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Sample records for filtration assay digfa

  1. Detection of serum anti-sperm antibody in infertile couples with dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xiaoxian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new method for rapid detection of serum anti-sperm antibody in infertile couples. Methods: Human sperm antigen was prepared from pooled semen specimens of fertile males. Nitro-cellulose membrane was used as solid-phase carrier of the antigen. Colloidal gold pellet combined goat anti-human IgG was taken as labelled antibody. A dot-immunogold filtration assay system was established for test of serum anti-human sperm antibody. Serum specimens from 137 infertile couples were tested and the result compared with flat from ELISA. Results: The human sperm antigen would react with the anti-sperm antibody in the tested serum over the cellulose membrane through filtration and the result could be read with naked eye within 6 minutes. In this study of 137 infertile coupled, the anti-sperm antibody was positive in 21.9% of the female serum specimens and 13.19% of the males. Compared with the result from ELISA, the consistency rate was 96.1%. The sensitivity of the assay was 90.2% and specificity was 95.4%. The p reparation was stable after 6 months refrigerator storage. Conclusion: This newly developed DIGFA is very adequate for rap id detection of anti-sperm antibody and deserves popularization. (authors)

  2. Definition of purified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antigens from the culture filtrate protein of Mycobacterium bovis by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun Sang; Lee, Sang-Eun; Ko, Young Joon; Cho, Donghee; Lee, Hyang Shim; Hwang, Inyeong; Nam, Hyangmi; Heo, Eunjung; Kim, Jong Man; Jung, Sukchan

    2009-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed as the ancillary diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis at ante-mortem to overcome the disadvantages of intradermal skin test. In this study, the antigenic proteins were purified, applied to bTB ELISA, and identified through proteomic analysis. Culture filtrate protein of Mycobacterium bovis was fractionated by MonoQ column chromatography, and examined the antigenicity by immunoblotting. The antigenic 20 kDa protein was in-gel digested and identified the antigenome by LTQ mass spectrometer and peptide match fingerprinting, which were MPB64, MPB70, MPB83, Fas, Smc, Nrp, RpoC, Transposase, LeuA, and MtbE. The 20 kDa protein exhibited the highest antigenicity to bTB positive cattle in ELISA and would be useful for bTB serological diagnosis.

  3. Effect of creatinine assay calibration on glomerular filtration rate prediction by MDRD equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Spessatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of renal function should be performed with glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimation employing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD study equation, which includes age, gender, ethnicity and serum creatinine. However, creatinine methods require traceability with standardized methods. Objective: To analyse the impact of creatinine calibration on MDRD calculated GFR. Methods: 140 samples of plasma with creatinine values <2,0 mg/dl were analysed by Jaffé’s reaction with Creatinina Modular P (Roche ®; method A; reference and Creatinina Advia 1650 (Bayer ®; method B; non-standardized. The results with the different methods were compared and aligned with standardized method through a conversion formula. MDRD GFR was estimated. Results: Values were higher for method B (1.03 ± 0.29 vs. 0.86 ± 0.32 mg/dl, P<0.001. This difference declined when methods were aligned with the equation y=1.07x -0.249, and the aligned values were 0,9 ± 0,31 mg/dl. Non-traceable creatinine methods misclassificaed chronic kidney disease in 10% more (false positive. This disagreement disappeared after the regression alignment. Conclusion: Creatinine method calibration has a large impact over the final results of serum creatinine and GFR. The alignment of the non-standardized results through conversion formulas is a reasonable alternative to harmonize serum creatinine results while waiting for the full implementation of international  standardization programs.

  4. Glomerular filtration rate estimation from plasma creatinine after inhibition of tubular secretion: relevance of the creatinine assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, F A; Silberbusch, J; Slaats, E H; van Zanten, A P; Weber, J A; Krediet, R T; Arisz, L

    1999-05-01

    Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine concentration after inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion with cimetidine provides a good assessment in patients with various nephropathies and with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The aim of this study was to compare cimetidine-aided GFR estimations using various creatinine assays. In 30 outpatients with NIDDM GFR was measured as the urinary clearance of continuously infused [125I]iothalamate. Plasma creatinine concentration was analysed after oral cimetidine with an alkaline picrate (AP) method, with an enzymatic (PAP) assay and with HPLC. GFR estimations were calculated with the Cockcroft Gault formula (CG). AP creatinine concentrations were significantly higher than PAP or HPLC values. GFR estimations by AP (CG(AP) 66 +/- 19 ml/min/1.73 m2, mean SD) were significantly lower than GFR (89 +/- 30), whereas CG(PAP) (85 +/- 30) and CG(HPLC) (84 +/- 34 ml/min/1.73 m2) were not. Bland and Altman analysis showed a difference between CG(AP) and GFR of -22.4 +/- 17.7 ml/min/1.73 m2; this difference becomes larger when the GFR increases. The difference between CG and GFR was only -3.8 +/- 14.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 for PAP and -4.4 +/- 17.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 for HPLC, without any systematic difference. A good assessment of the GFR from plasma creatinine after cimetidine administration is possible when creatinine is measured with an enzymatic assay or with the less convenient HPLC method. The more widespread and cheaper alkaline picrate assay is not suitable for GFR-estimation.

  5. An enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay used to compare infant and maternal antibody profiles in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinon, J M; Thoannes, H; Gruson, N

    1985-02-28

    Enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay is carried out on a micropore membrane. This doubly analytical technique permits simultaneous study of antibody specificity by immunoprecipitation and characterisation of antibody isotypes by immuno-filtration with enzyme-labelled antibodies. Recognition of the same T. gondii antigenic constituent by IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE antibodies produces couplets (IgG-IgM; IgG-IgA) or triplets (IgG-IgM-IgA; IgG-IgM-IgE) which identify the functional fractions of the toxoplasmosis antigen. In acquired toxoplasmosis, the persistence of IgM antibody long after infestation puts in question the implication of recent infestation normally linked to detection of this isotype. For sera of comparable titres, comparison of immunological profiles by the method described demonstrates disparities in the composition of the specific antibody content as expressed in international units. Use of the same method to detect IgM antibodies or distinguish between transmitted maternal IgG and IgG antibodies synthesised by the foetus or neonate makes a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis possible in 85% of cases during the first few days of life. With the method described the diagnosis may be made on average 5 months earlier than with classical techniques. In the course of surveillance for latent congenital toxoplasmosis, the appearance of IgM or IgE antibodies raises the possibility of complications (hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis). After cessation of treatment, a rise in IgG antibodies indicating persistence of infection is detected earlier by the present than by classical methods.

  6. Glomerular filtration rate estimation from plasma creatinine after inhibition of tubular secretion: relevance of the creatinine assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, F. A.; Silberbusch, J.; Slaats, E. H.; van Zanten, A. P.; Weber, J. A.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine concentration after inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion with cimetidine provides a good assessment in patients with various nephropathies and with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The aim of this

  7. Enzymatic creatinine assays allow estimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Froissart, Marc; Piéroni, Laurence; Delanaye, Pierre

    2014-01-20

    The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m² should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m², both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m². Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m² with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m² with CKD-EPI equation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Filtration assay for quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) specific binding to whole cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dold, K.M.; Greenlee, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive filtration assay for quantitating the specific binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to whole cells in culture is described. Cell monolayers are incubated with [3H]TCDD in the presence or absence of excess unlabeled ligand, detached from the culture dish with trypsin, filtered, and washed with cold (-78 degrees C) acetone to separate free and nonspecifically bound TCDD from specifically bound TCDD. TCDD receptor binding parameters were characterized in the murine hepatoma cell line Hepa1c1c7. The lower limit of detection of TCDD specific binding was in a sample equivalent to 10 micrograms of total cell protein. The equilibrium dissociation constant and stereospecificity for binding to the TCDD receptor were the same as those previously reported with other TCDD receptor assays on broken cell preparations. Analysis of binding in the murine hepatoma TCDD receptor variants TAO-c1BPrc1 and BPrc1 indicated that this assay will detect receptor number or affinity variants, but will not detect nuclear transfer deficient variants. The major advantage of the whole cell binding assay is that it provides the means to rapidly and reproducibly quantitate TCDD specific binding in small samples of whole cells in culture. In addition, this method eliminates loss or degradation of the receptor protein during the fractionation of cells required in previously reported methods. This method should prove useful in screening clonal cell populations for TCDD receptor number and affinity variants, and in screening for TCDD receptor binding activity in complementation studies of receptor deficient cells

  9. Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmon ovarian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascho, Ronald J.; Chase, Dorothy M.; McKibben, Constance L.

    1998-01-01

    Ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the MF-FAT, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of R. salmoninarum cells. Among the positive fish, the R. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 cells/ml to 4.3 × 109cells/ml. A soluble antigenic fraction of R. salmoninarum was detected in 39% of the fish (40/103) by the ELISA. The ELISA is considered one of the most sensitive detection methods for bacterial kidney disease in tissues, yet it did not detect R. salmoninarum antigen consistently at bacterial cell concentrations below about 1.3 × 104cells/ml according to the MF-FAT counts. When total DNA was extracted and tested in a nested PCR designed to amplify a 320-base-pair region of the gene encoding a soluble 57-kD protein of R. salmoninarum, 100% of the 100 samples tested were positive. The results provided strong evidence that R. salmoninarum may be present in ovarian fluids thought to be free of the bacterium on the basis of standard diagnostic methods.

  10. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Gilbert, H.

    1982-01-01

    Significant developments in high-efficiency filtration for nuclear applications are reviewed for the period 1968 to 1980. Topics of special interest include (1) factory (bench) and in-place test methods, (2) new developments in paper and filter unit construction methods, (3) vented containment air cleaning systems for liquid-metal fast breeder reactors and light-water-moderated reactors, and (4) decontamination of off-gases from nuclear waste volume-reduction processes. Standards development has been vigorously pursued during this period, but advances in filtration theory have been few. One of the significant changes likely to occur in the immediate future is adoption of the European style of high-efficiency particulate air filters instead of those which have been in service for the past three decades to obtain the benefits of having almost twice as much filter paper in the same filter cartridge

  11. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Gilbert, H.

    1981-01-01

    Significant developments in high efficiency filtration for nuclear applications are reviewed for the period 1968 to 1980. Topics of special interest include factory (bench) and in-place test methods, new developments in paper and filter unit construction methods, vented containment air cleaning systems for LMFBR and light water moderated reactors, and decontamination of offgases from nuclear waste volume reduction processes. It is noted that standards development has been vigorously pursued during this period but that advances in filtration theory have been few. One of the significant changes likely to occur in the immediate future is adoption of the European style of HEPA filters for those that have been in service for the past three decades to obtain the benefits of having almost twice as much filter paper in the same filter cartridge. 71 references

  12. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; De Smet, M.; Trine, J.; Hertschap, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m 3 /h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m 3 /h at 400 0 C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134 Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  13. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  14. Cross-flow filtration and axial filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two relatively novel alternative solid-liquid-separation techniques of filtration are discussed. In cross-flow filtration, the feed is pumped past the filtering surface. While in axial filtration the filter, mounted on a rotor, is moved with respect to the feed. While large-scale application of the axial filter is still in doubt, it permits with little expenditure of time and money, duplication of many hydrodynamic aspects of cross-flow filtration for fine-particle handling problems. The technique has been applied to municipal wastes, low-level radioactive waste treatment plant, lead removal from industrial wastes, removal of pulp-mill contaminants, textile-mill wastes, and pretreatment of saline waters by lime-soda process in preparation for hyperfiltration. Economics and energy requirements are also discussed

  15. Statistical data filtration in neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-11-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of statistical data filtration to minimize the contribution of matrix materials in 200-ell drums to the nondestructive assay of plutonium. Those matrices were examined: polyethylene, concrete, aluminum, iron, cadmium, and lead. Statistical filtration of neutron coincidence data improved the low-end sensitivity of coincidence counters. Spurious data arising from electrical noise, matrix spallation, and geometric effects were smoothed in a predictable fashion by the statistical filter. The filter effectively lowers the minimum detectable mass limit that can be achieved for plutonium assay using passive neutron coincidence counting

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. PROBLEMS OF NONSTATIONARY FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod A. Shabanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available he article deals with the classical hydrodynamic theory of filtration. Discusses models of soil, fluid and nature of fluid flow that formed the basis for the creation of the classic filtration theory. Also discusses the assumptions made for the linearization of the equations. Evaluated the scope of the classical filtration theory. Proposed a new model of filtration through a porous medium, based on the application of the laws of theoretical mechanics. It is based on the classical model of soil: the soil is composed of capillaries with ..parallel axes, in which the liquid moves. For tasks of infiltration equations of motion. Considered special cases of unsteady motion of a finite volume of liquid. Numerical example a machine experiment.

  18. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....

  19. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  20. Filtration by eyelashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  1. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  3. Method of electrostatic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Electrostatic filtration of secondary ions of mass m in a given mass ratio with a primary ion of mass M which has formed the secondary ions by fission is carried out by a method which consists in forming a singly-charged primary ion of the substance having a molecular mass M and extracting the ion at a voltage V 1 with respect to ground. The primary ion crosses a potential barrier V 2 , in producing the dissociation of the ion into at least two fragments of secondary ions and in extracting the fragment ion of mass m at a voltage V 2 . Filtration is carried out in an electrostatic analyzer through which only the ions of energy eV'' are permitted to pass, detecting the ions which have been filtered. The mass m of the ions is such that (M/m) = (V 1 - V 2 )/(V'' - V 2 )

  4. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  5. Mixture based outlier filtration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecherková, Pavla; Nagy, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2006), s. 30-35 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MDS 1F43A/003/120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data filtration * system modelling * mixture models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20060165.pdf

  6. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  7. Filtration of polydispersed colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic microscopic form of the population balance model is applied to the problem of polydispersed particle capture in one spatial diffusion. This mathematical modeling approach can be applied to the difficult and potentially important problem of particulate (radiocolloid) transport in the groundwater surrounding a nuclear waste disposal site. To demonstrate the population balance methodology, the equations were developed and used to investigate transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. Modeling simulations were compared to experimental column data. The multidimensional form of the population balance equation was used to analyze the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids. A numerical model was developed to describe transport of polydispersed colloids through a one-dimensional porous region. The effects of various size distributions were investigated in terms of capture efficiency. For simulating the column data, it was found by trial and error that as part of the population balance model a linear size dependent filtration function gave a good fit to the measured colloid concentration profile. The effects of constant versus size dependent filtration coefficients were compared and the differences illustrated by the calculated colloid profile within the column. Also observed from the model calculations was the dramatically changing liquid-phase colloid-size distribution which was plotted as a function of position down the column. This modeling approach was excellent for describing and understanding microscopic filtration in porous media

  8. BWR condensate filtration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.A.; Pasricha, A.; Rekart, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Poor removal of particulate corrosion products (especially iron) from condensate is one of the major problems in BWR systems. The presence of activated corrosion products creates ''hot spots'' and increases piping dose rates. Also, fuel efficiency is reduced and the risk of fuel failure is increased by the deposit of corrosion products on the fuel. Because of these concerns, current EPRI guidelines call for a maximum of 2 ppb of iron in the reactor feedwater with a level of 0.5 ppb being especially desirable. It has become clear that conventional deep bed resins are incapable of meeting these levels. While installation of prefilter systems is an option, it would be more economical for plants with naked deep beds to find an improved bead resin for use in existing systems. BWR condensate filtration technologies are being tested on a condensate side stream at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station. After two years of testing, hollow fiber filters (HFF) and fiber matrix filters (FMF), and low crosslink cation resin, all provide acceptable results. The results are presented for pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and water quality measurements. The costs are compared for backwashable non-precoat HFF and FMF. Results are also presented for full deep bed vessel tests of the low crosslink cation resin

  9. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  11. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and as...

  12. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  13. Hot filtration 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Rebagliati, Raul; Liberman, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The magnetic filtration technique allows the removal of suspended magnetic species from a fluid at high flow rate and temperature. It is specially advantageous for water purification in systems such as thermonuclear and thermoelectric plants in which corrosion products must be removed from the heat transport and cooling circuits. Using diluted aqueous suspensions of magnetite, the behaviour of a ball matrix filter was studied as a function of flow rate, temperature and concentration of particles. The retention efficiency shows an exponential decay with fluid's velocity and viscosity in agreement with theory. Within the range of concentration considered, there is no change in the retention with concentration. Design parameters for filters according to plant's needs are obtained from the results of this study. (Author) [es

  14. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  15. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water system...

  16. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  17. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  18. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  19. Latest aspects of mechanical filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and unify all knowledge about mechanic filtration. The first part deals with the parameters and properties of filtration. Here some important basic concepts are explained such as pressure gradient, filter life, etc. There’s also a description of convenient filtration technology for coarse and fine materials, such as sand, smoke or soot. The second part primarily focuses on the real use and application of filters for liquid and gaseous media. The differences in construction between different types of filters for filtration of fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, air and cabin filters are described. The last section is focused mainly on new materials for the production of filters. These materials are ceramic or nanomaterials, which can actually be enriched for example with antibacterial silver or some fungicides.

  20. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  2. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  3. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is to use more simple systems. Dextran-MnO2 particles and polystyrene particles with a water-swollen polyacrylic acid shell have therefore been synthesised. These particles have been filtered and used to study the non-linear filtration behaviour. The compressibility of the formed cake has been investigated......The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... and the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour explained as a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). Thus, the creep phenomenon has been adopted in the conventional filtration models and it will be shown that the model can be used to simulate filtration data...

  4. Optimization of suspensions filtration with compressible cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is described filtering process for separating reaction mixture after enzymatic hydrolysis to process the chromium tanning waste. Filtration of this mixture is very complicated because it is case of mixture filtration with compressible cake. Successful process strongly depends on mathematical describing of filtration, calculating optimal values of pressure difference, specific resistant of filtration cake and temperature maintenance which is connected with viscosity change. The mathematic model of filtration with compressible cake we verified in laboratory conditions on special filtration device developed on our department.

  5. Filtration set for gaseous fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, B.; Couvrat-Desvergnes, A.

    1988-01-01

    This filtration set is made by a cylindrical vessel containing upstairs to downstairs, the gas inlet, a sealed floor for man inspection, a horizontal granular filter bed, a linen with a porosity inferior to the granulometry of the filter bed, a light support layer of material of larger granulometry, gas permeable tubes and an annular collector connecting the tubes to the outlet [fr

  6. Some observations on air filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluyver, A.J.; Visser, J.

    1950-01-01

    1. A method has been developed for testing the filtration efficiency of some filter materials. For each of the materials investigated — cotton wool, stillite and carbon — a suitable filter has been devised. 2. The filtered air was analyzed as to its germ content with the aid of a set of 3 capillary

  7. Filtration device for active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-01-01

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter

  8. Filtrations of free groups as intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Efrat, Ido

    2013-01-01

    For several natural filtrations of a free group S we express the n-th term of the filtration as the intersection of all kernels of homomorphisms from S to certain groups of upper-triangular unipotent matrices. This generalizes a classical result of Grun for the lower central filtration. In particular, we do this for the n-th term in the lower p-central filtration of S.

  9. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  10. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... root of time. Even more clearly it is demonstrated by plotting the liquid pressure at the cake piston interface v.s. the relative deformation (to be shown). The phenomenon of a secondary consolidation processes is in short called creep. Provided that the secondary consolidation rate is of the same...

  11. Properties of plastic filtration material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses properties of filters made of thermoplastic granulated material. The granulated plastic has a specific density of 10.3-10.6 kN/m/sup 3/ and a bulk density of about 6 kN/m/sup 3/. Its chemical resistance to acids, bases and salts is high but is it soluble in organic solvents. Filters made of this material are characterized by a porosity coefficient of 36.5% and a bulk density of 5.7-6.8 kN/m/sup 3/. Physical and mechanical properties of filter samples made of thermoplastic granulated material (50x50x50 mm) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Compression strength and influencing factors were analyzed (ambient temperature, manufacturing technology). Tests show that this filtration material developed by Poltegor is superior to other filtration materials used in Poland.

  12. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on the use of the methods of determining the filtration coefficient on the basis of oedometer test results. The present analysis of the filtration theory equations should help interpret effective parameters of the non-steady filtration model. Moreover, equations for the flow of a gas through a porous medium and an interpretation of the filtration model effective parameters in this case are presented.

  13. Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane filtration technique in the quantification and monitoring of microbial indicator organisms – seasonal variations in the activities of coliforms and E. coli, temperature and pH.

  14. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S H Boutilier

    Full Text Available Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  15. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  16. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelecki Tomasz; Strzelecki Michał

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on...

  17. Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal

  18. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  19. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondus Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA.

  20. Filtration and retention capacities of filter aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Boualia, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work involves the filtration of impure uranyl nitrate solutions by different filter aids such as kieselguhr, celite and bleaching clay. The retention of substances contained in uranyl nitrate solution was determined using the three filter aids. A study of the effects of granulometry and filter earths treatment (thermal and chemical) on the filtration rate was performed

  1. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface water...

  2. Particle filtration in consolidated granular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.M.; Wilkinson, D.J.; Bolsterli, M.; Hammond, P.

    1993-01-01

    Grain-packing algorithms are used to model the mechanical trapping of dilute suspensions of particles by consolidated granular media. We study the distribution of filtrate particles, the formation of a damage zone (internal filter cake), and the transport properties of the host--filter-cake composite. At the early stages of filtration, our simulations suggest simple relationships between the structure of the internal filter cake and the characteristics of the underlying host matrix. These relationships are then used to describe the dynamics of the filtration process. Depending on the grain size and porosity of the host matrix, calculated filtration rates may either be greater than (spurt loss) or less than (due to internal clogging) those predicted by standard surface-filtration models

  3. Dynamic Heterogeneous Multiscale Filtration Model: Probing Micro- and Macroscopic Filtration Characteristics of Gasoline Particulate Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Viswanathan, Sandeep; Rothamer, David A; Foster, David E; Rutland, Christopher J

    2017-10-03

    Motivated by high filtration efficiency (mass- and number-based) and low pressure drop requirements for gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a previously developed heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is extended to simulate dynamic filtration characteristics of GPFs. This dynamic HMF model is based on a probability density function (PDF) description of the pore size distribution and classical filtration theory. The microstructure of the porous substrate in a GPF is resolved and included in the model. Fundamental particulate filtration experiments were conducted using an exhaust filtration analysis (EFA) system for model validation. The particulate in the filtration experiments was sampled from a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine. With the dynamic HMF model, evolution of the microscopic characteristics of the substrate (pore size distribution, porosity, permeability, and deposited particulate inside the porous substrate) during filtration can be probed. Also, predicted macroscopic filtration characteristics including particle number concentration and normalized pressure drop show good agreement with the experimental data. The resulting dynamic HMF model can be used to study the dynamic particulate filtration process in GPFs with distinct microstructures, serving as a powerful tool for GPF design and optimization.

  4. Projective Dimension in Filtrated K-Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentmann, Rasmus Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Under mild assumptions, we characterise modules with projective resolutions of length n∈N in the target category of filtrated K-theory over a finite topological space in terms of two conditions involving certain Tor -groups. We show that the filtrated K-theory of any separable C∗dash-algebra over...... any topological space with at most four points has projective dimension 2 or less. We observe that this implies a universal coefficient theorem for rational equivariant KK-theory over these spaces. As a contrasting example, we find a separable C∗dash-algebra in the bootstrap class over a certain five......-point space, the filtrated K-theory of which has projective dimension 3. Finally, as an application of our investigations, we exhibit Cuntz-Krieger algebras which have projective dimension 2 in filtrated K-theory over their respective primitive spectrum....

  5. Filtration aids in uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.L.; Levine, N.M.; Risdon, A.L.

    1975-01-01

    The patent describes a process whereby improved flocculation efficiency and filtration of carbonate leached uranium ore pulps are obtained by treating the filter feed slurry with an aqueous solution of hydroxyalkyl guar. (J.R.)

  6. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... taken from a surface water or GWUDI source. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not... separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat entire plant flow taken from a surface water... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional filtration toolbox...

  7. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  8. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  9. EM Task 9 - Centrifugal membrane filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, Daniel J.; Stevens, Bradley G.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1999-01-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc)

  10. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  11. The Perspective of Riverbank Filtration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Zuo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable drinking water supply can affect the health of people, and the surrounding ecosystems. According to statistics of the monitoring program of drinking water sources in 309 at or above prefecture level of China in 2013, the major pollutants index were total phosphorus, ammonia and manganese in surface drinking water sources, respectively, iron, ammonia and manganese in groundwater drinking water sources, respectively. More than 150 drinking water emergency environmental accidents happened since 2006, 52 of these accidents led to the disruption of water supply in waterworks, and a population of over ten million were affected. It indicated that there is a potential risk for people's health by the use of river water directly and it is necessary to require alternative techniques such as riverbank filtration for improving the drinking water quality. Riverbank filtration is an inexpensive natural process, not only smoothing out normal pollutant concentration found in surface water but also significantly reducing the risk from such emergency events as chemical spill into the river. Riverbank filtration technique has been used in many countries more than 100 years, including China. In China, in 1950s, the bank infiltration technique was first applied in northeast of China. Extensive bank infiltration application was conducted in 1980s, and more than 300 drinking water sources utilities bank infiltration established mainly near the Songhua River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, Haihe River Basin. However, the comparative lack of application and researches on riverbank filtration have formed critical scientific data gap in China. As the performance of riverbank filtration technique depend on not only the design and setting such as well type, pumping rate, but also the local hydrogeology and environmental properties. We recommend more riverbank filtration project and studies to be conducted to collect related significant environmental geology data in China

  12. Industrial investigations of the liquid steel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes have given good results. The obtained results of filtration have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location considering the limitation of the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  13. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-01

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f 2 , were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f 2 reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f 2 which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP filter. (4

  14. Filtration of engineered nanoparticles using porous membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzaskus, Krzystof

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at providing a better understanding of the fundamental aspects responsible for nanoparticle removal and fouling development during filtration of engineered nanoparticles. The emphasis is put on the role of interparticle interactions in the feed solution,

  15. Dynamic membrane filtration in tangential flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-containing waste water is produced in many cleaning processes and also on production of compressed air. Dynamic membrane filtration in the tangential flow mode has proved effective in the treatment of these stable emulsions. The possible applications of ceramic membrane filters are illustrated for a variety of examples. (orig.) [de

  16. Filtration aids in uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.L.; Levine, N.M.; Risdon, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process of improving the filtration efficiency and separation of uranium ore pulps obtained by carbonate leaching of uranium ore which comprises treating said ore pulps with an aqueous solution of hydroxyalkyl guar selected from the group consisting of hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl guar in the amount of 0.1 and 2.0 pounds of hydroxyalkyl guar per ton of uranium ore

  17. Filtration engineering study to upgrade the ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, F.N.N.

    1995-01-01

    Filtration technologies are evaluated which have potential to augment or upgrade the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The study was written in anticipation of treating future waste waters that have high fouling potentials. The Three ultrafilters judged to be capable of treating future waste waters are: hollow fiber, tubular, and centrifugal

  18. Water Filtration through Homogeneous Granulated Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Krautsou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available General relationship for calculation of water filtration through homogeneous granulated charge has been obtained. The obtained relationship has been compared with experimental data. Discrepancies between calculated and experimental values do not exceed 6 % throughout the entire investigated range.

  19. Organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelkamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the main removal mechanisms (adsorption and biodegradation) for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal during river bank filtration (RBF) and the possibility of developing a predictive model of this process for OMP removal during RBF. Chapter 2 analysed

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING THE FILTRATE DISTILLERY DREGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various factors affecting the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs are investigated. Rational conditions for the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs in a spray dryer are obtained.

  1. Determination of chromate ion in drilling mud filtrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfill, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method of determining the amount of chromate ion in an aqueous drilling mud filtrate containing organic color bodies such as lignosulfate wherein the method comprises: (A) treating the aqueous filtrate with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to destroy said color bodies, and (B) measuring the amount of chromate ion in the filtrate by means of a spectrophotometer

  2. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection... water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141...

  3. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source under...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration membranes identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), and (a)(4) of this section may be safely used in...

  5. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    , it is difficult to use the existing mathematical filtration models to simulate and optimise the filtration process. Activated sludge as well as synthetic model particles has been filtrated in this project. The study shows that compression of the formed filter cake is a time dependent process, and not only...

  6. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  7. Primary effluent filtration for coastal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper-Smith, G.D. [Yorkshire Water Services, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Rundle, H. [The Capital Controls Group, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The use of a Tetra Deep Bed filter demonstration unit to treat primary effluent (Primary Effluent Filtration, PEF) was investigated. PEF proved capable of achieving the UWWTD primary standard, even when the primary stage performs poorly, but is not a cost-effective alternative to chemically assisted settlement. Results demonstrated that using a 1.5 to 2.2 mm grade medium, a filtration rate of 5 m/h, three backwashes a day and dosing 40 mg/l of PAXXL60 (a polyaluminium silicte) an average effluent quality of 20 mg/l BOD and 15 mgl/l total solid could be achieved. UV disinfection produced an effluent which complied with the Bathing Water Directive imperative requirement. A high enterovirus kill was also achieved. However, considerable additional work would be required before PEF could be considered suitable for full-scale applications. (orig.)

  8. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  10. High Temperature Particle Filtration Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    High temperature filtration can serve to improve the economic, environmental, and energy performance of chemical processes. This project was designed to evaluate the stability of filtration materials in the environments of the production of dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS). In cooperation with Dow Corning, chemical environments for the fluidized bed reactor where silicon is converted to DDS and the incinerator where vents are cornbusted were characterized. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an exposure system was developed that could simulate these two environments. Filter samples obtained from third parties were exposed to the environments for periods up to 1000 hours. Mechanical properties before and after exposure were determined by burst-testing rings of filter material. The results indicated that several types of filter materials would likely perform well in the fluid bed environment, and two materials would be good candidates for the incinerator environment

  11. Enlargement of filtration with finance in view

    CERN Document Server

    Aksamit, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents classical results of the theory of enlargement of filtration. The focus is on the behavior of martingales with respect to the enlarged filtration and related objects. The study is conducted in various contexts including immersion, progressive enlargement with a random time and initial enlargement with a random variable.  The aim of this book is to collect the main mathematical results (with proofs) previously spread among numerous papers, great part of which is only available in French. Many examples and applications to finance, in particular to credit risk modelling and the study of asymmetric information, are provided to illustrate the theory. A detailed summary of further connections and applications is given in bibliographic notes which enables to deepen study of the topic.  This book fills a gap in the literature and serves as a guide for graduate students and researchers interested in the role of information in financial mathematics and in econometric science. A basic knowledge of...

  12. Osmosis, filtration and fracture of porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    Filtration was produced in a small scale physical model of a granular porous medium of cylindrical shape.The same volume flow was obtained either applying a difference in hydrostatic pressure or in osmotic pressure.In the first case a process of sustained erosion ending in an hydraulic short circuit was observed,while in the second case the material remained stable.This paradoxical strength behaviour is explained using some results from differential geometry,classical field theory and thermo-kinetic theory.The fracture process of a continuous matrix in a porous medium under the combined effect of filtration and external mechanical loads in then considered.The obtained results can be applied to the textural and compressive strength of wet concrete

  13. Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter

  14. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Benítez, Juan; Gil Montero, María Luisa Almoraima; De la Rosa Fox, Nicolas; Alguacil, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer’s health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon cont...

  15. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  16. Filtration system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takashi; Nakamizo, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    The filtration system of the present invention comprises a filtering device incorporating ceramic filament element bundles, a pool return line for returning filtrates to a side banker pool or fuel storage pool, a waste sludge discharge line for discharging waste sludges captured in the filter elements by way of washing operation and a settling separation vessel. Ceramics of excellent radiation resistance and having an extremely thin multi-layered structure at the surface are used for the filter elements. Highly radioactive cruds captured at the surface of the elements by liquid passage are removed by supplying water or gas in a pulsative manner in the direction opposite to the liquid passage thereby cleaning the surface of the elements at a high speed. The thus removed high radioactive cruds are concentrically confined within the settling separation layer by gravitational settling separation. Thus, there is no more necessary for disposing the filtration element bundles after use, so that the amount of wastes can be reduced, the radiation dosage can be lowered and the facility can be simplified. (N.H.)

  17. Direct filtration of Biesbosch water and Algae and water treatment in the Netherlands : 3rd Direct Filtration Seminar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusevski, B.; Vlaski, A.; Van Breemen, A.N.; Alaerts, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation summarises basic information on direct filtration, and demonstrates the main research findings, related to the performance of simple in-line direct filtration. The results reported are part of a comprehensive ongoing research programm "Direct filtration of Biesbosch water"

  18. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  19. Filtration approach to mitigate indoor Thoron progeny concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Meisenberg, O.; Karg, E.; Tschiersch, J.; Chen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates filtration of air as potential mitigation method of thoron progeny exposure. The experiments were conducted in a model room (volume 7.1 m 3 ) which was equipped with a pump and an HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. Filtration at a rate of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.8 h -1 during 88 h proved an effective practice in reducing the total indoor thoron decay product concentration. The results indicate that 0.4-0.8 h -1 filtration rate had almost the same filtration efficiency in decreasing the total thoron EEC (equilibrium equivalent concentration) by 97% while 80% of total thoron EEC were reduced by 0.2 h -1 filtration rate; meanwhile, the unattached thoron EEC rose significantly by 190, 270, 290%, respectively under 0.4-0.8 h -1 filtration rate, whereas 0.2 h -1 filtration rate increased unattached thoron EEC by 40%. The aerosol number size distribution variation reveals that filtration operation removes smaller particles faster or earlier than the larger ones. The annual effective dose calculated was reduced by 91-92% at a filtration rate of 0.4-0.8 h -1 while 75% reduced at 0.2 h -1 filtration rate after 88 h filtration process. (authors)

  20. Measurement and characterization of filtration efficiencies for prefilter materials used in aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciortino, J.

    1991-01-01

    In applications where the filtration of large quantities of mixed (liquid and solid) aerosols is desired, a multistage filtration system is often employed. This system consists of a prefilter, a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, and any number of specialized filters particular to the filtration application. The prefilter removes liquids and any large particles from the air stream, keeping them from prematurely loading the HEPA filter downstream. The HEPA filter eliminates 99.97% of all particulates in the aerosol. The specialized filters downstream of the HEPA filter can be used to remove organic volatiles or other vapors. While the properties of HEPA filters have been extensively investigated, literature characterizing the prefilter is scarce. The purpose of this report is to characterize the efficiency of the prefilter as a function of particle size, nature of the particle (solid or liquid), and the gas flow rate across the face of the prefilter. 1 ref., 4 figs

  1. Radioimmunoassay kit formulation and its validation for serum progesterone using progesterone radiotracer purified by gel filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, T.; Pal, N.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purification of the radioiodinated progesterone tyrosine methyl ester conjugate by gel filtration and the development, optimization and clinical validation of a direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of progesterone using this radiotracer are described. High purity radiotracer is essential for the error free performance of any RIA. Progesterone 11α hemisuccinate was conjugated to tyrosine methyl ester (TME) by the mixed anhydride method and this conjugate was then radioiodinated by the chloramine-T method. Purification of the radioiodinated product was carried out by gel filtration. About 12 batches of the radiotracer were prepared and purified. The purification by gel filtration gave reproducible elution pattern and purity. The radiotracer thus purified was found to have consistent quality as compared to that of any other purification methods. Non-specific binding of the radiotracer was found to be 95% as checked by paper electrophoresis. The stability (retention of the immunoreactivity) of the radiotracer was two to three months. No appreciable changes in the assay characteristics were observed during this period. The assay involved 3 hours incubation of progesterone antibody with individual standards or sample and radiotracer at room temperature. The optimized assay was then validated for internal and external quality control parameters. A RIA kit was then formulated with this radiotracer for estimation of progesterone in serum. The assay kit consisted of lyophilized individual standards ranging from 0.25 to 50 ng/ml. The clinical performance of the developed kit was compared with that of a commercial ELISA kit and a correlation of 0.94 was observed. (author)

  2. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  3. Limitation of releases and filtration by sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schektman, N.

    1986-01-01

    In the highly hypothetic case of a severe reactor accident, it may lead to an increase of pressure within the containment and up to a value above the calculated pressure. A procedure is necessary in this case to maintain the integrity of the containment to prevent a release of radioactive products to the environment, while controlling in the best way releases. So, EDF and the CEA have developed a device of decompression-filtration of the containment atmosphere, using a free penetration of the containment and a sand box; the device and its operation constitute the U5 procedure [fr

  4. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling

  5. Good Filtrations and the Steinberg Square

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildetoft, Tobias

    that tensoring the Steinberg module with a simple module of restricted highest weight gives a module with a good filtration. This result was first proved by Andersen when the characteristic is large enough. In this dissertation, generalizations of those results, which are joint work with Daniel Nakano......, the socle completely determines how a Steinberg square decomposes. The dissertation also investigates the socle of the Steinberg square for a finite group of Lie type, again providing formulas which describe how to find the multiplicity of a simple module in the socle, given information about...

  6. Adaptation of the Nelson-Somogyi reducing-sugar assay to a microassay using microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F; Clausen, C A; Highley, T L

    1989-11-01

    The Nelson-Somogyi assay for reducing sugars was adapted to microtiter plates. The primary advantages of this modified assay are (i) smaller sample and reagent volumes, (ii) elimination of boiling and filtration steps, (iii) automated measurement with a dual-wavelength scanning TLC densitometer, (iv) increased range and reproducibility, and (v) automated colorimetric readings by reflectance rather than absorbance.

  7. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  8. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  9. Renal filtration function in patients with gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study circadian blood pressure (BP profile in patients with gout depending on the presence of arterial hypertension (HT and their relationship to the renal filtration function.Material and methods. Patients with gout (n=87 were included into the study. All the patients underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM with the assessment of circadian BP profile, determination of uric acid serum levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR was evaluated by CKD-EPI method. Depending on GFR level, all the patients were divided into 2 groups - with renal dysfunction or without one.Results. ABPM revealed circadian BP dysregulation in 55% of gout patients both with HT and without HT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was revealed in 72.4% of male patients, with the prevalence in patients with HT (76.6 vs 61%; p<0.001. Correlations between uric acid levels and some ABPM indicators and GFR were determined.Conclusion. Obtained data suggest the contribution of hyperuricemia in disorders of systemic and renal hemodynamics, leading to the early development of CKD.

  10. EM Task 9 - Centrifugal Membrane Filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, B.G.; Stepan, D.J.; Hetland, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project is designed to establish the utility of a novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology for the remediation of liquid mixed waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in support of the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., a small business and owner of the novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to establish the applicability of the technology to DOE site remediation and the commercial viability of the technology for liquid mixed waste stream remediation. The technology is a uniquely configured process that makes use of ultrafiltration and centrifugal force to separate suspended and dissolved solids from liquid waste streams, producing a filtered water stream and a low-volume contaminated concentrate stream. This technology has the potential for effective and efficient waste volume minimization, the treatment of liquid tank wastes, the remediation of contaminated groundwater plumes, and the treatment of secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, as well as the liquid waste stream generated during decontamination and decommissioning activities

  11. Improved remote HEPA filtration development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E. III.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of the prototype development and hot cell mock-up testing program undertaken to adapt a commercial remote HEPA filter housing for use in the Process Facility Modification Project (PFMP). This program was initiated in response to the project design criteria and documentation that required the air from the hot cell environment to be exhausted through three stages of HEPA filtration. Due to the anticipated quantity of radioactive contamination captured by the first stage of filters, it was determined that the first stage would need to be located in a remotely operated and maintained shielded cell adjoining the primary hot cell areas. Commercially available remote filtration equipment was evaluated and candidate unit was identified, which could be developed into a suitable filter housing. A candidate unit was obtained from Flanders Filters, Inc. and a series of hot cell mock-up tests were identified in the 305 facility at the Hanford site. The results of these tests, and further interaction with the vendor, led to a prototype remote filter housing which satisfied most PFMP criteria and proved to be significantly superior to existing commercial units for remote operation/maintenance

  12. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Riverbed Clogging and Sustainability of Riverbank Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grischek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration (RBF sites in field tests and using an analytical solution. Results were compared with data from similar experiments in the early 1970s and 1991–1993. In the 1980s, severe river water pollution in conjunction with high water abstraction led to partly unsaturated conditions beneath the riverbed. A leakage coefficient L of 5 × 10−7 s−1 was determined. After water quality improvement, L increased to 1–1.5 × 10−6 s−1. An alternative, cost and time efficient method is presented to estimate accurate leakage coefficients. The analytical solution is based on groundwater level monitoring data from observation wells next to the river, which can later feed into numerical models. The analytical approach was able to reflect long-term changes as well as seasonal variations. Recommendations for its application are given based on experience.

  14. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  15. Filtration Systems Design for Universal Oils in Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Majdan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three filtration systems using the tractor hydraulic circuit were proposed and verified during the tractors operation. Using the tractor-implement hydraulic system and filter body with accessories the universally useful filtration systems were designed. The designed filtration systems are the second stage of universal oil filtration whereas the first stage is the standard tractor filter. The decrease in the content of iron reached the values 25.53 %, 32.95 % and 41.55 % and the average decrease in oil contamination characterized by average value of decrease in content of iron, copper and silicium reached values 24.3 %, 24.7 % and 35.53 % in dependence on the filtration system and an oil contamination level. The decrease in contamination level verified the ability of designed filtration systems for agricultural tractors.

  16. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1990-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S. [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  19. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; Laboratory Implementation and Current Global Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Jones, Graham R D

    2018-01-01

    In 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines for identifying and treating CKD recommended that clinical laboratories report estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with every creatinine result to assist clinical practitioners to identify people with early-stage CKD. At that time, the original Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation based on serum creatinine measurements was recommended for calculating eGFR. Because the MDRD Study equation was developed using a nonstandardized creatinine method, a Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education program was formed and implemented standardized calibration traceability for all creatinine methods from global manufacturers by approximately 2010. A modified MDRD Study equation for use with standardized creatinine was developed. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration developed a new equation in 2009 that was more accurate than the MDRD Study equation at values above 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . As of 2017, reporting eGFR with creatinine is almost universal in many countries. A reference system for cystatin C became available in 2010, and manufacturers are in the process to standardize cystatin C assays. Equations for eGFR based on standardized cystatin C alone and with creatinine are now available from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration and other groups. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering

    OpenAIRE

    Nurra, C.; Clavero, E.; Salvadó, J.; Torras, C.

    2014-01-01

    10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.115 The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean ...

  1. Filtration in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundquist, Arthur; Clarke, Steven; Bettin, William

    2006-01-01

    .... Understanding the ability of filtration to reduce disease-causing microorganisms in water is important in protecting Soldiers, who are considering using this technology, from acute health threats...

  2. Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexas, A.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1979-01-01

    Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time. Efficiencies on the order of 99.98 and 98.8% were reached for loading capacities of 500 and 1000 g/m 2 , respectively. Unlimited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols can be filtered by wet scrubbers with an efficiency of 70% per scrubber stage. Fiberglas filters connot be used for the filtration of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time because the filter material can be destroyed after several days of operating

  3. Experiments on high efficiency aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Cuccuru, A.; Kunz, P.

    1977-01-01

    Research on high efficiency aerosol filtration by the Nuclear Engineering Institute of Pisa University and by CAMEN in collaboration with CNEN is outlined. HEPA filter efficiency was studied as a function of the type and size of the test aerosol, and as a function of flowrate (+-50% of the nominal value), air temperature (up to 70 0 C), relative humidity (up to 100%), and durability in a corrosive atmosphere (up to 140 hours in NaCl mist). In the selected experimental conditions these influences were appreciable but are not sufficient to be significant in industrial HEPA filter applications. Planned future research is outlined: measurement of the efficiency of two HEPA filters in series using a fixed particle size; dependence of the efficiency on air, temperatures up to 300-500 0 C; performance when subject to smoke from burning organic materials (natural rubber, neoprene, miscellaneous plastics). Such studies are relevant to possible accidental fires in a plutonium laboratory

  4. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejaoui, Imen; Mnif, Amine; Hamrouni, Bechir

    2009-01-01

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L -1 to 1,2 mg.L -1 . Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na 2 SO 4 ) > TR(CaCl 2 ) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parametersσand P s respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with

  5. Polyaluminium chloride as an alternative to alum for the direct filtration of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Idit; Friedler, Eran; Rebhun, Menahem

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of various polyaluminium chloride coagulants (PACls) was compared to the efficiency of aluminium sulfate (alum) in the coagulation-flocculation process preceding direct filtration in drinking water treatment. The comparative study consisted of two separate yet complementary series of experiments: the first series included short (5-7 h) and long (24 h) filter runs conducted at a pilot filtration plant equipped with large filter columns that simulated full-scale filters. Partially treated surface water from the Sea of Galilee, characterized by very low turbidity (-1 NTU), was used. In the second series of experiments, speciation of aluminium in situ was investigated using the ferron assay method. Results from the pilot-scale study indicate that most PACls were as or more efficient a coagulant as alum for direct filtration of surface water without requiring acid addition for pH adjustment and subsequent base addition for re-stabilizing the water. Consequently, cost analysis of the chemicals needed for the process showed that treatment with PACl would be significantly less costly than treatment with alum. The aluminium speciation experiments revealed that the performance of the coagulant is more influenced by the species present during the coagulation process than those present in the original reagents.

  6. Radioimmunological determination of parathormone peptides in the plasma before and after gel filtration in hyperparathyroidic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengst, U.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmas from different patients suffering from secondary renal hyperparathyroidism and from one patient suffering from primary hyperparathyroidism owing to a parathyroid adenoma, were studied and parathormone concentrations (total IPTH) were determined radio-immunologically. Plasmas were gel-filtered subsequently. Gelfiltration allows to separate intact PTH from PTH fragments which also occur in the plasma. These fragments also react with the antisera used in the PTH-radio-immuno-assay; thus it was possible to determine only the concentration of intact PTH after gel filtration. In patients in whose unfiltered plasma strongly increased PTH values had been measured (more than 100 pmol hPTH/l plasma), only 10 to 40% of total immunoreactivity were taken up by intact parathormone after gel filtration. Histological findings of iliac crest biopsies revealed marked changes corresponding to the increased concentration of biologically active hormone. Whereas unfiltered plasma revealed slightly increased PTH measurement values (below 100 pmol hPTH/l), 60 to 75% of total immuno reactivity was taken up by the intact hormone after gel filtration. Correspondingly, histological changes of the skeleton were less marked. Apparently, there is a correlation - though not a linear one - between total IPTH and the absolute concentration of intact PTH. If increased PTH values are measured with antiserum S478, it may be assumed in general that the concentration of intact and biologically active PTH has increased as well. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  8. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  9. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...

  10. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly

  11. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  12. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  13. Rotating Ceramic Water Filter Discs System for Water Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to design, construct and operate a new laboratory scale water filtration system. This system was used to examine the efficiency of two ceramic filter discs as a medium for water filtration. These filters were made from two different ceramic mixtures of local red clay, sawdust, and water. The filtration system was designed with two rotating interfered modules of these filters. Rotating these modules generates shear force between water and the surfaces of filter discs of the filtration modules that works to reduce thickness of layer of rejected materials on the filters surfaces. Each module consists of seven filtration units and each unit consists of two ceramic filter discs. The average measured hydraulic conductivity of the first module was 13.7mm/day and that for the second module was 50mm/day. Results showed that the water filtration system can be operated continuously with a constant flow rate and the filtration process was controlled by a skin thin layer of rejected materials. The ceramic water filters of both filtration modules have high removal efficiency of total suspended solids up to 100% and of turbidity up to 99.94%.

  14. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  15. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Filtration behaviors of rod-shaped bacterial broths in unsteady-state phase of cross-flow filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Usui, K.; Koda, K.; Nakanishi, K. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-20

    Filtration behaviors in the unsteady-state phase of crossflow filtration of broths of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, which are rod-shaped, were studied from the viewpoint of the changes in the specific resistance and in the structure of the microbial cake formed on the membrane surface. The permeation flux followed the cake filtration law at the initial stage of the crossflow filtration of the broths of B. subtilis and E. coli, where the cells deposited randomly on the membrane. In the case of the crossflow filtration of a L. delbrueckii broth, the period of random deposition was shorter. The specific resistance for the cake formed at the initial stage agreed with that measured in dead-end filtration. Then, the specific resistance started to increase in comparison with that measured in dead-end filtration due to shear-induced arrangement of the cells. The extent of the increase in specific resistance became higher and the time taken to start the cell arrangement became shorter with increasing circulation flow rate. The increase in specific resistance due to the shear-induced arrangement was more appreciable in the crossflow filtration of the broth of L. delbrueckii than that of B. subtilis and E. coli. The average permeation flux was increased considerably by applying periodical backwashing with appropriate time intervals. The permeation flux was well predicted by the cake filtration law, since the cells deposited in a way similar to that for dead-end filtration during a sufficiently short period of crossflow filtration in a backwashing mode. 21 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Inhibition of Fusarium solani Infection in Murine Keratocytes by Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 Culture Filtrate In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhang; Chen, Fang; Kan, Tong; Zhuang, Hua; Zhang, Jingjin; Han, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    To explore the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 (L. salivarius JCM1231) culture filtrate against Fusarium solani (F. solani) and its effects on murine keratocytes (MKs) infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 was cultured in an anaerobic incubator for 24 h, and the L. salivarius culture filtrate (LSCF) was prepared .The antifungal activity of L. salivarius JCM1231 against F. solani was determined with a plate overlay assay, agar diffusion assay, and conidial germination inhibition test. The effects of temperature, pH, and proteolytic enzymes on the antifungal activity of LSCF were detected with microtiter plate-well assay and conidial germination inhibition assay. Furthermore, the effects of LSCF on MKs infected with F. solani were detected. Cell activity and apoptosis were measured using methylthiazoletetrazolium assays and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokines were measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and mycotoxin production was detected with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Conidial germination and mycelia growth of F. solani were significantly inhibited by LSCF. The antifungal substances produced by L. salivarius JCM1231 were heat unstable, proteinaceous, and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were active within a narrow acidic pH range between 2.0 and 4.0. In the presence of 15 µg/ml of LSCF, cell activity was significantly increased, and cell apoptosis, the level of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions, and mycotoxin (zearalenone and fumonisin B1) productions were decreased significantly in MKs infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 culture filtrate can effectively inhibit F. solani growth and protect MKs against F. solani infection.

  18. Industrial Application of Open Pore Ceramic Foam for Molten Metal Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauckler, L. J.; Waeber, M. M.; Conti, C.; Jacob-Dulière, M.

    Ceramic foam filters were used for industrial filtration of aluminum. Results are compared with laboratory experiments which are in good agreement with trajectory analyses of deep bed filtration for the early stage of filtration.

  19. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Garasto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at reviewing age-related changes in kidney structure and function, methods for estimating kidney function, and impact of reduced kidney function on geriatric outcomes, as well as the reliability and applicability of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in older patients. CKD is associated with different comorbidities and adverse outcomes such as disability and premature death in older populations. Creatinine clearance and other methods for estimating kidney function are not easy to apply in older subjects. Thus, an accurate and reliable method for calculating eGFR would be highly desirable for early detection and management of CKD in this vulnerable population. Equations based on serum creatinine, age, race, and gender have been widely used. However, these equations have their own limitations, and no equation seems better than the other ones in older people. New equations specifically developed for use in older populations, especially those based on serum cystatin C, hold promises. However, further studies are needed to definitely accept them as the reference method to estimate kidney function in older patients in the clinical setting.

  20. Filtration characteristics of porous silicon carbide media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Gil; Seo, Yong Chil; Yim, Sung Paal; Kim, Joon Hyung

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of a filter such as clean filter pressure drop, filtering performance and filter drag variation with dust loading have been studied with fabricated SiC filter specimens in the laboratory and commercial ceramic filters. Several theoretical equations have been modified and applied to investigate such characteristics. To estimate the pressure drop of clean gas flow through a cylindrical porous filter, Forchheimer equation, which contains the terms of permeability and turbulent factor at a high velocity of gas, has been modified and tested with experimental data. The filtering efficiency was found to be above 99.9% and the penetration of dust decreased exponentially with dust loading. The pressure drop during filtration was measured and showed to increase exponentially with dust loading in the beginning because particles were intercepted and a cake layer was formed by structural properties of a filter. And then it increased in proportion as the cake layer thickened. The effect of dust deposition on the pressure drop could be explained theoretically using several characteristic parameters relevant to dust size, structure of filters and cake layer formation

  1. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2016-12-30

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  2. Macular thickness after glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesar, Antonio; Cavar, Ivan; Sesar, Anita Pusić; Geber, Mia Zorić; Sesar, Irena; Laus, Katia Novak; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mandić, Zdravko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was to analyze early postoperative changes in the macular area using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after uncomplicated glaucoma filtration surgery. This prospective study included 32 patients (34 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, which underwent trabeculectomy with or without use of mitomycin C. Exclusion criteria were macular edema, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, blurred optical media, secondary glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. All standard clinical examinations were made before surgery, at the 2nd day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Tomography of the macula was performed during every examination using Cirrus HD OCT for the analysis of central subfield thickness. Results show that thickening of the macula was slightly higher 1 week and 1 month after operation in comparison with baseline end 2nd day postoperativelly. There was no significant difference in the change of macular thickness in patients who have used topical prostaglandins compared with those who have used other topical medications. Also, there was no difference in macular changes between patients treated with or without mitomycin C. In conclusion, we found a slight subclinical increase in macular thickness after uncomplicated trabeculectomy, for which we considered that was the result in reduction of intraocular pressure after glaucoma surgery. Macular thickening after glaucoma filtering surgery could be a physiological reaction to the stress of the retina caused by a sudden reduction of intraocular pressure and it is the consequence of altered relationship between capillary pressure and interstitial fluid pressure.

  3. CRNL research reactor retrofit Emergency Filtration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of NRX and NRU research reactor effluent air treatment systems before describing the selection and design of an appropriate retrofit Emergency Filtration System (EFS) to serve these reactors and the future MX-10 isotope production reactor. The conceptual design of the EFS began in 1984. A standby concrete shielding filter-adsorber system, sized to serve the reactor with the largest exhaust flow, was selected. The standby system, bypassed under normal operating conditions, is equipped with normal exhaust stream shutoff and diversion valves to be activated manually when an emergency is anticipated, or automatically when emergency levels of gamma radiation are detected in the exhaust stream. The first phase of the EFS installation, that is the construction of the EFS and the connection of NRU to the system, was completed in 1987. The second phase of construction, which includes the connection of NRX and provisions for the future connection of MX-10, is to be completed in 1990

  4. Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P; Stocker, Roman

    2010-08-24

    Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d approximately 0.1 microm) at low velocity (U = 1.6 +/- 0.6 cmxs(-1), mean +/- SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re approximately 10(-3)) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-microm diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 microm (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-microm range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 microm) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean.

  5. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan; Falca, Gheorghe; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Boi, Cristiana; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  6. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  7. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P)-Related Response of Human Conjunctival Fibroblasts After Filtration Surgery for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama-Araki, Yuka; Honjo, Megumi; Uchida, Takatoshi; Yamagishi, Reiko; Kano, Kuniyuki; Aoki, Junken; Aihara, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    To investigate levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in aqueous fluid samples taken before and after filtration surgery and S1P-induced human conjunctival fibroblast (HCF) responses. Levels of S1P and its related sphingophospholipids in aqueous fluid obtained immediately before and after filtration surgery were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. HCFs were used for all in vitro experiments. The expression of five S1P receptor subtypes in HCFs was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of S1P and receptor-specific antagonists on HCF viability and cell migration was assessed by WST-1 assay and scratch migration assay, respectively. Differentiation to myofibroblasts and extracellular matrix production was evaluated by examining changes in F-actin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and collagen expression with immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, and collagen accumulation assay, respectively. No significant S1P levels in the aqueous fluid samples were detectable immediately before surgery, but postoperative levels of several lysophospholipids, including S1P, dehydro-S1P, and sphingosine, were significantly increased to bioactive concentrations in aqueous fluid in the blebs (P S1P receptor subtypes was detected in HCFs. Although S1P levels did not influence HCF proliferation, S1P enhanced cell migration, which could be inhibited by the S1P2 antagonist JTE 013. F-actin, αSMA, and collagen expression was significantly increased by S1P stimulation and was reduced by JTE 013. Bioactive S1P concentrations were present in the aqueous fluid at the end of filtration surgery. S1P activated HCFs via S1P2 receptors. These results revealed the potential of S1P2 antagonists in preventing scarring after glaucoma filtration surgery.

  8. Additive Difference Schemes for Filtration Problems in Multilayer Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ayrjan, E A; Pavlush, M; Fedorov, A V

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper difference schemes for solution of the plane filtration problem in multilayer systems are analyzed within the framework of difference schemes general theory. Attention is paid to splitting the schemes on physical processes of filtration along water-carring layers and vertical motion between layers. Some absolutely stable additive difference schemes are obtained the realization of which needs no software modification. Parallel algorithm connected with the solving of the filtration problem in every water-carring layer on a single processor is constructed. Program realization on the multi-processor system SPP2000 at JINR is discussed.

  9. Method for semi-automated microscopy of filtration-enriched circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Emma; Oulhen, Marianne; Billiot, Fanny; Galland, Alexandre; Auger, Nathalie; Faugeroux, Vincent; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Besse, Benjamin; Loriot, Yohann; Ngo-Camus, Maud; Hemanda, Merouan; Lindsay, Colin R; Soria, Jean-Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2016-07-14

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC)-filtration methods capture high numbers of CTCs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) patients, and hold promise as a non-invasive technique for treatment selection and disease monitoring. However filters have drawbacks that make the automation of microscopy challenging. We report the semi-automated microscopy method we developed to analyze filtration-enriched CTCs from NSCLC and mPCa patients. Spiked cell lines in normal blood and CTCs were enriched by ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells). Fluorescent staining was carried out using epithelial (pan-cytokeratins, EpCAM), mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin), leukocyte (CD45) markers and DAPI. Cytomorphological staining was carried out with Mayer-Hemalun or Diff-Quik. ALK-, ROS1-, ERG-rearrangement were detected by filter-adapted-FISH (FA-FISH). Microscopy was carried out using an Ariol scanner. Two combined assays were developed. The first assay sequentially combined four-color fluorescent staining, scanning, automated selection of CD45(-) cells, cytomorphological staining, then scanning and analysis of CD45(-) cell phenotypical and cytomorphological characteristics. CD45(-) cell selection was based on DAPI and CD45 intensity, and a nuclear area >55 μm(2). The second assay sequentially combined fluorescent staining, automated selection of CD45(-) cells, FISH scanning on CD45(-) cells, then analysis of CD45(-) cell FISH signals. Specific scanning parameters were developed to deal with the uneven surface of filters and CTC characteristics. Thirty z-stacks spaced 0.6 μm apart were defined as the optimal setting, scanning 82 %, 91 %, and 95 % of CTCs in ALK-, ROS1-, and ERG-rearranged patients respectively. A multi-exposure protocol consisting of three separate exposure times for green and red fluorochromes was optimized to analyze the intensity, size and thickness of FISH signals. The semi-automated microscopy method reported here

  10. Method for semi-automated microscopy of filtration-enriched circulating tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailler, Emma; Oulhen, Marianne; Billiot, Fanny; Galland, Alexandre; Auger, Nathalie; Faugeroux, Vincent; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Besse, Benjamin; Loriot, Yohann; Ngo-Camus, Maud; Hemanda, Merouan; Lindsay, Colin R.; Soria, Jean-Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC)-filtration methods capture high numbers of CTCs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) patients, and hold promise as a non-invasive technique for treatment selection and disease monitoring. However filters have drawbacks that make the automation of microscopy challenging. We report the semi-automated microscopy method we developed to analyze filtration-enriched CTCs from NSCLC and mPCa patients. Spiked cell lines in normal blood and CTCs were enriched by ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells). Fluorescent staining was carried out using epithelial (pan-cytokeratins, EpCAM), mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin), leukocyte (CD45) markers and DAPI. Cytomorphological staining was carried out with Mayer-Hemalun or Diff-Quik. ALK-, ROS1-, ERG-rearrangement were detected by filter-adapted-FISH (FA-FISH). Microscopy was carried out using an Ariol scanner. Two combined assays were developed. The first assay sequentially combined four-color fluorescent staining, scanning, automated selection of CD45 − cells, cytomorphological staining, then scanning and analysis of CD45 − cell phenotypical and cytomorphological characteristics. CD45 − cell selection was based on DAPI and CD45 intensity, and a nuclear area >55 μm 2 . The second assay sequentially combined fluorescent staining, automated selection of CD45 − cells, FISH scanning on CD45 − cells, then analysis of CD45 − cell FISH signals. Specific scanning parameters were developed to deal with the uneven surface of filters and CTC characteristics. Thirty z-stacks spaced 0.6 μm apart were defined as the optimal setting, scanning 82 %, 91 %, and 95 % of CTCs in ALK-, ROS1-, and ERG-rearranged patients respectively. A multi-exposure protocol consisting of three separate exposure times for green and red fluorochromes was optimized to analyze the intensity, size and thickness of FISH signals. The semi-automated microscopy method reported here

  11. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  12. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  13. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Membrane filtration technologies have emerged as cost competitive and viable techniques in drinking and industrial water production. Despite advancements in membrane manufacturing and technology, membrane scaling and fouling remain major problems and may limit future growth in the industry. Scaling

  14. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-17

    Nov 17, 2009 ... for water filtration applications, but that further improvements are necessary before these membranes can be ... power supply, and a grounded collector. .... nanofibres so that the pore size increases and bacteria leak through ...

  15. Thermo-resistant filtration fabrics for hot gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbowska, T.

    1992-01-01

    Types and technical and utilizing data of heat resistant filtrating fabrics initiated to production by 'Moratex' and provided for dust extraction of technical gas from various industrial processes have been discussed. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  17. Development of filtration equipment to reuse PFC decontamination wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluorocarbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination

  18. Development of electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuit of the steam generators in nuclear power plants is efficient towards insoluble corrosion products. The principle of electromagnetic filtration is shortly recalled and the results of corresponding development work are summarized. The magnitude of water volumes to be treated on the two priviledged parts of the circuit are estimated. These parts are on the feed water tank level and on the blow-down of the steam generator. The practical applications are discussed [fr

  19. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  20. [Why? How? What for? We must measure the glomerular filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Becerra, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of the glomerular filtration shows the degree of the functional qualities and the proficiency of the renal system. Despite new technologies, at present the best accepted technique for measuring the glomerular filtration in most countries is the clearance of creatinine in 24 hour urine. The clearance of creatinine has the advantage that it is confident, easy to reproduce, without technical limitations and low cost.

  1. Hanford underground storage tank waste filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. Two Hanford waste processing applications have been identified as candidates for the use of cross-flow filtration. The first of the Hanford applications involves filtration of the decanted supernate from sludge leaching and washing operations. This process involves the concentration and removal of dilute (0.05 wt percent) fines from the bulk of the supernate. The second application involves filtration to wash and concentrate the sludge during out-of-tank processing. This process employs a relatively concentrated (8 wt percent) solids feed stream. Filter studies were conducted with simulants to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters and 0.1 micron cross-flow Graver filters can perform solid-liquid separation of the solid/liquid waste streams effectively. In cross-flow filtration the fluid to be filtered flows in parallel to the membrane surface and generates shearing forces and/or turbulence across the filter medium. This shearing influences formation of filter cake stabilizing the filtrate flow rate

  2. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  3. Prediction of the filtrate particle size distribution from the pore size distribution in membrane filtration: Numerical correlations from computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo-Hernández, Norma Alejandra; Hernández-Guerrero, Maribel; Nápoles-Duarte, José Manuel; Palomares-Báez, Juan Pedro; Chávez-Rojo, Marco Antonio

    2018-03-01

    We present a computational model that describes the diffusion of a hard spheres colloidal fluid through a membrane. The membrane matrix is modeled as a series of flat parallel planes with circular pores of different sizes and random spatial distribution. This model was employed to determine how the size distribution of the colloidal filtrate depends on the size distributions of both, the particles in the feed and the pores of the membrane, as well as to describe the filtration kinetics. A Brownian dynamics simulation study considering normal distributions was developed in order to determine empirical correlations between the parameters that characterize these distributions. The model can also be extended to other distributions such as log-normal. This study could, therefore, facilitate the selection of membranes for industrial or scientific filtration processes once the size distribution of the feed is known and the expected characteristics in the filtrate have been defined.

  4. Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h -1 and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (- 70% for attached radon decay products and - 80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h -1 with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+ 300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+ 17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the

  5. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  6. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with [ 3 H]-labeled flunitrazepam at 37 0 C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37 0 C until just prior to filtration

  7. Self Cleaning HEPA Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylde, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research (Bergman et al 1997, Moore et al 1992) suggests that the then costs to the DOE, based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5,000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15,000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  8. CALCULATION OF LONG-TERM FILTRATION IN A POROUS MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila I. Kuzmina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available he filtration problem in a porous medium is an important part of underground hydromechanics. Filtration of suspensions and colloids determines the processes of strengthening the soil and creating waterproof walls in the ground while building the foundations of buildings and underground structures. It is assumed that the formation of a deposit is dominated by the size-exclusion mechanism of pore blocking: solid particles pass freely through large pores and get stuck at the inlet of pores smaller than the diameter of the particles. A one-dimensional mathematical model for the filtration of a monodisperse suspension includes the equation for the mass balance of suspended and retained particles and the kinetic equation for the growth of the deposit. For the blocking filtration coefficient with a double root, the exact solution is given implicitly. The asymptotics of the filtration problem is constructed for large time. The numerical calculation of the problem is carried out by the finite differences method. It is shown that asymptotic approximations rapidly converge to a solution with the increase of the expansion order.

  9. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  10. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  11. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  12. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  13. Automatic Reporting of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children: Is this Feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lunn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine, although widely used as a biomarker to measure renal function, has long been known as an insensitive marker of renal impairment. Patients with reduced renal function can have a creatinine level within the normal range, with a rapid rise when renal function is significantly reduced. As of 1976, the correlation between height, the reciprocal of creatinine, and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR in children has been described. It has been used to derive a simple formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR that could be used at the bedside as a more sensitive method of identifying children with renal impairment. Formulae based on this association, with modifications over time as creatinine assay methods have changed, are still widely used clinically at the bedside and in research studies to assess the degree of renal impairment in children. Adult practice has moved in many countries to computer-generated results that report eGFR alongside creatinine results using more complex, but potentially more accurate estimates of GFR, which are independent of height. This permits early identification of patients with chronic kidney disease. This review assesses the feasibility of automated reporting of eGFR and the advantages and disadvantages of this in children.

  14. Physical Characterization of Mouse Deep Vein Thrombosis Derived Microparticles by Differential Filtration with Nanopore Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Peramo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of making advancements in the area of pro-thrombotic microparticle characterization in cardiovascular biology, we present a novel method to separate blood circulating microparticles using a membrane-based, nanopore filtration system. In this qualitative study, electron microscopy observations of these pro-thrombotic mouse microparticles, as well as mouse platelets and leukocytes obtained using a mouse inferior vena cava ligation model of deep-vein thrombosis are presented. In particular, we present mouse microparticle morphology and microstructure using SEM and TEM indicating that they appear to be mostly spherical with diameters in the 100 to 350 nm range. The nanopore filtration technique presented is focused on the development of novel methodologies to isolate and characterize blood circulating microparticles that can be used in conjunction with other methodologies. We believe that determination of microparticle size and structure is a critical step for the development of reliable assays with clinical or research application in thrombosis and it will contribute to the field of nanomedicine in thrombosis.

  15. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  16. Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It

  17. The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

    2003-07-01

    The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

  18. C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system's ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF

  19. Landfill Leachate Treatment by Electrocoagulation and Fiber Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runwei; Wang, Boya; Owete, Owete; Dertien, Joe; Lin, Chen; Ahmad, Hafiz; Chen, Gang

    2017-11-01

      Landfilling is widely adopted as one of the most economical processes for solid waste disposal. At the same time, landfill leachate is also a great environmental concern owing to its complex composition and high concentrations of contaminants. This research investigated electrocoagulation and fiber filtration for the treatment of landfill leachate. Besides electrical current (i.e., current density) and reaction time, pH played a very important role in arsenic and phosphorus removal by electrocoagulation. The combination of electrocoagulation with fiber filtration achieved a 94% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 87% arsenic, 96% iron, and 86% phosphorus removal. During electrocoagulation, the micro-particles that could not be settled by gravity were removed by the first stage of fiber filtration. Organic contaminants in the leachate were further removed by biodegradation in the second stage of fiber biofiltration.

  20. Efektifitas Riverbank Filtration Trhadap Parameter Fisik (TDS di Sungai Cihideung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roh Santoso Budi Waspodo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a natural resource that is necessary for the livelihood of many people, even by all living things. Data Ministry of Public Works in 2006 mentions the availability of water in Indonesia amounted to 15,500 cubic meters per capita per year, far higher than the global availability averaged only 600 m3. If drawn, the amount of water covers 21% of Indonesia Pacific Ocean. However, the overflow Indonesia does not necessarily solve the problem of water crisis which is also predicted to fall on two major islands in 2015. The general objective of this research is to develop and implement technological innovations RBF (Riverbank Filtration to support the needs of irrigation water Watershed Cisadane, making RBF (Riverbank Filtration as a natural water treatment in Cisadane River area, and water quality data information through RBF (Riverbank Filtration Cisadane Watershed.

  1. C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

    1994-08-26

    The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system`s ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF.

  2. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...... is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration...

  3. Fusion Kalman filtration with k-step delay sharing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Zdzisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A fusion hierarchical state filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern for a multisensor system is considered. A global state estimate depends on local state estimates determined by local nodes using local information. Local available information consists of local measurements and k−step delay global information - global estimate sent from a central node. Local estimates are transmitted to the central node to be fused. The synthesis of local and global filters is presented. It is shown that a fusion filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern is equivalent to the optimal centralized classical Kalman filtration when local measurements are transmitted to the center node and used to determine a global state estimate. It is proved that the k−step delay sharing pattern can reduce covariances of local state errors.

  4. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  5. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Graphite beds for coolant filtration at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heathcock, R.E.; Lacy, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature filtration will be provided for new Ontario Hydro CANDU heat transport systems. Filtration has been shown to effectively reduce the concentration of circulating corrosion products in our heat transport systems, hence, minimizing the processes of activity transport. This paper will present one option we have for this application; Deep Bed Granular Graphite Filters. The filter system is described by discussing pertinent aspects of its development programme. The compatibility of the filter and the heat transport coolant are demonstrated by results from loop tests, both out- and in-reactor, and by subsequent results from a large filter installation in the NPD NGS heat transport system. (author)

  9. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  10. Clinical dehydration and glomerular filtration rate in acute paediatric gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Fossali, Emilio F; Perri, Alessandra; Vettori, Arianna; Grillo, Paolo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate changes in glomerular filtration rate in acute gastroenteritis. The correlation between two clinical diagnostic scales and glomerular filtration rate has been investigated in 113 children with acute gastroenteritis in a paediatric emergency setting. A significant reduction of GFR was found in 10% children less than, and 5% children higher than, 2 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. The differences observed as for risk of renal hypoperfusion suggests to consider the age of children as an important determinant to consider the dehydration status in acute gastroenteritis. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Simulation of impaction filtration of aerosol droplets in porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, Steffen; Winkelmann, Christoph; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a method to simulate from first principles the particle filtration efficiency of filters that are composed of structured porous media. We assume that the ratio of particle density to the fluid density is high. We concentrate on the motion of the particles in a laminar flow and quantify the role of inertial effects on the filtration of an ensemble of particles. We adopt the Euler-Lagrange approach, distinguishing a flow field in which the motion of a large numbe...

  12. Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides by seeded magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Norrell, G.; Hemmings, R.L.; Bradbury, D.; Dunn, M.J.; Kalinauskas, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of traces of heavy metal or radionuclide contamination from solution at high flow rate presents a considerable technical challenge. Low flow methods of treatment such as particle gravity settling require expensive large volume equipment, whereas traditional methods of filtration can cause significant energy costs. Magnetic filtration can be used to provide a low cost method of solid-liquid separation at high flow rate, provided contaminants can be selectively bound to a magnetic solid particle. This paper describes the use of such selective magnetic particles made up of inorganic particles coupled with organic polymers

  13. Horizontal-belt filtration at Randfontein Estates Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendulf, K.A.G.; Everett, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes tests on horizontal-belt filters for the filtration of gold and uranium. The promising results led to the installation of 17 such filters (ten of them 120 m 2 in size) in the mine's metallurgical plants, and their operation is discussed. Although several problems were encountered both in operation and maintenance, it is concluded that, with correct operation and suitable filter cloths, exceptionally good metallurgical recoveries can be achieved at filtration rates twice to three times higher than those on rotary filters [af

  14. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  15. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  16. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  17. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  18. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing

  19. Iron behavior in the ozonation and filtration of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallanko, J.; Lakso, E.; Ropelinen, J. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    In Finnish groundwater, the main substances that require treatment are iron and manganese. In addition to this, groundwaters are soft and acidic. Iron removal is usually relatively effective by oxidizing dissolved iron into an insoluble form, either by aeration or chemical oxidation and removing the formed precipitate by sand filtration. Sometimes, if the untreated water contains high amounts of organic matter, problems may arise for iron removal. In Finland, it is quite common that groundwater contains high levels of both iron and natural organic matter, mainly as humic substances. The groundwater of the Kukkala intake plant in Liminka has been found to be problematic, due to its high level of natural organic matter. This research studied the removal of iron from this water by means of oxidation with ozone and filtration. While the oxidation of iron by ozone was rapid, the precipitate particles formed were small, and thus could not be removed by sand and anthracite filtration, and the iron residue in the treated water was more than 2 mg L{sup -1}. And while the filtration was able to remove iron well without the feed of ozone, the iron residue in the treated water was only 0.30 mg L{sup -1}. In this case, iron was led to the filter in a bivalent dissolved form. So, the result of iron removal was the best when the sand/anthracite filter functioned largely as an adsorption filter.

  20. The impact of metallic filter media on HEPA filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris; Kaufman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Traditional HEPA filter systems have limitations that often prevent them from solving many of the filtration problems in the nuclear industry; particularly in applications where long service or storage life, high levels of radioactivity, dangerous decomposition products, chemical aggression, organic solvents, elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance and resistance to moisture are issues. This paper addresses several of these matters of concern by considering the use of metallic filter media to solve HEPA filtration problems ranging from the long term storage of transuranic waste at the WIPP site, spent and damaged fuel assemblies, in glove box ventilation and tank venting to the venting of fumes at elevated temperatures from incinerators, vitrification processes and conversion and sintering furnaces as well as downstream of iodine absorbers in gas cooled reactors in the UK. The paper reviews the basic technology, development, performance characteristics and filtration efficiency, flow versus differential pressure, cleanability and costs of sintered metal fiber in comparison with traditional resin bonded glass fiber filter media and sintered metal powder filter media. Examples of typical filter element and system configurations and applications will be presented The paper will also address the economic case for installing self cleaning pre-filtration, using metallic media, to recover the small volumes of dust that would otherwise blind large volumes of final disposable HEPA filters, thus presenting a route to reduce ultimate disposal volumes and secondary waste streams. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of condensate filtration technologies in fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, Philip J. [JoDan Technologies Ltd., Glen Mills, PA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Long-term protection of electric power generating station boilers depends upon the quality of their feedwater chemistry with respect to the transport and deposition of corrosion products to the boilers from various corrosion sources in the plant's condensate and feedwater cycle. It is in the utility's best interests to expand their programs to include ways to reduce the transport of corrosion products, especially those that occur during plant start-ups. Condensate filtration is a strategy employed by some utilities with demonstrable results in minimizing corrosion product transport and achieving a return on their investment. This paper provides a comparative review of available condensate filtration technologies as well as performance data from fossil plants with the new large diameter high flow filtration systems. Additionally, the paper identifies critical parameters to consider before installation as well as the necessity for agreement between utilities and suppliers on common filtration terminology definitions, to insure an ''apple-to-apple'' basis when comparing a system or technology from more than one supplier. (orig.)

  2. Successful Treatment Of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using Cascade Filtration Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kardas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C apheresis procedure using the cascade filtration system for pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and to clarify the adverse effects and difficulties. METHODS: LDL apheresis using the cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patients with homozygous FH. In total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed for all patients. RESULTS: Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dl to 145 ± 43 mg/dl (p<0.05. We determined an acute mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (57.9%, LDL cholesterol (70.8%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (40.7%. Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinical adverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%, chills/feeling cold (1.7% in 2 sessions, and nausea and vomiting in 3 sessions (2.5%. CONCLUSION: Our experience with three patients using the cascade filtration system were, good clinical outcomes, laboratory findings, safety of usage, minor adverse effects and technical problems.

  3. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sulfites help limit growth of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, SO2 has been reported to decrease cell size, thereby potentially decreasing the porosities of filtration membranes required for removal. B. bruxellensis strains B1b and F3 were inoculated into red wines and after 12 days, half th...

  4. Polymer aids for settling and filtration of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Section; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Oil sand tailings are segregated into coarse and fine tailings. High volumes of toxic fluids and tailings are created in the process. Tailings ponds are an environmental risk with high operating and maintenance costs. Current commercial technologies uses chemical additions to create recycled water and composite tailings (CT). Researchers are now investigating centrifuged and dry mature fine tailings (MFT). Filtration processes with flocculants are used to separate the tailings into warm recycle water and dried cakes that can be used in reclamation processes. Studies are being conducted to find a polymer than can effectively flocculate and filter whole oil sands tailings. The filtration procedure uses pressure to produce released water. Polymers include magnafloc and Al-PAM polymer concentrations are used in slurry masses. Tests have been conducted to determine the settling rates of the polymers. The tests showed that Al-PAM filtered the tailings effectively. Paraffinic froth treatment tests have also been conducted to determine settling rates. A cake produced with froth treatment tailings of Al-PAM 400 ppm had a water content 42.5 wt per cent. The tests showed that while Magnafloc 1011 is a good settling aid, but a poor filtration addition. Al-PAM aided in both the flocculation and filtration processes. Higher Al-PAM dosages are needed for froth treatment tailings processes. It was concluded that dry cakes are produced with the addition of Al-PAM. tabs., figs.

  5. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  6. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nanofibre microfiltration membranes, spun by an innovative electrospinning technique, in water filtration applications. As such, this study bridges the gap between developments in electrospinning techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of ...

  7. Cross-flow micro-filtration using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thern, Gerardo G.; Marajofsky, Adolfo; Rossi, Federico; La Gamma, Ana M.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D 2 O/H 2 O), activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pre-treated in a train consisting on an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing anionic bed resin. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some of them pass through and could be responsible for the resins fouling. The process of micro filtration using ceramic materials is particularly applied to the treatment of waters with oil micro droplets. We describe the development stages of single and double layer filtration ceramic tubes, their characterization and the adaptation to test equipment. The efficiency was evaluated by means of tangential ('cross-flow') filtration of aqueous solutions containing dodecane at the micrograms per ml concentration level. This compound simulates the properties of a typical oil contaminant. A 100-fold reduction in the amount of dodecane in water was observed after the filtration treatment. (author)

  8. Reduced glomerular filtration rate as a predictor of coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    2016-07-09

    Jul 9, 2016 ... Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit, Zagazig University ... glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and risk of coronary artery disease ... ing of eGFR may have a pivotal role in early detection and management of CAD in those types of ..... position statement from kidney disease improving global out-.

  9. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Ceramic Foam Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laé, E.; Duval, H.; Rivière, C.; Le Brun, P.; Guillot, J.-B.

    Ceramic foam filtration is widely used to enable removal of non metallic inclusions from liquid aluminium. Its performances have been largely studied in the literature and some discrepancies remain amongst the published results. Consequently, a research program was deployed to evaluate the performances of a range of ceramic foam filters used under various conditions and to understand the inclusions capture mechanisms.

  11. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a great interest in new process analytical approaches to increase the process understanding of pharmaceutical unit operations. In the present study, the influence of the solvent composition on the material properties and, further, on the filtration characteristics, of different...

  12. Complexant Identification in Hanford Waste Simulant Sr/TRU Filtrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to characterize the available multidentate ligand species and metal ion complexes of iron, strontium and manganese formed with the parent chelators, complexing agents and their fragment products. Complex identification was applied to AN-102 and AN-107 filtrate simulants for Hanford waste after an oxidation reaction with sodium permanganate to create a freshly precipitated manganese dioxide solid for adsorption of transuranic elements. Separation efficiency of different ligands was investigated based on the exchange capability of different ion exchange and ion exclusion analytical columns including Dionex IonPac AS-5A, AS-10, AS-11 and AS-6. The elution programs developed with different mobile phase concentrations were based on the change in the effective charge of the anionic species and therefore the retention on the stationary phase. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative assessments of multidentate ligands were investigated. Identification methods for the metal ion complexes responsible for solubilizing Fe, Mn and Sr were applied to aged and fresh simulant waste filtrates. Although concentration measurements of both fresh and 3-week aged filtrates showed that the degradation process occurs mainly due to the harsh chemical environment, it was found that the concentration of iron and manganese did not increase, within the error of the analytical measurements, after three weeks when compared with fresh filtrate

  13. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia using cascade filtration plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaş, Fatih; Cetin, Aysun; Solmaz, Musa; Büyükoğlan, Rüksan; Kaynar, Leylagül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Eser, Bülent; Unal, Ali

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) apheresisusing a cascade filtration system in pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and toclarify the associated adverse effects and difficulties. LDL-C apheresis using a cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patientswith homozygous FH; in total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed. Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dL to 145 ± 43 mg/dL (p= 0.011). We observed an acute mean reduction in the plasma level of total cholesterol (57.9%), LDL-C (70.8%),and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (40.7%). Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinicaladverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%), chills (1.7%) in 2 sessions, and nausea/vomiting in 3 sessions(2.5%). Our experience using the cascade filtration system with 3 patients included good clinical outcomes andlaboratory findings, safe usage, and minor adverse effects and technical problems. None declared.

  15. Simulation of impaction filtration of aerosol droplets in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, Steffen; Winkelmann, Christoph; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a method to simulate from first principles the particle filtration efficiency of filters that are composed of structured porous media. We assume that the ratio of particle density to the fluid density is high. We concentrate on the motion of the particles in a laminar

  16. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  17. Filtration effectiveness of HVAC systems at near-roadway schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Ludwig, J F; Brown, S G; Vaughn, D L; Roberts, P T

    2013-06-01

    Concern for the exposure of children attending schools located near busy roadways to toxic, traffic-related air pollutants has raised questions regarding the environmental benefits of advanced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems for near-road pollution. Levels of black carbon and gaseous pollutants were measured at three indoor classroom sites and at seven outdoor monitoring sites at Las Vegas schools. Initial HVAC filtration systems effected a 31-66% reduction in black carbon particle concentrations inside three schools compared with ambient air concentrations. After improved filtration systems were installed, black carbon particle concentrations were reduced by 74-97% inside three classrooms relative to ambient air concentrations. Average black carbon particle concentrations inside the schools with improved filtration systems were lower than typical ambient Las Vegas concentrations by 49-96%. Gaseous pollutants were higher indoors than outdoors. The higher indoor concentrations most likely originated at least partially from indoor sources, which were not targeted as part of this intervention. Recent literature has demonstrated adverse health effects in subjects exposed to ambient air near major roadways. Current smart growth planning and infill development often require that buildings such as schools are built near major roadways. Improving the filtration systems of a school's HVAC system was shown to decrease children's exposure to near-roadway diesel particulate matter. However, reducing exposure to the gas-phase air toxics, which primarily originated from indoor sources, may require multiple filter passes on recirculated air. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  19. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  20. Stochastic modeling of filtrate alkalinity in water filtration devices: Transport through micro/nano porous clay based ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay and plant materials such as wood are the raw materials used in manufacture of ceramic water filtration devices around the world. A step by step manufacturing procedure which includes initial mixing, molding and sintering is used. The manufactured ceramic filters have numerous pores which help i...

  1. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  2. Expanded uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, A. D.; Malaja, L. D.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, A. V.; Shalaj, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The combined standard uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient has been developed. The laboratory researches were carried out which resulted in filtration coefficient determination and combined uncertainty estimation obtaining.

  3. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  4. Static and dynamic filtrations of different clay, electrolytes, polymer systems; Filtrations statiques et dynamiques de differents systemes argile, electrolytes, polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y

    1996-04-16

    Filtration properties of model drilling fluids composed of water, clays, electrolytes and water soluble polymers have been studied in static and dynamic conditions on paper filters and rock slices. Filtration experiments combined with cake observations by cryo-S.E.M. and T.E.M., show the influence of the size shape of clay particles as well as their associating mode in suspension, on the texture of the cake, its permeability, and relaxation properties. These parameters depend on the nature of the electrolyte. The polymer reduces the cake permeability by enhancing the dispersion of the clay within the suspension, but mainly by plugging the porous network due its auto aggregation properties. The cake construction in dynamic conditions, is related to the state of aggregation of the initial suspension, its poly-dispersity, its sensitivity to shear rates, and also, to the permeability of the cake built at the beginning of the filtration. In all cases, the rate of thickening of the cake is slower and larger filtrate volumes are obtained compared to the static conditions. Shear rate has two effects: first, to dissociate the weak aggregates in suspension, second, to impose a size selection of the particles in the case of a poly-dispersed suspension. At high shear rates, a cake of constant thin thickness is quickly obtained. The thickness of this limiting cake depends on the fraction of small particles present in suspension, or that can be formed by dissociation of weak aggregates under shear rate. The permeability of this limiting cake formed in dynamic conditions is, as in static conditions, controlled by the size and the shape of the particles that form the cake or by the presence of a build loss reducer water soluble polymer. Filtrations carried out on Fontainebleau sandstones allow to visualize the internal cake and to precise the risks of formation damage by the drilling fluid. (author) 127 refs.

  5. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  10. Numerical Solutions of Mechanical Turbulent Filtration Equation Used in Mechatronics and Micro Mechanic

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Fathabadi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, several novel numerical solutions are presented to solve the turbulent filtration equation and its special case called “Non-Newtonian mechanical filtration equation”. The turbulent filtration equation in porous media is a very important equation which has many applications to solve the problems appearing especially in mechatronics, micro mechanic and fluid mechanic. Many applied mechanical problems can be solved using this equation. For example, non-Newtonian mechanical filtrat...

  11. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  12. Public health protection through bank filtration - Kearney Nebraska case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseks, E.; Bellamy, W.; Heinemann, T.; Stocker, K.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of Kearney's bank filtration system provides further evidence of this technology's capability to assist in providing public health protection, as it relates to drinking water. The results of hydrogeologic and treatment studies demonstrate the capabilities of the Platte River aquifer materials, in this locale, to remove pathogens and their surrogates. Continual monitoring and evaluations will establish the system’s longevity and continued treatment efficacy. The City of Kearney is located in south central Nebraska. The City owns and operates a public water system that serves approximately 24,889 people. The water system includes 12 wells located on Killgore Island in the Platte River. In 1994, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services System (Department) determined that 3 wells in the wellfield serving the City of Kearney were ground water under the direct influence of surface water. This determination was based on results of microscopic particulate analysis (MPA). The City of Kearney undertook the natural bank filtration study to determine whether natural bank filtration was occurring at the site and if the filtration was sufficient to meet pathogen treatment requirements designed to protect public health. A preliminary study was undertaken from June through October 1995. This coincided with the City’s peak pumping time, which may be the time when the influence of the River is greatest on the wellfield wells. Hydrogeologic studies assisted in selecting wells that were at highest risk based on shortest travel times and greatest differential head. Data collected included particle counts, MPAs, turbidity, coliform, centrifugate pellet evaluation (CPE) volumes, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Following analysis of data collected during the preliminary 18-week study the Department granted conditional approval of 2-log credit for removal of Giardia lamblia and 1-log credit for removal of viruses through bank filtration, pending the

  13. Transcutaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate in small rodents: through the skin for the win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Cai, Xiaochu; Walker, David D; Dickinson, Hayley; Kett, Michelle M

    2015-03-01

    Rodent models of renal physiology and pathology are crucial to our understanding of the molecular, histological and functional sequelae that contribute to kidney diseases. One of the most important measures of renal function is glomerular filtration rate (GFR). While the accurate determination of GFR is pivotal to understanding the progression of disease and/or the benefits of treatment strategies, in rodents the conventional methods for assessment of GFR are inconvenient and cumbersome, not the least because they involve stress and often anaesthesia. The legitimacy of assay-based assessment of plasma and urine markers of GFR in mice has also been heavily scrutinized for their insensitivity to minor declines in GFR and inaccurate detection of renal biomarkers. While infusion-based clearance methods of GFR assessment are thus the gold standard in terms of accuracy, they are limited by the fact that they are primarily non-recovery procedures. This presents a dilemma when trying to document the progression of renal disease, as these measures cannot be taken in the same experimental subject. Here we review a technique of transcutaneous measurement of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled sinistrin to calculate GFR in small rodents, using a non-invasive clearance device (NIC-Kidney Device). This is a recently validated non-invasive technique for measuring GFR in small rodents that allows for the real-time measurement of GFR in conscious animals, without the need for plasma and urine assays. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. Facilitating community water supply treatment : from transferring filtration technology to multi-stakeholder learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    For more than a quarter of a century, IRC has been supporting the development of Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) and more recently, together with CINARA, the pioneering of Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) - a combination of Gravel Filtration and SSF that has been shown to have great potential as an effective

  15. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power... Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1280, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and...

  16. 40 CFR 141.717 - Pre-filtration treatment toolbox components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface water or GWUDI source. (c) Bank filtration. Systems receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit for... paragraph. Systems using bank filtration when they begin source water monitoring under § 141.701(a) must... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-filtration treatment toolbox...

  17. 76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Filtration and Adsorption Units AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Postaccident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup... testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of engineered-safety-feature (ESF) atmosphere...

  18. MATHEMATIC MODEL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FILTRATION PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGICAL LIQUID AND GAS

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Мouradova

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration as a perspective method of filtration and purification of liquid and gas finds its wide application in oil and chemical industry. However absence of highly-reliable model of calculation that permits unambiguously main operational parameters of electromagnetic filtration and limits its wide application. 

  19. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and ...

  20. Performance evaluation of a particle-enhanced turbidimetric cystatin C assay on the Abbott ci8200 analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodin, Mats; Larsson, Anders

    2009-06-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best overall measure of kidney function. Cystatin C is a novel endogenous GFR marker that has been shown to be superior to creatinine for estimation of GFR in several studies. There is a need for cystatin C assays adapted to routine chemistry instrument to minimize turnaround times and allowing 24 h/day availability. We have evaluated a new cystatin C assay developed for Architect cSystem (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). The cystatin C assay showed good agreement with the corresponding assay from Dade Behring (Deerfield, IL, USA). The assay has a very low total imprecision and a good linearity. The new cystatin C assay is an interesting alternative to current cystatin C assays. On an Architect cSystem the assay can be performed with the same turnaround times and availability as creatinine.

  1. Tangential filtration technologies membrane and applications for the industry agribusiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Gian Paolo; Russo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The membrane tangential filtration technologies are separation techniques based on the use of semipermeable filters through which, under a pushing force, it is possible to achieve separation of components or suspended in solution as a function of their dimensional characteristics and / or chemical-physical. At the laboratories of the ENEA Research Center Casaccia, as part of the program activities of the Biotechnology and agro-industry division, were studied and developed various filtration processes to membrane in the food industry. The problems have been studied by following a vision sustainable overall, always trying to pair the purification treatment to that of recovery and reuse of water and high value-added components. Ultimate goal of the research conducted is to close the production circuit, ensuring a discharge cycle zero and turning in fact a so-called spread in first, from which to obtain new products. [it

  2. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  3. Cast Steel Filtration Trials Using Ceramic-Carbon Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipowska B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials of cast steel filtration using two types of newly-developed foam filters in which carbon was the phase binding ceramic particles have been conducted. In one of the filters the source of carbon was flake graphite and coal-tar pitch, while in the other one graphite was replaced by a cheaper carbon precursor. The newly-developed filters are fired at 1000°C, i.e. at a much lower temperature than the currently applied ZrO2-based filters. During filtration trials the filters were subjected to the attack of a flowing metal stream having a temperature of 1650°C for 30 seconds.

  4. Controlling inclusions through filtration in investment casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Marshall, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    A technique for the placement of a ceramic foam filter in the feeding up of investment mould was developed which proved quite efficient in removing smaller and major inclusions through various filtration modes. Contaminated old aluminum scrap was used to prepare the melt without the addition of any cleansing and covering fluxes and the main reason was to produce more and more inclusions. Vigorous stirring was also intentionally carried out to form as much oxides as possible. During present research work effective filtration was observed. No leakage through sides of the filter occurred and similarly no choking was seen during feeding of molten metal. Microstructural studies showed the maximum retention of inclusions not only on the surface of filters but also within the various channels of the main body of the filter. The microstructures taken from the filtered test pieces were free from inclusions, which showed the effectiveness and proper placement of the filter. (author)

  5. Contaminated fluid filtration plant using pneumatically renewable granulated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.-C.; Messirejean, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for the filtration of a contaminated fluid flow using a granulated material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the contaminants. This plant includes a filtration box within which there is at least one appreciably vertical filtering bed filled with the material and crossed by the fluid flow, loading and discharge compartments respectively located at the top and bottom of the box, each in communication with the filtering bed and an air-actuated transfer system for loading and discharging this bed through these compartments. Facilities of this kind are used mainly in the nuclear and chemical engineering industries to rid their waste of radio-iodines, generally constituted by elementary iodine and methyl iodide, or of toxic gases that contaminate them. The granulated material, whose job it is to trap these contaminants by adsorption or absorption, is generally composed of active carbon or zeolites whose utilisation time is limited [fr

  6. Filtration of droplets in the nose of the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, C N

    1946-01-01

    Optical measurement was done on oil cloud sedimentation before and after passing through nose and out tracheal cannula. The filtering unit which also provides most resistance to flow is maximal turbinates. Nasal cavity is more complex than in man or some other animals, so filtration may be different. Calculation of particle inertia and filter channel width shows that particles > 7 ..mu..m would impact on curves or projections. Particles less than 1.5 ..mu..m should penetrate freely, but low molecular weight gases would be caught by diffusion. The higher the flow, the better the filtration (inertial settling). Broadly summarizing, at ordinary flow rates and nasal resistances, essentially all drops > 7 ..mu..m will be removed. About 50% of 3-..mu.. drops will be removed. < 1.5-..mu..m drops will penetrate.

  7. The use of an air filtration system in podiatry clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, Nichola; Burrow, Gordon; Maclaren, William; Aidoo, Kofi; Hepher, Mike

    2003-06-01

    A small-scale study was conducted to ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of an air filtration system for use in podiatry/chiropody clinics (Electromedia Model 35F (A), Clean Air Ltd, Scotland, UK). Three clinics were identified, enabling comparison of data between podiatry clinics in the West of Scotland. The sampling was conducted using a portable Surface Air Sampler (Cherwell Laboratories, Bicester, UK). Samples were taken on two days at three different times before and after installation of the filtration units. The global results of the study indicate the filter has a statistically significant effect on microbial counts, with an average percentage decrease of 65%. This study is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, such a system has been tested within podiatric practice.

  8. Formation of siliceous sediments in brandy after diatomite filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2015-03-01

    Brandy is quite a stable spirit but sometimes light sediment appears. This sediment was separated and analysed by IR and SEM-EDX. It was revealed that the sediment is composed mostly of silica and residual organic matter. Silica was present as an amorphous phase and as microparticles. In an attempt to reproduce the formation of the sediment, a diatomite extract was prepared with an ethanol/water mixture (36% vol.) and a calcined diatomite similar to that used in brandy filtration. This extract was added to unfiltered brandy in different amounts. After 1 month, the Si concentration decreased in all samples and sediments with similar compositions and features to those found in the unstable brandy appeared. The amounts of sediment obtained were directly related to the decrease in Si concentration in solution. Consequently, it can be concluded that siliceous sediment in brandy originates from Si released during diatomite filtration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  10. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  11. Particle clogging in porous media. Filtration of a smectite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias (Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The goal of this project is to find out if it is possible for bentonite clay to self heal during leaching with deionized water. The investigation has focused on the formation of a filter cake made of accessory material from MX 80 and the separation of solid material when a smectite solution (1%) is pushed through the cake using a pressure difference of 5 bar. It was also in the scope of this project to design and build the necessary equipment for these experiments. In the literature review it was not found any example that the phenomenon of clogging has been used as a self-healing method previously. It was rather separated also between the clogging of a filter cake (deep bed filtration or cake filtration) and the filtration of colloidal particles. Probably because the latter are in such low concentrations in natural systems and the focus have mainly been in the transport properties of colloids within a filter cake or deep bed filter. An experimental equipment was designed and built. It consists of seven filtration cells that could operate in parallel. All of them are connected to the same source of pressure to ensure equal conditions. A system was also prepared to prevent air from dissolving in the solution because it could create an unwanted expansion in the filter cake due to lower solubility at lower pressure. The experiment showed good separation of smectite particles from the solution when it passed through the filter cake. In all tested cases, the separation was almost complete after long enough time, indicating that the cake has small enough pores to act as a geometrical hinder for the small particles. Comparison between the materials prepared at Chalmers University of Technology and at Clay Technology showed a very good agreement indicating similar properties of the produced smectite

  12. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (1) - flucculant dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    During the past four decades, the radioactive slurry liquid waste(RSLW) is produced by operation of TRIGA Mark - II and III research reactors, producing radioisotopes and studying on RI utilization. Vacuum filtration of RSLW and flocculated RSLW with cationic, anionic and nonionic flocculants has been investigated. Test results show that critical dose of flocculant is obtained by the estimation of settling rate, cake moisture content and specific cake residence

  13. Cu filtration for dose reduction in neonatal chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smans, K.; Struelens, L.; Smet, M.; Bosmans, H.; Vanhavere, F.

    2010-01-01

    As neonatal chest images are frequently acquired to investigate the life-threatening lung diseases in prematurely born children, their optimisation in terms of X-ray exposure is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such dose-optimisation studies could be performed using a Monte Carlo computer model. More specifically, a Monte Carlo computer model was used to investigate the influence of Cu filtration on image quality and dose in neonatal chest imaging. Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the MCNPX code and used with voxel models representing prematurely born babies (590 and 1910 g). Physical image quality was derived from simulated images in terms of the signal difference-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To verify the simulation results, measurements were performed using the Gammex 610 Neonatal Chest Phantom, which represents a 1-2 kg neonate. A figure of merit was used to assist in evaluating the optimum balance between the image quality and the patient dose. The results show that the Monte Carlo computer model to investigate dose and image quality works well and can be used in dose-optimisation studies for real clinical practices. Furthermore, working at a specific constant incident air kerma (K a,I ), additional filtration proved to increase SNR with 30%, whereas working at a specific constant detector dose, extra Cu filtration reduces the lung dose with 25%. Optimum balance between patient dose and image quality is found to be 60 kVp (using extra filtration). (authors)

  14. Plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal filtration techniques in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga Ruiz, D; Fonseca San Miguel, F; González de Molina, F J; Úbeda-Iglesias, A; Navas Pérez, A; Jannone Forés, R

    2017-04-01

    Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal technique that eliminates macromolecules involved in pathological processes from plasma. A review is made of the technical aspects, main indications in critical care and potential complications of plasmapheresis, as well as of other extracorporeal filtration techniques such as endotoxin-removal columns and other devices designed to eliminate cytokines or modulate the inflammatory immune response in critical patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Particulate Air-Filtration Media: Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    larger and more efficient filter designs similar to those being considered for future integrated respirator/helmet systems. To avoid eliminating ...including nonwoven, woven, and electret and combinations of media. Some of the manufacturers identified themselves as specializing in biofiltration or...Three Millipore products were identified. The 0.2 µm hydrophobic Aervent PTFE membrane62 is used for the sterile filtration of gases . Aerex

  16. Hazard categorization of K Basin water filtration upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document provides the hazards categorization for the K Basin Water Filtration Upgrade Project at K East. All activities associated with the project are less than Hazard Category 3, except for the handling of the ECO-ROK liners containing spent filter cartridges. All activities involving the handling of liners, containing spent cartridges, by monorail, forklift or mobile crane are classified as Hazard Category 3

  17. Particle clogging in porous media. Filtration of a smectite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find out if it is possible for bentonite clay to self heal during leaching with deionized water. The investigation has focused on the formation of a filter cake made of accessory material from MX 80 and the separation of solid material when a smectite solution (1%) is pushed through the cake using a pressure difference of 5 bar. It was also in the scope of this project to design and build the necessary equipment for these experiments. In the literature review it was not found any example that the phenomenon of clogging has been used as a self-healing method previously. It was rather separated also between the clogging of a filter cake (deep bed filtration or cake filtration) and the filtration of colloidal particles. Probably because the latter are in such low concentrations in natural systems and the focus have mainly been in the transport properties of colloids within a filter cake or deep bed filter. An experimental equipment was designed and built. It consists of seven filtration cells that could operate in parallel. All of them are connected to the same source of pressure to ensure equal conditions. A system was also prepared to prevent air from dissolving in the solution because it could create an unwanted expansion in the filter cake due to lower solubility at lower pressure. The experiment showed good separation of smectite particles from the solution when it passed through the filter cake. In all tested cases, the separation was almost complete after long enough time, indicating that the cake has small enough pores to act as a geometrical hinder for the small particles. Comparison between the materials prepared at Chalmers University of Technology and at Clay Technology showed a very good agreement indicating similar properties of the produced smectite

  18. Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nik N. Nik Daud; Nur H. Izehar; B. Yusuf; Thamer A. Mohamed; A. Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using two aeration methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii) to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in removing iron an...

  19. Modeling Manganese Sorption and Surface Oxidation During Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Bierlein, Kevin Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Soluble manganese (Mn) is a common contaminant in drinking water sources. High levels of Mn can lead to aesthetic water quality problems, necessitating removal of Mn during treatment to minimize consumer complaints. Mn may be removed during granular media filtration by the â natural greensand effect,â in which soluble Mn adsorbs to manganese oxide-coated (MnOx(s)) media and is then oxidized by chlorine, forming more manganese oxide. This research builds on a previous model developed by Mer...

  20. Modulation of hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes in diabetic rats by dietary myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Santarelli, E.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Sherman, W.R.; Williamson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the potential of myo-inositol-supplemented diets to prevent diabetes-induced vascular functional changes, we examined the effects of diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, or 2% myo-inositol on blood flow and vascular filtration function in nondiabetic control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D). After 1 mo of diabetes and dietary myo-inositol supplementation, (1) 131I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeation of vessels was assessed in multiple tissues, (2) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated as renal plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA, (3) regional blood flows were measured with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres, and (4) endogenous albumin and IgG urinary excretion rates were quantified by radial immunodiffusion assay. In STZ-D rats, 131I-BSA tissue clearance increased significantly (2- to 4-fold) in the anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, retina, sciatic nerve, aorta, new granulation tissue, diaphragm, and kidney but was unchanged in skin, forelimb muscle, and heart. myo-Inositol-supplemented diets reduced diabetes-induced increases in 131I-BSA clearance (in a dose-dependent manner) in all tissues; however, only in new granulation tissue and diaphragm did the 2% myo-inositol diet completely normalize vascular albumin permeation. Diabetes-induced increases in GFR and in urinary albumin and IgG excretion were also substantially reduced or normalized by dietary myo-inositol supplements. Increased blood flow in anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, kidney, new granulation tissue, and skeletal muscle in STZ-D rats also was substantially reduced or normalized by the 2% myo-inositol diet. myo-Inositol had minimal if any effects on the above parameters in control rats

  1. Are vacuum-filtrated reduced graphene oxide membranes symmetric?

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo

    2015-12-02

    Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes’ physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes.

  2. Corrosion-product filtration in PWRs: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-04-01

    As part of a programme on the optimization of pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary side water treatment, laboratory-scale studies on filtration of the feedwater using materials having chemically active adsorbing surfaces were carried out. Graphite, zirconia and titania were identified, from a review of existing literature, as suitable filtration media, the last two because of their ion-exchange capability. The efficiency of filters packed with granular graphite for filtration of simulated feed train corrosion products and the pressure drop across the filters were determined as functions of filter dimensions and operating parameters at room temperature. A rough sizing of a full-flow feedwater filter using granular graphite was done on the basis of observations from the room temperature tests. Further studies are suggested at low concentrations of the corrosion product and at high temperature typical of steam generator feedwater after the high pressure heaters to derive realistic design parameters for a filter for installation in the PWR secondary circuit. Zirconia was produced in the form of spherical particles using a sol-gel process. The zirconia behaved as an anion exchanger at low pH and as a cation exchanger at high pH. Its suitability for purification of water at high temperature should be determined by futher studies. 30 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Centrifugal Filtration System for Severe Accident Source Term Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu Chang; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual design of a filtration system that can be used to process airborne severe accident source term. Reactor containment may lose its structural integrity due to over-pressurization during a severe accident. This can lead to uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment. For preventing the dispersion of these uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment, several ways to capture or mitigate these radioactive source term releases are under investigation at KAIST. Such technologies are based on concepts like a vortex-like air curtain, a chemical spray, and a suction arm. Treatment of the radioactive material captured by these systems would be required, before releasing to environment. For current filtration systems in the nuclear industry, IAEA lists sand, multi-venturi scrubber, high efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA), charcoal and combinations of the above in NS-G-1-10, 4.143. Most if not all of the requirements of the scenario for applying this technology near the containment of an NPP site and the environmental constraints were analyzed for use in the design of the centrifuge filtration system.

  4. Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Kuno, Yoshio; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-07-01

    Filtration behavior of organic substance through a compacted bentonite was investigated. Na-type bentonite containing 30wt% of quartz sand was compacted in a column and the dry density was adjusted to be 1.6 g/cm 3 . Polyacrylic acid solution (including three types of polyacrylic acid, average molecular weight 2,100, 15,000 and 450,000) was prepared and was passed through the compacted bentonite. Molecular weight distributions of polyacrylic acid in the effluent solution were analysed by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). A batch type experiment was also carried out in order to examine a sorption behavior of these organic substances onto the surfaces of grains of the bentonite. The results indicated that the smaller size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight < 100,000) was passed through the compacted bentonite. On the other hand, the larger size polyacrylic acid (molecular weight ≥100,000) was mostly filtrated by the compacted bentonite. The batch type sorption tests clarified that the polyacrylic acid did not sorb onto the surfaces of minerals constituting the bentonite. Therefore it was suggested that the larger size molecules (≥100,000) of organic substances could be predominantly filtrated by the microstructure of the compacted bentonite. (author)

  5. Are vacuum-filtrated reduced graphene oxide membranes symmetric?

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Wu, Jinbo; Hedhili, Mohamed Neijib; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Graphene or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) membrane-based materials are promising for many advanced applications due to their exceptional properties. One of the most widely used synthesis methods for rGO membranes is vacuum filtration of graphene oxide (GO) on a filter membrane, followed by reduction, which shows great advantages such as operational convenience and good controllability. Despite vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes being widely used in many applications, a fundamental question is overlooked: are the top and bottom surfaces of the membranes formed at the interfaces with air and with the filter membrane respectively symmetric or asymmetric? This work, for the first time, reports the asymmetry of the vacuum-filtrated rGO membranes and discloses the filter membranes’ physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane, which takes place when the filter membrane surface pores have similar dimension to GO sheets. This result points out that the asymmetric surface properties should be cautiously taken into consideration while designing the surface-related applications for GO and rGO membranes.

  6. Experience with high-temperature filtration of incinerator flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; de Tassigny, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is always preferable to filter incinerator flue gases as close as possible to their origin, i.e. in a high-temperature zone, and means must be provided to destroy the other organic parts of the flyash resulting from these gases by in-filter combustion. The filter also traps a mineral part of the flyash, which eventually causes clogging and requires replacement or regeneration. Such filtration systems are available and can be operated on an industrial scale. They include candles made of micro-expanded refractory alloys supporting filtering media, porous ceramic candles and other devices. Research and subsequent pilot facility testing have enabled development of alumina fiber filter cartridges that offer more advantages than other equipment employed to date. Specifically, these advantages are: ultralight weight, which enables construction of systems that are relatively unaffected by creep and high-temperature deformations; excellent refractory qualities, which permit a use above 1000 degrees C; insensitivity to thermal shocks and in-situ carbon fines combustion capability; anti-acid quality of the material, which enables high-temperature filtration of acidic flue gases (chlorine and hydrochloric acid, SO x , etc.); low initial pressure drop of the cartridges; dimensional stability of the cartridges, which can be machined to a given tolerance with specific contours after casting and drying. This paper reports the results obtained during the last filtration system test campaign. Details are given for operating conditions, grain sizes and real-time monitoring of various parameters

  7. Improvement of municipal wastewater pretreatment by direct membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago A; Mejía, Fanny R; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Peña Miranda, Mar

    2017-10-01

    The high content of particulate matter in municipal wastewater hinders the conventional anaerobic treatments at psychrophilic temperatures. The hydrolysis of the particulate chemical oxygen demand (pCOD) could be the limiting step under these conditions. Therefore, new pretreatments or improved conventional pretreatments are needed in order to separate pCOD. In this work, direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater, using an ultrafiltration membrane, was investigated. This intensive pretreatment, which aims to separate soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and to concentrate pCOD, together with anaerobic treatments of both streams at psychrophilic and mesophilic conditions respectively, could be an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process. The obtained results show a removal yield of 24.9% of the total solids (TS) and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), obtaining a permeate free of suspended solids. This physical removal implies the accumulation of solids inside the membrane tank, reaching the values of 45.4 and 4.4 g/L of TS in the sedimentation and filtration sections, respectively. The membrane operated with filtration, backwashing cycles and continuous gas sparging, with a permeate flux predominantly around 10 L/(m 2  h). The results show the viability of the technology to concentrate pCOD and so to improve energy recovery from municipal wastewater.

  8. Active osmotic exchanger for advanced filtration at the nano scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    One of the main functions of the kidney is to remove the waste products of an organism, mostly by excreting concentrated urea while reabsorbing water and other molecules. The human kidney is capable of recycling about 200 liters of water per day, at the relatively low cost of 0.5 kJ/L (standard dialysis requiring at least 150 kJ/L). Kidneys are constituted of millions of parallel filtration networks called nephrons. The nephrons of all mammalian kidneys present a specific loop geometry, the Loop of Henle, that is believed to play a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. One limb of the loop is permeable to water and the other contains sodium pumps that exchange with a common interstitium. In this work, we take inspiration from this osmotic exchanger design to propose new nanofiltration principles. We first establish simple analytical results to derive general operating principles, based on coupled water permeable pores and osmotic pumps. The best filtration geometry, in terms of power required for a given water recycling ratio, is comparable in many ways to the mammalian nephron. It is not only more efficient than traditional reverse osmosis systems, but can also work at much smaller pressures (of the order of the blood pressure, 0.13 bar, as compared to more than 30 bars for pressure-retarded osmosis systems). We anticipate that our proof of principle will be a starting point for the development of new filtration systems relying on the active osmotic exchanger principle.

  9. Evaluation of multistage filtration to reduce sand filter exhaust activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Air from the Savannah River Plant Fuel Reprocessing facilities is filtered through deep bed sand filters consisting of 8 1 / 2 feet of gravel and sand. These filters have performed satisfactorily for the past 18 years in maintaining radioactive release levels to a minimum. The apparent filter efficiency has been determined for many years by measurements of the quantity of radioactivity in the air stream before and after the filter. Such tests have indicated efficiencies of 99.9 percent or better. Even with sand filter efficiency approaching a single stage HEPA filter, new emphasis on further reduction in release of plutonium activity to the environment prompted a study to determine what value backup HEPA filtration could provide. To evaluate the specific effect additional HEPA filtration would have on the removal of Pu from the existing sand filter exhaust stream, a test was conducted by passing a sidestream of sand-filtered air through a standard 24 x 24 x 11 1 / 2 in. HEPA filter. Isokinetic air samples were withdrawn upstream and downstream of the HEPA filter and counted for alpha activity. Efficiency calculations indicated that backup HEPA filtration could be expected to provide an additional 99 percent removal of the Pu activity from the present sand-filter exhaust. (U.S.)

  10. Organic iodide capture using a zeolite dry filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanggil; Sung, Joonyoung; Kim, Gi-ppeum; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2017-01-01

    An organic iodide, especially, methyl iodide (CH 3 I) would generated non-negligibly from a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. This CH 3 I will be dangerous for human when it was inhaled, it is highly toxic and causes a serious nerve disorder. Even it is a major contributor to a thyroid cancer. In order to prevent its environmental release, it is required to decontaminate using a filtration system. For the removal of CH 3 I from the release gases, wet-type is not ideal due to a high re-volatile characteristics of CH 3 I. It may become volatile after dissolving in a pool and forms CH 3 I again at the surface of water pool. Therefore, a dry-filtration should be installed to remove the CH 3 I. In this study, we preliminary investigate the characteristics of zeolite filtration methods for the removal of CH 3 I. We used both silver ion exchanged ZSM-5-zeolite (Ag+-ZSM-5) to study the effect of silver ion for the removal of iodine from CH 3 I. In summary, the CH 3 I capture tests using a silver ion exchanged zeolite was conducted in the coupled TGAGC test set-up. The mass change of the sample and concentration of CH 3 I were measured. The samples were investigated by the SEM/EDS to see its surface characteristics.

  11. Non-filtration method of processing uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Vodolazov, L.I.; Tokarev, N.N.; Vyalkov, V.I.; Goldobina, V.A.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the non-filtration sorption method has lead to procedures of the sorption leaching and the extraction desorption, which have made it possible to intensify the processing of uranium ores and to improve greatly the technical and economic indexes by eliminating the complex method of multiple filtration and re-pulping of cakes. This method makes it possible to involve more poor uranium raw materials, at the same time extracting valuable components such as molybdenum, vanadium, copper, etc. Considerable industrial experience has been acquired in the sorption of dense pulp with a solid-to-liquid phase ratio of 1:1. This has led to a plant production increase of 1.5-3.0 times, an increase of uranium extraction by 5-10%, a two- to- three-fold increase of labour capacity of the main workers, and to a several-fold decrease of reagents, auxiliary materials, electric energy and vapour. This non-filtration method is a continuous process in all its phases thanks to the use of high-yield and high-power equipment for high-density pulps. (author)

  12. Field Demonstration of Fuel Crud Filtration System at Ulchin Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Duk-Won; Lee, Doo-Ho; Park, Jong-Youl; Choi, In-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Crud deposited onto the fuel assemblies in nuclear power plants was not a serious problem until an upper core flux depression named Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) was found at Callaway, USA in 1989. Though the mechanism of an AOA is not completely understood, crud is believed to be a key component of initiating AOA. After the sufficient amount of corrosion products in the reactor cooling system are deposited on the fuel clad by a sub-cooled nucleate boiling, boron is adsorbed in the crud. Thus a measurable reduction in the neutron flux occurs which causes an AOA problem. A filtration system has been developed to remove the fuel crud from irradiated fuel assemblies for mitigating the axial offset anomaly under a technical cooperation agreement with DEI (Dominion Engineering Inc.). This filtration system with a fuel cleaning fixture was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant unit 2. Within several minutes, detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also, to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device and radiation monitor devices were connected to the filtration system during the cleaning operation. In this study, we completed a functional test and demonstration of an ultrasonic fuel cleaning system by using four spent fuel assemblies. It took only 5 minutes to remove the fuel crud from each fuel assembly. In addition, collective dose rates indicated an average of 8 R/Hr per assembly

  13. Ultra-filtration measurement using CT imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junfeng; Lu Wenqiang

    2009-01-01

    As a functional unit in the hemodialysis process, dialyzer captured quite a few medical research interests since 1980s. In the design of dialyzer or in the ongoing hemodialysis process, to estimate the ultra-filtration amount of a dialyzer, the sideway loss of the running blood flow through hollow fibers or filtration channels should be measured. This further leads to the measurement of the blood flow inside the dialyzer. For this measurement, a non-invasive method is highly desired because of the high-dense bundled hollow fibers or packed channels inside the dialyzer. As non-invasive measurement tools, CT (Computed Tomography) technologies were widely used for tissue, bone, and cancerous clinical analyses etc .... Thus, in this paper, a CT system is adopted to predict the blood flow inside a hollow fiber dialyzer. In view of symmetric property of the hollow fiber dialyzer, the largest cutting plane that parallels to the cylindrical dialyzer was analyzed by the CT system dynamically. And then, a noninvasive image analysis method used to predict the ultra-filtration amount is proposed.

  14. Simple method for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, T [Group for Biomedical Informatics, Uppsala Univ. Data Center, Uppsala (Sweden); Tengstroem, B [District General Hospital, Skoevde (Sweden)

    1977-02-01

    A simple method is presented for indirect estimation of the glomerular filtration rate from two venous blood samples, drawn after a single injection of a small dose of (/sup 125/I)sodium iothalamate (10 ..mu..Ci). The method does not require exact dosage, as the first sample, taken after a few minutes (t=5 min) after injection, is used to normilize the value of the second sample, which should be taken in between 2 to 4 h after injection. The glomerular filtration rate, as measured by standard insulin clearance, may then be predicted from the logarithm of the normalized value and linear regression formulas with a standard error of estimate of the order of 1 to 2 ml/min/1.73 m/sup 2/. The slope-intercept method for direct estimation of glomerular filtration rate is also evaluated and found to significantly underestimate standard insulin clearance. The normalized 'single-point' method is concluded to be superior to the slope-intercept method and more sophisticated methods using curve fitting technique, with regard to predictive force and clinical applicability.

  15. Modeling the filtration ability of stockpiled filtering facepiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Dana R.

    2016-03-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) are often stockpiled for use during public health emergencies such as an infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. While many stockpile administrators are aware of shelf life limitations, environmental conditions can lead to premature degradation. Filtration performance of a set of FFR retrieved from a storage room with failed environmental controls was measured. Though within the expected shelf life, the filtration ability of several respirators was degraded, allowing twice the penetration of fresh samples. The traditional picture of small particle capture by fibrous filter media qualitatively separates the effect of inertial impaction, interception from the streamline, diffusion, settling, and electrostatic attraction. Most of these mechanisms depend upon stable conformational properties. However, common FFR rely on electrets to achieve their high performance, and over time heat and humidity can cause the electrostatic media to degrade. An extension of the Langevin model with correlations to classical filtration concepts will be presented. The new computational model will be used to predict the change in filter effectiveness as the filter media changes with time.

  16. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  17. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Chun-Han

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood. (paper)

  18. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  19. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2016-01-01

    struggling to their fundamental limit, therefore the membrane filtration technology turns to be a potential candidate for zero pollutant discharge. Membrane filtration technology suffers from the notorious fouling problem, where many methods for fouling prevention and removal are explored, the general idea...... is to guarantee that a relatively high permeability can be kept during filtration. Another crucial issue using membrane filtration technology is its huge energy consumption, for which there is little research has been done so far to systematically investigate and optimize the filtration system’s energy efficiency...

  20. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  3. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  4. Uptake of wheel-filtration among clients of a supervised injecting facility: Can structured education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Maureen; Silins, Edmund; Flaherty, Ian; Hiley, Sarah; van Breda, Nick; Jauncey, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Wheel-filtration of pharmaceutical opioid tablets is a recognised harm reduction strategy, but uptake of the practice among people who inject drugs is low. The study aimed to: (i) examine perceptions of filtration practices; (ii) provide structured education on wheel-filtration; and (iii) assess uptake of the practice. Frequent opioid tablet injectors (n = 30) attending a supervised injecting facility in Sydney, Australia, received hands-on instruction on wheel-filtration based on recommended practice. Pre-education, post-education and follow-up questionnaires were administered. Wheel-filtration was generally regarded as better than cotton-filtration (the typical method) in terms of perceived effects on health, ease of use and overall drug effect. Sixty-eight percent of those who said they would try wheel-filtration after the education had actually done so. Of those who usually used cotton-filtration, over half (60%) had used wheel-filtration two weeks later. Uptake of safer preparation methods for pharmaceutical opioid tablets increases after structured education in wheel-filtration. Findings suggest that SIFs are an effective site for this kind of education. Supervised injecting facility workers are uniquely positioned to provide harm reduction education at the time of injection. [Steele M, Silins E, Flaherty I, Hiley S, van Breda N, Jauncey M. Uptake of wheel-filtration among clients of a supervised injecting facility: Can structured education work? Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:116-120]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  6. Measuring of filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles in volume from scattered light by seeding particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidlof P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the method which calculates a filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles from scattered light intensity by seeding particles. Thefiltration efficiency is commonly measured by particle counters. Samples of liquid or gas are taken during a test in front of and behind a filtration material. The concentration of particles is measured and the filtration efficiency is calculated. The filtration efficiency does not have to be uniform in itswhole surface. The uniformity of filtration is another indicator of a quality of filtration materials. Measurements described in this article were performed on a water filtration setup which enables optical access to the place where the filtration material is mounted. Pictures of illuminated seeding particles are made by a laser sheet and a camera. Visualisation of the filtration process enables measuring of the efficiency of separation versus time and also versus two-dimensional position in case of use of a traverse mechanism. The filtration textiles were tested by 1 μm seeding particles. Mean value of light intensity and number of bright pixels in evaluative areas during image analysis were obtained. On the basis of these data, the filtration efficiency iscalculated. The best image analysis method was chosen.

  7. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  8. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  9. Crossflow Filtration: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several

  10. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several

  11. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  12. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  13. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  14. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  15. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  16. Use of immunoblotting assay improves the sensitivity of paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate two serological assays: double immunodiffusion (DI and immunoblotting (IB in immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. We evaluated by IB assay 23 sera samples from patients with clinical confirmation of PCM, all of them with negative DI results against culture filtrate from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate 113. For IB, as well as for comparative DI assay, we employed soluble components of the cell wall outer surface (SCCWOS from P. brasiliensis isolate 113 cultivated at 36°C in Fava-Neto's agar medium for 5 and 10 days. Among the 20 sera samples analyzed by DI, 13 (65% were negative and 7 (35% were positive against SCCWOS obtained on the 5th and 10th days. By IB assay, 95.4% and 100% of sera reacted against gp43 and gp70 present in SCCWOS from the 5th day and 95.6% recognized these fractions when evaluated against SCCWOS from the 10th day. Our results demonstrated that the use of an immunoenzymatic assay significantly improves the sensitivity of PCM immunodiagnosis and also suggests that at least two serological tests for antibody detection should be adopted in cases of questionable diagnosis.

  17. Aluminium - Cobalt-Pillared Clay for Dye Filtration Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, A.; Widiarsih

    2018-04-01

    The manufacture of membrane support from cobalt aluminium pillared clay has been conducted. This research was conducted by mixing a clay suspension with pillared solution prepared from the mixture of Co(NO3)2.6H2O and AlCl3.6H2O. The molar ratio between Al and Co was 75:25 and the ratio of [OH-]/[metal] was 2. The clay suspension was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and dried. The dried clay was then calcined at 200°C, 300°C and 400°C with a ramp rate of 2°C/min. Aluminium-cobalt-pillared clay was then characterized by XRD and GSA and moulded become a membrane support for subsequent tests on dye filtration. The XRD analysis showed that basal spacing (d 001) value of aluminium cobalt was 19.49 Å, which was higher than the natural clay of 15.08Å however, the basal spacing decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The result of the GSA analysis showed that the pore diameter of the aluminium cobalt pillared clay membrane was almost the same as that of natural clay that were 34.5Å and 34.2Å, respectively. Nevertheless, the pillared clay has a more uniform pore size distribution. The results of methylene blue filtration measurements demonstrated that the membrane filter support could well which shown by a clear filtrate at all concentrations tested. The value of rejection and flux decreased with the increasing concentration of methylene blue. The values of dye rejection and water flux reached 99.89% and 5. 80 x 10-6 kg min-1, respectively but they decreased with increasing concentration of methylene blue. The results of this study indicates that the aluminium-pillared clay cobalt could be used as membrane materials especially for ultrafiltration.

  18. Optical measurements of lung microvascular filtration coefficient using polysulfone fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Roselli, R J; Evans, S; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Tack, G; Parham, M

    1994-01-01

    Lung fluid balance, which is governed by the product of net transvascular pressure difference and lung filtration coefficient, can be altered in pulmonary diseases. A simple measurement of the lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) would be clinically useful and has been examined by several researchers. Current methods of determining Kfc include gravimetric measurement in isolated lungs and lymph node cannulation, neither of which can be extended to human use. Optical measurements of protein concentration changes in venous blood can be combined with pressure measurements to calculate Kfc. Blood, though, contains red corpuscles, which tend to absorb and scatter light, obscuring these optical measurements. In this study, an optical system was developed in which a polysulfone filter cartridge was used to remove red blood cells before the filtrate was passed through a spectrophotometer. Absorbance changes caused by changes in concentration of albumin labeled with Evans Blue were monitored at 620 nm after venous pressure was elevated by about 13 cm H2O. Optical measurements of Kfc averaged 0.401 +/- 0.074 (ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) for an isolated canine lung. Optical measurements of Kfc (0.363 +/- 0.120 ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) were made for the first time in an intact, closed chest sheep in which pulmonary pressure was altered by inflating a Foley balloon in the left atrium. We conclude that absorbance and scattering artifacts introduced by red blood cells can be eliminated by first filtering the blood through polysulfone fibers. Kfc measurements using the optical method are similar to values obtained by others using gravimetric methods. Finally, we have demonstrated that the technique can be used to estimate Kfc in an intact animal.

  19. Determination of filtrations and permeability of an earth dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, H.R.; Baro, G.B.; Gillen, Ricardo.

    1975-11-01

    The aim of this work was to measure with the aid of a radioactive tracer the speed flow of the water filtrating from Sumampa Dam in northeastern Catamarca, while being in operation, and with these data determine if the actual permeability corresponds to the projected one. Iodine-131 was used as tracer and periodical samples were taken from the down stream water in order to determine its activity concentration. In previous perforations ionic interchange resines were used so as to measure simultaneously the fixed Iodine-131. The permeability of the dam was calculated from the obtained speed based on time-concentration curves and applying Darcy formulas for permeability. (author) [es

  20. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions

  1. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Tellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.

  2. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  3. Filtration in ultrasonic field; Filtracao em campo ultrassonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Inaura Carolina C. da; Cortes, Marcela de Araujo H.; Marques, Jose Jailton [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The production of water associated to the petroleum is an issue of big relevance in exploration areas classified as 'exhausted fields'. The current alternative in practice is the re-injection of the wastewater into the geological formation with the dual purpose of increasing oil recovery and pollution minimization. However, produced water presents several components that make impossible its direct re-injection, requiring a previous treatment. In this context, this work presents the state-of-art of filtration in ultrasonic field, in order to contribute to the development of a new treatment technology applicable to the produced water problem. (author)

  4. The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-06-23

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOP11ENT The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process (OD-12) by F. C. Whitmore OSRD No. 654... Potentiometric Titration of Synthetic Mixtures. A? Nitric Acid-Acetic Acid. A sample of 60 ml. glacial acetic acid war diluted to 200 ml. with distilled...i4flinflr?fj3 TADLE 1 CO) |S?lDBnTl» POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF SYNTHETIC t’.IXTURES WITH CONCENTRATED AJKDNIUM HYDROXIDE A; unonium HNO-j- AcOfi Ky

  5. Optimising and Predicting Performance of Industrial Filtrations using Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David Bähner, Franz; Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Industrial cake filtration is non-trivial from an operational point of view. Discrete events such as the removal of filter cake occur on a frequent but irregular basis. These events tend to upset the steady state of the incorporating line, which may constrain plantwide optimisation. A case study...... has been carried out with an industrial partner where changes in the biological feedstock act as strong disturbances on a series of manually reinitialised dead-end pressure leaf filters. This renders production planning a challenging task which,so far, is carried out by experienced operators. We look...

  6. Transport of micropollutants in a riverbank filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Oudega, Thomas; Reiner, Philipp; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater locations at alluvial backwaters are essential for public water supply. Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as a means of obtaining public water supplies. Riverbank filtration is an effective way to remove micropollutants from the receiving surface water. The efficiency of the RBF system strongly depends on the residence time of the water in the aquifer and on the soil properties (Ray, 2011). In order to understand all bio- and geochemical processes within the hyporheic zone (e.g. the region were mixing of surface water and groundwater occurs), exchange rates and flow patterns need to be quantified. The main study area covers the porous groundwater aquifer study site (PGWA) - an urban floodplain extending on the left bank of the River Danube downstream of the City of Vienna. It is one of the main groundwater bodies in Austria. Groundwater quality in the PGWA is influenced by a combination of anthropogenic activities, industry, wastewater treatment plants, heavy precipitation events and floodings. The upper layer of the DPA is impermeable, preventing pollution originating from the surface. The upper layer consists of silt. The underlying confined aquifer consists of sand and gravel layers. Hydraulic conductivities range from 5 x 10-2 m/s up to 5 x 10-5 m/s. Underneath the aquifer are alternating sand an clay/silt layers. Samples are taken from two transects in the DPA. These transects consist of four piezometers in the first few meters of the groundwater aquifer. Several other piezometers are placed downstream from the river-groundwater interface. The behaviour of the micropollutants in the hyporheic zone can therefore be studied intensively. The transport behaviour of several micropollutants is modeled using carbamazepine (CBZ) and acesulfame (ACE) as natural tracers. Furthermore, temperature and electrical conductivity data was used for modeling. The micropollutants are measured using an in house developed online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method

  7. Applications of the spline filter for areal filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Mingsi; Zhang, Hao; Ott, Daniel; Chu, Wei; Song, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a general use isotropic areal spline filter. This new areal spline filter can achieve isotropy by approximating the transmission characteristic of the Gaussian filter. It can also eliminate the effect of void areas using a weighting factor, and resolve end-effect issues by applying new boundary conditions, which replace the first order finite difference in the traditional spline formulation. These improvements make the spline filter widely applicable to 3D surfaces and extend the applications of the spline filter in areal filtration. (technical note)

  8. Separation of actinides by high-gradient magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, L.E.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-gradient magnetic filtration has been identified as a candidate solid/liquid separation technique for removing actinide particulate from waste streams. Although HGMS is not intended to reduce the activity in the waste stream to below 100 nCi/g, it does offer two significant advantages: (a) selective removal of TRU solids for subsequent secondary processing and (b) reduced operating complications during solvent extraction due to solids accumulation in the interfacial region. Removal of > 95 wt% of the plutonium and americium solids is expected regardless of the solids present and their properties. Verification tests will be performed to validate this assumption

  9. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  10. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  11. Organo-clay/anthracite filtration for oil removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazed, H.; Viragahavan, T.

    1999-01-01

    An advantage of organo-clay compared to other sorbents is that it can selectively remove organic pollutants from contaminated waters. An investigation was conducted to determine the potential of an organo-clay/anthracite mixture as a filter media for the removal of oil from synthetic and real oily waters. Also included in the study were column filtration studies using synthetic and real waste waters to determine the sorptive capacity of the material. In general, oil removal efficiencies in a 300 mm organo-clay/anthracite bed decreased with an increase in flow rates. Results of eight hour studies indicated that the depth of an organo-clay/anthracite bed has a direct effect on oil removal efficiency. The Thomas equation provides a reasonable fit of the data based on breakthrough studies. The model can be used to determine the parameters needed to design full-scale filtration columns. The uptake of oil by an organo-clay/anthracite mixture is well described by an equation including time such as the Weber or Moris model. The maximum solid-phase concentration of the solute values obtained from the Thomas equation were comparable to the values found by a mass balance approach. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

  13. Numerical investigation of adhesion effects on solid particles filtration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffee, Amira; Luckham, Paul; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Our work investigate the effectiveness of particle filtration process, in particular using a fully-coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) approach involving poly-dispersed, adhesive solid particles. We found that an increase in particle adhesion reduces solid production through the opening of a wire-wrap type filter. Over time, as particle agglomerates continuously deposit on top of the filter, layer upon layer of particles is built on top of the filter, forming a particle pack. It is observed that with increasing particle adhesion, the pack height build up also increases and hence decreases the average particle volume fraction of the pack. This trend suggests higher porosity and looser packing of solid particles within the pack with increased adhesion. Furthermore, we found that the pressure drop for adhesive case is lower compared to non-adhesive case. Our results suggest agglomerating solid particles has beneficial effects on particle filtration. One important application of these findings is towards designing and optimizing sand control process for a hydrocarbon well with excessive sand production which is major challenge in oil and gas industry. Funding from PETRONAS and RAEng UK for Research Chair (OKM) gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Asymptotics of the filtration problem for suspension in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Ludmila Ivanovna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical-geometric model of the suspension filtering in the porous media is considered. Suspended solid particles of the same size move with suspension flow through the porous media - a solid body with pores - channels of constant cross section. It is assumed that the particles pass freely through the pores of large diameter and are stuck at the inlet of pores that are smaller than the particle size. It is considered that one particle can clog only one small pore and vice versa. The particles stuck in the pores remain motionless and form a deposit. The concentrations of suspended and retained particles satisfy a quasilinear hyperbolic system of partial differential equations of the first order, obtained as a result of macro-averaging of micro-stochastic diffusion equations. Initially the porous media contains no particles and both concentrations are equal to zero; the suspension supplied to the porous media inlet has a constant concentration of suspended particles. The flow of particles moves in the porous media with a constant speed, before the wave front the concentrations of suspended and retained particles are zero. Assuming that the filtration coefficient is small we construct an asymptotic solution of the filtration problem over the concentration front. The terms of the asymptotic expansions satisfy linear partial differential equations of the first order and are determined successively in an explicit form. It is shown that in the simplest case the asymptotics found matches the known asymptotic expansion of the solution near the concentration front.

  15. Granular filtration for airborne particles : correlation between experiments and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golshahi, L.; Tan, Z. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Dept.; Abedi, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    2009-10-15

    A new design for a packed bed granular filter was presented. The cylindrical packed bed was designed to filter particles in the range of approximately 10 nm to 15 {mu}m in diameter in different kinetic conditions and configurations. The aim of the study was to develop a precise empirical model to predict the filtration efficiency of the packed beds. A collision-type atomizer was used to generate polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol particles. The effect of flow rates was studied using a thermal mass flow meter. A regression analysis technique was used to determine the correlation between single granule and total packed bed efficiency for the entire granular filter. The experimental data were then compared with results obtained from the theoretical analysis. The least square method was used to correlate experimental data and to develop generalized equations for single granule efficiency. The study showed that the granular filter media has a high filtration efficiency for both micron and submicron particles. It was concluded that the effect of media thickness was more significant at higher flow rates than at lower flow rates. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The PBW Filtration, Demazure Modules and Toroidal Current Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Feigin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Let L be the basic (level one vacuum representation of the affine Kac-Moody Lie algebra ^g. The m-th space F_m of the PBW filtration on L is a linear span of vectors of the form x_1dots x_lv_0, where l ≤ m, x_i in ^g and v_0 is a highest weight vector of L. In this paper we give two descriptions of the associated graded space L^{gr} with respect to the PBW filtration. The ''top-down'' description deals with a structure of L^{gr} as a representation of the abelianized algebra of generating operators. We prove that the ideal of relations is generated by the coefficients of the squared field e_θ(z2, which corresponds to the longest root θ. The ''bottom-up'' description deals with the structure of L^{gr} as a representation of the current algebra g otimes C[t]. We prove that each quotient F_m/F_{m-1} can be filtered by graded deformations of the tensor products of m copies of g.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Synthesis, Properties, and Future Filtration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Harun-Or Rashid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the past decade, there has been growing interest in the development of different types of membranes composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, including buckypapers and composite materials, for an ever-widening range of filtration applications. This article provides an overview of how different types of CNT membranes are prepared and the results obtained from investigations into their suitability for different applications. The latter involve the removal of small particles from air samples, the filtration of aqueous solutions containing organic compounds and/or bacteria, and the separation of individual liquids present in mixtures. A growing number of reports have demonstrated that the incorporation of CNTs into composite membranes confers an improved resistance to fouling caused by biomacromolecules and bacteria. These results are discussed, along with evidence that demonstrates it is possible to further reduce fouling by taking advantage of the inherent conductivity of composite membranes containing CNTs, as well as by using different types of electrochemical stimuli.

  18. Filtrations on Springer fiber cohomology and Kostka polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Gwyn; Schedler, Travis

    2018-03-01

    We prove a conjecture which expresses the bigraded Poisson-de Rham homology of the nilpotent cone of a semisimple Lie algebra in terms of the generalized (one-variable) Kostka polynomials, via a formula suggested by Lusztig. This allows us to construct a canonical family of filtrations on the flag variety cohomology, and hence on irreducible representations of the Weyl group, whose Hilbert series are given by the generalized Kostka polynomials. We deduce consequences for the cohomology of all Springer fibers. In particular, this computes the grading on the zeroth Poisson homology of all classical finite W-algebras, as well as the filtration on the zeroth Hochschild homology of all quantum finite W-algebras, and we generalize to all homology degrees. As a consequence, we deduce a conjecture of Proudfoot on symplectic duality, relating in type A the Poisson homology of Slodowy slices to the intersection cohomology of nilpotent orbit closures. In the last section, we give an analogue of our main theorem in the setting of mirabolic D-modules.

  19. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  20. Microalgae fractionation using steam explosion, dynamic and tangential cross-flow membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, E; Hapońska, M; Clavero, E; Torras, C; Salvadó, J

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana was subjected to acid catalysed steam explosion treatment and the resulting exploded material was subsequently fractionated to separate the different fractions (lipids, sugars and solids). Conventional and vibrational membrane setups were used with several polymeric commercial membranes. Two different routes were followed: 1) filtration+lipid solvent extraction and 2) lipid solvent extraction+filtration. Route 1 revealed to be much better since the used membrane for filtration was able to permeate the sugar aqueous phase and retained the fraction containing lipids; after this, an extraction required a much lower amount of solvent and a better recovering yield. Filtration allowed complete lipid rejection. Dynamic filtration improved permeability compared to the tangential cross-flow filtration. Best membrane performance was achieved using a 5000Da membrane with the dynamic system, obtaining a permeability of 6L/h/m 2 /bar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Lin, Guangyun; Berry, Scott M; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2012-09-07

    Extraction and purification of DNA is a prerequisite to detection and analytical techniques. While DNA sample preparation methods have improved over the last few decades, current methods are still time consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate a technology termed IFAST (Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension), that relies on immiscible phase filtration to reduce the time and effort required to purify DNA. IFAST replaces the multiple wash and centrifugation steps required by traditional DNA sample preparation methods with a single step. To operate, DNA from lysed cells is bound to paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and drawn through an immiscible fluid phase barrier (i.e. oil) by an external handheld magnet. Purified DNA is then eluted from the PMPs. Here, detection of Clostridium botulinum type A (BoNT/A) in food matrices (milk, orange juice), a bioterrorism concern, was used as a model system to establish IFAST's utility in detection assays. Data validated that the DNA purified by IFAST was functional as a qPCR template to amplify the bont/A gene. The sensitivity limit of IFAST was comparable to the commercially available Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® method. Notably, pathogen detection via IFAST required only 8.5 μL of sample and was accomplished in five-fold less time. The simplicity, rapidity and portability of IFAST offer significant advantages when compared to existing DNA sample preparation methods.

  2. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography analysis of dissolved organic matter isolated by tangential-flow ultra filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, C.R.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 1,000-Dalton tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TFUF) membrane was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from several freshwater environments. The TFUF unit used in this study was able to completely retain a polystyrene sulfonate 1,800-Dalton standard. Unaltered and TFUF-fractionated DOM molecular weights were assayed by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The weight-averaged molecular weights of the retentates were larger than those of the raw water samples, whereas the filtrates were all significantly smaller and approximately the same size or smaller than the manufacturer-specified pore size of the membrane. Moreover, at 280 nm the molar absorptivity of the DOM retained by the ultrafilter is significantly larger than the material in the filtrate. This observation suggests that most of the chromophoric components are associated with the higher molecular weight fraction of the DOM pool. Multivalent metals in the aqueous matrix also affected the molecular weights of the DOM molecules. Typically, proton-exchanged DOM retentates were smaller than untreated samples. This TFUF system appears to be an effective means of isolating aquatic DOM by size, but the ultimate size of the retentates may be affected by the presence of metals and by configurational properties unique to the DOM phase.

  3. A Filtration-based Method of Preparing High-quality Nuclei from Cross-linked Skeletal Muscle for Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Chen, Zheng; Yoo, Seung-Hee

    2017-07-06

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method to determine protein binding to chromatin DNA. Fiber-rich skeletal muscle, however, has been a challenge for ChIP due to technical difficulty in isolation of high-quality nuclei with minimal contamination of myofibrils. Previous protocols have attempted to purify nuclei before cross-linking, which incurs the risk of altered DNA-protein interaction during the prolonged nuclei preparation process. In the current protocol, we first cross-linked the skeletal muscle tissue collected from mice, and the tissues were minced and sonicated. Since we found that ultracentrifugation was not able to separate nuclei from myofibrils using cross-linked muscle tissue, we devised a sequential filtration procedure to obtain high-quality nuclei devoid of significant myofibril contamination. We subsequently prepared chromatin by using an ultrasonicator, and ChIP assays with anti-BMAL1 antibody revealed robust circadian binding pattern of BMAL1 to target gene promoters. This filtration protocol constitutes an easily applicable method to isolate high-quality nuclei from cross-linked skeletal muscle tissue, allowing consistent sample processing for circadian and other time-sensitive studies. In combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS), our method can be deployed for various mechanistic and genomic studies focusing on skeletal muscle function.

  4. Residual urinary extracellular vesicles in ultracentrifugation supernatants after hydrostatic filtration dialysis enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch-Weinert, Dorota; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Holthofer, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) appear an ideal source of biomarkers for kidney and urogenital diseases. The majority of protocols designed for their isolation are based on differential centrifugation steps. However, little is still known of the type and amount of vesicles left in the supernatant. Here we used an isolation protocol for UEVs which uses hydrostatic filtration dialysis as first pre-enrichment step, followed by differential centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mass spectrometry (MS), western blot, ELISA assays and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) were used to characterise and quantify UEVs in the ultracentrifugation supernatant. TEM showed the presence of a variety of small size vesicles in the supernatant while protein identification by MS matched accurately with the protein list available in Vesiclepedia. Screening and relative quantification for specific vesicle markers showed that the supernatant was preferentially positive for CD9 and TSG101. ELISA tests for quantification of exosome revealed that 14%, was left in the supernatant with a particle diameter of 110 nm and concentration of 1.54 × 10 10 /ml. Here we show a comprehensive characterisation of exosomes and other small size urinary vesicles which the conventional differential centrifugation protocol may lose.

  5. The Rho-GTPase binding protein IQGAP2 is required for the glomerular filtration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Yuya; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Auberger, Ines; Ziegler, Urs; Segerer, Stephan; Cohen, Clemens D; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Loffing, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Podocyte dysfunction impairs the size selectivity of the glomerular filter, leading to proteinuria, hypoalbuminuria, and edema, clinically defined as nephrotic syndrome. Hereditary forms of nephrotic syndrome are linked to mutations in podocyte-specific genes. To identify genes contributing to podocyte dysfunction in acquired nephrotic syndrome, we studied human glomerular gene expression data sets for glomerular-enriched gene transcripts differentially regulated between pretransplant biopsy samples and biopsies from patients with nephrotic syndrome. Candidate genes were screened by in situ hybridization for expression in the zebrafish pronephros, an easy-to-use in vivo assay system to assess podocyte function. One glomerulus-enriched product was the Rho-GTPase binding protein, IQGAP2. Immunohistochemistry found a strong presence of IQGAP2 in normal human and zebrafish podocytes. In zebrafish larvae, morpholino-based knockdown of iqgap2 caused a mild foot process effacement of zebrafish podocytes and a cystic dilation of the urinary space of Bowman's capsule upon onset of urinary filtration. Moreover, the glomerulus of zebrafish morphants showed a glomerular permeability for injected high-molecular-weight dextrans, indicating an impaired size selectivity of the glomerular filter. Thus, IQGAP2 is a Rho-GTPase binding protein, highly abundant in human and zebrafish podocytes, which controls normal podocyte structure and function as evidenced in the zebrafish pronephros.

  6. Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%. For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%. Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Culture Filtrates and Organic Extracts of Aspergillus spp. against Pythium ultimum

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Aydi-Ben Abdallah; Marwa Hassine; Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine; Rabiaa Haouala; Mejda Daami-Remadi

    2014-01-01

    Culture filtrates, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of nine isolates of Aspergillus spp. (A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp.), isolated from soil and compost, were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium ultimum the causal agent of the potato Pythium leak. Culture filtrates showed a significant antifungal activity at the different tested concentrations. Total inhibition of the pathogen was induced by the filtrate of CH8 of Aspergillus sp., used at 10% ...

  8. Digital Marketing concept and strategy for a Finnish Start-up, Case: Sofi Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Buda, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    The case company is a Finnish start-up company that operates in the industrial water filtration business and who aims to increase its brand awareness and generate more sales leads. The aim of this study is to provide effective and inexpensive tools for Sofi Filtration to engage its target audience and grow its business by being acknowledged as an expert in industrial water filtration. The thesis is part of the International Business Management program offered by HAAGA-HELIA University of ...

  9. Noncausal two-stage image filtration at presence of observations with anomalous errors

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Vishnevyy; S. Ya. Zhuk; A. N. Pavliuchenkova

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is necessary to develop adaptive algorithms, which allow to detect such regions and to apply filter with respective parameters for suppression of anomalous noises for the purposes of image filtration, which consist of regions with anomalous errors. Development of adaptive algorithm for non-causal two-stage images filtration at pres-ence of observations with anomalous errors. The adaptive algorithm for noncausal two-stage filtration is developed. On the first stage the adaptiv...

  10. Titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by a tissue microculture assay: some applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloncik, S; Chagnon, A

    1980-01-01

    A simple tissue microculture technique was developed for the titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from Euxoa scandens. The procedure was similar to the 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay, but a single infected cell, detected by the presence of cytoplasmic polyhedra, was scored rather than the degeneration of cell monolayers. The filtration of CPV suspensions resulted in decreased virus titers under certain conditions. This microculture assay was used to determine the effect of cell disruption methods on virus yields. Sonication of infected cells was more efficient than freeze-thawing for the recovery of nonoccluded virus.

  11. Modeling of filtration of 2-types particles suspension in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaguz Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration problem describes the process of concreting loose soil with a liquefied concrete solution. The filtration of 2-types particles suspension in a homogeneous porous medium with a size-exclusion particles retention mechanism is considered. The difference in the filtration coefficients of 2-types particles leads to the separation of the filtration domain into two zones, in one of which two types of particles are deposited and in another – only particles of one type are deposited. In this paper, the mobile boundary of two zones is calculated, and numerical solution of the problem is calculated.

  12. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  13. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  14. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  15. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  16. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A; Teplykh, S; Bukhman, N

    2016-01-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks. (paper)

  18. High efficiency filtration of liquid-metal-generated aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper will present data on filter performance for the range of sodium-containing aerorols that can result from large and small releases of hot metallic sodium into confined spaces containing air or special atmospheres and will compare the particle collection effectiveness, space and power requirements, service life, and disposal of the collected materials for the several options. Prompt reduction of in-vessel aerosols with methods that induce rapid coagulation and sedimentation by the application of violent turbulance, sonic energy, or electrostatic attraction; by aerosol scavenging with massive inert dust additions; and by a number of other innovative methods is of special interest because of their potential ability to bring down the aerosol cloud very rapidly and thereby to reduce vessel out-leakage drastically; as well as to relieve the particle load on filters. These methods will be examined as supplements to filtration methods for control of sodium-containing aerosols

  19. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  20. Secondary waste characteristics and ITS filtration system on laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kunio; Miyao, Hidehiko [Research Association for Facility Decommissioning (RANDEC), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Masaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kataoka, Shinichi; Nagura, Yasumi; Saiki, Hideo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Technology of dismantling nuclear facilities has been developing in various fields for its evaluation and dismantling system. RANDEC has been studying remote dismantling system for highly activated equipments such as core internals with a laser using optical fiber. Recently a high power YAG laser having the advantage of application for remote dismantling on thick metallic material is the stage for practical use, and narrow kerf can bring the reduction of secondary waste as well. The present paper describes the experimental results and discussion on the laser cutting, including the secondary waste characteristics and its filtration system using the YAG laser. This study has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  1. Formation and filtration of flocs from coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B K

    1977-06-01

    The size and size distribution of flocs are greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the flocculant coal and dirt particles behave differently in this respect. The pH and the concentration of electrolytes also influence flocculation, by changing both the surface properties of the solid material and the effectiveness of the flocculant. The relationship between the sedimentation time and the filtration rate depends on the concentration and type of flocculant. Optimum pH values for various conditions are tabulated. When an anion-active flocculant is added to a coal-dirt mixture in an alkaline medium, selective flocculation occurs; this can be used to improve the separation of slurries.

  2. Dynamics of intrarenal pressures and glomerular filtration rate after acetazolamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    -EDTA and lithium. Proximal tubular pressure (Pprox) increased initially by 1.7 +/- 0.1 mmHg after ACZ, causing a decrease in the hydrostatic pressure difference across the glomerular membrane (delta P). EDC increased, and then RBF, glomerular capillary pressure (Pgc), Pprox, and star vessel pressures (Psv) dropped......The dynamics of intrarenal pressures, early distal tubular fluid conductivity (EDC), and renal flood flow (RBF) were studied in rats given acetazolamide (ACZ), an inhibitor of proximal reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and end-proximal flow were estimated by clearances of 51Cr...... as a result of afferent vasoconstriction. Pprox decreased less than Pgc, resulting in a further decrease in delta P, which after 25-30 s reached a constant level 3-4 mmHg below control. After a transient increase the pressures declined to a new steady state, in which Pprox was equal to control, Pgc...

  3. Is the use of particle air filtration justified? Costs and benefits of filtration with regard to health effects, building cleaning and occupant productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of costs and the corresponding benefits of particle filtration have been derived for a standard office building. Reduction in occupants’ exposure to particles during their workday is anticipated to reduce their morbidity and mortality. Filtration may also reduce the costs associated......, the sensitivity of the results to these parameters was evaluated as part of this study. The study also acknowledges that the benefits-to-costs ratio depends on the perspective of the stakeholder: the employer renting the building is impacted by occupant performance and building energy costs; the building owner...... is impacted by maintenance of the building and its HVAC system; society is impacted by the employees’ health and welfare. Regardless of perspective, particle filtration is anticipated to lead to annual savings significantly exceeding the running costs for filtration. However, economic losses resulting from...

  4. Behavior of Gd-DTPA in simulated bank filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Peter; Knappe, Andrea; Dulski, Peter; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Gd-DTPA and similar products are common pollutants in surface and groundwater and prove to be a reliable monitor for mixing of groundwater with surface water loaded with effluents from sewage treatment plants. → Within a 30 m column filled with Pleistocene sand Gd-DTPA is reduced by 16% only within one month time by transmetallation. → Artificial bank filtration is not very effective in reducing Gd-DTPA in infiltrating water. - Abstract: The behavior of Gd-DTPA during bank filtration was simulated in a 30 m column filled with Pleistocene sand and flushed by surface water from a lakeside in Berlin, Germany. The surface water is about a 1:1 mixture of river water and effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Throughout 34 days this water was continuously spiked with Gd-DTPA at a level of 60 μg/L. The broad plateau of the Gd-DTPA pulse declined by 15.4% within 34 days by transmetallation. Nine percentage of the total decline is caused by Y and rare earth elements; the remaining part is attributed to Cu 2+ which is the most influential metal in surface water. All other metals also contributing to transmetallation are combined with Cu to Cu equivalents because only the rate constant of transmetallation of Cu 2+ is known. The analytical results of the column effluents prove the pseudo-first-order kinetics of transmetallation based on reversible sorption of metals by pools in the column sediment and disprove biodegradation at noticeable levels. The mass ratio of water to tracer is 10 .

  5. Experimental study of head loss and filtration for LOCA debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Souto, F.J.

    1996-02-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to obtain head loss and filtration characteristics of debris beds formed of NUKON trademark fibrous fragments, and obtain data to validate the semi-theoretical head loss model developed in NUREG/CR-6224. A thermally insulated closed-loop test set-up was used to conduct experiments using beds formed of fibers only and fibers intermixed with particulate debris. A total of three particulate mixes were used to simulate the particulate debris. The head loss data were obtained for theoretical fiber bed thicknesses of 0.125 inches to 4.0 inches; approach velocities of 0.15 to 1.5 ft/s; temperatures of 75 F and 125 F; and sludge-to-fiber nominal concentration ratios of 0 to 60. Concentration measurements obtained during the first flushing cycle were used to estimate the filtration efficiencies of the debris beds. For test conditions where the beds are fairly uniform, the head loss data were predictable within an acceptable accuracy range by the semi-theoretical model. The model was equally applicable for both pure fiber beds and the mixed beds. Typically the model over-predicted the head losses for very thin beds and for thin beds at high sludge-to-fiber mass ratios. This is attributable to the non-uniformity of such debris beds. In this range the correlation can be interpreted to provide upper bound estimates of head loss. This is pertinent for loss of coolant accidents in boiling water reactors

  6. Emergency field water supply system using natural filtration elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, M.; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Ismail, Siti Nor Kamariah

    2018-02-01

    Water is the most important resource in times of emergency and during military missions. In addition, if there is a war in a country, sources of clean water are essential for life. But, the safety and cleanliness of the river water for the campers and hikers still uncertain. Usually, polluted and contaminated river water is not safe to be directly consumed by human. However, this problem can be partly resolved by using water filter where the river water can be consumed directly after the filtration process. In respect of that, this study was conducted to design the filter media for personal water purification system. Hence, the objective of this work also is to develop a personal, portable dual purpose handy water filter to provide an easier way to get safe, clean and healthy drinking water for human wherever they go. The water quality of samples collected before and after filtration were analyzed. Water samples were taken from a waterfall near Lestari Block and Lake beside Marine Centre UPNM Campus. The experimental results were analyzed based on the assessment of water quality parameters. Overall, the analysis of the results showed that the water filter was designed with basic mix tabs aqua filter water purification tablets is showing a better result where it achieve the class I of water quality index (WQI). In details, the water sample taken from waterfall near Lestari Block shown the WQI around 93 which is higher than WQI of water sample from Lake near Marine Centre UPNM which is 86, class II A which can be used for external purpose only.

  7. Behavior of Gd-DTPA in simulated bank filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Peter, E-mail: pemoe@gfz-potsdam.de [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, AB Hydrogeologie, 12249 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Knappe, Andrea [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, AB Hydrogeologie, 12249 Berlin (Germany); Dulski, Peter [Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Pekdeger, Asaf [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, AB Hydrogeologie, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Gd-DTPA and similar products are common pollutants in surface and groundwater and prove to be a reliable monitor for mixing of groundwater with surface water loaded with effluents from sewage treatment plants. {yields} Within a 30 m column filled with Pleistocene sand Gd-DTPA is reduced by 16% only within one month time by transmetallation. {yields} Artificial bank filtration is not very effective in reducing Gd-DTPA in infiltrating water. - Abstract: The behavior of Gd-DTPA during bank filtration was simulated in a 30 m column filled with Pleistocene sand and flushed by surface water from a lakeside in Berlin, Germany. The surface water is about a 1:1 mixture of river water and effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Throughout 34 days this water was continuously spiked with Gd-DTPA at a level of 60 {mu}g/L. The broad plateau of the Gd-DTPA pulse declined by 15.4% within 34 days by transmetallation. Nine percentage of the total decline is caused by Y and rare earth elements; the remaining part is attributed to Cu{sup 2+} which is the most influential metal in surface water. All other metals also contributing to transmetallation are combined with Cu to Cu equivalents because only the rate constant of transmetallation of Cu{sup 2+} is known. The analytical results of the column effluents prove the pseudo-first-order kinetics of transmetallation based on reversible sorption of metals by pools in the column sediment and disprove biodegradation at noticeable levels. The mass ratio of water to tracer is <10{sup 10}.

  8. Aldosterone and glomerular filtration--observations in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dittmann, Kathleen; Völzke, Henry; Endlich, Karlhans; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2014-03-10

    Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany. A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (ß-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; ß-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD. Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.

  9. MULTILAYER POROUS COMPOSITE FROM WASTE GLASS FOR WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Aji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer porous composite have been produced through the heating process at temperature T=700oC for 2.5 h. Single layered porous composite was made with a varied mass percentage of from PEG polymer  1% to 10%. Double-layered porous composite were made by the arrangement of porosity (4:3%, (4:2% and (3:2%, while the three-layers porous composite have an arrangement (4:3:2%. Performance of multilayer porous composite for water filtration with pollutants of methylene blue 100 ppm was estimated from the absorbance spectrum. Rejection of methylene blue pollutants from single layered porous composite increases when the fraction of PEG polymer tend to be smaller in the matrix. Meanwhile, the double layered porous composite has a degradation of methylene blue pollutants are better than one layer. Triple layered porous composite have good performance for the water filtration where all the pollutants of methylene blue be able to be filtered.   Komposit pori berlapis telah dihasilkan dengan proses pemanasan pada temperatur T=700oC selama 2.5 jam. Komposit pori satu lapis dibuat dengan variasi persen massa polimer PEG 1% hingga 10%. Komposit pori dua lapis dibuat dengan susunan porositas (4:3%, (4:2% dan (3:2%, sedangkan komposit pori tiga lapis memiliki susunan porositas (4:3:2%. Kinerja komposit pori berlapis untuk filter air dengan polutan methylene blue 100 ppm diestimasi dari spektrum absorbansi. Rejeksi polutan methylene blue dari komposit pori satu lapis meningkat saat fraksi polimer PEG cenderung lebih kecil dalam matrik komposit. Sedangkan, komposit pori dua lapis memiliki kemampuan untuk degradasi polutan methylene blue yang lebih baik dari satu lapis. Komposit pori tiga lapis memiliki kinerja yang baik untuk filter air dimana seluruh polutan methylene blue mampu disaring. 

  10. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  11. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of phosphate ion on filtration characteristics of solids generated in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of phosphate ion on the filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste was experimentally examined. Addition of phosphate ion into the simulated HLLW induced the formation of phosphate such as zirconium phosphate and phosphomolybdic acid. The filtration rate of zirconium phosphate abruptly dropped in the midst of filtration because of a gel-cake formation on the filter surface. The denitration of the simulated HLLW contained zirconium phosphate improved the filterability of this gelatinous solid. The filtration rates of denitrated HLLW decreased with increase of the phosphate ion concentration, since the solids formed by denitration had irregular particle size and configuration in the simulated HLLW with phosphate ion. To increase the filtration rate of denitrated HLLW, a solid suspension filtration tester was designed. The solid-suspension accelerated the filtration rate only in the simulated HLLW with more than 1500 ppm phosphate ion concentration. Under this condition, the simple agitation can easily suspend the constituent solids of filter cake in the solution and a much higher filtration rate can be obtained because the filter cake is continuously swept from the filter surface by rotation of propellers. (authors)

  13. Polymer-treated woody biomass: a filtration medium for removing phosphate from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage treatment of refined aspen wood fiber with solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and ferrous chloride afforded a filtration medium that was effective in removing phosphate from test solutions. To assess the stability of the filtration medium, samples exposed to the test solutions were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The resultant spectra indicated that...

  14. Process analysis and optimization of direct horizontal-row roughing filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahsan, T.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing demand for appropriate water treatment technology for towns and small cities in developing countries. This study developed a pretreatment technology for highly turbid river water, called direct horizontal-flow roughing filtration, by combining the principles of direct filtration

  15. Resolution of the three dimensional structure of components of the glomerular filtration barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkill, Kenton P; Qvortrup, Klaus; Starborg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The human glomerulus is the primary filtration unit of the kidney, and contains the Glomerular Filtration Barrier (GFB). The GFB had been thought to comprise 3 layers - the endothelium, the basement membrane and the podocyte foot processes. However, recent studies have suggested that at least two...

  16. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate...

  17. Introduction of filtration systems in container nurseries for nonchemical elimination of Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsten Ufer; Heinrich Beltz; Thomas Brand; Katrin Kaminski; Ralf Lüttmann; Martin Posner; Stefan Wagner; Sabine Werres; Hans-Peter Wessels

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-year project the elimination of Phytophthora spp. from the recirculation water with different kinds of filtration systems will be tested under commercial conditions in container nurseries. First results indicate that the filtration systems eliminate Phytophthora spp. from the water.

  18. The Application of Homogenate and Filtrate from Baltic Seaweeds in Seedling Growth Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal filtrate and homogenate, obtained from Baltic seaweeds, were applied in seedling growth tests. Radish seeds were used in order to assess algal products phytotoxicity and their biostimulant effect on growth and nutrient uptake. Algal filtrate, at concentrations ranging from 5.0% to 100% was used for seed soaking and as a liquid biostimulant (soil and foliar application. Algal homogenate was developed for seed coating. Algal filtrate and homogenate were also enriched with Zn(II ions in order to examine the influence on metal ion complexation. The optimal doses of algal filtrate and homogenate, as well as soaking time were established. Multi-elemental analyses of the raw biomass, filtrate, homogenate, and radish were also performed using ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma—Optical Emission Spectrometry. The best results in terms of seedlings’ length and weight were obtained using clear filtrate at a concentration of 50% applied to the soil and for homogenate applied at a dose of 50 mg/g of seeds. Clear filtrate at a concentration of 50% used for seed soaking for one hour showed the best results. The applied algal products increased the content of elements in seedlings. Among the tested products, a concentration of 50% algal filtrate is recommended for future pot and field experiments.

  19. Filtration track membranes and their biomedical applications; Trekowe membrany filtracyjne oraz ich zastosowania biomedyczne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczkowski, M; Wawszczak, D; Starosta, W [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The characteristics of track filtration membranes has been performed. The investigation of radiation resistance has been carried out for different types of polymer foil used as a membrane material. Biomedical applications of track filtration membranes have been presented and discussed. 10 refs, 10 figs.

  20. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  1. Osculum dynamics and filtration activity in small single-osculum explants of the demosponge Halichondria panicea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2017-01-01

    the clearance method. Osculum dynamics, as expressed by temporal variation of the OSA, including osculum contraction and expansion, correlated with variability in the explant filtration rate, and no water pumping was observed during periods of osculum closure. A linear relationship between filtration rate (FR......Contraction-inflation behavior, including the closure and opening of the exhalant opening (osculum), is common among sponges. This behavior may temporally affect filtration activity, making it difficult to study and understand sponge feeding biology. To examine the interplay between osculum...... dynamics and filtration activity, small (18 mm3) single-osculum explants of the demosponge Halichondria panicea were studied. Time-lapse video stereo-microscope recordings of the osculum cross-sectional area (OSA) were made simultaneously with measurements of the filtration rate (∼15°C, ∼20 PSU) using...

  2. The usage of filtration as fulfillment of acceptable indoor and optimal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The role of filtration is a significant factor in the prevention and mitigation of indoor air quality problems. ASHRAE Standard 62-89. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, makes broad and non-specific references to filtration. This paper provides guidelines for the usage of filtration as a means of fulfillment of the Standard's requirements. The paper also references the specific authorities as iterated in the Standard. The discussion will include the usage of filtration in treating contaminated outside air, protection of equipment and systems, protection of occupants, reduction of ventilation air, and source control. The reduction of ventilation air through filtration has significant and positive energy management benefits. Other energy benefits accrue from clean heat exchange surfaces

  3. Sieve plugs in fenestrae of glomerular capillaries--site of the filtration barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Jørgen; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The exact location of the filtration barrier of the glomerular capillary wall, which consists of an endothelium, a basement membrane and a visceral epithelium, has not yet been determined. Apparent discrepancies between different investigators in the past could be explained if postmortem...... and a filamentous surface coat about 60 nm thick covered the interfenestral domains of the endothelial cell. Based on these purely morphological data, we dare to suggest that the fenestral plugs are the primary site of the glomerular filtration barrier - albeit highly speculative, nevertheless a logical location...... - and consequently that the glomerular filtration process is a 'tangential-flow' as opposed to a 'dead-end' filtration process. A tangential-flow filtration would minimize 'clogging' and 'concentration polarization' in the 'filter'....

  4. A Combined Approach to Measure Micropollutant Behaviour during Riverbank Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Derx, Julia; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as natural treatment process. The advantages of RBF over surface water abstraction are the elimination of for example suspended solids, biodegradable compounds (like specific micropollutants), bacteria and viruses (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). However, in contrast to its importance, remarkably less is known on the respective external (e.g. industrial or municipal sewage) and the internal (e.g. wildlife and agricultural influence) sources of contaminants, the environmental availability and fate of the various hazardous substances, and its potential transport during soil and aquifer passage. The goal of this study is to get an insight in the behaviour of various micropollutants and microbial indicators during riverbank filtration. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling approaches. The study area comprises an alluvial backwater and floodplain area downstream of Vienna. The river is highly dynamic, with discharges ranging from 900 m3/s during low flow to 11000 m3/s during flood events. Samples were taken in several monitoring wells along a transect extending from the river towards a backwater river in the floodplain. Three of the piezometers were situated in the first 20 meters away from the river in order to obtain information about micropollutant behaviour close to the river. A total of 9 different micropollutants were analysed in grab samples taken under different river flow conditions (n=33). Following enrichment using SPE, analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Faecal indicators (E. coli and enterococci) and bacterial spores were enumerated in sample volumes of 1 L each using cultivation based methods (ISO 16649-1, ISO 7899-2:2000 and ISO 6222). The analysis showed that some compounds, e.g. ibuprofen and diclofenac, were only found in the river. These compounds were already degraded in the first ten meters away from the river. Analysis of

  5. Evaluation of Filtration and UV Disinfection for Inactivation of Viruses in Non-Community Water Systems in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated filtration and disinfection processes for removal and inactivation of pathogens in non-community water systems (NCWS) in two surface water supplies. Pretreatment systems included 1) pressure sand filtration, and 2) granular activated carbon adsorption, and 3...

  6. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  7. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH 2 PO 4 -Na 2 HPO 4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 125I iothalamate an ideal marker for glomerular filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, B.; Haellgren, R.S.; Sohtell, M.; Lindstroem, B.

    1985-01-01

    The triiodinated angiographic contrast medium, iothalamate (usually labelled 125 I), has been used extensively as a marker for glomerular filtration. The authors have studied the renal handling of 125 I iothalamate (IOT) in vivo and in vitro in several species. In renal cortical slices from chicken, rabbit, rat, and monkey, the tissue-to-medium ratio of IOT was twice that of 51 Cr-EDTA (EDTA) at 37 degrees C; a difference that was abolished at 0 degree C and markedly reduced by added o-iodohippurate or iodipamide. In five chickens the steady-state renal clearance of IOT (CIOT) was twice that of EDTA (CEDTA) or 3 H inulin (C1); a difference that was abolished by administration of 100 mg/kg/hr of novobiocin, an organic anion transport inhibitor. CEDTA was similar to C1 before as well as after transport inhibition. Utilizing the Sperber technique the mean apparent tubular excretion fraction (ATEF) of IOT was 8%, while that of EDTA was 1%. After novobiocin coinfusion (new steady-state) ATEFIOT was significantly reduced and not different from that of EDTA (-1%). In the same animals the total urinary recovery of IOT was 84 and 57% before and after novobiocin, respectively, while corresponding values for EDTA was unchanged by the inhibitor. In seven rats the renal extraction of IOT was reduced from 29 to 17% by coinfusion of probenecid (5 mg/kg/hr). Corresponding extractions were 82 to 34% and 22% (unchanged) for PAH and EDTA, respectively

  9. Integrated photocatalytic filtration array for indoor air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Frans; Permana, Eric; Scott, Jason; Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y H; Amal, Rose

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic and filtration technologies were integrated to develop a hybrid system capable of removing and oxidizing organic pollutants from an air stream. A fluidized bed aerosol generator (FBAG) was adapted to prepare TiO(2)-loaded ventilation filters for the photodegradation of gas phase ethanol. Compared to a manually loaded filter, the ethanol photodegradation rate constant for the FBAG coated filter increased by 361%. Additionally, the presence of the photogenerated intermediate product, acetaldehyde, was reduced and the time for mineralization to CO(2) was accelerated. These improvements were attributed to the FBAG system providing a more uniform distribution of TiO(2) particles across the filter surface leading to greater accessibility by the UV light. A dual-UV-lamp system, as opposed to a single-lamp system, enhanced photocatalytic filter performance demonstrating the importance of high light irradiance and light distribution across the filter surface. Substituting the blacklight blue lamps with a UV-light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) array led to further improvement as well as suppressed the electrical energy per order (EE/O) by a factor of 6. These improvements derived from the more uniform distribution of light irradiance as well as the higher efficiency of UV-LEDs in converting electrical energy to photons.

  10. Filtration of aerosols produced by a sodium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.; Colome, J.

    1977-01-01

    The containment system of the Super Phenix reactor takes account of the possibility of contaminated sodium fires, particularly in the vicinity of the fuel storage drum. It is thus necessary to contain the emitted radioactivity associated with a quantity of sodium aerosols of the order of some 10 g/m 3 . Investigations previously carried out had shown that the retention capacity of high-efficiency asbestos filters was clearly insufficient. A new research programme on the filtration of sodium aerosols has thus been worked out with the aim of: gaining a better understanding of the granulometry of the aerosols produced by the fire; checking the efficiency of the new glass-fibre media of which high-efficiency filters are composed; selecting a prefiltering system which, in conjunction with the high-efficiency filter, would ensure a suitable retention capacity for the whole unit. The following prefilters are under investigation: agglomerating cyclones; fabric prefilters (dense filter media - variable density filters - bag filters); water prefilters; sand prefilters. The experimental equipment on which this programme has been based is presented. Results have so far been obtained for agglomerating cyclones (recirculating loop with a cyclone of 95% efficiency), for a number of textile prefilters and for the retention capacity of high-efficiency filters

  11. Research on Hydrophilic Nature of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on Polysulfone Membrane Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, L. G.; Vlad, M.; Baltă, Ş.

    2018-06-01

    The membranes used in wastewater filtration are obtained from polymers, this technique is widely applied because of the small installations and low costs as against conventional systems. The polymeric membranes have high mechanical strength and flexibility, but is a challenge to improve in the same time the permeability and retention capacity of the membranes. A process that can improve the membrane properties is the addition of additives to the polymer solution, resulting in noticeable changes in the resulting membrane structure. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a highly hydrophilic polymer, used as a food additive that acts as stabilizer and thickening agent, which brings improvements in membrane properties. This study analyses the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the casting solution of the prepared membranes. The polymer solution was prepared from polysulfone (PSf) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at different concentrations. The membranes were obtained by phase inversion method. The PSf/PVP/NMP membranes with different concentrations were characterized by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, morphological structure and permeation tests. The results show that the hydrophilic nature of PVP improve the pure water flux, the contact angle and exhibit a higher anti-fouling property.

  12. Non-filtration method of processing of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Vodolazov, L.I.; Tokarev, N.N.; Vyalkov, V.I.; Goldobina, V.A.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the filterless sorption method has lead to working out the sorption leaching process and the process of extraction desorption, which has made possible to intensify the process of uranium ore working and to improve greatly the technical economic indexes by liquidating the complex method of multiple filtration and repulping of cakes. This method makes possible to involve more poor uranium raw materials and at the same time to extract valuable components: molybdenum, vanadium, copper, etc. Great industrial experience has been accumulating in sorption of dense pulp with the ratio of solid phase to liquid one equal to 1:1. This has lead to the increase of productivity of working plants by 1,5-3,0 times, the increase of uranium extraction by 5-10%, the increase of labour capacity of main workers by 2-3 times, and to the decrease of reagents expense, auxiliary materials, electric energy and vapour by several times. In fact the developed technology is continuous in all its steps with complete complex automatization of the process with the help of the most simple and available means of regulation and controlling. The process is equipped with high productivity apparatuses of great power with mechanic and pneumatic mixing for high density pulps, and with the columns KDS, KDZS, KNSPR and PIK for the regeneration of saturated sorbent in the counterflow regime. The exploitation of fine-granular hydrophilic ion-exchange resins in hydrophobized state is foreseen [ru

  13. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  14. Filtration of nanoparticles - Application to respiratory protecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochot, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine how the respiratory protective devices (RPD), whose performances are qualified for particles above 100 nm, are effective for nanoparticles. Indeed, if the use of a collective filtration is inadequate, wearing a RPD is the last protection recommended. A literature review showed that no research concerned the effectiveness of half-masks for nanoparticles. The test bench ETNA has been sized and built to overcome these lacks. Two half masks were tested according to different configurations: constant flow rate and cyclic flow rate (average flow of 84 L /min), particle size (from 5 to 100 nm), positions of the mask (sealed, usual, or with calibrated leaks). The results show that, since the RPD contain high efficiency filter media (without charged fibers) for the most penetrating particle size (100 nm - 300 nm), the RPD is more efficient for nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results obtained in the presence of actual and calibrated leaks, highlighted the importance of face seal leakages in determining the performance of RPD. A model for calculating the protection factor was established based on the balance between the airflow through the filter and the leak. This model was validated using measurements obtained in the presence of calibrated leaks, and applied for the analysis of our results in usual position. (author)

  15. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  16. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  17. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Cruz Padilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 μm pore-size and a downstream 0.2 μm filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40-60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05-0.5 L to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold. Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities.

  18. Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Reynolds, B.A.; Todd, T.A.; Wilson, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic

  19. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-01-01

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project

  20. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  1. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spino, M.; Chai, R.P.; Isles, A.F.; Balfe, J.W.; Brown, R.G.; Thiessen, J.J.; MacLeod, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine renal function in 10 healthy control subjects and eight patients with cystic fibrosis in stable condition. Sequential bolus injections of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and 125 I-OIH were administered to assess glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow, respectively. Blood was subsequently collected for 3 hours, and urine for 24 hours. Renal clearances of both radioisotope markers were virtually identical in patients and controls. Inasmuch as neither glomerular filtration rate nor effective renal plasma flow was enhanced in patients with cystic fibrosis, increased clearance of drugs in these patients is unlikely to be the result of enhanced glomerular filtration or tubular secretion

  2. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ivanov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the mModern data on the influence of renin-angiotensin system blockers on the glomerular filtration rate, the level of arterial pressure and the outcome of chronic kidney disease. The strategy of  rennin-angiotensine blockade is offered to be changed depending on the criteria va­lues of glomerular filtration rate: a combination of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme + angiotensin receptors blo­ckers, monotherapy and drug withdrawal in glomerular filtration rate under 15–30 ml/min/m2. The formula BRIMONEL for treatment of chronic kidney disease is given.

  3. On some Filtration Procedure for Jump Markov Process Observed in White Gaussian Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Khas'minskii, Rafail Z.; Lazareva, Betty V.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of optimal filtration problem for Markov chain with two states observed in Gaussian white noise (GWN) for a lot of concrete technical problems is well known. The equation for a posterior probability $\\pi(t)$ of one of the states was obtained many years ago. The aim of this paper is to study a simple filtration method. It is shown that this simplified filtration is asymptotically efficient in some sense if the diffusion constant of the GWN goes to 0. Some advantages of this proc...

  4. Influence of the surface structure on the filtration performance of UV-modified PES membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæselev, Bozena Alicja; Kingshott, P.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    chemically characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight-static secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-static SIMS). The filtration performance of irradiated/non-modified and irradiated/modified membranes was examined in a crossflow cell, using a dextran solution. The filtration...... in relation to dextran when compared to membranes modified by AAG and AAP. This work suggests that the structure of the presence of grafted chains seems to be responsible for the observed changes to filtration performance of the modified membrane. Surface analysis supports the claim that the specific surface...

  5. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1

  6. Energy Implications of In-Line Filtration in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Occupant concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) issues has led to the increased use of more effective air filters in residential heating and cooling systems. This study performed measurements in ten California houses to determine the effects of changing filter performance and related characteristics on the energy use of the heating and cooling systems. Multiple filters were evaluated covering a wide range of filter effectiveness from simple low filtration fiberglass filters up to high efficiency filters that might be used by occupants concerned about IAQ. Sophisticated analysis and simulation tools used the field-testing results to determine filter impacts for a wide range of parameters and California climates. The results indicate that for MERV 10/11/13 filters the effects on energy use are moderate (<5%) over a wide range of performance conditions and climates. Using higher MERV 16 filters can lead to significantly increased energy use (>5%). The high airflow resistance of MERV 16 filters led to excess noise in some test houses from air bypassing the filter and the blower motor. Filter loading rates varied more from house to house than by MERV rating and overall were quite low in many of the homes. Filter related energy use does not need to be addressed for filters of MERV 10/11/13 and MERV 16 filters should only be used with low leakage tested ducts unless the filter is mounted at the blower compartment. MERV 16 filters should only be used if the filter area is sufficient to prevent noise issues and if the duct system has low air flow resistance and low leakage. Filters should be labeled for their air flow resistance, or static pressure at a particular flow rate, that would allow codes and standards to reference a particular performance specification and allow contractors and homeowners to make informed purchases.

  7. Riverbank filtration for the treatment of highly turbid Colombian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; van Halem, Doris; Rietveld, Luuk

    2017-05-01

    The poor quality of many Colombian surface waters forces us to seek alternative, sustainable treatment solutions with the ability to manage peak pollution events and to guarantee the uninterrupted provision of safe drinking water to the population. This review assesses the potential of using riverbank filtration (RBF) for the highly turbid and contaminated waters in Colombia, emphasizing water quality improvement and the influence of clogging by suspended solids. The suspended sediments may be favorable for the improvement of the water quality, but they may also reduce the production yield capacity. The cake layer must be balanced by scouring in order for an RBF system to be sustainable. The infiltration rate must remain high enough throughout the river-aquifer interface to provide the water quantity needed, and the residence time of the contaminants must be sufficient to ensure adequate water quality. In general, RBF seems to be a technology appropriate for use in highly turbid and contaminated surface rivers in Colombia, where improvements are expected due to the removal of turbidity, pathogens and to a lesser extent inorganics, organic matter and micro-pollutants. RBF has the potential to mitigate shock loads, thus leading to the prevention of shutdowns of surface water treatment plants. In addition, RBF, as an alternative pretreatment step, may provide an important reduction in chemical consumption, considerably simplifying the operation of the existing treatment processes. However, clogging and self-cleansing issues must be studied deeper in the context of these highly turbid waters to evaluate the potential loss of abstraction capacity yield as well as the development of different redox zones for efficient contaminant removal.

  8. Bacterial reduction by cell salvage washing and leukocyte depletion filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan H; Tuohy, Marion J; Hobson, Donna F; Procop, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Blood conservation techniques are being increasingly used because of the increased cost and lack of availability of allogeneic blood. Cell salvage offers great blood savings opportunities but is thought to be contraindicated in a number of areas (e.g., blood contaminated with bacteria). Several outcome studies have suggested the safety of this technique in trauma and colorectal surgery, but many practitioners are still hesitant to apply cell salvage in the face of frank bacterial contamination. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of bacterial removal when cell salvage was combined with leukocyte depletion filtration. Expired packed erythrocytes were obtained and inoculated with a fixed amount of a stock bacteria (Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collections [ATCC] 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, or Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285) in amounts ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 colony forming units/ml. The blood was processed via a cell salvage machine. The washed blood was then filtered using a leukocyte reduction filter. The results for blood taken during each step of processing were compared using a repeated-measures design. Fifteen units of blood were contaminated with each of the stock bacteria. From the prewash sample to the postfiltration sample, 99.0%, 99.6%, 100%, and 97.6% of E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. fragilis were removed, respectively. Significant but not complete removal of contaminating bacteria was seen. An increased level of patient safety may be added to cell salvage by including a leukocyte depletion filter when salvaging blood that might be grossly contaminated with bacteria.

  9. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in the conscious rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Sabine; Krzykalla, Volker; Weckesser, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important parameter for studying drug-induced impairments on renal function in rats. The GFR is calculated from the concentration of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum and in urine, respectively. Following current protocols serum and urine samples must be taken from the same animal. Thus, in order to determine time-dependent effects it is necessary to use for each time point one separated group of animals. We developed a statistical test which allows analyzing the GFR from two different groups of animals: one used for repeated serum and the other one used for repeated urine analysis. Serum and urine samples were taken from two different sets of rats which were otherwise treated identically, i.e. drug doses, routes of administration (per os or per inhalation) and tap water loading. For each dose group GFR mean, standard deviation and statistical analysis to identify differences between the dose groups were determined. After determination of the optimal time points for measurements, the effect on GFR of the three reference compounds, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide and formoterol, was calculated. The results showed that the diuretic drugs furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide decreased the GFR and the antidiuretic drug formoterol increased the GFR, as counter regulation on urine loss or urine retention, respectively. A mathematical model and the corresponding algorithm were developed, which can be used to calculate the GFR, and to test for differences between groups from two separated sets of rats, one used for urine, and the other one for serum analysis. This new method has the potential to reduce the number of animals needed and to improve the quality of data generated from various groups of animals in renal function studies.

  10. SPECTRAL FILTRATION OF IMAGES BY MEANS OF DISPERSIVE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gulis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments for spectral filtration of images are an important element of the systems used in remote sensing, medical diagnostics, in-process measurements. The aim of this study is analysis of the functional features and characteristics of the proposed two image monochromator versions which are based on dispersive spectral filtering. The first is based on the use of a dispersive monochromator, where collimating and camera lenses form a telescopic system, the dispersive element of which is within the intermediate image plane. The second version is based on an imaging double monochromator with dispersion subtraction by back propagation. For the telescopic system version, the spectral and spatial resolutions are estimated, the latter being limited by aberrations and diffraction from the entrance slit. The device has been numerically simulated and prototyped. It is shown that for the spectral bandwidth 10 nm (visible spectral range, the aberration-limited spot size is from 10–20 μm at the image center to about 30 μm at the image periphery for the image size 23–27 mm. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction enables one to vary the spectral resolution (up to 1 nm and higher by changing the intermediate slit width. But the distinctive feature is a significant change in the selected central wavelength over the image field. The considered designs of dispersive image monochromators look very promising due to the particular advantages over the systems based on tunable filters as regards the spectral resolution, fast tuning, and the spectral contrast. The monochromator based on a telescopic system has a simple design and a rather large image field but it also has a limited light throughput due to small aperture size. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction has higher light throughput, can provide high spectral resolution when recording a full data cube in a series of measuring acts for different dispersive element positions. 

  11. Four novel Arthrobacter species isolated from filtration substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linxian; Hirose, Taketo; Yokota, Akira

    2009-04-01

    Four Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, LC4(T), LC6(T), LC10(T) and LC13(T), were isolated from a filtration substrate made from trass, a volcanic rock, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The novel strains grew over a temperature range of 5-40 degrees C, at pH values of 6-11 and in the presence of 3-7 % (w/v) NaCl. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the novel strains formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Arthrobacter. Chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrated that the major menaquinone was MK-9(H(2)), a menaquinone typical of the Arthrobacter globiformis group. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) and the major amino acid present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was l-lysine. These observations supported the affiliation of the novel strains to the genus Arthrobacter. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, the new isolates are considered to represent four novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the names Arthrobacter niigatensis sp. nov. (type strain LC4(T)=IAM 15382(T)=CCTCC AB 206012(T)), Arthrobacter alkaliphilus sp. nov. (type strain LC6(T)=IAM 15383(T)=CCTCC AB 206013(T)), Arthrobacter echigonensis sp. nov. (type strain LC10(T)=IAM 15385(T)=CCTCC AB 206017(T)) and Arthrobacter albidus sp. nov. (type strain LC13(T)=IAM 15386(T)=CCTCC AB 206018(T)) are proposed.

  12. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  13. BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS VERIFICATION TESTING, HOW IT BENEFITS THE BOILER BAGHOUSE OPERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for baghouse filtration products developed by the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, one of six Centers under the ETV Program, and discusses how it benefits boiler baghouse operators. A...

  14. Quantitative measurement and visualization of biofilm O 2 consumption rates in membrane filtration systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C; Staal, Marc J.; Kü hl, Michael; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong need for techniques enabling direct assessment of biological activity of biofouling in membrane filtration systems. Here we present a new quantitative and non-destructive method for mapping O 2 dynamics in biofilms during

  15. Towards supported bolaamphiphile membranes for water filtration: Roles of lipid and substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufman, Y.; Grinberg, S.; Linder, C..; Heldman, E.; Gilron, J.; Shen, Yue-xiao; Kumar, M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Freger, V.

    2014-01-01

    Supported biomimetic membranes hold potential for applications such as biosensors and water purification by filtration. The current paper reports on the preparation of a supported bolaamphiphile membrane on two polymeric nanofiltration membranes: NF-270 made of polyamide with carboxylic surface

  16. Determination of the filtration velocities and mean velocity in ground waters using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran P, Oscar; Diaz V, Francisco; Heresi M, Nelida

    1994-01-01

    An experimental method to determine filtration, or, Darcy velocity and mean velocity in underground waters using radiotracers, is described. After selecting the most appropriate tracers, from 6 chemical compounds, to measure water velocity, a method to measure filtration velocity was developed. By fully labelling the water column with 2 radioisotopes, Br and tritium, almost identical values were obtained for the aquifer filtration velocity in the sounding S1. This value was 0.04 m/d. Field porosity was calculated at 11% and mean velocity at 0.37 m.d. With the filtration velocity value and knowing the hydraulic variation between the soundings S1 and S2 placed at 10 meters, field permeability was estimated at 2.4 x 10 m/s. (author)

  17. Radioactive Testing Results in Support of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility - Filtrate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results investigating the decomposition of excess NaTPB in presence of filtrate from one of the Cycle I Demonstration tests, fulfilling a request by CST Engineering and the ITP Flow Sheet Team

  18. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR VENTILATION SYSTEM FILTRATION FAILURE LEADING TO AN UNFILTERED RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2005-01-06

    This document analyzed three scenarios involving failures of HEPA filtration systems leading to releases from liquid waste tanks. The scenarios are failure due to high temperature (fire), overpressure (filter blowout), and unfiltered release due to filter failure, improper installation. etc.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - TETRATEC PTFE TECHNOLOGIES TETRATEX 8005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  20. Measurement of water filtration in skeletal muscle in man by an osmotic transient method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, T; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Water filtration in the human forearm was determined with a new method using a hyperoncotic transient of albumin solution infused into the brachial artery. Baseline dilution of labelled albumin in deep forearm vein plasma in excess of the contribution from arterial blood and from infusate...... was assumed to originate from extravascular water filtered into the blood by the transient. The filtration coefficient (Fc) was determined as the ratio between filtered water and increase in colloid osmotic pressure in the blood samples, and gives the filtrative water permeability in the exchange areas...... muscles, but it is of the same order of magnitude as the capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) determined plethysmographically for the entire forearm by the venous stasis technique....

  1. Biofouling investigation in membrane filtration systems using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Biofouling represents the main problem in membrane filtration systems. Biofouling arises when the biomass growth negatively impacts the membrane performance parameters (i.e. flux decrease and feed channel pressure drop). Most of the available

  2. Filtration of the FMICW radar output signals by the advanced windows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filtration of the FMICW radar output signals by the advanced windows. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper deals with the special types of windows application on the two dimensional spectrum obtained using the ...

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of heat-resistant cast steel filtration from the results of structure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asłanowicz M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Filtration guarantees castings characterised by high quality and free from any non-metallic inclusions, which are formed at the stage of melting and pouring of liquid metal. This article discusses the problem of the effectiveness of filtration process taking as an example heat-resistant cast steel poured into ceramic moulds. In investigations, foamed zircon filters made by FerroTerm Sp. z o.o. The effectiveness of filtration was described and examined using the results of metallographic examinations, including macro- and micro-structure examinations of metal and of cast metal/ceramic filter interface, and measurements of the content of non-metallic inclusions. The methods of investigations were presented, the obtained results were described, and relevant conclusions were drawn, all of them unmistakably indicating a very beneficial effect that filtration has on molten metal quality. Łódź, Poland, were used.

  4. Riverbank Filtration: A Sustainable Process to Attenuate Contaminants during Drinking Water Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Riverbank filtration leads to purification of water. For India it can be a simple, economical and effective alternative. A few unanswered questions were: Can it work in Indian mountainous regions? Will it be of any advantage in the case of some of the polluted Indian surface waters? With the goal to evaluate use of riverbank filtration as a sustainable technology under widely varying conditions prevalent in India, the effectiveness of riverbank filtration has been examined over the last 10 years. In the case of cleaner surface waters, the wells deliver water free of turbidity and coliform even during monsoon irrespective of well configuration. In the case of polluted source waters, it results in an overall advantage in terms of improved raw water quality, reduced degree and cost of subsequent treatment and decreased levels of disinfection by-products. The study shows riverbank filtration to be an effective and sustainable option for plains as well as the mountainous region.

  5. The effect of filtration on radon daughter atmospheres: Laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne radon daughters may be removed from the air by internal filtration using mechanical or electrofilters. The effect of the filtration may be evaluated in absolute measure by the decrease in the potential alpha energy concentration (or equivalent equilibrium concentration) or relatively by the decrease in the equilibrium factor. The filtration, however, may also change the distribution of airborne radon daughter activity between the unattached and the aerosol-attached state in a way to increase the radiological dose corresponding to a given potential alpha energy concentration. The paper describes a series of laboratory and field experiments which indicate that it is possible by the use of household electrofilters with filtration rates of 2-3 h -1 to lower the radon daughter concentrations to about 20 -30 % and the average radiological dose to about 50-60 % of the value in unfiltered air

  6. On the possibility of separation of valuable components from chloride pulps by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chub, A.V.; Zelenkov, B.N.; Zakharov, V.F.; Drobot, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility has been studied of extracting MCl 5 (M=Nb, Ta) from technical products (chloride pulps in TiCl 4 ) by filtration. It has been established that in a low temperature range (( 5 . With increasing temperature a mutual presence of niobium and tantalum chlorides decreases the total content of MCl 5 in the solution. It has also been found that the filtration rate is proportional to pressure; besides, ''the aged'' precipitates possess worse filtrating properties due to particle destruction. Materials of the fiber glass fabric type are a good base for applying the precipitate. At a layer thickness of the chloride (MCl 5 ) precipitate about 20 mm a sufficiently high filtration rate is ensured

  7. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Filtration Models for Non-Fickian transport and Hyperexponential deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are carried out to investigate the predictive accuracy of the filtration models for describing non-Fickian transport and hyperexponential deposition. Five different modeling approaches, involving the elliptic equation with different types of distributed...... filtration coefficients and the CTRW equation expressed in Laplace space, are selected to simulate eight experiments. These experiments involve both porous media and colloid-medium interactions of different heterogeneity degrees. The uncertainty of elliptic equation predictions with distributed filtration...... coefficients is larger than that with a single filtration coefficient. The uncertainties of model predictions from the elliptic equation and CTRW equation in Laplace space are minimal for solute transport. Higher uncertainties of parameter estimation and model outputs are observed in the cases with the porous...

  8. Filtration of Nanoparticles: Evolution of Cake Structure and Pressure-Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    The detailed three-dimensional accumulation of deposits and the build-up of pressuredrop during filtration of compressible gases laden with nanoparticles (diameter dp=50 nm) through capillaries (1–4 micron radius) was investigated by Langevin dynamics (LD) at Peclet number, Pe, 0.01–10. At low Pe...... with constant solid volume fraction began to form, accompanied with build-up of pressuredrop which was in excellent agreement with classic cake filtration theory. An expression for the solid volume fraction of the cake (fsd,c) was obtained as a sole function of Pe. In addition, the filtration efficiency became...... 1 after clogging, since the cake acts as a perfectly efficient filter. Penetration of nanoparticles takes place until the onset of cake filtration at high Pe (1–10) while for smaller ones (0.01–0.1) it is negligible at the employed capillary radii and length (10 micron). Analytical expressions...

  9. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.

    1992-01-01

    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  10. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  11. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination

  12. Microwave-Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Baggiani, A. and Senesi, S. (2004). Effect of Microwave Radiation on Bacillus subtilis Spores . J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 1220–1227. Damit, B., Lee, C.N...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0020 MICROWAVE-IRRADIATION-ASSISTED HVAC FILTRATION FOR INACTIVATION OF VIRAL AEROSOLS POSTPRINT Myung-Heui Woo and...12-APR-2011 -- 11-DEC-2011 Microwave Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (POSTPRINT) FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F

  13. Filtration influence in a constant potential X-ray machine peak voltage measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.R.; Vivolo, V.; Xavier, M.; Potiens, M.P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Navarro, M.V.T., E-mail: dossantos.lucasrodrigues@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    This work shows the peak voltage measurements for several beam filtrations used in diagnostic radiology, using two types of non-invasive detectors; a voltage meter and a high-resolution spectrometer. The technique chosen for the voltage peak measurements with the spectrometer was the endpoint. The results were compared to the measured ones and showed good similarity to the nominal values. However the voltage meter detector used in this work presented errors for heavier filtrations. (author)

  14. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  15. A stochastic model for filtration of particulate suspensions with incomplete pore plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Santos, A; Bedrikovetsky, P. G.

    2007-01-01

    . A closed system of governing stochastic equations determines the evolution of size distributions for suspended particles and pores. Its averaging results in the closed system of hydrodynamic equations accounting for permeability and porosity reduction due to plugging. The problem of deep bed filtration...... of a single particle size suspension through a single pore size medium where a pore can be completely plugged by two particles allows for an exact analytical solution. The phenomenological deep bed filtration model follows from the analytical solution....

  16. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  17. Graphene nanoplatelets as high-performance filtration control material in water-based drilling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridha, Syahrir; Ibrahim, Arif; Shahari, Radzi; Fonna, Syarizal

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) as filtration control materials in water based drilling fluids. Three (3) general samples of water based drilling fluids were prepared including basic potassium chloride (KCl) drilling fluids, nanosilica (NS) drilling fluids and GNP drilling fluids. Several concentrations of NS and GNP were dispersed in controlled formulations of water based drilling fluids. Standard API filtration tests were carried out for comparison purposes as well as High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) filtration tests at 150 °F (∼66 °C), 250 °F (∼121 °C) and 350 °F (∼177 °C) at a fixed 500 (∼3.45MPa) psi to study the filtration trend as a function of temperature. Mud cake samples from several tests were selectively chosen and analyzed under Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) for its morphology. Results from this work show that nanoparticle concentrations play a factor in filtration ability of colloid materials in water based drilling fluids when studied at elevated temperature. Low temperature filtration, however, shows only small differences in volume in all the drilling fluid samples. 0.1 ppb concentrations of GNP reduced the fluid loss of 350 °F by 4.6 mL as compared to the similar concentration of NS drilling fluids.

  18. Ultrasonic flow-through filtration of microparticles in a microfluidic channel using frequency sweep technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dae Cheol; Ahn, Bong Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Siddique, A. K. M. Ariful Haque; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the filtration of microparticles using the acoustic radiation force of ultrasonic standing wave. The present work concerns a flow-through particle filtration method by utilizing frequency varying ultrasound. The periodical frequency sweep of the ultrasonic standing wave translocates particles across a microchannel, where particles in fluid flow are filtrated without barriers. The present filtration technique in a microfluidic channel was proposed conceptually in the 1990s. However, its experimental realization on actual particles in a microfluidic channel has not been carried out in a notable way. Several sizes of polystyrene microspheres (10 µm to 90 µm) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles (37 µm) suspended in water were applied as a test sample. For filtration of those particles, a Y-branched microfluidic channel with one inlet and two outlets was made out of steel and acrylic as a form of modulized device. Ultrasound of a few MHz in band frequency (1.75 MHz to 3.05 MHz) was transmitted into one side of the channel wall to generate a standing wave field in fluid flow. The periodical frequency sweep operation showed successful filtration performance, whereby particles in water flowed into one outlet and purified water flowed into the other outlet of the Y branch of the channel.

  19. Evaluation of particulate filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.

    2009-10-01

    In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.

  20. Penetration of sub-micron aerosol droplets in composite cylindrical filtration elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Pratte, Pascal; Stolz, Steffen; Stabbert, Regina; Poux, Valerie; Nordlund, Markus; Winkelmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Advection-diffusion transport of aerosol droplets in composite cylindrical filtration elements is analyzed and compared to experimental data. The penetration, characterizing the fraction of droplets that passes through the pores of a filtration element, is quantified for a range of flow rates. The advection-diffusion transport in a laminar Poiseuille flow is treated numerically for slender pores using a finite difference approach in cylindrical coordinates. The algebraic dependence of the penetration on the Peclet number as predicted theoretically, is confirmed by experimental findings at a variety of aspect ratios of the cylindrical pores. The effective penetration associated with a composite filtration element consisting of a set of parallel cylindrical pores is derived. The overall penetration of heterogeneous composite filtration elements shows an algebraic dependence to the fourth power on the radii of the individual pores that are contained. This gives rise to strong variations in the overall penetration in cases with uneven distributions of pore sizes, highly favoring filtration by the larger pores. The overall penetration is computed for a number of basic geometries, providing a point of reference for filtration design and experimental verification.

  1. In Vitro Selection of Peanut Somatic Embryos on Medium Containing Culture Filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and Plantlet Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSNITA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to identify somaclonal variants of peanut with resistance to Sclerotium stem rot disease due to infection of S. rolfsii were conducted. The objectives of this study were to develop in vitro selection method using culture filtrates of S. rolfsii, identify culture filtrate-insensitive somatic embryo (SE of peanut after in vitro selection and regenerate peanut R0 lines originated from culture filtrate-insensitive SE. To achieve these objectives, peanut embryogenic tissues were cultured on selective medium containing various concentrations of S. rolfsii culture filtrates and sublethal concentration of the filtrates. Medium containing sublethal level of S. rolfsii culture filtrates was used to identify culture filtrate-insensitive SE of peanut. Subsequently, the selected SEs were germinated, plantlets were regenerated and preliminary tested against S. rolfsii. Results of the experiments showed that addition of S. rolfsii culture filtrates into medium for inducing peanut somatic embryos drastically reduced their growth and proliferation. S. rolfsii culture filtrates at 10% concentration has significantly reduced the number of proliferated SE per explant. However, sublethal level was achieved at 30% of culture filtrates concentration. Responses of five peanut cultivars against 30% of culture filtrates were similar, indicating they were similar in their susceptibility against S. rolfsii. A number of culture filtrate-insensitive SE were identified after culturing 1500 clumps of embryogenic tissue of peanut cv. Kelinci for three consecutive passages on medium containing 30% of culture filtrates. Germination of selected SE and regeneration of plantlet from culture filtrate-insensitive SE resulted in 50 peanut R0 lines. These lines have been grown in the plastic house and produced normal seeds for further evaluation. Results of S. rolfsii inoculation indicated the existence of chimera for insensitivity against S. rolfsii.

  2. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  3. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  4. The Formation of Porous Membranes by Filtration of Aerosol Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Sune K.; Johannessen, Tue; Mosleh, Majid; Wedel, Stig; Tranto, Janne; Livbjerg, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flame-generated aerosol particles of Al 2 O 3 were deposited by gas filtration on two types of porous and ceramic tubes of α-Al 2 O 3 with mean pore diameters of 450 and 2700 nm, respectively. The particles were aggregates with average mobility diameters in the range of 30-100 nm and primary particle diameters of 4-8 nm. The particles are characterized by differential mobility analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and by their specific surface area. The deposited membranes are characterized by gas permeability measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and by their pore size distribution from nitrogen capillary condensation. The particles form a distinct, homogeneous membrane layer with a porosity of ∼90% on top of the substrate surface and only penetrate slightly into the substrate structure. The mean pore sizes of the deposited membranes determined by nitrogen condensation agree approximately with those determined by gas permeation and the specific surface area. The mean pore diameter varies in the range of 30-70 nm. The gas permeability of the deposited membranes is related to the specific surface area but influenced by the high porosity. The mean pore size and the permeability of the membranes are almost independent of the substrate structure.The development of a membrane with uniform properties is preceded by a short initial period in which the deposited particles, with an equivalent membrane thickness of roughly 2 μm, have a significantly lower permeability than the ultimately developed uniform membrane layer. This effect is particularly significant for the aerosol particles with the lowest mean size, probably due to particles deposited in the pore mouths of the substrate.The particles and the deposited membranes are X-ray amorphous but retain their specific surface area on heating to even high temperatures. When the membranes are heated to 1473 K for 10 h, X-ray diffraction shows a mixture of θ- and α-alumina, accompanied by a partial

  5. Validation of estimated glomerular filtration rate equations for Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Uemura, Osamu; Ishikura, Kenji; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Yuko; Araki, Yoshinori; Hamda, Riku; Honda, Masataka

    2018-01-25

    The gold standard for evaluation of kidney function is renal inulin clearance (Cin). However, the methodology for Cin is complicated and difficult, especially for younger children and/or patients with bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we developed a simple and easier method for obtaining the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using equations and values for several biomarkers, i.e., serum creatinine (Cr), serum cystatin C (cystC), serum beta-2 microglobulin (β 2 MG), and creatinine clearance (Ccr). The purpose of the present study was to validate these equations with a new data set. To validate each equation, we used data of 140 patients with CKD with clinical need for Cin, using the measured GFR (mGFR). We compared the results for each eGFR equation with the mGFR using mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), P 30 , and Bland-Altman analysis. The ME of Cr, cystC, β 2 MG, and Ccr based on eGFR was 15.8 ± 13.0, 17.2 ± 16.5, 15.4 ± 14.3, and 10.6 ± 13.0 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. The RMSE was 29.5, 23.8, 20.9, and 16.7, respectively. The P 30 was 79.4, 71.1, 69.5, and 92.9%, respectively. The Bland-Altman bias analysis showed values of 4.0 ± 18.6, 5.3 ± 16.8, 12.7 ± 17.0, and 2.5 ± 17.2 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively, for these parameters. The bias of each eGFR equation was not large. Therefore, each eGFR equation could be used.

  6. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  7. Measurement of gamma-aminobutyric acid in human cerebrospinal fluid: radioreceptor assay using [3H]muscimol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraczka, K.; Sperk, G.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in human cerebrospinal fluid by modification of the radioreceptor assay utilizing [ 3 H]muscimol as labelled ligand. This method is compared with the radioreceptor assay using [ 3 H]GABA as labelled ligand. Although the [ 3 H]muscimol assay is less sensitive than the [ 3 H]GABA method, it offers the advantage of being more rapid due to the use of a filtration step instead of the usual, more time-consuming centrifugation of the samples. Samples of CSF of patients with various neurological or psychiatric disturbances were analysed. There was a satisfactory correlation between the GABA values obtained by the two assays. (Auth.)

  8. Modeling of Filtration Processes—Microfiltration and Depth Filtration for Harvest of a Therapeutic Protein Expressed in Pichia pastoris at Constant Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar Sampath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filtration steps are ubiquitous in biotech processes due to the simplicity of operation, ease of scalability and the myriad of operations that they can be used for. Microfiltration, depth filtration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration are some of the most commonly used biotech unit operations. For clean feed streams, when fouling is minimal, scaling of these unit operations is performed linearly based on the filter area per unit volume of feed stream. However, for cases when considerable fouling occurs, such as the case of harvesting a therapeutic product expressed in Pichia pastoris, linear scaling may not be possible and current industrial practices involve use of 20–30% excess filter area over and above the calculated filter area to account for the uncertainty in scaling. In view of the fact that filters used for harvest are likely to have a very limited lifetime, this oversizing of the filters can add considerable cost of goods for the manufacturer. Modeling offers a way out of this conundrum. In this paper, we examine feasibility of using the various proposed models for filtration of a therapeutic product expressed in Pichia pastoris at constant pressure. It is observed that none of the individual models yield a satisfactory fit of the data, thus indicating that more than one fouling mechanism is at work. Filters with smaller pores were found to undergo fouling via complete pore blocking followed by cake filtration. On the other hand, filters with larger pores were found to undergo fouling via intermediate pore blocking followed by cake filtration. The proposed approach can be used for more accurate sizing of microfilters and depth filters.

  9. A Dual Filtration-Based Multiplex PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on Fresh-Cut Cantaloupe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Feng

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut cantaloupe is particularly susceptible to contamination with pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, development of rapid, yet accurate detection techniques is necessary to ensure food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR system and propidium monoazide (PMA concentration were optimized to detect all viable pathogens in a single tube. A dual filtration system utilized a filtration membrane with different pore sizes to enrich pathogens found on fresh-cut cantaloupe. The results revealed that an optimized multiplex PCR system has the ability to effectively detect three pathogens in the same tube. The viable pathogens were simultaneously detected for PMA concentrations above 10 μg/ml. The combination of a nylon membrane (15 μm and a micro pore filtration membrane (0.22 μm formed the dual filtration system used to enrich pathogens. The achieved sensitivity of PMA-mPCR based on this dual filtration system was 2.6 × 103 cfu/g for L. monocytogenes, 4.3 × 10 cfu/g for E. coli O157:H7, and 3.1 × 102 cfu/g for S. aureus. Fresh-cut cantaloupe was inoculated with the three target pathogens using concentrations of 103, 102, 10, and 1 cfu/g. After 6-h of enrichment culture, assay sensitivity increased to 1 cfu/g for each of these pathogens. Thus, this technique represents an efficient and rapid detection tool for implementation on fresh-cut cantaloupe.

  10. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  11. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  12. Chest CT using spectral filtration: radiation dose, image quality, and spectrum of clinical utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Franziska M.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Meinel, Felix G. [University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To determine the radiation dose, image quality, and clinical utility of non-enhanced chest CT with spectral filtration. We retrospectively analysed 25 non-contrast chest CT examinations acquired with spectral filtration (tin-filtered Sn100 kVp spectrum) compared to 25 examinations acquired without spectral filtration (120 kV). Radiation metrics were compared. Image noise was measured. Contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) and figure-of-merit (FOM) were calculated. Diagnostic confidence for the assessment of various thoracic pathologies was rated by two independent readers. Effective chest diameters were comparable between groups (P = 0.613). In spectral filtration CT, median CTDI{sub vol}, DLP, and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) were reduced (0.46 vs. 4.3 mGy, 16 vs. 141 mGy*cm, and 0.65 vs. 5.9 mGy, all P < 0.001). Spectral filtration CT had higher image noise (21.3 vs. 13.2 HU, P < 0.001) and lower CNR (47.2 vs. 75.3, P < 0.001), but was more dose-efficient (FOM 10,659 vs. 2,231/mSv, P < 0.001). Diagnostic confidence for parenchymal lung disease and osseous pathologies was lower with spectral filtration CT, but no significant difference was found for pleural pathologies, pulmonary nodules, or pneumonia. Non-contrast chest CT using spectral filtration appears to be sufficient for the assessment of a considerable spectrum of thoracic pathologies, while providing superior dose efficiency, allowing for substantial radiation dose reduction. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Fusarium isolates and their filtrates on respiratory rate and chemical analysis of squash plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawy, Z; Mansour, M A; El-Behrawi, S

    1978-01-01

    The highly pathogenic isolate stimulated the emergence of the squash seedlings first, caused, however, the highest death rate of the seedlings finally. Fusarium isolates and their culture filtrates inhibited the respiratory rate of squash plants significantly. However, F. oxysporum isolates inhibited respiration more than F. solani isolates. Seasonal changes of respiration decline show that the respiratory rate decreased with plant growth in the case of infested soil and of plants injected with culture filtrates. However, spraying Fusarium culture filtrates on the foliage gave opposite results when the plants grew older. Fusarium solani isolates decreased nitrogen content of squash stems and leaves, while F. oxysporum isolates gave reverse results. Injecting Fusarium culture filtrate into the plant decreased nitrogen content of both stems and leaves, while spraying the foliage with the filtrates increased nitrogen content more than that of the control. Phosphorus content of the stems of squash plants, sown in infested soil, was less than in the control when the plants were treated with F. solani and higher when they were treated with F. oxysporum isolates. On the other hand, the phosphorus content of squash leaves was higher than in the control. In the case of injected plants, however, the phosphorus content in stems and leaves was equal to that of the control or less, and with sprayed plants it was higher than in the control. Infesting the soil with Fusarium isolates and spraying the foliage with their culture filtrates increased potassium content of squash stems and leaves, while injecting the filtrates into the plants decreased potassium content of both stems and leaves.

  14. Development of a solid-phase assay for measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.; Johnson, K.; Kaplan, J.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase, plate assay was developed for the measurement of proteolytic enzyme activity. In this assay procedure, radiolabeled substrates were dried onto the surface of microtiter wells. Following drying, the wells were washed two times with saline to remove the nonadherent substrate. When proteolytic enzymes were added to the wells, protein hydrolysis occurred, releasing radioactivity into the supernatant fluid. The amount of protein hydrolysis that occurred was reflected by the amount of radioactivity in the supernatant fluid. When 125 I-hemoglobin was used as the substrate, it was as susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin in the solid-phase assay as it was in solution in a standard assay procedure. Protease activity from a variety of sources (including from viable cells as well as from extracellular sources) were also able to hydrolyze the hemoglobin on the plate. 125 I-Labeled serum albumen, fibrinogen, and rat pulmonary basement membrane were also susceptible to hydrolysis by trypsin in the solid phase. When [ 14 C]elastin was dried onto the plate, it behaved in a similar manner to elastin in solution. It was resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin but was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by elastase. The solid-phase plate assay has several features which recommended it for routine use. It is as sensitive as standard tube assays (and much more sensitive than routinely used colormetric assays). It is quick and convenient; there are no precipitation, centrifugation, or filtration steps. In addition, very small volumes of radioactive wastes are generated. Another advantage of the solid-phase plate assay is the resistance of the dried substrates to spontaneous breakdown and to microbial contamination. Finally, this assay is suitable for use with viable cells as well as for extracellular proteases

  15. [Consequences for labile blood products of leukocyte depletion by whole blood filtration using the Leucoflex LST1 in-line filter. Evaluation of the Leucoflex LST1 filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, G; Samson, T; Faudon, R; Renaudeau, C; Joussemet, M; Fabre, G

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of whole blood filtration after a storage time of 20-24 hours at laboratory temperature using the in line filter Leucoflex LST1. The study concerns 49 blood donations in which we studied leukocyte depletion, proteins (IgG, IgA, IgM, haptoglobin, C3, C4), coagulation factors (fibrinogen, factors XII, XI, IX, VIII, V, proteins S and C, plasminogen, tPA, D-Dimers, PDF) at day 1, the parameters of conservation (ATP, 2-3 DPG, extra cellular potassium, haemolysis, pH) of red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) and bacteriological sterility at day 1 and 42. Despite a correct leukocyte depletion (mean depletion of 3.96 log), a 10 fold higher mean level of residual leukocytes/unit than with buffy coat poor RCC filtration (0.514.10(6) vs 0.051.10(6)) is observed. Moreover a lot of concentrates are not in accordance with French regulations (7/42 with more than 1.10(6) leukocytes/unit). The variation of the rates of IgG, IgA, IgM, haptoglobin, C4 and protein C is not significant. For the others there is a slight decrease with a mean level remaining in a physiological range. No sign of activation is noted. The sterility assays remain negative and the RCC conservation is not altered. In conclusion, even if the quality of the leukocyte depletion is not satisfactory in our study and has to be stated more precisely by multicenter studies, the whole blood filtration does not alter the quality of the derived components and allows us obtain RCC in a bigger volume and containing more haemoglobin than with the classical procedure after removing the buffy-coat [10].

  16. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the cell-free filtrate of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Silva LP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Laryssa Pinheiro Costa Silva,1 Jairo Pinto Oliveira,2 Wanderson Juvencio Keijok,2 André Romero da Silva,3 Anderson Rocha Aguiar,1 Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimarães,2 Carolina Magri Ferraz,1 Jackson Victor Araújo,4 Fernando Luiz Tobias,5 Fábio Ribeiro Braga1 1Department of Parasitology, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 2Morphology Department, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 3Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo, Aracruz, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 4Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 5Department of Microbiology, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil Abstract: The biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs using biological systems such as fungi has evolved to become an important area of nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report for the first time the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver NPs (AgNPs using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001. The fungal cell-free filtrate was analyzed by the Bradford method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay and used to synthesize the AgNPs in the presence of a 1 mM AgNO3 solution. They have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopes. UV–Vis spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while X-ray diffractometry established the crystalline nature of the AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy images showed approximately 11, 38 nm monodisperse and quasispherical AgNPs. Zeta potential analysis was able to show a considerable stability of AgNPs. The N–H stretches in Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicate the presence of protein molecules. The Raman bands suggest that chitinase was involved in the growth and

  17. Existing creatinine-based equations overestimate glomerular filtration rate in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Horio, Masaru; Kumar, Vinod; Sahni, Nancy; Gupta, Krishan L; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Jha, Vivekanand

    2018-02-01

    Accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for diagnosis and risk stratification in chronic kidney disease and for selection of living donors. Ethnic differences have required correction factors in the originally developed creatinine-based GFR estimation equations for populations around the world. Existing equations have not been validated in the vegetarian Indian population. We examined the performance of creatinine and cystatin-based GFR estimating equations in Indians. GFR was measured by urinary clearance of inulin. Serum creatinine was measured using IDMS-traceable Jaffe's and enzymatic assays, and cystatin C by colloidal gold immunoassay. Dietary protein intake was calculated by measuring urinary nitrogen appearance. Bias, precision and accuracy were calculated for the eGFR equations. A total of 130 participants (63 healthy kidney donors and 67 with CKD) were studied. About 50% were vegetarians, and the remainder ate meat 3.8 times every month. The average creatinine excretion were 14.7 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 13.5 to 15.9 mg/kg/day) and 12.4 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 11.2 to 13.6 mg/kg/day) in males and females, respectively. The average daily protein intake was 46.1 g/day (95% CI: 43.2 to 48.8 g/day). The mean mGFR in the study population was 51.66 ± 31.68 ml/min/1.73m 2 . All creatinine-based eGFR equations overestimated GFR (p < 0.01 for each creatinine based eGFR equation). However, eGFR by CKD-EPI Cys was not significantly different from mGFR (p = 0.38). The CKD-EPI Cys exhibited lowest bias [mean bias: -3.53 ± 14.70 ml/min/1.73m 2 (95% CI: -0.608 to -0.98)] and highest accuracy (P 30 : 74.6%). The GFR in the healthy population was 79.44 ± 20.19 (range: 41.90-134.50) ml/min/1.73m 2 . Existing creatinine-based GFR estimating equations overestimate GFR in Indians. An appropriately powered study is needed to develop either a correction factor or a new equation for accurate assessment of kidney function in the

  18. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  19. Measurement of filtration efficiency of Nuclepore filters challenged with polystyrene latex nanoparticles: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tsz Yan; Wang Jing; Pui, David Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane filtration has been demonstrated to be effective for the removal of liquid-borne nanoparticles (NPs). Such technique can be applied to purify and disinfect drinking water as well as remove NPs in highly pure chemicals used in the industries. This study aims to study the filtration process of a model membrane filter, the Nuclepore filter. Experiments were carried out using standard filtration tools and the nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) technique was used to measure particle (50–500 nm) concentration upstream and downstream of the filter to determine the filtration efficiency. The NTA technique has been calibrated using 150-nm polystyrene latex particles to determine its accuracy of particle concentration measurement. Measurements were found reliable within a certain concentration limit (about 10 8 –10 10 particles/cm 3 ), which is dependent on the camera settings during the measurement. Experimental results are comparable with previously published data obtained using the aerosolization method, validating the capability of the NTA technique. The capillary tube model modified from that developed for aerosol filtration was found to be useful to represent the experimental results, when a sticking coefficient of 0.15 is incorporated. This suggests that only 15% of the particle collisions with the filter results in successful attachment. The small sticking coefficient found can be explained by the unfavorable surface interactions between the particles and the filter medium.

  20. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  1. Radio elements / bottom salts separation by nano-filtration aided by complexation in a highly saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, Eric

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of a membrane-based technique, nano-filtration, aided or not by complexation, for the processing of highly saline liquid effluents produced by radio-chemical decontamination. The objective is to separate non-radioactive elements (sodium nitrate) from radio-elements (caesium, strontium and actinides) in order to reduce the volume of wastes. Within the perspective of an industrial application, a system to concentrate the effluent is firstly defined. Different nano-filtration membranes are tested and reveal to be insufficient in highly saline environment. A stage of selective complexation of radio-elements is therefore considered before nano-filtration. The main factors affecting performance of nano-filtration-complexation (for a given membrane system) are identified: ionic force, pH, ligand content, trans-membrane pressure. Finally, a nano-filtration pilot is implemented to perform nano-filtration-complexation operations by remote handling on radioactive substances [fr

  2. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr. The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8% of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years, 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years, and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years. The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  3. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  4. Immunotoxic effect of thiamethoxam in immunized mice with Brucella abortus cultural filtrate antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Salema

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned for determination the toxic effect of thiamethoxam (TMX in immunized mice with Brucella abortus culture filtrate antigen (CFBAgs (as a vaccine and its role of TMX on decrease activity of B. abortus antigen on eliciting of humoral and cellular immunity. Materials and Methods: To achieve these goals 60 female mice were used, 7-8 weeks age, they were divided equally into three groups (20 in each group and treated as follows: 1st group: Mice were immunized with CFBAgs intraperitoneally in two doses, 2 weeks intervals with (protein concentration 2 mg\\ml, 2nd group: Mice immunized as in the 1st group and was administrated orally with 1/10 lethal dose 50% of TMX (83.7 mg/kg B.W. for 4 weeks daily, 3rd group was administrated orally with 0.3 ml normal saline served as a control group. At day 28 post immunization (PI delayed type hypersensitivity (skin test was done, and serum samples were collected at day 30 (PI for detection of passive hemagglutination test (PHA; interferon gamma (IFN-γ which was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in addition to phagocytes assay. Results: The results of skin test post injection with soluble antigen of B. abortus intradermally showed a high significantly mean values at p≤0.05 of footpad skin thickness in the 1st group of mice which recorded (0.51±0.002 mm as compared with the 2nd group of mice which showed (0.08±0.002 mm after 24 h; the mean values of skin thickness were declined in the 1st mice (0.46±0.002 and 2nd mice (0.070±0.001 at 48 h; control group showed a negative results. These results were agreed with results of serum levels of IFN-γ (pg/ml that showed that a significant increase the vaccinated 1st group (406.36±1.52, than those values in the 2nd group (151.61±0.89 and negative result in 3rd group (46.47±0.60, in addition to results of PHA test which showed a significant increase in antibody titer in the 1st group (139±12.16 with low level of serum antibody

  5. Formation of filtration fields close to near-surface radioactive waste storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart'yanov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Data on the formation of filtration fields in the location of near-surface radioactive waste storages for the conditions of uniformly isotropic properties of bearing strata are demonstrated. The possibility for changing parameters of mean-caused ground flow depending on water permeability of the storages and their dimensions in plan is noted. Comparison of different filtration fields permits to determine a state of its isolating properties. Assessment criteria of the storage engineering barriers integrity are given. Conditions for uniformly isotropic properties of bearing strata by three scenarios, when engineering barriers of the storage are waterproof, distracted or lost protective properties in full, have been determined. Changing filtration field, geochemical and radiochemical situations in bearing strata are noted to represent one of basic characteristics of the integrity of the storage [ru

  6. Reactor containment depressurization and filtration equipment for use in the case of a serious accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Homme, A.

    1987-06-01

    A study was carried out under the aegis of the OECD into filtered vented containment systems which permit depressurization of the containment and filtration of the effluents released to the environment, in the event of a major accident with a pressurized water reactor (PWR) (or BWR or CANDU type reactors) involving core meltdown, with a view to minimizing the consequences. This paper describes the various systems examined which could possibly be used for this purpose. These comprised the French robust sand filtration system, the Swedish FILTRA system, the vacuum containment and discharge and emergency filtration system used by the CANDU plants of the Ontario-Hydro electricity company in Canada and the BWR pressure-suppression pounds. The positions of the various national authorities regarding incorporation of such systems into nuclear power plants, the design and technical principles underlying the systems, the procedures and criteria for their use and their advantages and disadvantages are examined [fr

  7. Effect of Twisting and Stretching on Magneto Resistance and Spin Filtration in CNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent quantum transport properties in twisted carbon nanotube and stretched carbon nanotube are calculated using density functional theory (DFT and non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF formulation. Twisting and stretching have no effect on spin transport in CNTs at low bias voltages. However, at high bias voltages the effects are significant. Stretching restricts any spin-up current in antiparallel configuration (APC, which results in higher magneto resistance (MR. Twisting allows spin-up current almost equivalent to the pristine CNT case, resulting in lower MR. High spin filtration is observed in PC and APC for pristine, stretched and twisted structures at all applied voltages. In APC, at low voltages spin filtration in stretched CNT is higher than in pristine and twisted ones, with pristine giving a higher spin filtration than twisted CNT.

  8. Mathematics model of filtration efficiency of moisture separator for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenzhong; Jiang Feng; Huang Yunfeng

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the filtration mechanism of the moisture separator for water droplet of 5∼10μm, this paper set up a physical model. For the mixed meshes, they can be classified into three types: standard meshes, bur meshes and middle meshes. For all fibers of the wire meshes and vertical fibers of standard mixed meshes, a Kuwabara flow field is used to track the particle to get the inertial impaction efficiency and then calculate the total filtration efficiency of the meshes. For other fibers, besides the Kuwabara flow field, an around-flat flow field is added to calculate the efficiency. Lastly, the total efficiency of the moisture separator according to the equation of the filtration efficiency for the filters in series is compared with the experimental data. The result shows that, under the standard condition,the calculation value is consistent with the experimental efficiency data. (authors)

  9. Filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory simulated liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-08-01

    A method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) is being developed in which the material will be solidified in cement and stored in an aboveground engineered storage facility. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic isotopes. Filtration methods to remove transuranic isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) were investigated in this study. Initial batch studies using waste from MVST indicate that >99.9% of the transuranic isotopes can be removed from the bulk liquid by simple filtration. Bench-scale studies with a nonradioactive surrogate waste indicate that >99.5% of the suspended solids can be removed from the bulk liquid via inertial crossflow filtration. 4 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the filtration of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, M.; Schueth, C.; Pyka, W.

    1992-01-01

    Filtration experiments were preformed for three selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH-Fluorene, Fluoranthene and Benz(b)-fluoranthene) dissolved in water by varying filter materials, filter-pore sizes and filter equipment. The rate of recovery of PAH depended on the materials and methods applied. Organic filter materials showed a by far stronger sorption than inorganic materials. The losses for organic filters increased up to 100% with decreasing pore-size. The percentage loss was observed to increase with increasing octanol-water distribution coefficient (K OW ). Saturation tests revealed that the amount of water, necessary to saturate the filtration apparatus with and without filter-paper, also increased with the K OW . For BBF several liters would be necessary for saturation. It can be concluded, that the filtration of water samples, analysed for PAH, can lead to considerable errors in the analytical results, particularly for those PAH with log K OW larger than 5. (orig.)

  11. Filtration of aluminum alloys and its influence on mechanical properties and shape of eutectical silicium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brůna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Filtration during casting of high quality aluminum alloys belongs to main refining methods. Even when there are many years of experiences and experimental works on this subject, there are still some specific anomalies. While using ceramic filtration media during casting of aluminum alloys, almost in all experiments occurred increase of strength limit and atypical increase of extension. This anomaly was not explained with classical metallurgical methods, black-white contrast after surface etching neither with color surface etching. For that reason was used deep etching on REM. By using pressed ceramic filters, by studying morphology eutectical silicon was observed modification morphology of eutectical silicon, this explains increase extension after filtration. Pressed ceramic filters were used on experimental works. Casting was executed on hardenable alloy AlSi10MgMn.

  12. Approximate solutions to the deep bed filtration problem; Solucoes aproximadas para o problema de deposicao profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio M.; Marchesin, Dan [Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The deep bed filtration problem is closely related to secondary oil recovery. In this work we derive explicit solutions to two filtration problems. The filtration function varies non-linearly with the Darcy speed and linearly with the deposition, but very little. The first solution is built by the method of perturbations and although it is only an approximation it is available in multiple symmetries, including the radial geometry used in the field. The main motivation is the validation of numerical methods. The second solution is exact but it is only available in the linear symmetry, i.e., laboratory geometry. We use it to verify the accuracy of the first solution, but it can also be used to simulate the deposition in experiments. (author)

  13. Integration of sand and membrane filtration systems for iron and pesticide removal without chemical addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    the content of key foulants, the techniques can be used as a pre-treatment for nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis that has proved to be capable of removing pesticides. It was found that a lower fouling potential could be obtained by using the membranes, but that sand filter was better at removing......Pilot plant investigations of sand and membrane filtration (MF/UF/NF/LPRO) have been performed to treat groundwater polluted with pesticides. The results show that simple treatment, with use of aeration and sand filtration or MF/UF membranes, does not remove pesticides. However, by reducing...... manganese and dissolved organic matter. The results indicate that combining aeration; sand filtration and membrane techniques might be a good option for pesticide removal without any addition of chemicals and minimized membrane maintenance....

  14. Chemical composition and morphology of oxidic ceramics at filtration of steel deoxidised by aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bažan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Composition and morphology of filter ceramics were investigated during filtration of steel deoxidised by aluminium. Filtration was realized with use of filters based on oxidic ceramics Cr2O3, TiO2, SiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, 3Al2O3•2SiO2 and MgO•Al2O3. It was established that change of interphase (coating occurs during filtration of steel on the surface of capillaries of ceramics, where content of basic oxidic component decreases. Loss of oxidic component in the coating is replaced by increase of oxides of manganese and iron and it is great extent inversely proportional to the value of Gibbs’ energy of oxide, which forms this initial basis of ceramics.

  15. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  16. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J.V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing

  17. Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, A.A.; Pinkenzon, D.B.; Makarov, M.S.; Vinarskij, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer method is shown. Effects recorded by radon tracer result from gamma radiation of short-living radon decay daughter products. During filtration of tracer through punched holes, cement stone, and rocks the products are deposited and cause a local effect for 2-3 hours. There is a shortage of short-living products in filtrated radon liquid and for some time (which is necessary for production of notable quantity of new decay products) it is practically not a gamma emitter. It is shown that the feature of effect formation governs the technique for well logging as well as interpretation of the results obtained

  18. Estimating filtration coefficients for straining from percolation and random walk theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; You, Zhenjiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, laboratory challenge tests are carried out under unfavorable attachment conditions, so that size exclusion or straining is the only particle capture mechanism. The experimental results show that far above the percolation threshold the filtration coefficients are not proportional...... size exclusion theory or the model of parallel tubes with mixing chambers, where the filtration coefficients are proportional to the flux through smaller pores, and the predicted penetration depths are much lower. A special capture mechanism is proposed, which makes it possible to explain...... the experimentally observed power law dependencies of filtration coefficients and large penetration depths of particles. Such a capture mechanism is realized in a 2D pore network model with periodical boundaries with the random walk of particles on the percolation lattice. Geometries of infinite and finite clusters...

  19. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  20. SU-F-I-76: Fluoroscopic X-Ray Beam Profiles for Spectra Incorporating Copper Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, K [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Godley, A; Shen, Z; Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rakowski, J [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize and quantify X-ray beam profiles for fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra incorporating spectral (copper) filtration. Methods: A PTW (Freiburg, Germany) type 60016 silicon diode detector and PTW MP3 water tank were used to measure X-ray beam profiles for 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp x-ray beams at five different copper filtration thicknesses ranging from 0–0.9 mm at 22 and 42 cm fields of view and depths of 1, 5, and 10 cm in both the anode-cathode axis (inplane) and cross-plane directions. All measurements were acquired on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) Artis ZeeGo fluoroscope inverted from the typical orientation providing an x-ray beam originating from above the water surface with the water level set at 60 cm from the focal spot. Results: X-ray beam profiles for beam spectra without copper filtration compared well to previously published data by Fetterly et al. [Med Phys, 28, 205 (2001)]. Our data collection benefited from the geometric orientation of the fluoroscope, providing a beam perpendicular to the tank water surface, rather than through a thin side wall as did the previously mentioned study. Profiles for beams with copper filtration were obtained which have not been previously investigated and published. Beam profiles in the anode-cathode axis near the surface and at lower x-ray energy exhibited substantial heel effect, which became less pronounced at greater depth. At higher energy with copper filtration in the beam, the dose falloff out-of-field became less pronounced, as would be anticipated given higher scatter photon energy. Conclusion: The x-ray beam profile data for the fluoroscopic x-ray beams incorporating copper filtration are intended for use as reference data for estimating doses to organs or soft tissue, including fetal dose, involving similar beam qualities or for comparison with mathematical models.

  1. Long-term indoor air conditioner filtration and cardiovascular health: A randomized crossover intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Ho, Kin-Fai; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ma, Chi-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2017-09-01

    The association of short-term air pollution filtration with cardiovascular health has been documented. However, the effect of long-term indoor air conditioner filtration on the association between air pollution and cardiovascular health is still unclear. We recruited 200 homemakers from Taipei and randomly assigned 100 of them to air filtration or control intervention; six home visits were conducted per year from 2013 to 2014. The participants under air filtration intervention during 2013 were reassigned to control intervention in 2014. The air pollution measurements consisted of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs); blood pressure was monitored for each participant during each visit. The following morning, blood samples were collected after air pollution monitoring. The blood samples were used to analyze biological markers, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and fibrinogen. Household information, including cleaning, cooking, and air conditioning, was collected by a questionnaire. Mixed-effects models were used to investigate the associations among air pollution measurements, blood pressure and biological markers. The results showed that increased levels of PM 2.5 and total VOCs were associated with increased hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and blood pressure. The health variables were higher among participants in the control intervention phase than among those in the air filtration intervention phase. We concluded that air pollution exposure was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and elevated blood pressure. The long-term filtration of air pollution with an air conditioner filter was associated with cardiovascular health of adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlations of filtration flux enhanced by electric fields in crossflow microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K.; Nagase, Y. [Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, Okayama (Japan). Department of Chemical Technology; Ohnishi, Y.; Nishihan, A.; Akagi, Y. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The steady state filtration flux in electrically-enhanced crossflow microfiltration is estimated using a correlation equation proposed for several kinds of suspensions. Baker`s yeast and Rhodotorula glutinis were used as model samples of microbial cells, and PMMA particles were used as samples of non-living solids. Application of the electric field in crossflow microfiltration is a useful method for improving the filtration flux of these samples. High flux levels for the cells were achieved when an electric field above 3000 V/m was applied. The effect of the electric field in increasing the filtration flux of the steady state was analyzed theoretically using a force balance model where the viscous drag force, F{sub J}, the electrophoretic force, F{sub E}, and the re-entraining force, F{sub B}, were considered to act on a particle on the membrane surface under a steady state of filtration, respectively. From force balance analysis, it is found that on application of an electric field, the electro-osmotic effect can be neglected in the present study, so that the filtration flux of the steady state, J{sub ES}, can be presented by, J{sub ES}=U{sub EP}E+J{sub OS} where U{sub EP} is the electrophoretic mobility of particles and E is the electric field applied. J{sub OS} is the filtration flux in the absence of an electric field, which is correlated with the operating parameters for suspensions tested. 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Evaluation of Impact of Coagulant Type on Operation Parameters in Direct Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Torabian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advantages have been reported on PAC (poly aluminum chloride used as a coagulant over other coagulants such as alum and ferric chloride used in conventional water treatment process with medium and high turbidity levels. These include lower amounts of PACL required specially in removing turbidity, larger floc grain formation, reduced floc sedimentation time, lower sludge production, and relaxation of the need for pH adjustment by lime, among others. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different coagulants such as ferric chloride and PACL on direct filtration and to identify the most effective material based on both turbidity and particle removal efficiencies. A perfectly experimental pilot system, including raw water preparation, coagulation, flocculation, distribution measurement, and filtration units, was designed and used. Raw water turbidity level in the experimental pilot was below 10 NTU. The effects of various parameters such as coagulant type, filtration rate, and coagulant dosage on the performance of the filter were investigated. The results obtained from several filtration cycles under different conditions indicated that average effluent turbidity level, effluent particle numbers, effluent turbidity variation graph, and effluent particle graph were lower throughout the filtration cycle when PACL was used compared to when ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. Increasing filtration rate led to increased turbidity and particle number. Addition of 2 mg/l of PACL (poor coagulation and flocculation scenario was compared with addition of 5 mg/l of ferric chloride (strong coagulation and flocculation scenario. The results indicated that higher average values of turbidity removal but lower turbidity and particle removal efficiencies obtained in the case of the poor coagulation and flocculation scenario.

  4. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Filtration characteristics of solids formed in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 μm diameter, made slurry a 'difficult-to-filter' slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 μm. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a 'easy-to-filter' slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 μm diameter particles was about 20 1/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G. (author)

  5. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate by impulse synthesis: Clinical validation and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagi, B.; Verga, P.; Broggi, A.; Picozzi, R.; Villa, F.; Guzzini, F.; Cozzi, C.; Tomasi, A.

    1988-01-01

    Impulse synthesis is a technique which relies upon the logic of continuous infusion but extracts the clearance value from single-injection data by shifting and adding them until an asymptotic value is attained. This study has been aimed at validating and optimizing clinically the measurement of glomerular filtration rate by impulse synthesis. A single intravenous injection of 51 Cr-EDTA has been made in 32 patients and plasma activity monitored over the next 6 h. Glomerular filtration rate computed by a single-exponential fit method (GFR-SEF) has been shown to be significantly (p [de

  6. Simulation of the filtration mechanism of hyaluronic acid in total knee prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolo, J Di; Berli, M E; Campana, D M; Ubal, S; Cardenes, L D

    2007-01-01

    Polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear in current knee prosthesis causes prosthesis loosening after no more than 15 years. In this work, a steady state one-dimensional lubrication model with non- Newtonian fluid, porous elastic layer on tibial component, ultra-filtration mechanism of fluid and some features of the surface roughness is studied through a numerical technique based on the Finite Element Method. The results show that the UHMWPE stiffness makes difficult the lubrication mechanism of the artificial joint and promotes abrasive and fatigue wear. Nevertheless, the use of compliant porous materials on the tibial component could reduce friction and wear. Moreover, the ultra-filtration mechanism promotes efficiency on the joint

  7. Water filtration of the forearm in short- and long-term diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H L; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    of the forearm. Increased water filtration in connective tissue in long-term diabetics is in accordance with earlier findings of a lowered subcutaneous interstitial fluid albumin concentration in long-term diabetics, this being explained by an increase in net water outflux from the microcirculation.......Blood flow and capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography on the upper and lower third of the forearm in 9 normal subjects and 29 well regulated patients with diabetes mellitus of varying duration (less than 10 years, 10 to 20 years, and more than 20 years...

  8. Clinical use of estimated glomerular filtration rate for evaluation of kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Bo; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter

    2013-01-01

    is a significant predictor for cardiovascular disease and may along with classical cardiovascular risk factors add useful information to risk estimation. Several cautions need to be taken into account, e.g. rapid changes in kidney function, dialysis, high age, obesity, underweight and diverging and unanticipated......Estimating glomerular filtration rate by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formulas gives a reasonable estimate of kidney function for e.g. classification of chronic kidney disease. Additionally the estimated glomerular filtration rate...

  9. Longitudinal-transverse liquid filtration in an annular heat-liberating medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhramovich, A.P.; Kolos, V.P.; Sorokin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors interpret experimental flow visualization data and construct a flow model for coolant filtration and flow in a layered granular heat exchange material for implementation in a reactor cooling system. Breakaway flow zones close to the ends of a layer in longitudinal-transverse liquid filtration are observed. In a linear approximation the problem of determining the form of the ends of the layer for which there is no flow breakaway is solved. The model is tested against experimental data for water and a nitrogen tetroxide coolant

  10. Chiral filtration-induced spin/valley polarization in silicene line defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chongdan; Zhou, Benhu; Sun, Minglei; Wang, Sake; Li, Yunfang; Tian, Hongyu; Lu, Weitao

    2018-06-01

    The spin/valley polarization in silicene with extended line defects is investigated according to the chiral filtration mechanism. It is shown that the inner-built quantum Hall pseudo-edge states with identical chirality can serve as a chiral filter with a weak magnetic field and that the transmission process is restrained/strengthened for chiral states with reversed/identical chirality. With two parallel line defects, which act as natural chiral filtration, the filter effect is greatly enhanced, and 100% spin/valley polarization can be achieved.

  11. Production of a ruminant protein supplement by anaerobic fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.A.; Erdman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In studies initiated to develop simple and efficient procedures for the production of feed supplements, it was shown that the filtrate from feedlot wastes diluted with water and filtered could be fermented under anaerobic conditions by mixed rumen bacteria, Lactobacilli, or natural microflora from the feedlot wastes to produce a protein-rich feed supplement. The filtrate is low in carbohydrate and therefore supplemental carbohydrate in the form of whey, molasses, starch from potato processing wastes, or corn starch is necessary. Rigid anaerobic conditions need not be maintained nor must aseptic conditions be observed. (JSR)

  12. Double filtration plasmapheresis in a dog with multiple myeloma and hyperviscosity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lippi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 12 year old, 38 kg, mix-breed, intact male dog presented with a 20 day history of clinical signs consistent with hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to multiple myeloma. The dog received three double filtration plasmapheresis treatments on day 0, 7 and 22 after presentation. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in serum total protein, alpha-2 and gamma globulins was found following each treatment. These reductions were accompanied by a complete resolution, although temporary, of the clinical signs of hyperviscosity syndrome. The present study reported for the first time the use of double filtration plasmapheresis to reduce clinical signs of hyperviscosity syndrome in a dog with multiple myeloma.

  13. Modeling Non-Fickian Transport and Hyperexponential Deposition for Deep Bed Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An integral model of the deep bed filtration process has been developed. It incorporates pore and particle size distributions, as well as the particle residence time distribution in the framework of the continuous time random walk theory. Numerical modeling is carried out to study the factors...... influencing breakthrough curves and deposition profiles for the deep bed filtration systems. Results are compared with a large set of experimental observations. Our findings show that highly dispersed breakthrough curves, e.g. those with early arrivals and large ending tails, correspond to large dispersion...

  14. Determination of filtration velocity and direction of groundwater flow using tracer technique, Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Shahid Ayub; Roslan Mohd Ali; Kamarudin Samuding

    1996-01-01

    The filtration velocity of the groundwater was determine by introducing I mCi Br-82 into a borehole. Br-82 was in the form of potassium bromide. The result showed that the filtration velocity varies from 2.3 to 4.5 cm/day depending on the soil matrix with the clayey layer posting more resistance to flow. Au-198 in the form of aurium chloride was introduce into two other boreholes to determine the direction of flow. The general trend of flow was in the direction between N140E and N160E

  15. On the Problem of Filtration to an Imperfect Gallery in a Pressureless Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereslavskii, É. N.; Dudina, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of plane steady-state filtration in a pressureless bed to an imperfect gallery in the presence of evaporation from the flow free surface is considered. To study such type of flow, a mixed boundary-value problem of the theory of analytical functions is formulated and solved with application of the Polubarinova-Kochina method. Based on the model suggested, an algorithm for computing the discharge of the gallery and the ordinate of free surface emergence to the impermeable screen is developed. A detailed hydrodynamic analysis of the influence of all physical parameters of the model on the desired filtration characteristics is given.

  16. Functionalization of a Membrane Sublayer Using Reverse Filtration of Enzymes and Dopamine Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2014-01-01

    High permeability, high enzyme loading, and strong antifouling ability are the desired features for a biocatalytic membrane to be used in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). To achieve these goals, the membrane sublayer was enriched with laccase by reverse filtration in this case, and the result......High permeability, high enzyme loading, and strong antifouling ability are the desired features for a biocatalytic membrane to be used in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). To achieve these goals, the membrane sublayer was enriched with laccase by reverse filtration in this case...

  17. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  18. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  19. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  20. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  1. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  2. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Measurement method of somatomedian A by radioreceptor assay using the human placenta membrane was described and discussed. Binding rate of /sup 125/I-somatomedin A to its receptors was studied under various conditions of time and temperature of the incubation, and pH of the system. The influence of somatomedin A, porcine insulin, and porcine calcitonin, on /sup 125/I-somatomedin A bound receptors was studied, and these hormones showed the competitive binding to somatomedin A receptors in some level. The specificity, recovery rate, and clinical applications of somatomedin A were also discussed. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedine A provided easier, faster, and more accurate measurements than conventional bioassay. This technique would be very useful to study somatomedin A receptor and functions of insulin.

  3. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  4. Assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Berry, J.

    1987-01-01

    Assays of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) can be used to illustrate many properties of photosynthetic systems. Many different leaves have been assayed with this standard procedure. The tissue is ground with a mortar and pestle in extraction buffer. The supernatant after centrifugation is used as the source of enzyme. Buffer, RuBP, [ 14 C]-NaHCO 3 , and enzyme are combined in a scintillation vial; the reaction is run for 1 min at 30 0 . The acid-stable products are counted. Reproducibility in student experiments has been excellent. The assay data can be combined with analyses of leaf properties such as fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein content, etc. Students have done projects such as the response of enzyme to temperature and to various inhibitors. They also report on the use of a transition state analog, carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate, to titrate the molar concentration of rubisco molecules (active sites) in an enzyme sample. Thus, using crude extracts the catalytic activity of a sample can be compared to the absolute quantity of enzyme or to the turnover number

  5. 77 FR 60481 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... filtration and iodine adsorption units of ESF atmosphere cleanup systems in light-water-cooled nuclear power... Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide...

  6. Ultrastructure of cells of Ulmus americana cultured in vitro and exposed to the culture filtrate of Ceratocystis ulmi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; R. Daniel Lineberger; Subhash C. Domir; Jann M. Ichida; Charles R. Krause

    1990-01-01

    Calli of American elm susceptible and resistant to Dutch elm disease were exposed to a culture filtrate of a pathogenic isolate of Ceratocystis ulmi. Cells from untreated tissue exhibited typical internal composition associated with healthy, actively growing cells. All cells exposed to culture filtrate showed appreciable ultrastructural changes....

  7. Technical characterization of dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer rate in dialyzers with various filtration coefficients using dimensionless correlation equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kengo; Namekawa, Koki; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of filtration coefficient and internal filtration on dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer coefficient in dialyzers using dimensionless mass transfer correlation equations. Aqueous solution of vitamin B 12 clearances were obtained for REXEED-15L as a low flux dialyzer, and APS-15EA and APS-15UA as high flux dialyzers. All the other design specifications were identical for these dialyzers except for filtration coefficient. The overall mass transfer coefficient was calculated, moreover, the exponents of Reynolds number (Re) and film mass transfer coefficient of the dialysis-side fluid (k D ) for each flow rate were derived from the Wilson plot and dimensionless correlation equation. The exponents of Re were 0.4 for the low flux dialyzer whereas 0.5 for the high flux dialyzers. Dialysis fluid of the low flux dialyzer was close to laminar flow because of its low filtration coefficient. On the other hand, dialysis fluid of the high flux dialyzers was assumed to be orthogonal flow. Higher filtration coefficient was associated with higher k D influenced by mass transfer rate through diffusion and internal filtration. Higher filtration coefficient of dialyzers and internal filtration affect orthogonal flow of dialysis fluid.

  8. Flux studies on ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the irradiating condition (divergent and perpendicular irradiation) and hole shapes (cylinder and cone holes) on the flux are studied for ion microporous membrane. The results show that divergent irradiation and cone hole both can improve the flux of ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

  9. Mechanisms Involved in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Stormwater via Lignocellulosic Filtration Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report aims to supplement our previous report (Yonge et al. 2016; WA-RD 816.3) that assessed copper and zinc adsorption to lignocellulosic filtration media using laboratory tests and field-scale column tests for urban stormwater remediation. The...

  10. "Chemistry in a spinneret" to fabricate hollow fibers for organic solvent filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, S.M.; Tanardi, Cheryl; Kopec, K.K.; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Organic solvent filtration (OSF) is a very efficient separation technique with high potential in many branches of industry. Currently the choice of the commercial membranes is limited only to a few flat sheet membranes and spiral wound modules. It is generally known that a membrane in hollow fiber

  11. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, M.J.; Berg, B.M. van den; Avramut, M.C.; Faas, F.G.; Vlag, J. van der; Rops, A.L.; Ravelli, R.B.; Koster, B.J.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Vink, H.; Rabelink, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this

  12. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  13. Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2007-01-01

    Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets...

  14. TECHNICAL FACT SHEET: A Systematic Evaluation of Dissolved Metals Loss during Water Sample Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research study examined how water quality collection and filtration approaches, including commonly used capsule and disc syringe filters, may cause losses in the amounts of soluble lead and copper found in a sample. A variety of commercially available filter materials with a...

  15. Hydrolysis and degradation of filtrated organic particulates in a biofilm reactor under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janning, K.F.; Mesterton, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in order to investigate the anoxic and the aerobic degradation of filtrated organic matter in a biofilter. In submerged lab: scale reactors with Biocarbone media as filter material, accumulated particulate organic matter from pre-settled wastewater served as the only...

  16. Development of a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, Edwin; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water is proposed. A model that captures the dynamics well is valuable for the optimization of the cleaning process. The proposed model is based on component balances and contains three parameters that can be

  17. Rapid Production of a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane for Water Filtration Using Readily Available Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Adrian; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    A chemistry laboratory experiment using everyday items and readily available chemicals is described to introduce advanced high school students and undergraduate college students to porous polymer membranes. In a three-step manufacturing process, a membrane is produced at room temperature. The filtration principle of the membrane is then…

  18. Small Water System Alternatives: Media and Membrane Filtration Alternatives for Small Communities and Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presentation will highlight research case studies on innovative drinking water treatment alternatives for small community water systems. Emphasis will be placed on media and membrane filtration technologies capable of meeting the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enha...

  19. Selective isolation of cationic amino acids and peptides by electro-membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald; Dohmen-Speelmans, Monique; Recio, Isidra; Timmer, Martin; van der Horst, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    In the food industry there is a clear trend towards the production of speciality products with a high added value. Electro-membrane filtration (EMF) can be used to separate and concentrate these products from complex solutions. With EMF, lysine was separated from a model solution and a protein

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...