Modellsubstanzen (3-Chlorbenzoesaeure und 4-Chlorphenol) werden diskutiert sowie ein Beispiel aus der Praxis vorgestellt, bei dem ein Abwasser mit chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen anfaellt. Die Grundlagen der verwendeten Verfahren zur Behandlung von Industrieabwaessern mit entsprechenden Abwasserinhaltsstoffen werden dargestellt. Die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Verfahren, insbesondere im Hinblick auf den produktionsintegrierten Einsatz, werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  2. SEAM PUCKERING EVALUATION METHOD FOR SEWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automated method for the assessment and classification of puckering defects detected during the preproduction control stage of the sewing machine or product inspection. In this respect, we have presented the possible causes and remedies of the wrinkle nonconformities. Subjective factors related to the control environment and operators during the seams evaluation can be reduced using an automated system whose operation is based on image processing. Our implementation involves spectral image analysis using Fourier transform and an unsupervised neural network, the Kohonen Map, employed to classify material specimens, the input images, into five discrete degrees of quality, from grade 5 (best to grade 1 (the worst. The puckering features presented in the learning and test images have been pre-classified using the seam puckering quality standard. The network training stage will consist in presenting five input vectors (derived from the down-sampled arrays, representing the puckering grades. The puckering classification consists in providing an input vector derived from the image supposed to be classified. A scalar product between the input values vectors and the weighted training images is computed. The result will be assigned to one of the five classes of which the input image belongs. Using the Kohonen network the puckering defects were correctly classified in proportion of 71.42%.

  3. The direct filtration in a conventional water treatment plant; La filtracion directa en una ETAP convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Quiros, F. [Canal de Isabel II, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    The article describes the difficulty of the decantation of low turbidity water. Direct filtration and in-line filtration can be available alternative treatment process to coagulation, flocculation, with the minimum required chemical dosage especially coagulants, less sludge production and lower operation cost. The adaptation of conventional treatment plant to direct filtration system with recuperation of filters backwash water by eliminating the decantation, is relatively simple. The result to apply this process shows an efficient filters performance for the same effluent quality. (Author)

  4. Tailoring Supramolecular Nanofibers for Air Filtration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Skrybeck, Dominik; Misslitz, Holger; Nardini, David; Kern, Alexander; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2016-06-15

    The demand of new materials and processes for nanofiber fabrication to enhance the performance of air filters is steadily increasing. Typical approaches to obtain nanofibers are based on top-down processes such as melt blowing, centrifugal spinning, and electrospinning of polymer materials. However, fabrication of polymer nanofibers is limited with respect to either a sufficiently high throughput or the smallest achievable fiber diameter. This study reports comprehensively on a fast and simple bottom-up process to prepare supramolecular nanofibers in situ inside viscose/polyester microfiber nonwovens. Here, selected small molecules of the materials class of 1,3,5-benzenetrisamides are employed. The microfiber-nanofiber composites exhibit a homogeneous nanofiber distribution and morphology throughout the entire nonwoven scaffold. Small changes in molecular structure and processing solvent have a strong influence on the final nanofiber diameter and diameter distribution and, consequently, on the filtration performance. Choosing proper processing conditions, microfiber-nanofiber composites with surprisingly high filtration efficiencies of particulate matter are obtained. In addition, the microfiber-nanofiber composite integrity at elevated temperatures was determined and revealed that the morphology of supramolecular nanofibers is maintained compared to that of the utilized polymer nonwoven.

  5. Modeling Water Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) are not new to those in engineering or mathematics, but they were new to Melissa Parks. Model-eliciting activities are simulated real-world problems that integrate engineering, mathematical, and scientific thinking as students find solutions for specific scenarios. During this process, students generate solutions…

  6. Study on Membrane Cleaning in Magnetic Flocculation and Membrane Filtration Process%磁絮凝-膜过滤工艺中膜清洗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞治邦; 姚吉伦; 刘波; 周振

    2016-01-01

    采用孔径为200 nm 的陶瓷膜处理微污染水,研究了试验工艺和常规工艺在不同条件下的膜清洗恢复情况,分析了反冲洗压力、反冲洗时间以及化学药剂对膜通量恢复的影响,并对试验工艺进行了长期、连续运行。结果表明:该试验工艺清洗情况运行良好;当反冲洗压力为0.60 MPa、反冲洗时间为40 s 时,使用柠檬酸进行清洗时效果最好。%Membrane cleaning of ceramic membrane with pore size of 200nm was used to treat the micro polluted water.The recovery of membrane cleaning of the test process and conventional processes under different conditions was studied.The effects of backwash pressure,backwash time and chemical reagents on the recovery of membrane flux were analyzed,and the test processed to carry on the long-term continuous operation.Experiment shows that process cleaning situation ran well. When the backwash pressure is 0.60 MPa and the backwash time is 40 s,using citric acid,the cleaning effect is best.

  7. A comparison of bacterial populations in enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes using membrane filtration or gravity sedimentation for solids-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric R; Monti, Alessandro; Mohn, William W

    2010-05-01

    In an earlier phase of this study, we compared the performances of pilot scale treatment systems operated in either a conventional enhanced biological phosphorus removal (CEBPR) mode, or a membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal (MEBPR) mode. In the present investigation, we characterized the bacterial community populations in these processes during parallel operation with the same municipal wastewater feed. The objectives of the study were (1) to assess the similarity of the bacterial communities supported in the two systems over time, (2) to determine if distinct bacterial populations are associated with the MEBPR and CEBPR processes, and (3) to relate the dynamics of the community composition to changes in treatment process configuration and to treatment process performance. The characteristics of the bacterial populations were first investigated with ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, or RISA. To further understand the bacterial population dynamics, important RISA phylotypes were isolated and identified through 16S RNA gene sequencing. The parallel MEBPR and CEBPR systems developed bacterial communities that were distinct. The CEBPR community appeared to exhibit greater diversity, and this may have been the primary reason why the CEBPR treatment train demonstrated superior functional stability relative to the MEBPR counterpart. Moreover, the more diverse bacterial population apparent in the CEBPR system was observed to be more dynamic than that of the MEBPR process. Several RISA bands were found to be characteristic of either the membrane or conventional biological system. In particular, the MEBPR configuration appeared to be selective for the slow-growing organism Magnospira bakii and for the foam-associated Microthrix parvicella and Gordonia sp., while gravity separation led to the washout of M. parvicella. In both pilot trains, sequence analysis confirmed the presence of EBPR-related organisms such as Accumulibacter phosphatis. The survey of the

  8. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  9. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found that the prod......The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... magnitude as the primary consolidation (defined by the hydraulic retardation), the creep phenomenon may occur during filtration. This will lead to Ruth's plots characterized by a concave with two (more or less) distinct slopes. The slopes are defined by the relationship between the porosity...

  10. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  11. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecherková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into blocks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for outlier detection and removal. It is based on modelling the corrupted data by a two-component probabilistic mixture. The first component of the mixture models uncorrupted process data, while the second models outliers. When the outlier component is detected to be active, a prediction from the uncorrupted data component is computed and used as a reconstruction of the observed data. The resulting reconstruction filter is compared to standard methods on simulated and real data. The filter exhibits excellent properties, especially in the case of blocks of outliers. 

  12. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  13. Towards integrated operation of membrane bioreactors: effects of aeration on biological and filtration performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, M; Monclús, H; Gabarrón, S; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Comas, J

    2014-11-01

    Two experimental studies evaluated the effect of aerobic and membrane aeration changes on sludge properties, biological nutrient removal and filtration processes in a pilot plant membrane bioreactor. The optimal operating conditions were found at an aerobic dissolved oxygen set-point (DO) of 0.5 mg O2 L(-1) and a membrane specific aeration demand (SADm) of 1 m h(-1), where membrane aeration can be used for nitrification. Under these conditions, a total flow reduction of 42% was achieved (75% energy reduction) without compromising nutrient removal efficiencies, maintaining sludge characteristics and controlled filtration. Below these optimal operating conditions, the nutrient removal efficiency was reduced, increasing 20% for soluble microbial products, 14% for capillarity suction time and reducing a 15% for filterability. Below this DO set-point, fouling increased with a transmembrane pressure 75% higher. SADm below 1 m h(-1) doubled the values of transmembrane pressure, without recovery after achieving the initial conditions.

  14. Effectiveness evaluation of sources of supply and systems filter in production process of breathing air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of how efficiently filtration systems used for the production of breathing air used in hyperbaric environments are operating is significant both from theoretical and practical points of view. The quality of breathing air and the breathing mixes based on air is crucial with regard to divers' safety. Paradoxically, a change in regulations regarding quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the necessity to verify both the technical equipment and laboratory procedures used in their production and verification. The following material, which is a continuation of previous publications, presents results of the conducted research along with the evaluation of effectiveness of the filtration systems used by the Polish Navy.

  15. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated...

  16. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  17. Deashing of coal liquids by sonically assisted filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomka, B.J.

    1994-10-01

    This project seeks to improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of coal liquefaction by novel applications of sonic and ultrasonic energy. The specific purpose of this project is to develop and improve means for the economical removal of dispersed solid particles of ash, unreacted coal, and spent catalyst from direct and indirect coal liquefaction resids by using sonic or ultrasonic waves. Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. Direct coal liquefaction processes generate liquid products which contain solids including coal-originated mineral matter, unreacted coal, and spent dispersed catalyst. The removal of these solids from a product stream is one of the most difficult problems in direct coal liquefaction processes. On this report, results are discussed for sonically assisted crossflow filtration of V-1067 resid, diluted with No. 2 fuel oil, and sonically assisted batch filtrations of solids concentrates from continuous cross-flow filtration experiments.

  18. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Village of Waynesville, IL - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal drinking water treatment technology demonstration project at the Village of Waynesville, IL. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Peerless coagu...

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at the City of Okanogan, WA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the City of Okanogan, WA facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Filtronics’ FH-13 Ele...

  20. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Village of Pentwater, MI. Final performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Village of Pentwater, MI facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Kinetico’s FM-260...

  1. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sandusky, MI. Six-Month Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the City of Sandusky, MI facility. The objectives of the project are to evaluate 1) the effectiveness of Siemen...

  2. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Town of Arnaudville, LA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the United Water Systems’ facility in Arnaudville, LA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of K...

  3. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sandusky, MI Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the City of Sandusky, MI facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: 1) the effect...

  4. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    controlled for co-precipitation processes include (1) feed solution concentration adjustment, (2) precipitant concentration and addition methods, (3) pH, temperature, mixing method and time, (4) valence adjustment, (5) solid precipitate separation from the filtrate 'mother liquor,' generally by means of centrifugation or filtration, and (6) temperatures and times for drying, calcination, and reduction of the MOX product powder. Also a recovery step is necessary because of low, but finite solubility of the U/TRU metals in the mother liquor. The recovery step usually involves destruction of the residual precipitant and disposal of by-product wastes. Direct denitrations of U/TRU require fewer steps, but must utilize various methods to enable production of MOX with product characteristics that are acceptable for recycle fuel fabrication. The three co-precipitation processes considered for evaluation are (1) the ammonia co-precipitation process being developed in Russia, (2) the oxalate co-precipitation process, being developed in France, and (3) the ammonium-uranyl-plutonyl-carbonate (AUPuC) process being developed in Germany. Two direct denitration processes are presented for comparison: (1) the 'Microwave Heating (MH)' automated multi-batch process developed in Japan and (2) the 'Modified Direct Denitration (MDD)' continuous process being developed in the USA. Brief comparative descriptions of the U/TRU co-conversion processes are described. More complete details are provided in the references.

  5. Model visualization for evaluation of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, HEM; Lewis, DJ; McRobbie, I

    2008-01-01

    Biocatalysis offers great potential as an additional, and in some cases as an alternative, synthetic tool for organic chemists, especially as a route to introduce chirality. However, the implementation of scalable biocatalytic processes nearly always requires the introduction of process and/or bi...

  6. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that...

  7. Pressure filtration of ceramic pastes. 4: Treatment of experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas, A. S.; Polo, J. F.; Perez, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of data processing method based on the algorithm proposed by Kalman and its application to the filtration process at constant pressure are described, as well as the advantages of this method. This technique is compared to the least squares method. The operation allows the precise parameter adjustment of the equation in direct relationship to the specific resistance of the cake.

  8. High-efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, Florin [Evonik Fibres GmbH, Monza (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Dry/semi-dry FGD plants are associated, in general, with a fabric filter plant. The paper highlights the importance of specific fibre properties like cross section and titre associated with the filtration requirements and the filter material chemical resistance for dry/semi-dry FGD process conditions in coal-fired boiler bag houses. References related to dry/semi-dry FGD plants applied to coal-fired boilers around the world are presented and include the performance evaluation of these plants, the type of filter media, plant design specifications, process parameters and particulate emission efficiency. (orig.)

  9. ASME Evaluation on Grid Mobile E-Commerce Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Chang; Wei Liao

    2012-01-01

    With the development of E-commerce, more scholars have paid attention to research on Mobile E-commerce and mostly focus on the optimization and evaluation of existing process. This paper researches the evaluation of Mobile E-commerce process with a method called ASME. Based on combing and analyzing current mobile business process and utilizing the grid management theory, mobile business process based on grid are constructed. Firstly, the existing process, namely Non-grid Mobile E-commerce, an...

  10. ASME Evaluation on Grid Mobile E-Commerce Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Chang; Wei Liao

    2012-01-01

    With the development of E-commerce, more scholars have paid attention to research on Mobile E-commerce and mostly focus on the optimization and evaluation of existing process. This paper researches the evaluation of Mobile E-commerce process with a method called ASME. Based on combing and analyzing current mobile business process and utilizing the grid management theory, mobile business process based on grid are constructed. Firstly, the existing process, namely Non-grid Mobile E-commerce, an...

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. (Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  12. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  13. Evaluation of pretreatment processes for supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates processes to chemically treat US Department of Energy wastes to remove organic halogens, phosphorus, and sulfur. Chemical equilibrium calculations, process simulations, and responses from developers and licensors form the basis for comparisons. Gas-phase catalytic hydrogenation processes, strong base and base catalyzed processes, high pressure hydrolysis, and other emerging or commercial dehalogenation processes (both liquid and mixed phase) were considered. Cost estimates for full-scale processes and demonstration testing are given. Based on the evaluation, testing of a hydrogenation process and a strong base process are recommended.

  14. Involving Program Constituencies in the Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, David

    1984-01-01

    Two case studies provide examples of citizen and program participant involvement in program evaluation. The Reflective Appraisal of Programs at Cornell Cooperative Extension involves volunteer interviewers of participants; the Lancaster County (Pennsylvania) Office of Mental Health/Mental Retardation is reviewed by a volunteer citizens' committee.…

  15. Enhancement of fine particle filtration with efficient humidification☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Zhang; Weidong Zhang; Zhengyu Yang; Junteng Liu; Fushen Yang; Ning Li; Le Du⁎

    2016-01-01

    Filtration is one of the most effective methods to remove suspended fine particles from air. In filtration processes, pressure drop of compact dust cake causes problems in efficiency and economy, which has received increasing at-tention and stil remains chal enging. In this study, we developed a novel technique to intensify the filtration of fine particles with efficient humidification. Two strategies for humidification, including ultrasonic atomization and steam humidification (control ing of ambient humidity), were employed and proved to be both effective. The re-generation frequency of the filter could be reduced by 55%with ultrasonic atomization, while steam humidification could lead to a 78%reduction in regeneration frequency. The effect of operating conditions on pressure drop and the mass loading during filtration were investigated. The dust cake showed a loose and porous structure with an opti-mized droplet-to-particle ratio. With the ratio of 1.53 and 0.0282, the maximum mass loading was 552 g·m−2 upon the ultrasonic atomization and 720 g·m−2 upon the steam humidification. The results show that humidification could slow down the increase of pressure drop during filtration and improve the efficiency of process.

  16. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is among the green alternatives to fossil fuels, but as the processing techniques are today, gasolin is still heaper than bioethanol. Lignocellulose, which remains the primary resource for ioethanol production in Denmark, is complex when it comes to release...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes....... Enzymes are added to the bioethanol process after pretreatment. For an efficient sugar and ethanol yield, the solids content of biomass is normally increased, which results in highly viscous slurries that are difficult to mix. Therefore, the first enzymatic challenge is to ensure rapid reduction...

  17. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  18. Evaluation of thermostable enzymes for bioethanol processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia

    Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is among the green alternatives to fossil fuels, but as the processing techniques are today, gasolin is still heaper than bioethanol. Lignocellulose, which remains the primary resource for ioethanol production in Denmark, is complex when it comes to release...... for the ioethanol production, but the expenses can be reduced by using thermostable enzymes, which are known for their increased stability and inhibitor olerance. However, the advantage of using thermostable enzymes has not been studied thoroughly and more knowledge is needed for development of bioethanol processes...

  19. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  20. Study and Evaluate Low Filtration Oil in Low-density Water Well Control Fluid%低密度低滤失气井压井液的体系研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党庆功; 孙志成; 李萌; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at low-pressure gas bearing reservoir in Jilin and Honggang,reservoir temperature low 50℃, study of low density water external emulsionof well control fluid, take water as external phase and 0# diesel oil as internal phase, filter out emulsifier of good emulsifying power and fluid loss control agent, determine the formula of the well control fluid, and evaluate its performance. The result of experiment indicates that the the well control fluid has low filtration property and good stability, through the core of permeability experiment can reach this conclusion, that well control fluid has tiny damages to gas bearing formation.%针对吉林松原和红岗低压区块,压力系数小于1,储层温度为50℃以内,研究出低密度超低伤害水包油型气井压井液.以水为外相,0#C柴油为内相,选用实验室研制的具有良好乳化能力的乳化剂和降滤失剂,确定了压井液的配方.实验结果表明,此气井压井液具有良好的低滤失性、稳定性.通过对气层岩心的渗透率实验可以得出此压井液对气层伤害极小.

  1. Filtration Process of the Spiramycin Fermentation Broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of acidity and additive pretreatment on the filtering rate and Spiramycin (SPM) concentration in the filter liquor of SPM fermentation broth. The experimental results show that the SPM peak value in filter liquor is obtained at pH 5.5 with either 0.1% methanal or 0.1% BAPE. It is also indicated that there exists a dissolution equilibrium of proteins from the experiment results. The soluble proteins are denatured due to the too high/low acidity and then precipitate. Usually, the amount of soluble proteins reaches its lowest level in pH range of 6.0-6.5. The protein precipitation will, together with other suspended solids particles, contribute to the final SPM concentration in the filter liquor. This paper assumes that the contribution is the result of the adsorption equilibrium of SPM on the surfaces of suspended solids. For a satisfactory explanation, the revised Langmuir adsorption theory was employed and a model was developed.

  2. Research on Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation of Stamping Process Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Tingwei; GAO Jun; ZHAO Guoqun

    2006-01-01

    Stamping process, which is widely used in automobile, aerospace, machine-building industries, and etc., is a creative process needing time and experiences. The lead time is mainly spent on stamping die design and manufacturing. As the basis of die design, process design is a non-linearity and creative process, which can be solved by using the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. In this paper, the potential of fuzzy synthetic evaluation for dealing with stamping process design was explored. The influencing factor set, factor weight set, evaluation set, single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix, and fuzzy synthetic evaluation scheme were studied. Finally, the washer part, considering forming equipment, part dimensions and other factors, was selected to testify the evaluation process.

  3. A comparison of facemask and respirator filtration test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Shaffer, Ronald; Williams, Brandon; Smit, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    NIOSH published a Federal Register Notice to explore the possibility of incorporating FDA required filtration tests for surgical masks (SMs) in the 42 CFR Part 84 respirator certification process. There have been no published studies comparing the filtration efficiency test methods used for NIOSH certification of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFRs) with those used by the FDA for clearance of SMs. To address this issue, filtration efficiencies of "N95 FFRs" including six N95 FFR models and three surgical N95 FFR models, and three SM models were measured using the NIOSH NaCl aerosol test method, and FDA required particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) and bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) methods, and viral filtration efficiency (VFE) method. Five samples of each model were tested using each method. Both PFE and BFE tests were done using unneutralized particles as per FDA guidance document. PFE was measured using 0.1 µm size polystyrene latex particles and BFE with ∼3.0 µm size particles containing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. VFE was obtained using ∼3.0 µm size particles containing phiX 174 as the challenge virus and Escherichia coli as the host. Results showed that the efficiencies measured by the NIOSH NaCl method for "N95 FFRs" were from 98.15-99.68% compared to 99.74-99.99% for PFE, 99.62-99.9% for BFE, and 99.8-99.9% for VFE methods. Efficiencies by the NIOSH NaCl method were significantly (p = PFE, BFE, and VFE methods produced no significant difference. The above results show that the NIOSH NaCl method is relatively conservative and is able to identify poorly performing filtration devices. The higher efficiencies obtained using PFE, BFE and VFE methods show that adding these supplemental particle penetration methods will not improve respirator certification.

  4. Study of Purchase Process Modeling and Reengineering Effects Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhenhuanJiang; LiangQuan; PeiwuDong

    2004-01-01

    Purchase process is an important part in the process of running an enterprise.For reengineering the process of'enterprise, raise business efficiency of enterprise , make enterprise competitive among complicated and changeable market environment. Use the method of planning to evaluate the technology modeling and method to set up evaluation index, based on the basic principle business process reengineering, studied the methods of modeling and evaluating of the reengineering of the purchase process. Given the intact method of modeling process. Give the mathematics express method and figure express method of the process, propose using PT reducing rate to evaluate the effect of the process reengineer, and has analysed three kinds of situations that affect the reducing rate of PT.

  5. Investment Projects Evaluation in Decision Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Škalamera-Alilović

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in classifying investment projects is economic dependence between new and existing projects. Economic dependence causes the neccessity of specific information in decision making process. The prerequisite of shaping incremental effects projections is to take opportunity effects, caused by economic dependence, into account. Basic principles of risk estimation that are well known in the field of financial assets, are concerning real investments as well. An enterprise can be viewed as portfolio of investment projects that cannot be perfectly diversified and where market risk is not the most important risk. In the field of real investments, individual risk and added risk to the total risk of enterprise, besides market risk, have to be estimated. This paper explains basic principles of risk estimation in the field of investment projects in the selection of project variants. It researches types of economic dependence among various investment projects and their influence into decision making process.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  7. Renal filtration function in patients with gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study circadian blood pressure (BP profile in patients with gout depending on the presence of arterial hypertension (HT and their relationship to the renal filtration function.Material and methods. Patients with gout (n=87 were included into the study. All the patients underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM with the assessment of circadian BP profile, determination of uric acid serum levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR was evaluated by CKD-EPI method. Depending on GFR level, all the patients were divided into 2 groups - with renal dysfunction or without one.Results. ABPM revealed circadian BP dysregulation in 55% of gout patients both with HT and without HT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was revealed in 72.4% of male patients, with the prevalence in patients with HT (76.6 vs 61%; p<0.001. Correlations between uric acid levels and some ABPM indicators and GFR were determined.Conclusion. Obtained data suggest the contribution of hyperuricemia in disorders of systemic and renal hemodynamics, leading to the early development of CKD.

  8. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  9. Effect of Nanofibers on Spore Penetration and Lunar Dust Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Gibson, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of two separate studies on biological spore penetration and simulated lunar dust filtration illustrate the use of nanofibers in some nonstandard filtration applications (nanofibers are generally defined as having diameters of less than a micron. In the first study, a variety of microporous liners containing microfibers and nanofibers were combined with cotton-based fabrics in order to filter aerosolized spores. The aerosol penetration resistance of the nanofiber-lined fabrics was measured, and some analysis was conducted of where the particles are captured within the fabric layers. Testing was conducted with aerosolized living spores, in order to evaluate the efficacy of various fabric treatments on spore viability within the fabric layers after exposure. Reported are the results of studies on fabrics with and without a removable electrospun nanofiber liner, and the fate of the spores within the fabric layers. In the second study, non-instrumented filtration testing using simulated lunar dust determined the comparative filtration efficiency of various nonwoven filtration media. Nanofiber witness media, combined with scanning electron microscope images, showed that an electrospun nonwoven filter layer effectively filtered out all the large and fine particles of the simulated lunar dust.

  10. A Design Process Evaluation Method for Sustainable Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Magent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a technique to model and evaluate the design process for sustainable buildings. Three case studies were conducted to validate this method. The resulting design process evaluation method for sustainable buildings (DPEMSB may assist project teams in designing their own sustainable building design processes. This method helps to identify critical decisions in the design process, to evaluate these decisions for time and sequence, to define information required for decisions from various project stakeholders, and to identify stakeholder competencies for process implementation. Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Numbers 1-2, 2009 , pp. 62-74(13

  11. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A

    2000-12-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  12. Treatment of Marble Processing Wastewaters by Ceramic Micro-Filtration Membrane%陶瓷微滤膜处理大理石加工废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金珊; 孙杰

    2011-01-01

    采用孔径为0.8μm的陶瓷膜处理大理石生产过程中产生的废水,研究了操作压差和膜面流速等对膜性能的影响,结果表明,合适的操作条件是操作压差0.07 MPa,膜面流速1.0 m/s,滤出液中固体颗粒的截留率在99.2%~99.8%,膜微滤过程对废水的pH值和COD值的影响不大,运行中膜通量稳定平均值为400L/(m2·h),料液的固体质量浓度大于55 g/L时,膜通量明显下降.对污染膜用清水清洗20 min和体积分数为1%的HNO3溶液清洗30 min,膜通量可以得到完全恢复.渗透液返回生产工序循环使用,截留液进入沉降池.%Treatment of marble processing wastewaters by ceramic micro-filtration membrane with pore size of 0.8 μm was performed.The effects of the transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on the MF performance were investigated.The experimental results show that the feasible transmembrane pressure is 0.07 MPa and crossflow velocity 1.0 m/s.The solid rejections of the permeate samples were from 99.2% to 99.8%.The MF process has no remarkable effect on the wastewater pH and COD, the membrane flux remained constant throughout the experiment, the average value is 400 L/(m2 · h).The flux was remarkable decline when the solid concentration of feed liquid is over 55 g/L.The membrane flux can be recovered completely after cleaned by the water with 20 minutes and nitric acid solution (volume fraction 1 %)with 30 minutes.The MF process allowed the treated water to be recycled into the process, whereas the concentrated stream (rich in particulate matter) turned into sedimentation pool.

  13. Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

  14. Communication processes, public administration and performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of legal systems in European is one of the most important issues. This process has started by the fact that there are significant differences between the civil law and common law system and between the legal families in it. A law (at domestic or international level should not be viewed against the backdrop of the historical, political, cultural, social and economic context in which they function. In order to shed further light for our readers, we analyze by emphasizing the significant differences between the civil law and common law system on one side and the legal families that are part of the same legal system, either “Civil” or “Common,” on the other side. The Europeanization of law refers to the communization of the law by EU institutions and to a process that aims at creating a common Europe legal system. In the end, either in medium or long term, the Europeanization is contributing to the so-called non-mandatory or soft harmonization of private law. It is in the best interest of the EU to seek adequate judicial instruments to accommodate the massive numbers of laws deriving from different Civil Law and the Common law systems.

  15. Evaluating Community Forestry Processes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath

    With the overall objective to evaluate outcomes of decentralized forest governance in Nepal, particularly focusing on assessing forest conditions as well as the role of community forestry in household economies, this research was carried out in 10 community forests of Tanahun district of western...... Nepal. The fieldwork consisted of five components: forest measurement including boundary survey, household survey of 304 households, key informant interviews, counting and identification of farm trees, and focus group discussions. Different types of airborne analogue aerial photographs, satellite...... of supplying firewood and especially fodder for the rural households. Land holdings, livestock holdings, firewood consumption, and education level were positively related to the number of trees on a household’s farm land while distance to the forest and the use of alternative energy sources were negatively...

  16. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  17. Supplier Evaluation Process by Pairwise Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to assess suppliers by using consistency-driven pairwise comparisons for tangible and intangible criteria. The tangible criteria are simpler to compare (e.g., the price of a service is lower than that of another service with identical characteristics. Intangible criteria are more difficult to assess. The proposed model combines assessments of both types of criteria. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of an extension framework for the selection of suppliers in a procurement process. The final weights are computed from relative pairwise comparisons. For the needs of the paper, surveys were conducted among Polish managers dealing with cooperation with suppliers in their enterprises. The Polish practice and restricted bidding are discussed, too.

  18. Depot effect of bioactive components in experimental membrane filtrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, D.; Peshev, D.; Peev, G.; Peeva, L.

    2017-01-01

    Depot effects were found to be accompanying phenomena of membrane separation processes. Accumulation of target species in the membrane matrix during feasibility tests can hamper proper conclusions or compromise the filtration results. Therefore, we investigated the effects of delayed membrane release of chlorogenic acid and caffeine, considered as key compounds of interest in spent coffee products’ recovery treatment. Permeate fluxes and key components release were studied in course of 24 hours via nanofiltration of pure solvent, both immediately after the mock solution filtration and after idle stay. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations advised for proper analysis of experimental data on membrane screening.

  19. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE STRONIUM AND TRANSURANIC SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMALLEY CS

    2011-04-25

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  20. EFFECT OF KIESELGUHR FILTRATION ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Looks of beer is an important factor which is associated with high clarity. Clarity of beer is a basic precondition of its good marketability and consumer satisfaction. Beer filtration is ideal tool to create required optical properties. There is a high accent on this operation in brewery and minibrewery. The process of filtering removes unwanted haze-active substances in order to increase clarity and overall stability of beer. Objective method to expressing clarity of beer is nephelometric determination of turbidity, which is highly sensitive and achieved by reliable results directly in the units used to express the turbidity values in beer. The objective of our study was to measure haze before and after filtration in various types of beer with different length of lagering. Kieselguhr was used as filtration material. Haze of beer was measured by haze meter in determination under 2 angles and values were expressed in European Brewery Convention units directly.

  1. EVALUATION OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS USING EMVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Tonissi Moroni Cutovoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a PDP model application in an auto parts company, leader in its segment. From the application of lean thinking in the supply chain and the EMVS performance analysis methodology for PDP, a check list is created to avoid waste in project management. In this paper, we show that EMVS can be positively impacted through active management of knowledge within a project. This paper suggests that the value-enabling portion of a project manager's role requires aligning knowledge across these three key domains regarding PDP Gates (Phases at company manufacturers of auto parts, Lean Thinking and Value Stream, and methodology for managing projects through performance-term rates and costs. The results show that the methodology has positive aspects, but its implementation takes time and has repercussions throughout the supply chain. Further this research try to explain the types of wastes and view of new products' development is enhanced and associates a manufacturing strategy focus on EMVS performance analysis and lean thinking, PDP and value stream mapping  showing the important of contribution this tools at reduction of waste.

  2. Biotrickling filtration of isopropanol under intermittent loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Valero, Pau; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Sempere, Feliu; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the removal of isopropanol by gas-phase biotrickling filtration. Two plastic packing materials, one structured and one random, have been evaluated in terms of oxygen mass transfer and isopropanol removal efficiency. Oxygen mass transfer experiments were performed at gas velocities of 104 and 312 m h⁻¹ and liquid velocities between 3 and 33 m h⁻¹. Both materials showed similar mass transfer coefficients up to liquid velocities of 15 m h⁻¹. At greater liquid velocities, the structured packing exhibited greater oxygen mass transfer coefficients. Biotrickling filtration experiments were carried out at inlet loads (IL) from 20 to 65 g C m⁻³ h⁻¹ and empty bed residence times (EBRT) from 14 to 160 s. To simulate typical industrial emissions, intermittent isopropanol loading (16 h/day, 5 day/week) and intermittent spraying frequency (15 min/1.5 h) were applied. Maximum elimination capacity of 51 g C m⁻³ h⁻¹ has been obtained for the random packing (IL of 65 g C m⁻³ h⁻¹, EBRT of 50 s). The decrease in irrigation frequency to 15 min every 3 h caused a decrease in the outlet emissions from 86 to 59 mg C Nm⁻³ (inlet of 500 mg C Nm⁻³). The expansion of spraying to night and weekend periods promoted the degradation of the isopropanol accumulated in the water tank during the day, reaching effluent concentrations as low as 44 mg C Nm⁻³. After a 7-week starvation period, the performance was recovered in less than 10 days, proving the robustness of the process.

  3. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

  4. 气升式陶瓷膜过滤过程的气液两相流模拟%Simulation of gas-liquid two-phase flow for airlift ceramic membrane filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林进; 沈浩; 景文珩

    2016-01-01

    采用VOF双流体模型对19通道气升式陶瓷膜过滤装置进行气液两相流的流体动力学模拟,研究了曝气孔直径和曝气量对气升式陶瓷膜过滤装置的气含率、环流液速、膜面剪切力及膜管内湍流强度的影响,模拟结果与实验结果的误差在5%~10%之间。结果表明,气升管与降液管的气含率都随曝气量增大而增大,随曝气孔直径减小而增大;环流液速、膜面剪切力及膜管内的湍流强度都随曝气量增大先增大,当曝气量达到400 L·h−1时其增大趋势变缓。通过实验和模拟比较了3种不同孔径的曝气头,环流液速与曝气孔的直径关系不大,仅与曝气量相关,但曝气孔直径越小,其膜面剪切力越大,越有利于过滤过程的进行。%The influences of aerator aperture size and aeration rate on the gas hold-up, liquid circulation velocity, wall shear stress and turbulence intensity in a novel airlift ceramic membrane filtration equipment containing a 19-channel ceramic membrane was investigated by the CFD simulation. Further, the VOF model was adopted to simulate the flow state of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid and the mean error between experiment date and simulation date was 5%—10%. The results demonstrated that the gas hold-up increased with increasing aeration rate and decreasing aerator aperture size. The liquid circulation velocity, wall shear stress and turbulence intensity increased with increasing aeration rate, and the increasing trend became slow after the aeration rate reached 400 L·h−1. For the three aperture aerator with different size, the comparison of experiment and simulation results have indicated that the liquid circulation velocity was only related to the aeration rate, and had little to do with aerator aperture size. Decreasing of the aerator aperture size was conductive to the increasing of the wall shear stress and the filtration process.

  5. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees - a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material - can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  6. Analysis of Basis Weight Uniformity of Microfiber Nonwovens and Its Impact on Permeability and Filtration Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnasr, Elham

    It is widely recognized that nonwoven basis weight non-uniformity affects various properties of nonwovens. However, few studies can be found in this topic. The development of uniformity definition and measurement methods and the study of their impact on various web properties such as filtration properties and air permeability would be beneficial both in industrial applications and in academia. They can be utilized as a quality control tool and would provide insights about nonwoven behaviors that cannot be solely explained by average values. Therefore, for quantifying nonwoven web basis weight uniformity we purse to develop an optical analytical tool. The quadrant method and clustering analysis was utilized in an image analysis scheme to help define "uniformity" and its spatial variation. Implementing the quadrant method in an image analysis system allows the establishment of a uniformity index that can be used to quantify the degree of uniformity. Clustering analysis has also been modified and verified using uniform and random simulated images with known parameters. Number of clusters and cluster properties such as cluster size, member and density was determined. We also utilized this new measurement method to evaluate uniformity of nonwovens produced with different processes and investigated impacts of uniformity on filtration and permeability. The results of quadrant method shows that uniformity index computed from quadrant method demonstrate a good range for non-uniformity of nonwoven webs. Clustering analysis is also been applied on reference nonwoven with known visual uniformity. From clustering analysis results, cluster size is promising to be used as uniformity parameter. It is been shown that non-uniform nonwovens has provide lager cluster size than uniform nonwovens. It was been tried to find a relationship between web properties and uniformity index (as a web characteristic). To achieve this, filtration properties, air permeability, solidity and

  7. PORE STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF DEPOSITS FORMED DURING FIBER BUNDLE MEDIA FILTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deying Wang; Ziqiu Shen

    2004-01-01

    Scanning electronic microscope was adopted to investigate the pore structure of deposits formed during polypropylene fiber bundle filtration. The effects of flocculants, cationic polyacrylamide and polyaluminumchloride, on the pore structure and filtration process were examined. It is found from experimental results that the filter deposit has a self-similarity pore structure, which can be described in fractal dimensions.

  8. Resolution of the three dimensional structure of components of the glomerular filtration barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkill, Kenton P; Qvortrup, Klaus; Starborg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The human glomerulus is the primary filtration unit of the kidney, and contains the Glomerular Filtration Barrier (GFB). The GFB had been thought to comprise 3 layers - the endothelium, the basement membrane and the podocyte foot processes. However, recent studies have suggested that at least two...

  9. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection.

  10. Evaluation of machining dispersions for turning process

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose to extend the model of simulation of dispersions in turning based on the geometrical specifications. Our study is articulated around two trends of development: the first trend relates to the geometrical model. The geometrical model suggested must allow a follow-up of the geometry of the part during the simulation of machining. It is thus a question of carrying out a systematic treatment of the whole dimensioning and tolerancing process while being based on the principles of the \\DeltaL method. We also planned to integrate this type of specification in the model of simulation of machining suggested. It is more generally a question of extending the traditional model for better taking into account the multi axis specification of coaxiality and perpendicularity on the turned workpieces. The second trend of our study relates to the widening of the field of application of the model. We propose to extend the field of application of the model by taking into account the modifications of seve...

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  12. An Advanced Process of Condensation Performance Evaluation by BIM Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyung Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in sustainable design for saving energy and improving living conditions. In particular, condensation performance evaluation is a major part of the design phase in which condensation defects in apartment housing are considered. The aim of this work is to propose an advanced process for improving the efficiency and accuracy of evaluations of condensation performance. For this aim, an analysis of the traditional process was performed. The results support a proposed advanced evaluation process, which was then applied to develop a building information modeling (BIM application. The proposed process can be an alternative to the current evaluation process through the use of a BIM application for the automatic process. A case study showed that the advanced process of condensation performance evaluation could save 75.8% of the time compared with the current process. Additionally, from interviews with professionals, it is expected that the proposed process offers a practical means of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of the whole evaluation process.

  13. The Role of Evaluation in the School Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Beach, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Although evaluation serves many purposes in education, there is virtually unanimous agreement that evaluation is a critical component of all school improvement processes. Hamilton et al. (2003) asserted that "assessment and evaluation should be built into reform programs from the outset" (p. 26). Kimball, Lander, and Thorn (2010)…

  14. Emphasizing Cultural Competence in Evaluation: A Process-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botcheva, Luba; Shih, Johanna; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process-oriented approach to culturally competent evaluation, focusing on a case study of an evaluation of an HIV/AIDS educational program in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. We suggest that cultural competency in evaluation is not a function of a static set of prescribed steps but is achieved via ongoing reflection, correction, and…

  15. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  16. Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Production Process Using Pareto Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polák Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of using the Pareto method in evaluating the effectiveness of machine production processes. The paper deals with the production process of material cutting using progressive technology and subsequent evaluation of its effectiveness and quality. In the production process, we have used the method of material cutting by abrasive water jet. The Pareto analysis was used for eliminating the shortcomings in the quality of the final part.

  17. Purification Process of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule Water Extraction with Ceramic Membrane Filtration%陶瓷膜过滤对连花清瘟胶囊水提液纯化工艺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏彦; 张永锋; 史东霞; 许红辉; 李炳超; 李正杰; 范文成

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究不同孔径无机陶瓷膜对中药连花清瘟胶囊水提液除杂效果及主要有效成分转移率的影响.方法 以连花清瘟胶囊水提液为研究对象,采用8种不同孔径的无机陶瓷膜过滤,观察膜通量和主要有效成分的转移率.结果 经过8种不同孔径陶瓷膜过滤后,连花清瘟胶囊水提液均较过滤前明显透明澄清,出膏率也有一定程度的下降,综合考虑实际生产因素,孔径为0.2 μm的陶瓷膜管能保证在有效成分转移率和固形物去除率较高的条件下有较大的膜通量,适用于连花清瘟胶囊水提液除杂工艺.结论 陶瓷膜过滤技术可有效改善连花清瘟胶囊水提液除杂的效果,可用于中药提取液精制生产领域.%Objective To study the purification process and the retention rates of main active ingredients of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule water extraction with different pore size inorganic ceramic membrane. Methods Water extraction of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule was filtered by eight kinds of pore size inorganic ceramic membranes, the membrane flux and the retention rates of main active ingredients were observed. Results Water extraction liquid become clear and the cream rates decreased after filtered with ceramic membrane. Considering the actual production factors, the pore size of 0.2 μm ceramic membrane was selected to apply to purification process of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule water extraction, because of the higher retention rates of the active ingredients, the higher removal rates of impurities and the higher membrane flux. Conclusion Ceramic membrane filtration technology is effective to remove impurities of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule water extraction, and can be applied to the field of refining production of traditional Chinese medicine extraction.

  18. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuyi; Shao, Yahui; Wang, Yanming; Tian, Jun; Sun, Ben; Ru, Yanhui; Zhang, Aimin; Hao, Junwen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m diaethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging for living kidney graft donors. In a total of 212 candidate donors, GFR was examined using (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Donors with GFR≥80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and as low as with GFR≥70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) but a normal endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were quantified for living kidney donation. Differences in GFR levels based on sex and age were analyzed using rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 212 candidates, 161 were finally selected as kidney graft donors. The double kidney total GFR between the male and female donor groups, the GFR levels among differently-aged donor groups, and the GFR levels between the elderly (>55 years) and young- and middle-aged (≤55 years) donor groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). After kidney donation, renal function measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of all donors returned to normal within one week, and no serious complications were noticed. In conclusion, renal dynamic imaging by (99m)Tc-DTPA had a good accuracy and repeatability in GFR evaluation for living kidney donors. Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex.

  19. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime.

  20. Integrating Usability Evaluations into the Software Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizano, Fulvio

    This thesis addresses the integration of usability evaluations into the software development process. The integration here is contextualized in terms of how to include usability evaluation as an activity in the software development lifecycle. Even though usability evaluations are considered...... as relevant and strategic human–computer interaction (HCI) activities in the software development process, there are obstacles that limit the complete, effective and efficient integration of this kind of testing into the software development process. Two main obstacles are the cost of usability evaluations...... and the software developers' resistance to accepting users’ opinions regarding the lack of usability in their software systems. The ‘cost obstacle’ refers to the constraint of conducting usability evaluations in the software process due to the significant amount of resources required by this type of testing. Some...

  1. Persistent homology in graph power filtrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Allen D; Marchette, David J

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of homological features in simplicial complex representations of big datasets in R (n) resulting from Vietoris-Rips or Čech filtrations is commonly used to probe the topological structure of such datasets. In this paper, the notion of homological persistence in simplicial complexes obtained from power filtrations of graphs is introduced. Specifically, the rth complex, r ≥ 1, in such a power filtration is the clique complex of the rth power G(r) of a simple graph G. Because the graph distance in G is the relevant proximity parameter, unlike a Euclidean filtration of a dataset where regional scale differences can be an issue, persistence in power filtrations provides a scale-free insight into the topology of G. It is shown that for a power filtration of G, the girth of G defines an r range over which the homology of the complexes in the filtration are guaranteed to persist in all dimensions. The role of chordal graphs as trivial homology delimiters in power filtrations is also discussed and the related notions of 'persistent triviality', 'transient noise' and 'persistent periodicity' in power filtrations are introduced.

  2. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  3. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Water purification technologies such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles, or so-called diffusiophoresis. Due to the large diffusion potential built up by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Our findings suggest a means to separate particles without membranes or filters, thus reducing operating and maintenance costs. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits very low pressure drop and is essentially free from fouling.

  4. Gravity filtration of suspensions: permeability effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Wang, Mengyu; Ward, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the filtration rates of mono-modal suspensions as a function of time and a cake layer builds up through theory and experimentation. Darcy's Law, which describes fluid flow through porous media, was applied along with the Kynch theory of sedimentation, which provides the basis for analyzing low concentration (ϕ filter media. A CCD camera was used to capture images of the cake formation and fluid drainage processes, and subsequent image and theoretical analysis found the fluid flow experienced a constant pressure loss due to the permeability of the filter media, whereas the experienced pressure loss due to the cake formation varies as a function of time, ϕ and d. The rate of cake formation was also found to be independent of ϕ but dependent on d which can be attributed to a change in porosity affecting permeability. Studies on similar systems with multi-modal suspensions are in-progress.

  5. Evaluation as Learning: Course Evaluation as Part of the Learning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensson, Paer

    This paper describes an example of a course evaluation where the evaluation process becomes an important part of the learning process. The setting is an action-learning based course in an executive program. The participants apply a framework (the X-model) for perceiving processes to their own learning. The framework is presented, and experiences…

  6. PI 纤维/PTFE 基布复合水刺耐高温滤料的制备工艺与性能研究%Study on the process and performance of the PI/PTFE composite spunlaced high-temperature resistance filtration material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 宁菁菁; 靳向煜; 殷保璞

    2013-01-01

    The influence factor on filtration performance of high temperature resistant filter media was analyzed . The influence of spunlace process parameters on high-temperature resistant filtration performance of the PI/PTFE composite substrates was studied.The test demonstrated that the products with good filtration performance and mechanical property could be produced throughout 5 times of main spunlace processes with spunlace pressure of 18 MPa and the power consumption be low .%  分析了影响耐高温滤料过滤性能的因素,研究了水刺工艺参数对聚酰亚胺(PI)纤维/聚四氟乙烯(PTFE)基布复合耐高温滤料性能的影响。试验表明,采用5道主水刺和18 MPa水刺压力可以制得力学性能和过滤性能较优的产品,且能耗较低。

  7. Students' views on the block evaluation process: A descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkies, Ntefeleng E; Mtshali, Ntombifikile G

    2016-03-30

    Higher education institutions have executed policies and practices intended to determine and promote good teaching. Students' evaluation of the teaching and learning process is seen as one measure of evaluating quality and effectiveness of instruction and courses. Policies and procedures guiding this process are discernible in universities, but it isoften not the case for nursing colleges. To analyse and describe the views of nursing students on block evaluation, and how feedback obtained from this process was managed. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted amongst nursing students (n = 177) in their second to fourth year of training from one nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A questionnaire was administered by the researcher and data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 19.0. The response rate was 145 (81.9%). The participants perceived the aim of block evaluation as improving the quality of teaching and enhancing their experiences as students.They questioned the significance of their input as stakeholders given that they had never been consulted about the development or review of the evaluation tool, or the administration process; and they often did not receive feedback from the evaluation they participated in. The college management should develop a clear organisational structure with supporting policies and operational guidelines for administering the evaluation process. The administration, implementation procedures, reporting of results and follow-up mechanisms should be made transparent and communicated to all concerned. Reports and actions related to these evaluations should provide feedback into relevant courses or programmes.

  8. Evaluation of formal educational processes for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrenti, Eloá; Mira, Vera Lúcia; Bucchi, Sarah Marília; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the scientific literature on the evaluation of formal educational processes for healthcare professionals. Integrative literature review in which were reviewed the following databases: VHL, Pubmed and Cochrane. The final sample was composed of 19 articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish published from 2000 to July 2010. The subject of study was the evaluation of formal educational processes for health professionals, which had at least the abstract available online. There is no use of a systematic methodology to evaluate the formal educational processes in this study group. The evaluation focus mainly on the learning of participants, with little attention to the teaching process. There are no evaluations on the impact caused by this type of training in institutions and users of the health system, which can incur the risk of reducing the value of formal education processes. A full evaluation of the formal educational processes for professionals during a longer time is important to assess the impact of these processes and provide information about the necessities of continuing education of this population.

  9. Filtration and dewatering: review of literature. [117 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gala, H. B.; Chiang, S. H.

    1980-09-01

    Filtration and dewatering are important aspects of any chemical process involved in producing solid product from a slurry. However, these operations are not studied in as much detail as other industrial operations like distillation, absorption, etc. In the past, the design of filtration equipment was considered more of an art than science. Only in the last few years have attempts been made to understand the fundamental mechanism underlying these operations. In this review, the present status of filtration and dewatering is discussed, particularly concerning the models used for predicting the rate of filtration and dewatering. Effects of various parameters, size of particles in the slurry, their shape and method of cake formation, etc., on the characteristics of these operations are analyzed. A separate chapter on the use of these processes in coal cleaning is included. Dewatering of fine coal and refuse has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Special problems associated with dewatering of fine coal are discussed. Enhanced methods of dewatering are reviewed and finally areas requiring further research are highlighted.

  10. Tangential flow filtration of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andre F; Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P(50)) and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (alpha) and beta (beta) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the alpha and beta globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the alpha- and beta- globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC-grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers.

  11. Process design and evaluation of butanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.M. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Why Butanol?; ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) fermentation background and state of the art; Developed conceptual process design; Economic evaluation; Environmental Impact assessment (LCA); and Conclusion.

  12. Toxicity Evaluation and Cytogenetic Screening of Process Water 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    1Department of Plant and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City. 2Department ... Macroscopic evaluation of A. cepa cultivated in the wastewater resulted in significant (p<0.05) ... With respect to the Oil and Gas industry, process water.

  13. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qu

  14. Students’ views on the block evaluation process: A descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntefeleng E. Pakkies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher education institutions have executed policies and practices intended to determine and promote good teaching. Students’ evaluation of the teaching and learning process is seen as one measure of evaluating quality and effectiveness of instruction and courses. Policies and procedures guiding this process are discernible in universities, but it isoften not the case for nursing colleges.Objective: To analyse and describe the views of nursing students on block evaluation, and how feedback obtained from this process was managed.Method: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted amongst nursing students (n = 177 in their second to fourth year of training from one nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A questionnaire was administered by the researcher and data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 19.0.Results: The response rate was 145 (81.9%. The participants perceived the aim of block evaluation as improving the quality of teaching and enhancing their experiences as students.They questioned the significance of their input as stakeholders given that they had never been consulted about the development or review of the evaluation tool, or the administration process; and they often did not receive feedback from the evaluation they participated in.Conclusion: The college management should develop a clear organisational structure with supporting policies and operational guidelines for administering the evaluation process. The administration, implementation procedures, reporting of results and follow-up mechanisms should be made transparent and communicated to all concerned. Reports and actions related to these evaluations should provide feedback into relevant courses or programmes.Keywords: Student evaluation of teaching; perceptions; undergraduate nursing students; evaluation process

  15. In Vitro Selection of Peanut Somatic Embryos on Medium Containing Culture Filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and Plantlet Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSNITA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to identify somaclonal variants of peanut with resistance to Sclerotium stem rot disease due to infection of S. rolfsii were conducted. The objectives of this study were to develop in vitro selection method using culture filtrates of S. rolfsii, identify culture filtrate-insensitive somatic embryo (SE of peanut after in vitro selection and regenerate peanut R0 lines originated from culture filtrate-insensitive SE. To achieve these objectives, peanut embryogenic tissues were cultured on selective medium containing various concentrations of S. rolfsii culture filtrates and sublethal concentration of the filtrates. Medium containing sublethal level of S. rolfsii culture filtrates was used to identify culture filtrate-insensitive SE of peanut. Subsequently, the selected SEs were germinated, plantlets were regenerated and preliminary tested against S. rolfsii. Results of the experiments showed that addition of S. rolfsii culture filtrates into medium for inducing peanut somatic embryos drastically reduced their growth and proliferation. S. rolfsii culture filtrates at 10% concentration has significantly reduced the number of proliferated SE per explant. However, sublethal level was achieved at 30% of culture filtrates concentration. Responses of five peanut cultivars against 30% of culture filtrates were similar, indicating they were similar in their susceptibility against S. rolfsii. A number of culture filtrate-insensitive SE were identified after culturing 1500 clumps of embryogenic tissue of peanut cv. Kelinci for three consecutive passages on medium containing 30% of culture filtrates. Germination of selected SE and regeneration of plantlet from culture filtrate-insensitive SE resulted in 50 peanut R0 lines. These lines have been grown in the plastic house and produced normal seeds for further evaluation. Results of S. rolfsii inoculation indicated the existence of chimera for insensitivity against S. rolfsii.

  16. Biological Control of Aphid Using Fungal Culture and Culture Filtrates of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Jun; Jeong, Gayoung; Han, Ji Hee; Lee, Sangyeob

    2013-12-01

    Aphids are one of the most destructive pests in crop production such as pepper, cucumber, and eggplants. The importance of entomopathogenic fungi as alternative pest control agents is increasing. Conidia of entomopathogenic fungi are influenced by environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity, and cause slow and fluctuating mortality. These factors have prevented wider application and use of biocontrol agents. For investigation of means of mitigation of such problems, we conducted bioassays with 47 fungal culture filtrates in order to evaluate the potential of secondary metabolites produced by entomopathogenic fungi for use in aphid control. Among 47 culture filtrates cultured potato dextrose broth, filtrate of Beauveria bassiana Bb08 showed the highest mortality (78%) against green peach aphid three days after treatments. Filtrate of Bb08 cultured in Adamek's medium showed higher toxicity as 100% to third instar nymphs of the aphid compared with seven other filtrates cultured in different broths amended with colloidal chitin or oil. The culture filtrates and fungal cultures from media amended with colloidal chitin or oil had lower control efficacies than filtrates without these additives in three different media. These results indicate that the fungal culture fluid or culture filtrate of B. bassiana Bb08 cultured in Adamek's medium has potential for development as a mycopesticide for aphid control.

  17. Evaluating choices in multi-process landscape evolution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Claessens, L.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The interest in landscape evolution models (LEMs) that simulate multiple landscape processes is growing. However, modelling multiple processes constitutes a new starting point for which some aspects of the set up of LEMs must be re-evaluated. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the practic

  18. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  19. Evaluating evaluation as a communication process. What role for formative evaluation in ICT-based knowledge acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USEILLE Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how formative evaluation as a communication process contributes to knowledge acquisition in using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies. Previous studies, especially in the field of education and training, have shown that formative evaluation plays a crucial part in the learning process because it contributes to learning to learn. Through formative evaluation, the learner becomes aware of errors and can adjust learning strategies to the situation. In addition, formative evaluation provides the teaching side with significant and useful information. Consequently, ICT researches have developed a wide range of solutions for this specific purpose. It is however difficult to check the efficiency of these tools by considering the effects of ICT in the knowledge acquisition process. I suggest that formative evaluation includes also a communication system that has an effect on the learning process. This study tackles the issue by proposing an alternative approach to formative evaluation that considers it as both a learning and a communication process. The study is based on SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique that provides a suitable description for the whole complex communication process. It allows a rigorous understanding and identification of the variables of evaluation as a communication process in order to take care of an ICT frame. Finally, this article outlines a multidisciplinary method to evaluate formative evaluation by focusing on the validity facets of the communication process. Keywords: formative evaluation, communication process, validity criteria, ICT training context.

  20. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  1. [Situational diagnostic of an evaluation process of professional perfomance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vera Lúcia Mira; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to realize a diagnostic situational about the evaluation process of the nursing team performance of USP Hospital. Based in two guiding questions, it was carried out 9 interviews with nurses of this hospital. These interviews were analyzed according Analyze of Contend. The most frequent themes were: The meaning of evaluation; the feelings; the difficulties and facilities concerning the instrument and the capacitacion. This experience brought about many feelings, as well as aspects that either favor or make the execution of the evaluation difficult, showing the principal points of vulnerability of the process and, therefore, deserving better attention and short-term intervention.

  2. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  3. Evaluation of the Suitability of Alluxio for Hadoop Processing Frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Christopher; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Alluxio is an open source memory speed virtual distributed storage platform. It sits between the storage and processing framework layers for big data processing and claims to heavily improve performance when data is required to be written/read at a high throughput; for example when a dataset is used by many jobs simultaneously. This report evaluates the viability of using Alluxio at CERN for Hadoop processing frameworks.

  4. The "Process" of Process Use: Methods for Longitudinal Assessment in a Multisite Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Process use refers to the ways in which stakeholders and/or evaluands change as a function of participating in evaluation activities. Although the concept of process use has been well discussed in the literature, exploration of methodological strategies for the measurement and assessment of process use has been limited. Typically, empirical…

  5. Social Context in Usability Evaluations: Concepts, Processes and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul

    This thesis addresses social context of usability evaluations. Context plays an important role in usability evaluations. A major part of the context of a usability evaluation is the people involved. This is also often referred to as the social context of the usability evaluation, and although...... social context is considered important, only little research has been done to identify how it influences usability evaluations. In this thesis I explore how social context affects the process and product of a usability evaluation and explain the findings in terms of the theory of behaviour settings...... and a field experiment. Findings from these activities are presented in five published paper contributions. I furthermore introduce the theory of behaviour settings as a tool to help characterise the key concepts of social context which, together with an understanding of usability evaluations, provide...

  6. DEM Simulation of Particle Clogging in Fiber Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Yang, Mengmeng; Li, Shuiqing

    2015-11-01

    The formation of porous particle deposits plays a crucial role in determining the efficiency of filtration process. In this work, an adhesive discrete element method (DEM), in combination with CFD, is developed to dynamically describe these porous deposit structures and the changed flow field between two parallel fibers under the periodic boundary conditions. For the first time, it is clarified that the structures of clogged particles are dependent on both the adhesion parameter (defined as the ratio of interparticle adhesion to particle inertia) and the Stokes number (as an index of impaction efficiency). The relationship between the pressure-drop gradient and the coordination number along the filtration time is explored, which can be used to quantitatively classify the different filtration regimes, i.e., clean filter stage, clogging stage and cake filtration stage. Finally, we investigate the influence of the fiber separation distance on the particle clogging behavior, which affects the collecting efficiency of the fibers significantly. The results suggest that changing the arrangement of fibers can improve the filter performance. This work has been funded by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2013CB228506).

  7. Experiences on dual media filtration of WWTP effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrenberg, S M; Postma, P; Neef, R; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2011-01-01

    This research is legislation driven by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Dutch Fourth Memorandum on Water Management. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of total nitrogen and total phosphorus by Dual Media Filtration. The target value during this research for total nitrogen is 2.2 mg/L and for total phosphorus 0.15 mg/L. The results show that for NOx-N concentrations in the WWTP effluent up to 10 mg/L, a stable operation of the process can be reached with removal rates of 80% to 90%. The maximum nitrogen removal rate was 3.5 kg N/(m3.d). Above 10 mg/L a risk of filter bed clogging occurred. When the orthophosphorus concentration in the WWTP effluent exceeds the maximum of 0.3 mg/L, the total phosphorus concentration in the filtrate water will exceed the target value of 0.15 mg P-total/L. Temperature has a large impact in the phosphorus removal; the optimum temperature range is within 13 degrees C-18 degrees C. In conclusion, Dual Media Filtration is capable of producing reusable water with total phosphorus concentrations of WWTP effluent with steady concentrations for orthophosphorus (<0.3 mg PO4-P/L). To reach total nitrogen concentrations in the filtrate water of <2.2 mg/L a NOx-N removal efficiency of nearly 100% is required.

  8. Influence of incubation time of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and antifungal activity of culture filtrate against Bipolaris oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Juniors Pérez Torres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed at Agriculture Microbiology laboratory in the Agriculture Faculty at Universidad Central “Martha Abreu” de Las Villas, with the aim to evaluate the influence of incubation time of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai on antifungal activity of its culture filtrates against Bipolaris oryzae. Flask with Czapek broth was used for growing T. harzianum, then one disc of mycelium were incubated during 20 and 30 days at 28±1ºC and dark. Trichoderma harzianum (strain A-34 was submited to filtration process, and comparison were done among concentration of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% (v/v. Major inhibition porcentaje were observed in concentrations of 75% y 100% both at 20 and 30 days of incubation. At 20 day the inhibition porcentaje was greater in comparsison with 30 days.

  9. Removing NH3-N from sludge pressure filtration liquid by MAP process with waste phosphoric acid as phosphorus source%以废磷酸为磷源的MAP法去除污泥压滤液中的氨氮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志成; 王德汉; 邓加曦

    2016-01-01

    Using MAP process with waste phosphoric acid as phosphorus source to treat NH3-N in sludge pressure filtration liquid, the effect of reaction time, stirring mode, pH value, mass ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium and initial NH3-N concentration on NH3-N removal and residual PO43-concentration were inves-tigated, and then, the optimal reaction condition was determined. The results of the test showed that, when the mass concentrations of NH3-N and PO43-were 700.42 and 0.33 mg/L respectively, under normal temperature, the optimal reaction condition was: the pH value was 9, n(NH4+) ﹕n(PO43-) ﹕ n(Mg2+) =1 ﹕ 1: 1, the aeration stir-ring time was 10 min. Under the above condition, the removal rate of NH3-N reached 84.9%, the mass concentra-tions of NH3-N and residual PO43-in the effluent water were 105.69 and 6.49 mg/L respectively. It could draw a conclusion that, MAP process with waste phosphoric acid as phosphorus source had a good removing performance on NH3-N and could be used for pretreatment of high concentration NH3-N wastewater.%利用废磷酸作为MAP法的磷源处理污泥压滤液厌氧出水中的NH3-N,考察了反应时间、搅拌方式、pH值、氮磷镁物质的量之比、初始NH3-N浓度对NH3-N去除效果和残余PO43-浓度的影响,并确定了最佳反应条件。试验结果表明,当原水NH3-N的质量浓度为700.42 mg/L, PO43-的质量浓度为0.33 mg/L时,常温下,最佳反应条件为pH值为9, n(NH4+)﹕n(PO43-)﹕n(Mg2+)=1﹕1﹕1,曝气搅拌反应10 min。此时, NH3-N的去除率可达84.91%,出水NH3-N的质量浓度为105.69 mg/L,残余PO43-的质量浓度为6.49 mg/L。以废磷酸作为沉淀剂磷源的MAP法,具有较好的NH3-N处理效果,可用于高浓度NH3-N废水的预处理。

  10. High gradient magnetic filtration and separation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, D.

    The paper contains the second part of a two part paper in which the developing role of high grade magnetic filtration and separation (HGMF/S) is reviewed. Part I discussed the increasing potential for the technique and outlined the basic theory behind it. Part II describes the practical application of the technique with particular reference to the beneficiation of fine coal. Aspects considered are: a simple laboratory HGMF/S device; the matrix and its efficency; processing rates in HGMF/S; coal desulphurization and deashing - a potential application of HGMS. The paper concludes that HGMF/S is a process of high potential application as natural particles have a wide variation of magnetic character. Add to this the space saving nature of very powerful superconducting systems and their low energy consumption and it can be safely predicted that HGMF/S will, over time, gain many more applications as whole or part of whole filtration and separation processes. 19 references.

  11. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV), RMS values, variance values (VAR) and difference absolute mean value (DAMV). EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation), abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively) the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology. PMID:21073705

  12. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Carmelo J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV, RMS values, variance values (VAR and difference absolute mean value (DAMV. EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation, abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  13. Filtration Characterization Method as Tool to Assess Membrane Bioreactor Sludge Filterability—The Delft Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lousada-Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs, responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.

  14. Filtration characterization method as tool to assess membrane bioreactor sludge filterability-the delft experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousada-Ferreira, Maria; Krzeminski, Pawel; Geilvoet, Stefan; Moreau, Adrien; Gil, Jose A; Evenblij, Herman; van Lier, Jules B; van der Graaf, Jaap H J M

    2014-04-30

    Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs), responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm) as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.

  15. On-site evaluation of the removal of 100 micro-pollutants through advanced wastewater treatment processes for reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, S Martin; Choubert, J M; Esperanza, M; Miège, C; Madrigal, P Navalón; Budzinski, H; Le Ménach, K; Lazarova, V; Coquery, M

    2011-01-01

    The next challenge of wastewater treatment is to reliably remove micro-pollutants at the microgram per litre range in order to meet reuse applications and contribute to reach the good status of the water bodies. A hundred priority and relevant emerging substances were measured to evaluate at full-scale the removal efficiencies of seven advanced treatment lines (one membrane bioreactor process and six tertiary treatment lines) that were designed for reuse applications. To reliably compare the processes, specific procedures for micro-pollutants were applied for sampling, analysis and calculation of removal efficiencies. The membrane bioreactor process allowed to upgrade the removal efficiencies of about 20% of the substances measured, especially those that were partially degraded during conventional processes. Conventional tertiary processes like high rate clarification, sand filtration and polishing pond achieved significant removal for some micro-pollutants, especially for adsorbable substances. Advanced tertiary processes, like ozonation, activated carbon and reverse osmosis were all very efficient to complete the removal of polar pesticides and pharmaceuticals; metals and less polar substances were better retained by reverse osmosis.

  16. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  17. Is the use of particle air filtration justified? Costs and benefits of filtration with regard to health effects, building cleaning and occupant productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of costs and the corresponding benefits of particle filtration have been derived for a standard office building. Reduction in occupants’ exposure to particles during their workday is anticipated to reduce their morbidity and mortality. Filtration may also reduce the costs associated......, the sensitivity of the results to these parameters was evaluated as part of this study. The study also acknowledges that the benefits-to-costs ratio depends on the perspective of the stakeholder: the employer renting the building is impacted by occupant performance and building energy costs; the building owner...... is impacted by maintenance of the building and its HVAC system; society is impacted by the employees’ health and welfare. Regardless of perspective, particle filtration is anticipated to lead to annual savings significantly exceeding the running costs for filtration. However, economic losses resulting from...

  18. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  19. Methodological framework for evaluating clinical processes: A cognitive informatics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampallil, Thomas G; Abraham, Joanna; Patel, Vimla L

    2016-12-01

    We propose a methodological framework for evaluating clinical cognitive activities in complex real-world environments that provides a guiding framework for characterizing the patterns of activities. This approach, which we refer to as a process-based approach, is particularly relevant to cognitive informatics (CI) research-an interdisciplinary domain utilizing cognitive approaches in the study of computing systems and applications-as it provides new ways for understanding human information processing, interactions, and behaviors. Using this approach involves the identification of a process of interest (e.g., a clinical workflow), and the contributing sequences of activities in that process (e.g., medication ordering). A variety of analytical approaches can then be used to characterize the inherent dependencies and relations within the contributing activities within the considered process. Using examples drawn from our own research and the extant research literature, we describe the theoretical foundations of the process-based approach, relevant practical and pragmatic considerations for using such an approach, and a generic framework for applying this approach for evaluation studies in clinical settings. We also discuss the potential for this approach in future evaluations of interactive clinical systems, given the need for new approaches for evaluation, and significant opportunities for automated, unobtrusive data collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.

  1. In-plant evaluation of dense medium process performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Q. Honaker; A. Patwardhan [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The separation density and process efficiency values achieved by dense medium processes are a function of the particle size fractions being treated, hydrodynamics of the separator, and medium rheology. An in-plant evaluation of the dense medium processes being used in an operating preparation plant was conducted in an effort to develop relationships between the actual separation density and the medium density and to quantify the separation efficiency values. The results were found to correlate well with current fundamental and operating principles governing the processes, which are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Process Ontology Specification for Enhancing the Process Compliance of a Measurement and Evaluation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Becker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we specify a generic ontology for the process domain considering the related state-of-the-art research literature. As a result, the recently built process ontology contributes to enrich semantically the terms for the (previously developed measurement and evaluation domain ontology by means of stereotypes. One of the underlying hypothesis in this research is that the generic ontology for process can be seen as a reusable artifact which can be used to enrich semantically not only the measurement and evaluation domain ontology but also to other domains involved in different organizational endeavors. For instance, for the measurement domain, now is explicit that the measurement term has the semantic of task, the measure term has the meaning of outcome, and the metric term has the semantic of method, from the process terminological base standpoint. The augmented conceptual framework, i.e. measurement and evaluation concepts plus process concepts, has also a positive impact on the GOCAME (Goal-Oriented Context-Aware Measurement and Evaluation strategy capabilities since ensures terminological uniformity, consistency and verifiability to its process and method specifications. In order to illustrate how the augmented conceptual framework impacts on the verifiability of GOCAME process and method specifications in addition to the consistency and comparability of results in measurement and evaluation projects, an ICT (Information and Communications Technology security and risk evaluation case study is used.

  3. The Structural and Functional Organization of the Podocyte Filtration Slits Is Regulated by Tjp1/ZO-1

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Horibata, Yasuhiro; Matsusaka, Taiji; Xu, Jianliang; Hunziker, Walter; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Blood filtration in the kidney glomerulus is essential for physiological homeostasis. The filtration apparatus of the kidney glomerulus is composed of three distinct components: the fenestrated endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane, and interdigitating foot processes of podocytes that form the slit diaphragm. Recent studies have demonstrated that podocytes play a crucial role in blood filtration and in the pathogenesis of proteinuria and glomerular sclerosis; however, the molecu...

  4. Fractionnement de protéines du lait par filtration dynamique.

    OpenAIRE

    Espina, V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on milk proteins fractionation by dynamic filtration. A two-stage process has been proposed in order to separate milk proteins into three main fractions: casein micelles, α-Lactalbumin and β-Lactoglobulin. The first stage of the process consists in microfiltration of skim milk for separating casein micelles from whey proteins. The performances of two dynamic filtration modules: the Multi Shaft Disk (MSD) module and the rotating disk module have been compared. The results h...

  5. Effect of contact angle on equilibrium saturation during mist filtration in nonwoven and foam media

    OpenAIRE

    Abishek, S.; Mullins, B; King, A.; Kasper, G; Heikamp, W.

    2016-01-01

    Coalescence filtration using knitted, foam or nonwoven fibrous media is the widely applied in the industry for separation and recovery of liquid mists that are generated in many processes, including lubricated machining, compressors and engine crankcases. The dynamics of multi-component/ phase fluid transport and its interaction with the filter surface at the pore-scale and the contact angle dynamics are expected to significantly influence performance and efficiency of filtration processes. M...

  6. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  7. Understanding Deep Bed Filtration by Direct Micro-scale Particulate Flow Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabolghasemi, M.; Prodanovic, M.

    2013-12-01

    Filtration of suspensions through porous beds occurs in a variety of applications such as drilling mud infiltration into rock formations and waste water treatment. Accurate modelling of filtration through porous media on macroscopic scale often requires a precise estimate of the filtration coefficient, which reflects the fraction of particles that get retained in the filter medium. A large number of deep bed filtration models assume a constant entrapment rate without taking into account the rate of particle release back into the flow. In addition, the available models often assume instantaneous entrapment, which ignores particle rolling. These assumptions lead to an almost static description of filtration phenomenon, which is in fact highly dynamic in nature. In this study we used a micro-scale simulation approach to understand the filtration of suspensions through a sphere pack. We applied a semi-coupled CFD-DEM method to directly model the fluid and particulate flow through the extracted pore space. The accuracy of the geometrical description of the flow domain was tested by calculating its porosity and permeability and comparing those to measured values. The results of the simulation provide the distribution of particle and fluid velocities throughout the filtration process. These velocity distributions show that under our simulation conditions, a significant portion of particles travel with a velocity 4 to 5 orders of magnitude slower than the average fluid velocity, which indicates that particle rolling is not negligible. Based on these results we propose a modified definition of filtration coefficient and estimate its values. Overall, this study provides an improved insight into deep bed filtration and reveals the absence of a granular phase flow equation in the existing deep bed filtration formulation. Finally, while we worked with sphere packing for this initial study, the simulation can take any pore space described by a binary (segmented) image and is

  8. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  9. Experiment of Water Treatment of Direct Filtration under Low Temperature and Low Turbidity with Ultrafiltration Membrane Process%超滤膜直接过滤处理低温低浊水的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅金祥; 卢善文; 曲明; 郜玉楠

    2014-01-01

    中试采用超滤膜直接过滤处理低温低浊水,考察了超滤膜的除污性能和影响膜污染的各种因素。结果表明超滤膜直接过滤的出水浊度恒低于0.1 NTU,对COD和UV254的平均去除率分别为17%和14%;处理水量越低,过滤周期越短,反洗强度越大,跨膜压差(TMP)增长越缓慢,越有助于缓解膜污染,使超滤膜系统能够长时间稳定运行;低温对膜污染的影响不容忽视。%A pilot experiment of water treatment of direct filtration under low temperature and low turbidity with ultrafiltration membrane was carried out. The result shows that turbidity is always below 0. 1 NTU;removal rates of COD and UV254 are 17% and 14%,respectively. When less water is treated,filtration cycle is shorter,backwashing intensity is greater and TMP grows more slowly, it is more helpful to alleviating membrane fouling and making system run stably. Low temperature on membrane fouling can not be ignored.

  10. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vijay [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, Hasmukh [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Occhipinti, John E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, Richard E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  11. EFFECT OF KIESELGUHR FILTRATION ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Miriam Solgajová; Žigmund Tóth; Tatiana Bojňanská

    2013-01-01

    Looks of beer is an important factor which is associated with high clarity. Clarity of beer is a basic precondition of its good marketability and consumer satisfaction. Beer filtration is ideal tool to create required optical properties. There is a high accent on this operation in brewery and minibrewery. The process of filtering removes unwanted haze-active substances in order to increase clarity and overall stability of beer. Objective method to expressing clarity of beer is nephelometric d...

  12. Plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal filtration techniques in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga Ruiz, D; Fonseca San Miguel, F; González de Molina, F J; Úbeda-Iglesias, A; Navas Pérez, A; Jannone Forés, R

    2017-04-01

    Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal technique that eliminates macromolecules involved in pathological processes from plasma. A review is made of the technical aspects, main indications in critical care and potential complications of plasmapheresis, as well as of other extracorporeal filtration techniques such as endotoxin-removal columns and other devices designed to eliminate cytokines or modulate the inflammatory immune response in critical patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Gao

    Full Text Available The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w, forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml, digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min, digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of

  14. Metal reduction at bulk chemical filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toru; Daikoku, Shusaku; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Murakami, Tetsuya

    2017-03-01

    OK73 thinner and cyclohexanone, both of which were spiked with metals were passed through Nylon 6,6 filter, varying flow rate, which include the conditions of both point-of-use and bulk filtrations. The influent and effluent metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS for metal removal efficiency of the filtration. As a result, removal efficiency for some metals descended depending on the flow rate, while others maintained. Slower flow rate is recommended to maintain low metal concentration in bulk filtration based on the result. Metals in cyclohexanone were reduced at higher efficiency than in OK73 thinner, agrees with a metal removal model of hydrophilic adsorbent in organic solvent, evidenced in our previous paper. Further, metal reduction on 300 mm φ Si wafer after coating organic solvents with Nylon 6,6 filtration was evidenced with TREX analysis.

  15. Filtration in coal liquefaction - Influence of filtration conditions in non-hydrogenated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. W.; Rantell, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out to study the effects of filtration conditions upon the rate of filtration of non-hydrogenated coal digests. The results show the dependence of cake resistivity on both the filtration temperature and pressure. Filter cakes were found to be compressible, resulting in smaller increases in rate with increasing pressure than with incompressible cakes. The filtration temperature determines the packing of residual solids in the cake which in turn affects the cake resistivity. An empirical relation has been derived between filtration temperature and resistivity. With increasing temperature there is an increase in filtration rate due to the reduced viscosity, but a reduction owing to a higher packing density of solids in the filter cake.

  16. Evaluation as a Powerful Practices in Digital Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    perform as learning designers of learning objects aimed at other students. Netbook 1:1 has shown that digital and multimodal production especially facilitates student‑learning processes and qualifies student‑learning results when executed within a teacher‑designed framework, which provides space...... everyday environment becomes increasingly comple x with digital and multimodal technologies, formative evaluation as a learning practice becomes central, requiring the students to develop a digital and multimodal literacy beyond the traditional, language‑centred type. In order to clarify these practices...... in a digitalised learning environment that focuses on different phases of the learning processes and includes feed‑forward and feedback processes....

  17. The Effect of Ventilation, Filtration and Passive Sorption on Indoor Air Quality in Museum Storage Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, M.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in five storage rooms at the National Museum of Denmark, in which the effect on indoor air quality of mechanical ventilation, filtration and passive sorption was investigated. Mechanical ventilation and recirculation/filtration was initiated by introducing new ventilation...... and filtration units. Passive sorption was initiated by hanging sheets of sorptive materials oil walls. The control strategies were evaluated in terms of their ability to lower the concentration of internally, generated pollutants, and the indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratio of outdoor pollutants. The overall...... environmental impact for each method was evaluated by the use of material dosimeters. It was found that passive sorption performed better in a small room compared to a large room. Mechanical ventilation and filtration with activated charcoal gave a high protection against ozone, but were less effective...

  18. Complications and Management of the Filtration Bleb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clement; W; N; Chan

    1992-01-01

    Filtration surgery is the commonest operation performed for closed angle or open angle glaucoma when medical treatment or laser trabeculoplasty has failed to control the intraocular pressure. It is characterized by the formation of an artificial drainage fistula between the anterior chamber and subconjunctival space. The successful operation is evidenced by the appearance of a subconjunctival filtration bleb which in turn depends on the patency of this pathway. Despite numerous modification, the procedu...

  19. The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav C. Menon; Chuang, Peter Y.; Cijiang John He

    2012-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte). Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well...

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  1. Using the analytical hierarchy process to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Law of Comparative Judgement (LCJ) are pairwise comparison methods. A large number of observers need to perform an LCJ evaluation in order to get accurate results. LCJ also does not provide an absolute...

  2. Elementary Teachers' Views on the Creative Writing Process: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nevin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to discover and evaluate both the areas of personal interest and the views of 4th and 5th grade classroom teachers regarding the creative writing process. In this study, one of the qualitative study methods, state study, and related to this, single state design which refers to the whole has been chosen. Research was…

  3. [Building a quality evaluation system for the nursing triage process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadda, Giorgio; Destrebecq, Anne; Bollini, Giovanna; Terzoni, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In literature there are no studies regarding the quality evaluation of the whole triage process; however, since it is necessary to evaluate what really happens everyday in the Emergency Rooms, as well as verifying the daily level of throughput, there is a strong need for an appropriate tool. Measuring the quality of triage means improving the caring process. This article presents a new measurement grid, aimed at realizing a Quality Evaluation of Nursing Care. Currently, the most widespread systems used for the QENC are the Australian Triage Scale, the Canadian triage and Acuity Scale and the Italian Group of Triage Scale. The global/biphasic triage system was used in our study because it seems the most accurate, according to literature. There are several indicators that evaluate many aspects of the triage process; every single indicator has a score. The sum of the scores defines the quality level of the nursing triage process. Our paper discusses the application of this score in a major Milan hospital, based upon a preliminary study.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  5. Evaluating Modeling Sessions Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssebuggwawo, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Proper, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, which is methodological in nature, we propose to use an established method from the field of Operations Research, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in the integrated, stakeholder- oriented evaluation of enterprise modeling sessions: their language, pro- cess, tool (medium), and pr

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  7. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  8. The Role of Schema Salience in Ad Processing and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef; G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAdvertising grids such as the Rossiter-Percy grid (Rossiter & Percy 1991, 1997) propose that brand-matching advertising is more effective than brand-mismatching advertising. However, for the match hypothesis to hold the brand schema needs to be salient in ad processing and evaluation. In

  9. Unpacking the Evaluation Process: A Study of Transitional Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of an ongoing, independent evaluation of atransitional Spanish/English bilingual program housed at a large, urban school district in Northern California. The program is designed to enhance Kindergarten through Grade 5 (K-5) students' English language proficiency, as well as their English performance in academic…

  10. Energetic approach to the evaluation of rock disintegration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ivaničová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rock disintegration process may be investigated by several methods. Energetic approach represents one of the methods of characterizing the energetic-transformation changes of rock disintegration process, as the rock disintegration occurs after an increase of the inner energy above the binding energy of its components. The paper review theories of disintegration processes with an energetic approach. Methods of investigation are presented in more details, using a rotary disperser with a calorimeter and an experimental drilling stand, the experimental devices designed and constructed at the Institute of Geotechnics, SAS, providing an imitation of the rotary drilling of rocks. The experimental drilling stand enabled to examine the drilling tools used in industry. The monitoring system installed on the stand scans the regime parameters of the disintegration process. Both the specific disintegration energy and the drilling rate, calculated from the monitored input and output parameters of the process, serve as evaluating variables of the rock disintegration process efficiency. The main effort in the evaluation of parameters from the rock drilling monitoring is to derive the relations that would provide data necessary for the control of drilling process in a real time.

  11. EVALUATION OF HOTEL SERVICE-PERFORMANCE PROCESS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Lukanova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the hotel service-performance process in Bulgarian hotels, which is based on the results of the research about tourists’ opinion on basic moments in service process. One of the most important characteristics of hotel industry is the leading role of the human factor in service-performance process. It cannot be accomplished without the participation of the customer and without the participation of the staff.This makes the evaluation of service process strongly subjective. Because of this, customer needs satisfaction is a big challenge for the hotel management. Under the present conditions of an increased competition, satisfying customers means offering service-performance process, which not only meets, but also exceeds guests’expectations. This can be achieved by a preliminary study of their requirements and expectations.

  12. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  13. Evaluation of learning and teaching process in Turkish courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyyup COŞKUN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A radical educational reform occurred in Turkey in 2005; and curriculum of primary education courses was renewed. New curriculum was prepared based on constructivist approach. In this scope, curriculum of Turkish course was also renewed. This study aimsat evaluating applications and opinions of teachers and students about learning and teaching process prescribed in Turkish Course (1st-5th Grades Curriculum. Within the scope of the study, semi-structured interview was made with 10 teachers and 12 students.In addition, process teaching a text was evaluated via structured observation method in 5 different classes. According to the results of the study, primary school teachers find some stages in learning – teaching process prescribed in the curriculum unnecessary andtherefore do not apply them. Teachers mentioned that some texts are above the student level; and they sometimes experience time and material problems. It was seen in the present study that teachers do not have enough information about learning and teachingprocess in the new curriculum; they do not have high success levels in the applications; and they usually do not apply the forms for evaluating the process in the curriculum. It was found out that, in spite of these problems, courses are student-centred as prescribed inthe curriculum; and students have positive opinions about stages of learning and teaching process.

  14. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  15. Methods for Process Evaluation of Work Environment Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Hanne; Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    or management perceptions and actions in implementing any intervention and their influence on the overall result of the intervention' (Nytrø, Saksvik, Mikkelsen, Bohle, and Quinlan, 2000). Process evaluation can be used to a) provide feedback for improving interventions, b) interpret the outcomes of effect......In recent years, intervention studies have become increasingly popular within occupational health psychology. The vast majority of such studies have focused on interventions themselves and their effects on the working environment and employee health and well-being. Few studies have focused on how...... the context and processes surrounding the intervention may have influenced the outcomes (Hurrell and Murphy, 1996). Thus, there is still relatively little published research that provides us with information on how to evaluate such strategies and processes (Saksvik, Nytrø, Dahl-Jørgensen, and Mikkelsen, 2002...

  16. Experimental setup for study of drilling fluids filtration and invasion; Unidades experimentais para o estudo de filtracao e invasao de fluidos de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcada, Luis Americo; Scheid, Claudia Miriam; Martins, Lorrane Faria; Araujo, Cristiano Agenor Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: calcada@ufrrj.br, scheid@ufrrj.br; Waldmann, Alex Tadeu de Almeida [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). P e D em Geoengenharia e Engenharia de Poco. Gerencia de Interacao Rocha-Fluido (Brazil)], e-mail: awaldmann@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    We investigated experimentally and theoretically the filtration and fluid invasion in well drilling operation. Based on experimental data, we validated theoretical models based on Darcy's law and on the mass conservation. These models predicted the filter cake buildup and the filtrate flow rate for Newtonian suspensions. Relying on both models and the experimental data, we calculate the filter cake parameter's values. We evaluated the effects of the filtration configuration as dynamic and static. Finally, we simulate the filtrate flow rate and, for the dynamic filtration experiments, we predict the filter cake thickness. (author)

  17. 驻极体过滤材料过滤性能测定评价方法的研究%Study on evaluation method for determination of electret filtration material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑东; 王智超; 邓高峰; 徐昭炜

    2014-01-01

    Different types of electret filter material were chosen , and their resistance characteristics and filtration performance characteristics ( DEHS counting efficiency , KCl counting efficiency , PM2.5 and PM10 cleaning efficiency purification efficiency ) were studied.The results show that resistances of the electret filter material almost not change when using DEHS aerosol as test dust , while use the KCl test aerosol greatly increases the resistance .Under the same filtration velocity conditions , DEHS counting efficiency of electret filter material is less than KCl counting efficiency .When DEHS aerosol is used as test dust , the counting efficiency significantly reduces with the filtration velocity increases , especially for the particles ≤1.0 μm.When using KCl aerosol , efficiency is little influenced by filtration velocity .%选取不同类型驻极体过滤材料,研究了随测试尘源类型的不同以及滤速的不同其阻力特性和过滤性能特性(DEHS计数效率、KCl计数效率、PM2.5净化效率和PM10净化效率)的变化。试验结果表明:驻极体过滤材料测试过程中使用DEHS气溶胶作为试验尘源对过滤材料的阻力几乎没有影响,而使用KCl气溶胶进行试验将会使阻力大大增加;在相同滤速条件下,相同驻极体过滤材料的DEHS计数效率要小于KCl计数效率;当使用DEHS气溶胶作为试验尘源时,随着滤速的增大,计数效率明显降低,尤其是对于1.0μm以下粒径的粒子,而使用KCl气溶胶时滤速对效率的影响较小。

  18. The Synthesis and Evaluation of Filtrate Reducer SPX Resin of High temperature and Salt Resistivity%高温抗盐降滤失剂SPX树脂的合成与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江卫东; 何国军; 吴锰

    2001-01-01

    针对钻井液降滤失剂在使用过程中存在的高温增粘和遇到金属离子污染增粘的问题,从降滤失剂的分子结构出发,通过苯氧(基)乙酸与苯酚、甲醛等缩聚磺化,合成出磺化苯酚/苯氧(基)乙酸/甲醛树脂(简称SPX树脂)。试验研究表明, SPX树脂单独使用就具有抗饱和盐抗高温非增粘降滤失量的作用,含盐量在25%~36%之间时降滤失效果良好,含盐量低于25%时延长老化时间也有良好的降滤失效果;在加量合理时,钻井液老化前后表观粘度增加率小于10%。SPX树脂与SMK,SMC有良好的复配效果。%In consideration of increasing viscosity in filtrate reducer in drilling fluid under the conditions of high temperature and high contamination from metallic ions,sulphonate phenol and phenoxyacetic acid formaldehyde resin (simply call it SPX resin) is synthesized through polymerization and sulphonating using phenoxyacetic acid, phenol, formaldehyde etc. The result shows that when the SPX resin is used independently, it has the properties of high temperature resistance and saturated salt resistence for non-viscosified filtrate reducer and good efficiency of filtrate reducing. When salt content is from 25 % to 36 %,the filtrate reduction efficiency is the best,when the content is below 25% ,it is the best for lengthening aging time;when the content of SPX is reasonable, the apparent viscosity increase of the drilling fluid is less than 10% before and after its aging. The combination of SPX with SMK and SKC is good.

  19. Influence of filtration velocity on DON variation in BAF for micropolluted surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Fei; Chen, You-Peng; Kang, Jia; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jin-Song; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Biological aerated filters (BAFs) are widely used for the treatment of micropolluted surface water. However, the biological process produces dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which, as precursors of nitrogenous disinfection by-products, pose potential threats to drinking water safety. Therefore, to control DON in BAF effluent, it is necessary to study the influence of BAF operation parameters on DON production. In this study, the influence of filtration velocity in a BAF on DON production was investigated. Under different filtration velocity (0.5, 2, and 4 m/h) conditions, profiles of DON concentrations along the media layer were measured. The profile at a filtration velocity of 0.5 m/h showed a decreasing trend, and the ones under filtration velocities of 2 and 4 m/h fluctuated in a small range (from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L). Moreover, the relatively high filtration velocities of 2 and 4 m/h resulted in a lower level of DON concentration. Additionally, 3D excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize DON. It is found that the patterns of DON at a relatively high filtration velocity condition (4 m/h) were obviously different from the ones under low filtration velocity conditions (0.5 and 2 m/h).

  20. Modeling of particle removal in the first coarse media of direct horizontal-flow roughing filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H W; Park, N S; Kim, S; Park, S Y; Wang, C K

    2007-03-01

    Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) is an alternative pretreatment method e.g. prior to Slow Sand Filtration (SSF). However, some of its limitations are that the effluent quality drops drastically at higher turbidity (>200NTU) and at higher filtration rate (>1 m h(-1)). To overcome these drawbacks, we suggested Direct Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (DHRF), which is a modified system of Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) by addition of a low dose of coagulant prior to filtration. To optimize the DHRF configuration, a conceptual and mathematical model for the coarse compartment has been developed in analogy with multi-plate settler. Data from simple column settling test can be used in the model to predict the filter performance. Furthermore, the model developed herein has been validated by successive experiments. The conventional column settling test has been found to be handy and useful to predict the performance of DHRF for different raw water characteristics (e.g. coagulated or uncoagulated water, different amounts of organic matter, etc.) and different initial process conditions (e.g. coagulant dose, mixing time and intensity, etc.). An optimum filter design for the coarse compartment (grain size 20 mm) has been found to be of 3m h(-1) filtration rate with filter length of 4-4.5 m.

  1. Ultra-filtration measurement using CT imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Junfeng [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.2 Beiyitiao Street, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lu Wenqiang, E-mail: junfenglu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2009-02-01

    As a functional unit in the hemodialysis process, dialyzer captured quite a few medical research interests since 1980s. In the design of dialyzer or in the ongoing hemodialysis process, to estimate the ultra-filtration amount of a dialyzer, the sideway loss of the running blood flow through hollow fibers or filtration channels should be measured. This further leads to the measurement of the blood flow inside the dialyzer. For this measurement, a non-invasive method is highly desired because of the high-dense bundled hollow fibers or packed channels inside the dialyzer. As non-invasive measurement tools, CT (Computed Tomography) technologies were widely used for tissue, bone, and cancerous clinical analyses etc .... Thus, in this paper, a CT system is adopted to predict the blood flow inside a hollow fiber dialyzer. In view of symmetric property of the hollow fiber dialyzer, the largest cutting plane that parallels to the cylindrical dialyzer was analyzed by the CT system dynamically. And then, a noninvasive image analysis method used to predict the ultra-filtration amount is proposed.

  2. Uniform presentation of process evaluation results facilitates the evaluation of complex interventions: development of a graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Persoon, A.; Schoon, Y.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Process evaluation is a highly essential element for the increasing number of studies regarding multi-component interventions. Yet, researchers are challenged to collect and present appropriate process outcomes in such way that it is easy and valuable to be used by ot

  3. ZrO2无机陶瓷膜精制黄芪水提液的污染和防治研究%Pollution prevention and control of aqueous extract of Astragali Radix processed with ZrO2 inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘林梅; 黄敏燕; 郭立玮

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究无机陶瓷膜微滤黄芪水提液的污染机制,寻找有效的膜污染防治手段.方法:通过对不同孔径的氧化锆膜在膜微滤过程中的阻力分布、高分子去除率、物理化学参数变化等的测定,分析污染物的存在状态或位置以及形成规律,同时采用反冲、超声2种物理手段强化膜过程,从而探索膜污染的防治方法.结果:0.2μm Zr02微滤黄芪水提液时污染度较高,达44.9%;堵孔阻力和浓差极化阻力是主要的过滤阻力,表面沉积阻力随膜孔径的减小而增大;微滤后药液浊度显著降低,pH和黏度变化均较小,0.2μm ZrO2膜对电导率的降低作用略高于0.05 μmZrO2膜管.0.2,0.05 μm ZrO2膜均对果胶的去除作用最为显著.超声强化膜过程手段更适用于本体系,其通量提高率达41.7%.结论:优化膜过程工艺参数,采用适当膜污染防治手段可以减少膜的污染,使膜的性能有较大恢复,提高滤过效率.%Objective: To study the measures for preventing and controlling the pollution of aqueous extract of Astragali Radix proceeded with inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration, in order to find effective measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. Method: The resistance distribution, polymer removal and changes in physical and chemical parameters of the zirconium oxide fdm of different pore diameters were determined to analyze the state or location of pollutants as well as the regularity of formation. Meanwhile, recoil and ultrasonic physical measures were adopted to strengthen the membrane process, in order to explore the methods for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. Result: When 0. 2 μm of ZrO2 micro-filtrated aqueous extract of Astragali Radix, the rate of pollution was as high as 44. 9%. The hole blocking resistance and the concentration polarization resistance were the main filtration resistances, while the surface deposit resistance decreased with the

  4. Treatment of Wastewater From Car Washes Using Natural Coagulation and Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Johari, M. R.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater generated from carwash is one of the main wastewater resources, which contribute effectively in the increasing of environmental contamination due to the chemical characteristics of the car wastes. The present work aimed to develop an integrated treatment system for carwash wastewater based on coagulation and flocculation using Moringa oleifera and Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as well as natural filtration system. The carwash wastewater samples were collected from carwash station located at Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia. The treatment system of car wash wastewater was designed in the lab scale in four stages included, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. The coagulation and flocculation unit was carried out using different dosage (35, 70, 105 and 140 mg L-1) of M. oleifera and FeSO4.7H2O, respectively. The efficiency of the integrated treatment system to treat carwash wastewater and to meet Environmental Quality Act (EQA 1974) was evaluated based on the analysis of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity (NTU). The integrated treatment system was efficient for treatment of raw carwash wastewater. The treated carwash wastewaters meet EQA 1974 regulation 2009 (Standards A) in the term of pH and DO while, turbidity and COD reduced in the wastewater to meet Standards B. The integrated treatment system designed here with natural coagulant (M. oleifera) and filtration unit were effective for primary treatment of carwash wastewater before the final disposal or to be reused again for carwash process.

  5. 过滤方式及压力对速率影响的研究%The Research on the Impact of Filtration Manners and Pressure on Filtration Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德武; 王海艳

    2012-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of relevant filtrations are introduced.Filtration experiment process is established independently and a corresponding membrane filter is designed to study the horizontal dead-end filtration,vertical dead-end filtration,horizontal cross-flow filtration and vertical cross-flow filtration and operating pressure impacting on the filtration rate.Experimen-tal results show that the filtration rate of vertical cross-flow filtration is larger and the rate attenua-tion is slower than other three filtration manners.After a period of time,the filtration rate tend to a definite value;The filtration rate is improved by increasing pressure,but membrane fouling and the rate attenuation is accelerated.%介绍了相关过滤方式的优缺点,自主建立了过滤实验流程,设计出相应的膜滤器,通过实验,研究了横向终端过滤、竖向终端过滤、横向错流过滤和竖向错流过滤及过滤压力对过滤速率的影响等。结果表明:采用竖向流动错流过滤方式膜过滤速率大于其它方式的过滤速率,衰减最为缓慢,且一段时间后,速率趋于一定值;压力增大可以提高竖向流动错流过滤速率,但也加快了膜污染,使膜速率衰减加快。

  6. Implementation evaluation of the business process services incentive programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mashalaba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation evaluation of the business process services (BPS incentive programme undertaken by the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti and the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME as part of the 2012/2013 National Evaluation Plan. The evaluation started on 31 October 2012 and the final report was approved on 17 May 2013. The evaluation covers the period from the inception of the programme in January 2011 to December 2012. The BPS incentive programme was implemented to stimulate the business process sector which contributes to economic growth largely through employment creation. The main objectives of the programme are to attract investment and create employment opportunities through offshoring activities. Twenty-six indicators across the five Development Assistance Community (DAC evaluation criteria were developed. A multi-method approach was undertaken to collect data for each of the indicators. The key findings relate to the operation of the programme and a number of suggestions were made as to how to strengthen it. Overall 3807 jobs have been created through the BPS programme during the period under review. Estimated total investment provided by firms is approximately R2.7 billion. Amongst others, the study recommended that the design of the programme be reviewed and extended, potentially to a five-year period in order to maintain the competitiveness of South Africa as a business process off shoring destination. It is essential to address the skills shortage to ensure the growth and sustainability of the South African BPS industry and finally the uptake of the incentive programme.

  7. Bioprocesses: Modelling needs for process evaluation and sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Gonzaléz, Concepcion; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    of process system engineering and life cycle inventory and assessment in the design, development and improvement of sustainable bioprocesses are explored. The existing process systems engineering software tools will prove essential to assist this work. However, the existing tools will also require further......The next generation of process engineers will face a new set of challenges, with the need to devise new bioprocesses, with high selectivity for pharmaceutical manufacture, and for lower value chemicals manufacture based on renewable feedstocks. In this paper the current and predicted future roles...... development such that they can also be used to evaluate processes against sustainability metrics, as well as economics as an integral part of assessments. Finally, property models will also be required based on compounds not currently present in existing databases. It is clear that many new opportunities...

  8. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic...... gained considerable interest. Renewable feedstocks usually cannot be converted into fuels and chemicals with existing process facilities due to the molecular functionality and variety of the most common renewable feedstock (biomass). Therefore new types of catalytic methods as well as new types...

  9. The Pantex Process model: Formulations of the evaluation planning module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; LIST,GEORGE FISHER; TURNQUIST,MARK ALAN

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes formulations of the Evaluation Planning Module that have been developed since its inception. This module is one of the core algorithms in the Pantex Process Model, a computerized model to support production planning in a complex manufacturing system at the Pantex Plant, a US Department of Energy facility. Pantex is responsible for three major DOE programs -- nuclear weapons disposal, stockpile evaluation, and stockpile maintenance -- using shared facilities, technicians, and equipment. The model reflects the interactions of scheduling constraints, material flow constraints, and the availability of required technicians and facilities.

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  11. Evaluation of Process Performance for Sustainable Hard Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Giovanna; Umbrello, Domenico; , Oscar W. Dillon, Jr.; Jawahir, I. S.

    This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability performance of machining operation of through-hardening steel, AISI 52100, taking into account the impact of the material removal process in its various aspects. Experiments were performed for dry and cryogenic cutting conditions using chamfered cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool inserts at varying cutting conditions (cutting speed and feed rate). Cutting forces, mechanical power, tool wear, white layer thickness, surface roughness and residual stresses were investigated in order to evaluate the effects of extreme in-process cooling on the machined surface. The results indicate that cryogenic cooling has the potential to be used for surface integrity enhancement for improved product life and more sustainable functional performance.

  12. Evaluation of cephalogram using multi-objective frequency processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Sakae; Takizawa, Tsutomu; Osako, Miho; Kaneda, Takashi; Kasai, Kazutaka [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry at Matsudo

    2002-12-01

    A diagnosis with cephalogram is important for orthodontic treatment. Recently, computed radiography (CR) has been performed to the cephalogram. However, evaluation of multi-objective frequency processing (MFP) for cephalograms has been received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cephalogram using MFP CR. At first, 450 lateral cephalograms were made, from 50 orthodontic patients, with 9 possible spatial frequency parameter combinations and a contrast scale held fixed in images processing. For each film, the clarity of radiographic images were estimated and scored with respect to landmark identification (total 26 points, 20 points of hard tissue and 6 points of soft tissue). A specific combination of spatial frequency scales (multi-frequency balance types (MRB) F-type, multi-frequency enhancement (MRE) 8) was proved to be adequate to achieve the optimal image quality in the cephalogram. (author)

  13. Student evaluation team focus groups increase students' satisfaction with the overall course evaluation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Katharina; Mandel, Jess; Winegarden, Babbi

    2017-02-01

    Most medical schools use online systems to gather student feedback on the quality of their educational programmes and services. Online data may be limiting, however, as the course directors cannot question the students about written comments, nor can students engage in mutual problem-solving dialogue with course directors. We describe the implementation of a student evaluation team (SET) process to permit course directors and students to gather shortly after courses end to engage in feedback and problem solving regarding the course and course elements. Approximately 16 students were randomly selected to participate in each SET meeting, along with the course director, academic deans and other faculty members involved in the design and delivery of the course. An objective expert facilitates the SET meetings. SETs are scheduled for each of the core courses and threads that occur within the first 2 years of medical school, resulting in approximately 29 SETs annually. SET-specific satisfaction surveys submitted by students (n = 76) and course directors (n = 16) in 2015 were used to evaluate the SET process itself. Survey data were collected from 885 students (2010-2015), which measured student satisfaction with the overall evaluation process before and after the implementation of SETs. Students and course directors valued the SET process itself as a positive experience. Students felt that SETs allowed their voices to be heard, and that the SET increased the probability of suggested changes being implemented. Students' satisfaction with the overall evaluation process significantly improved after implementation of the SET process. Our data suggest that the SET process is a valuable way to supplement online evaluation systems and to increase students' and faculty members' satisfaction with the evaluation process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Evaluation of STAT medication ordering process in a community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most health care facilities, problems related to delays in STAT medication order processing time are of common concern. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate processing time for STAT orders at Kimball Medical Center. Methods: All STAT orders were reviewed to determine processing time; order processing time was also stratified by physician order entry (physician entered (PE orders vs. non-physician entered (NPE orders. Collected data included medication ordered, indication, time ordered, time verified by pharmacist, time sent from pharmacy, and time charted as given to the patient. Results: A total of 502 STAT orders were reviewed and 389 orders were included for analysis. Overall, median time was 29 minutes, IQR 16–63; p<0.0001. . The time needed to process NPE orders was significantly less than that needed for PE orders (median 27 vs. 34 minutes; p=0.026. In terms of NPE orders, the median total time required to process STAT orders for medications available in the Automated Dispensing Devices (ADM was within 30 minutes, while that required to process orders for medications not available in the ADM was significantly greater than 30 minutes. For PE orders, the median total time required to process orders for medications available in the ADM (i.e., not requiring pharmacy involvement was significantly greater than 30 minutes. [Median time = 34 minutes (p<0.001]. Conclusion: We conclude that STAT order processing time may be improved by increasing the availability of medications in ADM, and pharmacy involvement in the verification process.

  15. The process of clinical assessment: cognitions of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Ibáñez Aguirre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive paradigm of the past few decades opens several new possibilities for psychological evaluation.  The objective of this essay is to emphasize the possibilities related to the quality of self-evaluation, specifically professional self-assessment, meaning a critical analysis of one’s own evaluation process. In this essay, metacognition activities and strategies are examined, as are the ways in which these activities and strategies relate to metacognition and cognitive skills. The intent of this theoretical essay is to offer answers to the clinical evaluator’s professional experience. The results indicate that the clinical professional must consider strategies to improve metacognition and cognitive skills through reflection, self-analysis and self-criticism to improve the quality and efficiency of their work.

  16. Exergoeconomic evaluation of real processes for coffee roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Goran D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exergoeconomic methods provide an effective approach for identifying, evaluating and reducing thermodynamic inefficiencies and costs in an energy system. The aim of this paper is to show the potential for cost reduction on the demand side, using the exergoeconomic method in the example of real processes for coffee roasting. More than 6.5•109 kg of coffee beans is roasted worldwide annually, mostly in batch roasters. Near the end of the roast, roasting coffee emits volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and other pollutants, which in many industrialized countries have to be oxidized in afterburners. Afterburners release exhaust gases with a temperature of 250-450°C, depending on the roasting process and the method of exhaust gas cleaning. The aim of this paper is to use exergy analysis and exergoeconomic performance evaluation to determine the energy use for coffee roasting and the afterburning process, and evaluate the way to utilize waste heat and reduce costs in the factory. For roasters with the capacity of up to 4 tons of green coffee beans per hour, the potential of heat recovery is 1.1 MW and the possibility to save money is around 60,000 € per year. This case study is similar to many others worldwide, and the results of this analysis could lead to more general conclusions.

  17. Undergraduate self-evaluation process for obtainment of quality accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Marenco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Law 80 of 1992 regulates, directs and defines politics concerning High Education in Colombia. It appeared conveniently in a moment when modernizing of the State and recognition of University Autonomy was required. Self-evaluation of University Academic Programs is a constant exercise, pointing towards quality improvement and obtainment of accreditation. Being the latter core of the university reflection, its process is analytic, interpretative, and comprehensive and takes decisions. This process is accomplished with support of the tasks that facilitate formative learning and, in addition, is receptive and ready to carry out the institution’s integral transformation. It also implies teachers who are permanently advancing in their profession. As a result, self-evaluation centred in teachers produces an innovated style that influences professional practice transformation, due that it develops reflection about nowadays social and scientific demands. A successful accomplishment of self-evaluation requires the institution to take for granted its leadership in favouring a broad participation of its academic community, maintaining the culture of quality evaluation and integral labour, besides the recognition of criteria, characters, variables and quality indicators. The former mentioned are present in the “Lineaments for accreditation”, a document belonging to the “National Council of Accreditation”, in its second edition. It is moreover useful to consider the model design, the structured improvement politics towards quality, all defined by the university direction board.  

  18. Evaluating the Performance of Taiwan Homestay Using Analytic Network Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Homestay industry in Taiwan is not only thriving, but also its operation is moving gradually toward elaboration strategy and in a specialized-operation manner these years. Nevertheless, the evaluation frameworks of the earlier studies were sporadically constructed from an overall perspective of homestays. Moreover, the functions, operational model, and natures of homestays are dissimilar to those of hotels; therefore, if the evaluation criteria of homestays employ the ones of hotels, it would appear to be incoherent and incompatible. This study has accordingly developed and constructed a set of evaluation indicators tailor-made for homestay sector through discussion of literatures and interviewing experts so that the evaluation framework would be more comprehensive and more practical. In the process of interviewing experts, it was discovered that dependences lay on the aspects and criteria. Consequently, this research chose the ANP (analytic network process to get the weights and, further, to acquire the homestay business performance through fuzzy theory. The result reveals, as regards key aspects, homestay proprietors and customer groups both weight the surroundings of the building and features, service quality, operation, and management most. In respect to overall homestay performance, customer groups consider it has reached the satisfactory level.

  19. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-07

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device.

  20. Avaliação de vidro reciclado granulado como meio filtrante de herbicidas em meio aquoso Evaluation of crushed recycled glass as a filtration medium of agrotoxic materials in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilio B. G. Assis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho resultados e considerações sobre o uso de vidro reciclado na forma de material granulado, como potencial meio filtrante para remoção de agrotóxicos diluídos em água são apresentados. Para esta avaliação garrafas e vasilhames de vidro transparente foram fragmentados e moídos até partículas com tamanhos inferiores a 1 mm e ensaios de filtração gravitacional realizados em colunas, em escala laboratorial. O herbicida atrazina foi escolhido como contaminante em virtude de ser um composto altamente tóxico e amplamente empregado no Brasil. Análises por cromatografia gasosa indicam a retenção de agrotóxicos pelo meio poroso, em todo o intervalo de concentrações avaliadas (0,5; 1,0; 3,0; 10 e 15 mg L-1. O vidro apresentou-se como material de fácil manuseio e potencialmente atraente para uso como meio coadjuvante em filtragem lenta.In this paper results and consideration about the use of recycled glass, as a granulated medium for filtration interaction with diluted agrotoxic materials in water, are presented. For this purpose, transparent bottles and glass containers were first fragmented and than crushed into pieces with sizes < 1 mm. Gravitational filtration tests were carried out in columns, in laboratorial scale. The herbicide atrazine was chosen as a standard contaminant due to its high toxicity and intensive use in Brazil. The results, from gas chromatography analysis, showed that the contamination was retained by the porous medium over all ranges of concentration (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 10 and 15 mg L-1, which was dependent on the initial contamination degree. With regard to glass as a raw material, it showed itself to be a quite amenable material, potentially attractive for uses as a coadjutant medium in slow filtration.

  1. The filtration of colloidal gold nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Frans Jan; Buffet, Adeline

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the local filtering of nanoparticles (NPs) is essential for the development and optimization of medical and industrial applications. Microfocus small-angle X-ray scattering (μSAXS) was used to determine the local filtration kinetics of 100 nm sized colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) within a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest. To get a physical insight into the Au NP filtration process within the MWCNT forest a novel model based on the well-known DLVO theory was developed. The DLVO theory is commonly used to describe the interaction between colloidal particles. In addition to the attractive Van de Waals force and the electrostatic double-layer force, a non-DLVO force is added to account for hydration and hydrophobic effects. The model presented here shows that the Au NPs are mainly unfavorably deposited into the so-called secondary energy minimum. This latter finding is in good agreement with the experimental observations and the literature, in which unfavorable particle deposition is related to deposition into the secondary energy minimum. The use of μSAXS to get a physical insight into the local deposition kinetics of submicrometer particles opens up new pathways to optimize the preparation of MWCNT forests for filtration purposes.

  2. Vulnerability of bank filtration systems to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C; Lorenzen, G; Hülshoff, I; Grützmacher, G; Ronghang, M; Pekdeger, A

    2011-01-15

    Bank filtration (BF) is a well established and proven natural water treatment technology, where surface water is infiltrated to an aquifer through river or lake banks. Improvement of water quality is achieved by a series of chemical, biological and physical processes during subsurface passage. This paper aims at identifying climate sensitive factors affecting bank filtration performance and assesses their relevance based on hypothetical 'drought' and 'flood' climate scenarios. The climate sensitive factors influencing water quantity and quality also have influence on substance removal parameters such as redox conditions and travel time. Droughts are found to promote anaerobic conditions during bank filtration passage, while flood events can drastically shorten travel time and cause breakthrough of pathogens, metals, suspended solids, DOC and organic micropollutants. The study revealed that only BF systems comprising an oxic to anoxic redox sequence ensure maximum removal efficiency. The storage capacity of the banks and availability of two source waters renders BF for drinking water supply less vulnerable than surface water or groundwater abstraction alone. Overall, BF is vulnerable to climate change although anthropogenic impacts are at least as important. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  4. A practical approach to meeting MACT standards with process evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudnick, J.J. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards for hazardous air pollutants can be met in a variety of ways. These range from process change and modification to installation of control equipment. Many times a combination of the two results in the best solution. A case study is used to illustrate an optimization approach to identifying the best method of control; in addition, the approach increased the efficiency and profitability of the process. Starting with the process itself, analyzing its operation, and developing options presented the total picture - controlling emissions and improving the product. Participation of plant personnel in the evaluation, selection, and design provided for an optimal design with buy in from the people who operate it on a daily basis. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Filtration of contaminated suspended solids for the treatment of surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Davarpanah, Neginmalak; Fukue, Masaharu; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2009-02-01

    As few technologies exist worldwide for the treatment of contaminated surface water, a new approach is currently under development consisting of an in situ water treatment system based on a floating filtration process for adsorbed contaminants such as heavy metals. Laboratory filtration tests were performed for the removal of contaminated suspended solids (SS) from surface water. SS, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and organic carbon (OC) were monitored. Of the four filters (two non-woven geotextiles, a woven geotextile and a sand filter) evaluated, filter 1 (a non-woven geotextile) was the most effective for removal % of the total suspended solids. The results demonstrated excellent efficiency by filter No. 1, for reducing turbidity by 93-98%, as well as SS by up to 98.9% and COD by 65-71% for three sites with initial turbidities of 70, 20, and 120 NTU, respectively. The level of heavy metal removal was 98.9% due the heavy metal content of the suspended solids (60 mg kg(-1) of Cu, 90 mg kg (-1) of Ni, 130 mg kg(-1) of Zn, 200 mg kg(-1) of Cr, and 80 mg kg(-1) of Pb). The development of this technology could potentially protect the public and aquatic plants and animals from dangerous contaminants such as heavy metals adsorbed onto the suspended solids.

  6. Reduced quenching and extraction time for mammalian cells using filtration and syringe extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Bort, Juan A; Shanmukam, Vinoth; Pabst, Martin; Windwarder, Markus; Neumann, Laura; Alchalabi, Ali; Krebiehl, Guido; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan; Sonntag, Denise; Altmann, Friedrich; Heel, Christine; Borth, Nicole

    2014-07-20

    In order to preserve the in vivo metabolite levels of cells, a quenching protocol must be quickly executed to avoid degradation of labile metabolites either chemically or biologically. In the case of mammalian cell cultures cultivated in complex media, a wash step previous to quenching is necessary to avoid contamination of the cell pellet with extracellular metabolites, which could distort the real intracellular concentration of metabolites. This is typically achieved either by one or multiple centrifugation/wash steps which delay the time until quenching (even harsh centrifugation requires several minutes for processing until the cells are quenched) or filtration. In this article, we describe and evaluate a two-step optimized protocol based on fast filtration by use of a vacuum pump for quenching and subsequent extraction of intracellular metabolites from CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) suspension cells, which uses commercially available components. The method allows transfer of washed cells into liquid nitrogen within 10-15s of sampling and recovers the entire extraction solution volume. It also has the advantage to remove residual filter filaments in the final sample, thus preventing damage to separation columns during subsequent MS analysis. Relative to other methods currently used in the literature, the resulting energy charge of intracellular adenosine nucleotides was increased to 0.94 compared to 0.90 with cold PBS quenching or 0.82 with cold methanol/AMBIC quenching.

  7. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  8. Modeling Non-Fickian Transport and Hyperexponential Deposition for Deep Bed Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An integral model of the deep bed filtration process has been developed. It incorporates pore and particle size distributions, as well as the particle residence time distribution in the framework of the continuous time random walk theory. Numerical modeling is carried out to study the factors...... influencing breakthrough curves and deposition profiles for the deep bed filtration systems. Results are compared with a large set of experimental observations. Our findings show that highly dispersed breakthrough curves, e.g. those with early arrivals and large ending tails, correspond to large dispersion......: particle population in connection with the distribution of the filtration coefficients, heterogeneity in connection with non-Fickian transport, and heterogeneity in connection with the spatial distribution of the filtration coefficients. The influence and interaction of all three mechanisms have been...

  9. Stochastic control under progressive enlargement of filtrations and applications to multiple defaults risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, Huyen

    2010-01-01

    We formulate and investigate a general stochastic control problem under a progressive enlargement of filtration. The global information is enlarged from a reference filtration and the knowledge of multiple random times together with associated marks when they occur. By working under a density hypothesis on the conditional joint distribution of the random times and marks, we prove a decomposition of the original stochastic control problem under the global filtration into classical stochastic control problems under the reference filtration, which are determined in a finite backward induction. Our method revisits and extends in particular stochastic control of diffusion processes with finite number of jumps. This study is motivated by optimization problems arising in default risk management, and we provide applications of our decomposition result for the indifference pricing of defaultable claims, and the optimal investment under bilateral counterparty risk. The solutions are expressed in terms of BSDEs involvin...

  10. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  11. High gradient magnetic filtration and separation. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, D.

    1986-12-01

    This paper reviews the developing role of high gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF), and separation (HGMS). If discusses the relative position of this technique within the context of the general field of magnetic separation. Its future potential and the basic theory behind it is also reviewed. The two processes; HGMF and HGMS are well known and well established fuels used frequently in mineral processing, for example iron ore. Using different techniques and machines a whole host of uses is possible and the paper concludes by outlining the theory behind this whole area. 11 refs.

  12. Evaluation of the Central Hearing Process in Parkinson Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease (PD is a degenerating disease with a deceitful character, impairing the central nervous system and causing biological, psychological and social changes. It shows motor signs and symptoms characterized by trembling, postural instability, rigidity and bradykinesia. Objective: To evaluate the central hearing function in PD patients. Method: A descriptive, prospect and transversal study, in which 10 individuals diagnosed of PD named study group (SG and 10 normally hearing individuals named control group (CG were evaluated, age average of 63.8 and (SD 5.96. Both groups went through otorhinolaryngological and ordinary audiological evaluations, and dichotic test of alternate disyllables (SSW. Results: In the quantitative analysis, CG showed 80% normality on competitive right-ear hearing (RC and 60% on the competitive left-ear hearing (LC in comparison with the SG that presented 70% on RC and 40% on LC. In the qualitative analysis, the biggest percentage of errors was evident in the SG in the order effect. The results showed a difficulty in identifying a sound when there is another competitive sound and in the memory ability. Conclusion: A qualitative and quantitative difference was observed in the SSW test between the evaluated groups, although statistical data does not show significant differences. The importance to evaluate the central hearing process is emphasized when contributing to the procedures to be taken at the therapeutic follow-up.

  13. The Glomerular Filtration Barrier: Components and Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav C. Menon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized blood filtration interface that displays a high conductance to small and midsized solutes in plasma but retains relative impermeability to macromolecules. Its integrity is maintained by physicochemical and signalling interplay among its three core constituents—the glomerular endothelial cell, the basement membrane and visceral epithelial cell (podocyte. Understanding the pathomechanisms of inherited and acquired human diseases as well as experimental injury models of this barrier have helped to unravel this interdependence. Key among the consequences of interference with the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier is the appearance of significant amounts of proteins in the urine. Proteinuria correlates with kidney disease progression and cardiovascular mortality. With specific reference to proteinuria in human and animal disease phenotypes, the following review explores the roles of the endothelial cell, glomerular basement membrane, and the podocyte and attempts to highlight examples of essential crosstalk within this barrier.

  14. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, S. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Valladares, M.R.S. de [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Anti Ultra-high Temperature and Salt Tolerant Polymeric Filtrate Loss Reducer%钻井液用超高温抗盐聚合物降滤失剂的研制与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维安; 邱正松; 曹杰; 钟汉毅; 张现斌; 张世锋

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the outstanding problem of adjustment of filtration property and high temperature stability of high temperature water-based drilling fluid at home and abroad, the anti 240 ℃ and salt tolerant polymeric filtrate loss reducer HTP-1 was developed based on optimum design of molecular structure and selection Of monomer. The optimum Synthesis conditions of HTP-1 was as follows : pH value was 7.0, the mass ratio of DEAM, AMPS, NVP, DMDACC was 6 : 3 : 3 : 1, the initiator content was 0. 1%, reaction temperature was 60℃ and reaction time was 4 h. the result of thermal gravitational analysis showed that the thermal decomposition onset temperature of HTP-1 was up to 320℃, indicating that HTP-1 possessed strong thermal stability. The experiments of calcium and salt tolerance showed that performance of HTP-1 in drilling fluid containing 267 g/L salt or 5 g/L calcium chloride was stable, which was similar to that of the foreign anti high temperature polymer Driscal and superior to domestic metallic ion fluid loss additive PMHA- U. The filtration reducing ability of HTP-1 at high temperature of 240℃ was better than that of Driscal (240℃) and domestic PMHA- II (220℃) in fresh water drilling fluid, weighted fresh water drilling fluid, saturated brine drilling fluid and compound salt water drilling fluid, respectively. In the end, the mechanisms of heat and salinity tolerance and filtrate loss reduction of HTP-1 were probed.%针对当前国内外超高温水基钻井液高温稳定性及滤失性调控技术难题,基于分子结构优化设计、聚合单体优选,通过优化合成条件研制了抗高温(240%)抗盐聚合物降滤失剂HTP-1。HTP-1的最优合成条件为:pH=7.0、单体配比DEAM:AMPS:NVP:DMDACC=6:3:3:1、引发剂0.1%、反应温度60℃、反应时间4h。热重分析表明,HTP-1的热稳定性很强,发生热分解的初始温度达320℃以上。HTP-1的抗盐能力大于267g

  16. Measured performance of filtration and ventilation systems for fine and ultrafine particles and ozone in an unoccupied modern California house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Delp, W W; Black, D R; Walker, I S

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250 m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration provided indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors. Supply ventilation with MERV13 filtration provided slightly less protection, whereas supply MERV16 filtration reduced PM2.5 by 97-98% relative to outdoors. Supply filtration systems used little energy but provided no benefits for indoor-generated particles. Systems with MERV13-16 filter in the recirculating heating and cooling unit (FAU) operating continuously or 20 min/h reduced PM2.5 by 93-98%. Across all systems, removal percentages were higher for ultrafine particles and lower for black carbon, relative to PM2.5 . Indoor ozone was 3-4% of outdoors for all systems except an electronic air cleaner that produced ozone. Filtration via the FAU or portable filtration units lowered PM2.5 by 25-75% when operated over the hour following cooking. The energy for year-round operation of FAU filtration with an efficient blower motor was estimated at 600 kWh/year.

  17. Safety evaluation of Chinese nickel resources based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    China is now the world’s largest producer and consumer of nickel. As an important strategic metal, nickel is widely used in various industries of national economy. Whether the supply of nickel ore resources is sufficient or not directly restricts the development of downstream industries. It is becoming more and more important to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in our country, and to formulate the corresponding safety strategy. This paper uses fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in China, and overcomes the subjectivity and singleness of traditional evaluation methods. On the basis of the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is introduced. At present, the safety situation of nickel resources in our country is in a more dangerous level, and we need to take positive measures to improve it.

  18. On Markov Chains and Filtrations

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we rederive some well known results for continuous time Markov processes that live on a finite state space.Martingale techniques are used throughout the paper. Special attention is paid to the construction of a continuous timeMarkov process, when we start from a discrete time Markov chain. The Markov property here holds with respect tofiltrations that need not be minimal.

  19. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  20. Process monitoring evaluation and implementation for the wood abrasive machining process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloni, Daniel E; Lemaster, Richard L; Jackson, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    Wood processing industries have continuously developed and improved technologies and processes to transform wood to obtain better final product quality and thus increase profits. Abrasive machining is one of the most important of these processes and therefore merits special attention and study. The objective of this work was to evaluate and demonstrate a process monitoring system for use in the abrasive machining of wood and wood based products. The system developed increases the life of the belt by detecting (using process monitoring sensors) and removing (by cleaning) the abrasive loading during the machining process. This study focused on abrasive belt machining processes and included substantial background work, which provided a solid base for understanding the behavior of the abrasive, and the different ways that the abrasive machining process can be monitored. In addition, the background research showed that abrasive belts can effectively be cleaned by the appropriate cleaning technique. The process monitoring system developed included acoustic emission sensors which tended to be sensitive to belt wear, as well as platen vibration, but not loading, and optical sensors which were sensitive to abrasive loading.