WorldWideScience

Sample records for filtering weak consensus

  1. Detecting Weak Spectral Lines in Interferometric Data through Matched Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Walsh, Catherine; Czekala, Ian; Huang, Jane; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.

    2018-04-01

    Modern radio interferometers enable observations of spectral lines with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. In spite of these technical advances, many lines of interest are still at best weakly detected and therefore necessitate detection and analysis techniques specialized for the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) regime. Matched filters can leverage knowledge of the source structure and kinematics to increase sensitivity of spectral line observations. Application of the filter in the native Fourier domain improves S/N while simultaneously avoiding the computational cost and ambiguities associated with imaging, making matched filtering a fast and robust method for weak spectral line detection. We demonstrate how an approximate matched filter can be constructed from a previously observed line or from a model of the source, and we show how this filter can be used to robustly infer a detection significance for weak spectral lines. When applied to ALMA Cycle 2 observations of CH3OH in the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya, the technique yields a ≈53% S/N boost over aperture-based spectral extraction methods, and we show that an even higher boost will be achieved for observations at higher spatial resolution. A Python-based open-source implementation of this technique is available under the MIT license at http://github.com/AstroChem/VISIBLE.

  2. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-11-01

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cornell Alliance for Science Evaluation of Consensus on Genetically Modified Food Safety: Weaknesses in Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Michael N; Robinson, Claire J

    2017-01-01

    Cornell Alliance for Science has launched an initiative in which "citizen scientists" are called upon to evaluate studies on health risks of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. The purpose is to establish whether the consensus on GM food safety claimed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is supported by a review of the scientific literature. The Alliance's citizen scientists are examining more than 12,000 publication abstracts to quantify how far the scientific literature supports the AAAS's statement. We identify a number of fundamental weaknesses in the Alliance's study design, including evaluation is based only on information provided in the publication abstract; there is a lack of clarity as to what material is included in the 12,000 study abstracts to be reviewed, since the number of appropriately designed investigations addressing GM food safety are few; there is uncertainty as to whether studies of toxic effects arising from GM crop-associated pesticides will be included; there is a lack of clarity regarding whether divergent yet equally valid interpretations of the same study will be taken into account; and there is no definition of the cutoff point for consensus or non-consensus on GM food safety. In addition, vital industry proprietary biosafety data on GM crops and associated pesticides are not publicly available and is thus cannot inform this project. Based on these weaknesses in the study design, we believe it is questionable as to whether any objective or meaningful conclusion can be drawn from the Alliance's initiative.

  4. Event-triggered Kalman-consensus filter for two-target tracking sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Housheng; Li, Zhenghao; Ye, Yanyan

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of event-triggered Kalman-consensus filter for two-target tracking sensor networks. According to the event-triggered protocol and the mean-square analysis, a suboptimal Kalman gain matrix is derived and a suboptimal event-triggered distributed filter is obtained. Based on the Kalman-consensus filter protocol, all sensors which only depend on its neighbors' information can track their corresponding targets. Furthermore, utilizing Lyapunov method and matrix theory, some sufficient conditions are presented for ensuring the stability of the system. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed event-triggered protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decentralized Observer with a Consensus Filter for Distributed Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized observer with a consensus filter for the state observation of a discrete-time linear distributed systems. In this setup, each agent in the distributed system has an observer with a model of the plant that utilizes the set of locally available measurements, which may not make the full plant state detectable. This lack of detectability is overcome by utilizing a consensus filter that blends the state estimate of each agent with its neighbors' estimates. We assume that the communication graph is connected for all times as well as the sensing graph. It is proven that the state estimates of the proposed observer asymptotically converge to the actual plant states under arbitrarily changing, but connected, communication and sensing topologies. As a byproduct of this research, we also obtained a result on the location of eigenvalues, the spectrum, of the Laplacian for a family of graphs with self-loops.

  6. TULUNGAN: A Consensus-Independent Reputation System for Collaborative Web Filtering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis V. Pantola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Web filtering systems allow or prohibit access to websites based on categories (e.g., pornography,violence, sports, etc.. Categorization of websites can be done automatically or manually. Automaticcategorization is prone to under- and over-blocking. On the other hand, manual approach is typicallyperformed by a limited number of people making it not scalable.Collaborative web filtering systems, a variation of manual categorization, allow anyone to categorizewebsites in order to determine which domain these sites belong (e.g., pornography, violence, sports,etc.. This attempts to solve the scalability issue of the typical manual method.The approach offered by collaborative web filtering relies heavily on the contribution of users in orderto make the system scalable and less prone to errors. However, its success is greatly dependent on usercooperation. To promote cooperation, reputation system can be used in web filtering.A previous study called Rater-Rating promotes cooperation and explores the use of a user-drivenreputation system that measures both the contributor and rater reputation of users of a collaborative websystem. However, Rater-Rating is consensus dependent. If the number of malicious users are more thantheir good counterparts, the reputation system can be defeated. In other words, the system canmistakenly give malicious users a high reputation value.This study discusses a reputation system called Tulungan that is consensus-independent. It can detectthe presence of malicious users even if the number of their good counterparts are fewer. A simulationresult that compares the effectiveness of Tulungan relative to Rater-Rating is presented in this paper.The simulation shows that Tulungan is still effective even with 25% good users while Rater-Ratingrequires at least 50% good users to be effective.

  7. Harmonic current control for LCL-filtered VSCs connected to ultra-weak grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Yang, Dongsheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    control scheme is thus proposed by feeding back the filter capacitor voltage and the converter-side current. The method not only stabilizes the harmonic current control with a wide range of SCR values, but also mitigates harmonic distortions in the grid-side current of the VSC. The stabilizing mechanism......This paper addresses the harmonic current control for LCL-filtered Voltage-Source Converters (VSCs) connected to ultra-weak (high-impedance) grids. It is shown that the harmonic current controllers tend to be unstable as the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) of the system reduces. An active stabilizing...

  8. Development of Optimal Kalman Consensus Filter and its Application to Distributed Hybrid State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Raj

    Following recent advances in networked communication technologies, sensor networks have been employed in a broad range of applications at a lower cost than centrally supervised systems. Their major functionality is to track and monitor dynamic processes using various distributed estimation techniques. Specifically, we conduct a study of the process of concurrence between agents for the state of a system. This process of concurrence is known as `consensus', and is exhibited in the distributed Kalman Consensus Filter (KCF). This estimation algorithm fuses data from different connected sensor agents by achieving two objectives for each sensor: 1) locally estimating the state of the system; and 2) reaching a consensus of the state estimate between neighboring agents through communication. Although the conventional KCF has been proven to have superior performance in terms of stability and scalability, it relies on the approximated suboptimal consensus gain to avoid algorithmic and derivational complexity. Particularly, we seek to address this concern of sub-optimality, and analytically derive the closed form solution to the globally optimal consensus gain, which is characterized by the minimum mean squared error for the estimation process. We then expand the perspective of the system dynamics to evolve in a hybrid fashion. Hybrid dynamical systems can describe a larger class of dynamics, as the state evolution is given as a combination of differential equations and discrete state (mode) transition maps. The latter part of this thesis focuses on developing a distributed hybrid estimation algorithm that builds upon the concept of the multiple model based algorithm for state estimation of stochastic hybrid systems. While previous studies have used Kalman filtering for the bank of estimators that the conventional multiple model based algorithm employs, in this research, we use a distributed network to leverage the redundancy in a network and use the measurement data

  9. Multi-bearing weak defect detection for wayside acoustic diagnosis based on a time-varying spatial filtering rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangbin; He, Qingbo; Ouyang, Kesai; Xiong, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The wayside Acoustic Defective Bearing Detector (ADBD) system plays an important role in ensuring the safety of railway transportation. However, Doppler distortion and multi-bearing source aliasing in the acquired acoustic bearing signals significantly decrease the accuracy of bearing diagnosis. Traditional multisource separation schemes using time-frequency filters constructed by a single microphone signal always show poor performance on weak signal separation. Inspired by an assumption that the spatial location of different sources is different, this paper proposes a novel time-varying spatial filtering rearrangement (TSFR) scheme based on a microphone array to overcome current difficulties. In the scheme, a zero-angle spatial filter and peak searching are proposed to obtain the time-centers of corresponding sources. Based on these time-centers, several time-varying spatial filters are designed to extract different source signals. Then interpolation and rearrangement are used to correct the Doppler distortion and reconstruct the corresponding separated signals. Finally, the train bearing fault diagnosis is implemented by analyzing the envelope spectrum of the corrected signals. Because the time-varying spatial filter construction is only dependent on the source location and has little relationship with the signal energy, the proposed TSFR scheme has significant advantages in weak signal separation and diagnosis in comparison with traditional ones. With the verifications by both simulation and experiment cases, the proposed array-based TSFR scheme shows a good performance on multiple fault source separation and is expected to be used in the ADBD system.

  10. SWOT analysis of Banff: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the international Banff consensus process and classification system for renal allograft pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, M; Sis, B; Halloran, P F

    2007-10-01

    The Banff process defined the diagnostic histologic lesions for renal allograft rejection and created a standardized classification system where none had existed. By correcting this deficit the process had universal impact on clinical practice and clinical and basic research. All trials of new drugs since the early 1990s benefited, because the Banff classification of lesions permitted the end point of biopsy-proven rejection. The Banff process has strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The strength is its self-organizing group structure to create consensus. Consensus does not mean correctness: defining consensus is essential if a widely held view is to be proved wrong. The weaknesses of the Banff process are the absence of an independent external standard to test the classification; and its almost exclusive reliance on histopathology, which has inherent limitations in intra- and interobserver reproducibility, particularly at the interface between borderline and rejection, is exactly where clinicians demand precision. The opportunity lies in the new technology such as transcriptomics, which can form an external standard and can be incorporated into a new classification combining the elegance of histopathology and the objectivity of transcriptomics. The threat is the degree to which the renal transplant community will participate in and support this process.

  11. Prevalence of Joint Gait Patterns Defined by a Delphi Consensus Study Is Related to Gross Motor Function, Topographical Classification, Weakness, and Spasticity, in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Schless, Simon-Henri; De Laet, Tinne; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    During a Delphi consensus study, a new joint gait classification system was developed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This system, whose reliability and content validity have previously been established, identified 49 distinct joint patterns. The present study aims to provide a first insight toward the construct validity and clinical relevance of this classification system. The retrospective sample of convenience consisted of 286 patients with spastic CP (3-18 years old, GMFCS levels I-III, 166 with bilateral CP). Kinematic and kinetic trials from three-dimensional gait analysis were classified according to the definitions of the Delphi study, and one classified trial was randomly selected for each included limb ( n = 446). Muscle weakness and spasticity were assessed for different muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle. Subsequently, Pearson Chi square tests, Cramer's V, and adjusted standardized residuals were calculated to explore the strength and direction of the associations between the joint patterns, and the different patient-specific characteristics (i.e., age, GMFCS level, and topographical classification) or clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and spasticity). Patient-specific characteristics showed several significant associations with the patterns of different joints, but the strength of most identified associations was weak. Apart from the knee during stance phase and the pelvis in the sagittal plane, the results systematically showed that the patterns with "minor gait deviations" were the most frequently observed. These minor deviations were found significantly more often in limbs with a lower level of spasticity and good muscle strength. Several other pathological joint patterns were moderately associated with weakness or spasticity, including but not limited to "outtoeing" for weakness and "intoeing" for spasticity. For the joints in the sagittal plane, significantly stronger associations were found with muscle weakness and

  12. Weak signal acquisition enhancement in software GPS receivers – Pre-filtering combined post-correlation detection approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arul Elango

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Civilian Global Positioning System (GPS receivers often encounter problems of interference and noise which degrade the receiver performance. The conventional methods of parallel code phase search acquisition with coherent, non-coherent and differential coherent detection for weak signal acquisition fail to enhance the signal for all conditions especially, when the Carrier to Noise ratio (C/N0 falls below 15 dB-Hz. Hence, the GPS receiver has to employ sophisticated techniques to excise the noise and to improve the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR of the signal for further processing. In this paper, a pre-filtering technique of reduced rank Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA is proposed for noise excision and is processed through coherent, non-coherent and differential detection postcorrelation methods to retrieve the signal embedded in noise. Monte Carlo simulations carried out to examine the acquisition sensitivity at various power levels with the different postcorrelation approaches indicate that the SSA combined with differential detection approach provides a significant performance improvement with lesser mean acquisition time. It has 96% probability of detection at a worst signal power level of −159 dBm (i.e. C/N0 15 dB-Hz, compared to other conventional methods.

  13. Detection of protein-ligand NOEs with small, weakly binding ligands by combined relaxation and diffusion filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponstingl, Hannes; Otting, Gottfried

    1997-01-01

    The use of a diffusion filter is proposed to suppress the NMR signals of small organic compounds in the presence of macromolecules.Combined with a spin-echo relaxation filter, the diffusion filter enables the selective and simultaneous detection of intermolecular solvent-protein NOEs in a straightforward two-dimensional NOESY experiment. Using the intermolecular NOEs observed between N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and hen egg-white lysozyme in an aqueous solution containing 2 M DMF, the binding of DMF at the specificity-determining substrate binding site C of the enzyme was modelled

  14. Magnetic activity and radial velocity filtering of young Suns: the weak-line T-Tauri stars Par 1379 and Par 2244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. A.; Carmona, A.; Donati, J.-F.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Gregory, S. G.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Bouvier, J.; The Matysse Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report the results of our spectropolarimetric monitoring of the weak-line T-Tauri stars (wTTSs) Par 1379 and Par 2244, within the MaTYSSE (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in giant Exoplanets) programme. Both stars are of a similar mass (1.6 and 1.8 M⊙) and age (1.8 and 1.1 Myr), with Par 1379 hosting an evolved low-mass dusty circumstellar disc, and with Par 2244 showing evidence of a young debris disc. We detect profile distortions and Zeeman signatures in the unpolarized and circularly polarized lines for each star, and have modelled their rotational modulation using tomographic imaging, yielding brightness and magnetic maps. We find that Par 1379 harbours a weak (250 G), mostly poloidal field tilted 65° from the rotation axis. In contrast, Par 2244 hosts a stronger field (860 G) split 3:2 between poloidal and toroidal components, with most of the energy in higher order modes, and with the poloidal component tilted 45° from the rotation axis. Compared to the lower mass wTTSs, V819 Tau and V830 Tau, Par 2244 has a similar field strength, but is much more complex, whereas the much less complex field of Par 1379 is also much weaker than any other mapped wTTS. We find moderate surface differential rotation of 1.4× and 1.8× smaller than Solar, for Par 1379 and Par 2244, respectively. Using our tomographic maps to predict the activity-related radial velocity (RV) jitter, and filter it from the RV curves, we find RV residuals with dispersions of 0.017 and 0.086 km s-1 for Par 1379 and Par 2244, respectively. We find no evidence for close-in giant planets around either star, with 3σ upper limits of 0.56 and 3.54 MJup (at an orbital distance of 0.1 au).

  15. Crafting consensus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1–2 (2017), s. 169-200 ISSN 0048-5829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-27902P Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : consensus building * agenda setting * vote buying Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2016

  16. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  17. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  18. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  19. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  1. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  2. Working toward Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harold

    1998-01-01

    A California high school English teacher uses, with students, a culturally sensitive process of facilitating classroom decision making through consensus. He correlates communication and language skills with consensus building, the facilitation of which is a slow process implemented in small portions over the school year. Sidebar provides a…

  3. The Limits of Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, John B.

    Dynamics in the education policy arena suggest that, despite two generations of researchers extolling democratic leadership styles and consensus building over autocratic techniques, wide participation in policymaking and the broadest possible consensus are not always productive: American society has not yet agreed on what schools should…

  4. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  5. Consensus formation times in anisotropic societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neirotti, Juan

    2017-06-01

    We developed a statistical mechanics model to study the emergence of a consensus in societies of adapting, interacting agents constrained by a social rule B . In the mean-field approximation, we find that if the agents' interaction H0 is weak, all agents adapt to the social rule B , with which they form a consensus; however, if the interaction is sufficiently strong, a consensus is built against the established status quo. We observed that, after a transient time αt, agents asymptotically approach complete consensus by following a path whereby they neglect their neighbors' opinions on socially neutral issues (i.e., issues for which the society as a whole has no opinion). αt is found to be finite for most values of the interagent interaction H0 and temperature T , with the exception of the values H0=1 , T →∞ , and the region determined by the inequalities β <2 and 2 β H0<1 +β -√{1 +2 β -β2 } , for which consensus, with respect to B , is never reached.

  6. Wien filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis

  7. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  8. FILTER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  9. Filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuo; Nagao, Koji; Akiyama, Toshio; Tanaka, Fumikazu; Osumi, Akira; Hirao, Yasuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The filter unit is used by attaching to a dustproof mask, and used in a radiation controlled area such as in a nuclear power plant. The filter unit comprises sheet-like front and back filtering members disposed vertically in parallel, a spacer for keeping the filtering members to a predetermined distance and front and back covering members for covering the two filtering members respectively. An electrostatic filter prepared by applying resin-fabrication to a base sheet comprising 100% by weight of organic fibers as fiber components, for example, wool felt, synthetic fiber non-woven fabric, wool and synthetic fiber blend non-woven fabric and then electrifying the resin is used for the filtering members. Then, residue of ashes can be eliminated substantially or completely after burning them. (I.N.)

  10. Informed consent -- Building consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovenheim, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author shares his observations and offers an approach to 'building consensus' for what he believes is the only environmentally sound option, i.e., safe, permanent disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Consensus does not mean unanimity, acceptance, or harmony. The low-level radioactive waste disposal issue is fraught with fear and hysteria. The paper discusses major emotions that fracture public opinion regarding this issue. The author defines consensus as the informed consent of LLRW disposal strategies by a majority of citizens whose cooperation is required to achieve the goals of environmentally sound solution. The political aspects are reviewed. The need for US Department of Energy to fulfill its importance technical assistance role is discussed

  11. Wien filter

    OpenAIRE

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis such that electric and magnetic forces induced by the respective fields and exerted on an electrically charged particle moving substantially along the fileter axis at a certain velocity

  12. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  13. Continuity and consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In Danish family policy, changes initiated by the present conservative-liberal government differ little from those proposed by the opposition. Recent changes are minor, but significant ones occurred in the 1960s, when childcare was universalized, and in the 1980s, when parental leave substituted...... policy reflect changing conditions for employment and the minding of children and that there has been a high degree of continuity and consensus about the change, as indicated by the strong increase in female labour market involvement....

  14. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  15. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  16. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A.; Jones, R.M.; Walker, J.A.; Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). They define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of their planned applied research, the authors first discuss nominal group technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities

  17. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  18. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  19. A Delphic consensus assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Krenning, Eric; Sundin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and pancreastatin); monoanalyte measurements; and lack sensitivity, specificity and predictive capacity. None of them meet the NIH metrics for clinical usage. A multinational, multidisciplinary Delphi consensus meeting of NEN experts (n = 33) assessed current imaging strategies and biomarkers in NEN management...... data were considered promising. It was resolved that circulating multianalyte mRNA (NETest) had clinical utility in both diagnosis and monitoring disease status and therapeutic efficacy. Overall, it was concluded that a combination of tumor spatial and functional imaging with circulating transcripts (m......RNA) would represent the future strategy for real-time monitoring of disease progress and therapeutic efficacy....

  20. Rethinking the Beijing Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the Beijing Consensus type of foreign and economic policymaking in China's development since the Asian financial crisis and in its response to the global crisis, and argues that it has been a double-edged sword, as reflected in several aspects. First, the lesson...... that China learned from the Asian financial crisis was not the importance of liberalisation but prudence or conservativeness, which despite serving as a shield this time sustains problems in the long term. Second, an obsession with foreign reserves accumulation and the pursuit of political influence have...

  1. Electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given

  2. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  3. Hunting the weak bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).

  4. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  5. Unexpected weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Stéphane Coen and Miro Erkintalo from the University of Auckland in New Zealand talk to Nature Photonics about their surprising findings regarding a weak long-range interaction they serendipitously stumbled upon while researching temporal cavity solitons.

  6. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  7. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... the literature of deliberative democracy claims that consensus is most often the result of rational deliberative processes, the claim of this paper is that conflicts is more likely a natural and integrated part of such deliberative acts. Conflicts are, thus, seen as inevitable. Also conflicts may function...

  8. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Energy's Hazardous Facilities'', found that conventional glass fiber HEPA filters are structurally weak and easily damaged by water or fire. The structurally stronger sintered metal and ceramic filters would reduce the potential of a catastrophic HEPA filter failure due to filter media breakthrough in the process ventilation system. An in situ regenerable system may also find application in recovering nuclear materials, such as plutonium, collected on glove box exhaust HEPA filters. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters

  9. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  10. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  11. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets...

  12. Consensus Theory and Religious Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bineham, Jeffery L.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes David Tukey's argument that the consensus theory of epistemic rhetoric reduces spiritual experience to a social construct which denies the possibility of a divine reality. Examines Walter Rauschenbusch's "A Theology for the Social Gospel" to prove that consensus theory accounts for religious beliefs, providing a useful framework…

  13. Between consensus and contestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism. Findings - The different theoretical approaches can be associated with different ways of understanding priority setting. In particular, agonistic democratic theory would understand priority setting as system of inclusions and exclusions rather than the determination of a consensus of social values, which is the typical deliberative way of thinking about the issues. Originality/value - The paper shows the value of drawing out explicitly the tacit assumptions of practices of political participation in order to reveal their scope and limitations. It suggests that making such theoretical presuppositions explicit has value for health services management in recognizing these implicit choices.

  14. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  15. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  16. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  17. Eyeglass Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  18. Mexican consensus on dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carmona-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the 2007 dyspepsia guidelines of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología, there have been significant advances in the knowledge of this disease. A systematic search of the literature in PubMed (01/2007 to 06/2016 was carried out to review and update the 2007 guidelines and to provide new evidence-based recommendations. All high-quality articles in Spanish and English were included. Statements were formulated and voted upon using the Delphi method. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation of each statement were established according to the GRADE system. Thirty-one statements were formulated, voted upon, and graded. New definition, classification, epidemiology, and pathophysiology data were provided and include the following information: Endoscopy should be carried out in cases of uninvestigated dyspepsia when there are alarm symptoms or no response to treatment. Gastric and duodenal biopsies can confirm Helicobacter pylori infection and rule out celiac disease, respectively. Establishing a strong doctor-patient relationship, as well as dietary and lifestyle changes, are useful initial measures. H2-blockers, proton-pump inhibitors, prokinetics, and antidepressants are effective pharmacologic therapies. H. pylori eradication may be effective in a subgroup of patients. There is no evidence that complementary and alternative therapies are beneficial, with the exception of Iberogast and rikkunshito, nor is there evidence on the usefulness of prebiotics, probiotics, or psychologic therapies. The new consensus statements on dyspepsia provide guidelines based on up-to-date evidence. A discussion, level of evidence, and strength of recommendation are presented for each statement. Resumen: Desde la publicación de las guías de dispepsia 2007 de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología ha habido avances significativos en el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la

  19. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  20. Is There a Consensus on Consensus Methodology? Descriptions and Recommendations for Future Consensus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jane; Carline, Jan D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this article reviewed the methodology of three common consensus methods: nominal group process, consensus development panels, and the Delphi technique. The authors set out to determine how a majority of researchers are conducting these studies, how they are analyzing results, and subsequently the manner in which they are reporting their findings. The authors conclude with a set of guidelines and suggestions designed to aid researchers who choose to use the consensus methodology in their work.Overall, researchers need to describe their inclusion criteria. In addition to this, on the basis of the current literature the authors found that a panel size of 5 to 11 members was most beneficial across all consensus methods described. Lastly, the authors agreed that the statistical analyses done in consensus method studies should be as rigorous as possible and that the predetermined definition of consensus must be included in the ultimate manuscript. More specific recommendations are given for each of the three consensus methods described in the article.

  1. Climate Change: Consensus or Controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Neville

    2006-01-01

    The hundreds of scientists comprising the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) maintain that there is a consensus that humans are changing the global climate. Yet many commentators in the media dispute this, and a reader of such commentaries would surely conclude that climate change is a controversy rather than a consensus. This is simply incorrect – the overwhelming majority of climate scientists accept the reality of the greenhouse effect and its impact on the current climate. T...

  2. Cambodia and the "Washington Consensus"

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    1997-01-01

    Cambodia's economic progress from 1993 to the end of 1995, though limited and short-lived, was encouraging. By employing an analytical framework adapted from John Williamson's discussion of the "Washington Consensus," I examine the aspects of Cambodia's domestic economic reform policies during the 1993-95 period. I also consider the country's politico-economic position at that time relative to the ASEAN member nations. It is argued that the Consensus reforms, combined with Cambodia's then-p...

  3. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  4. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  5. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  6. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermous, Rachid, E-mail: rfermous@usthb.dz; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  7. Realization of commercial high strength HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, V.; Ricketts, C.I.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    HEPA-filter media though having excellent particle removal efficiencies, remain characterized as rather brittle, fragile and weak materials. As a result, undesired structural damage followed by significant losses in filtration efficiency can easily occur in handling, transport, and even normal operation of filter units. In recent years extensive investigations into the structural limits of HEPA filters in dry air and under extended exposure to high humidity airflow have been carried out. In the course of this work the failure modes and the underlying failure mechanisms were thoroughly studied. On the basis of the information obtained, considerable improvements in the structural strength of HEPA filters could be achieved. As verified by removal efficiency tests, differential pressures up to 56kPa in dry air and 15kPa after extended operation under fog conditions were proven to be sustainable without mechanical damage to the filter medium. In cooperation with three major European filter manufacturers the know-how gained has been transferred into practical application through development of commercially available high-strength filter units. Three new KWU (Siemens-Kraftwerksunion) nuclear power plants in Germany have already been fully equipped with HEPA filters of this improved design. The German licensing authorities are now considering modifications of their requirement specifications to reflect the increased strength of the new filter units

  8. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  9. The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan

    2016-01-01

    that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord...

  10. Global tracking of space debris via CPHD and consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Baishen; Nener, Brett; Liu, Weifeng; Ma, Liang

    2017-05-01

    Space debris tracking is of great importance for safe operation of spacecraft. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves global tracking of space debris with a multi-sensor network. The sensor network has unknown and possibly time-varying topology. A consensus algorithm is used to effectively counteract the effects of data incest. Gaussian Mixture-Cardinalized Probability Hypothesis Density (GM-CPHD) filtering is used to estimate the state of the space debris. As an example of the method, 45 clusters of sensors are used to achieve global tracking. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation experiments.

  11. The Development of a Microbial Challenge Test with Acholeplasma laidlawii To Rate Mycoplasma-Retentive Filters by Filter Manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmsbee, Martha; Lentine, Kerry Roche; Wright, Christine; Haake, Gerhard; Mcburnie, Leesa; Ashtekar, Dilip; Beck, Brian; Hutchison, Nick; Okhio-Seaman, Laura; Potts, Barbara; Pawar, Vinayak; Windsor, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma are bacteria that can penetrate 0.2 and 0.22 μm rated sterilizing-grade filters and even some 0.1 μm rated filters. Primary applications for mycoplasma filtration include large scale mammalian and bacterial cell culture media and serum filtration. The Parenteral Drug Association recognized the absence of standard industry test parameters for testing and classifying 0.1 μm rated filters for mycoplasma clearance and formed a task force to formulate consensus test parameters. The task force established some test parameters by common agreement, based upon general industry practices, without the need for additional testing. However, the culture medium and incubation conditions, for generating test mycoplasma cells, varied from filter company to filter company and was recognized as a serious gap by the task force. Standardization of the culture medium and incubation conditions required collaborative testing in both commercial filter company laboratories and in an Independent laboratory (Table I). The use of consensus test parameters will facilitate the ultimate cross-industry goal of standardization of 0.1 μm filter claims for mycoplasma clearance. However, it is still important to recognize filter performance will depend on the actual conditions of use. Therefore end users should consider, using a risk-based approach, whether process-specific evaluation of filter performance may be warranted for their application. Mycoplasma are small bacteria that have the ability to penetrate sterilizing-grade filters. Filtration of large-scale mammalian and bacterial cell culture media is an example of an industry process where effective filtration of mycoplasma is required. The Parenteral Drug Association recognized the absence of industry standard test parameters for evaluating mycoplasma clearance filters by filter manufacturers and formed a task force to formulate such a consensus among manufacturers. The use of standardized test parameters by filter manufacturers

  12. Standard and Null Weak Values

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.

  13. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    The concept of the weak measurements, for the first time, was introduced by Aharonov et al.1. Quantum state is preselected in |ψi〉 and allowed to interact weakly with apparatus. Measurement strength can be tuned and for “small g(t)” it is called 'weak measurement'. With postselection in |ψf 〉, apparatus state is shifted by an ...

  14. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  15. Weak Weak Lensing : How Accurately Can Small Shears be Measured?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Now that weak lensing signals on the order of a percent are actively being searched for (cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, large radii in clusters...) it is important to investigate how accurately weak shears can be determined. Many systematic effects are present, and need to be

  16. Possibilities of consensus: toward democratic moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B

    1991-08-01

    The concept of consensus is often appealed to in discussions of biomedical ethics and applied ethics, and it plays an important role in many influential ethical theories. Consensus is an especially influential notion among theorists who reject ethical realism and who frame ethics as a practice of discourse rather than a body of objective knowledge. It is also a practically important notion when moral decision making is subject to bureaucratic organization and oversight, as is increasingly becoming the case in medicine. Two models of consensus are examined and criticized: pluralistic consensus and overlapping consensus. As an alternative to these models, the paper argues that consensus refers to the dialogic aspects of a broader normative conception of democratic moral agency. When the preconditions for that dialogic democratic practice are met, consensus has a justificatory role in ethics; when they are not, consensus, as distinct from mere agreement, does not emerge and can have no moral authority.

  17. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  18. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  19. [Consensus of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly in China, the clinical stage of prostate cancer patients is comparatively late and the overall survival rate is inferior to that reported in the developed countries. Prostate cancer screening is an effective measure to reduce the risk of death through early detection. In order to identify the best way of prostate cancer screening in China, the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association Genitourinary Cancer Committee Prostate Cancer Working Group reviewed all published data concerning the benefits and harms of screening for prostate caner and created the consensus. The consensus include the following points: screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer by prostate specific antigen(PSA)testing in the general population is the potential measure to reduce mortality rates through early detection, PSA testing should be offered earlier in men with life expectancy over 10 years and men at high risk of prostate cancer.

  20. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  1. Energy strategy: Roadmap to consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a ``decide-announce-defend`` approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other`s positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a ``safe`` context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.

  2. Energy strategy: Roadmap to consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a decide-announce-defend'' approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other's positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a safe'' context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.

  3. Propionic acidemia consensus conference summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kimberly A; Summar, Marshall L

    2012-01-01

    In January 2011, Children's National Medical Center in Washington, D.C. hosted a consensus conference to discuss and develop recommendations for the diagnosis and management of propionic acidemia. Several resulting manuscripts from this conference are included in this issue. Topics covered include recommendations for acute management of metabolic decompensations, recommendations for chronic management and health monitoring, natural history of disease in patients with propionic acidemia, and neurologic complications in propionic acidemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tap water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Moen PureTouch filters remove impurities from tap water without removing fluoride. These carbon block filters consist of finely powdered activated carbon that is combined with a plastic binder material and heated to form a hollow cylinder. The blocks are further wrapped with material to improve performance and reduce clogging. The filters are available with different filtering capabilities (Table 1). The filters mount in the faucet spout or under the sink.

  5. Endodontic retreatment decisions: no consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; D'Hoore, W

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the consensus, if any, amongst dental schools, students and their instructors managing the same clinical cases, all of which involved endodontically treated teeth; and (ii) determine the predominant proposed treatment option. Final year students, endodontic staff members and instructors of 10 European dental schools were surveyed as decision makers. Fourteen different radiographic cases of root canal treated teeth accompanied by a short clinical history were presented to them in a uniform format. For each case the decision makers were requested to: (i) choose only one out of nine treatment alternatives proposed, from 'no treatment' to 'extraction' via 'retreatment' and 'surgery' (ii) assess on two 5-point scales: the difficulty of making a decision, and the technical complexity of the retreatment procedure. The results indicate wide inter- and also intra-school disagreements in the clinical management of root canal treated teeth. Analysis of variance showed that the main source of variation was the 'school effect', explaining 1.8% (NS) to 18.6% (P < 0.0001) of the treatment variations. No other factor explained as much variance. Decision difficulty was moderately correlated to technical complexity (Pearsons' r ranging from 0.19 to 0.35, P < 0.0001). No clear consensus occurred amongst and within dental schools concerning the clinical management of the 14 cases. The lack of consensus amongst schools seems to be due mainly to chance or uncertainty, but can be partly explained by the 'school effect'.

  6. International consensus on safety principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been regularly requested by its Member States to provide evidence that radioactive waste can be managed safely and to help demonstrate a harmonization of approach at the international level by providing safety documents. In response, IAEA established a special series of safety documents devoted to radioactive waste management. These documents will be elaborated within the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme [1,2] which covers all aspects of radioactive waste management. The RADWASS programme develops a series of international consensus documents on all parts of the safe management of radioactive waste, including disposal. The purpose of the RADWASS programme is to (i) document existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe radioactive waste management, (ii) create a mechanism to establish consensus where it does not exist and (iii) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to complement national standards and criteria. This paper describes the RADWASS programme, and covers the structure, implementation plans and status of documents under preparation

  7. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  8. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  9. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  10. Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width σ small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio σ/d.

  11. The QpWeak experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Q p Weak collaboration completed a two year measurement program to determine the weak charge of the proton Q W p = ( 1 - 4sin 2 θ W ) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The experiment was designed to produce a 4.0 % measurement of the weak charge, via a 2.5 % measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in the number of elastically scattered 1.165 GeV electrons from protons, at forward angles. At the proposed precision, the experiment would produce a 0.3 % measurement of the weak mixing angle at a momentum transfer of Q 2  = 0.026 GeV 2 , making it the most precise stand alone measurement of the weak mixing angle at low momentum transfer. In combination with other parity measurements, Q p Weak will also provide a high precision determination of the weak charges of the up and down quarks. At the proposed precision, a significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction could be a signal of new physics at mass scales up to ≃ 6 TeV, whereas agreement would place new and significant constraints on possible Standard Model extensions at mass scales up to ≃ 2 TeV. This paper provides an overview of the physics and the experiment, as well as a brief look at some preliminary diagnostic and analysis data.

  12. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resisting Weakness of the Will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2011-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

  14. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  15. Silicon photonics non-resonant wavelength filters: comparison between AWGs, echelle gratings, and cascaded Mach-Zehnder filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Wim; Pathak, Shibnath; Ruocco, Alfonso; Dwivedi, Sarvagya

    2015-02-01

    We present a comparison of different silicon photonics-based wavelength filters for different design criteria (e.g. channel spacing, number of channels, ...) and different performance metrics (e.g. insertion loss or crosstalk ). In this paper we compare only non-resonant filters, or finite-impulse response (FIR) filters, such as Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, Echelle Gratings and higher-order cascades of Mach-Zehnder filters. We derive the strengths and weaknesses from their operational principles and confirm those with experimental data from fabricated devices and extrapolated simulations.

  16. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  17. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...

  18. UV holographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  19. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  20. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  1. The weak decay of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    Hypernuclei whose ground states are stable against strong decay are used to study two-baryon weak interactions. A review of th existing experimental data, including recent results from the AGS on /sub Λ/ 12 C and /sub Λ/ 11 B, shows that the lifetimes and branching ratios can be used to test the effective weak Hamiltonians used in the rate calculations. 10 refs., 4 figs

  2. Weakly Supervised Deep Detection Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Hakan; Vedaldi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Weakly supervised learning of object detection is an important problem in image understanding that still does not have a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting the power of deep convolutional neural networks pre-trained on large-scale image-level classification tasks. We propose a weakly supervised deep detection architecture that modifies one such network to operate at the level of image regions, performing simultaneously region selection and classificati...

  3. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  4. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  5. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1965-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  6. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are......OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...

  7. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  8. Data publication consensus and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, John; Strasser, Carly

    2014-01-01

    The movement to bring datasets into the scholarly record as first class research products (validated, preserved, cited, and credited) has been inching forward for some time, but now the pace is quickening. As data publication venues proliferate, significant debate continues over formats, processes, and terminology. Here, we present an overview of data publication initiatives underway and the current conversation, highlighting points of consensus and issues still in contention. Data publication implementations differ in a variety of factors, including the kind of documentation, the location of the documentation relative to the data, and how the data is validated. Publishers may present data as supplemental material to a journal article, with a descriptive "data paper," or independently. Complicating the situation, different initiatives and communities use the same terms to refer to distinct but overlapping concepts. For instance, the term published means that the data is publicly available and citable to virtually everyone, but it may or may not imply that the data has been peer-reviewed. In turn, what is meant by data peer review is far from defined; standards and processes encompass the full range employed in reviewing the literature, plus some novel variations. Basic data citation is a point of consensus, but the general agreement on the core elements of a dataset citation frays if the data is dynamic or part of a larger set. Even as data publication is being defined, some are looking past publication to other metaphors, notably "data as software," for solutions to the more stubborn problems.

  9. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  10. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  11. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L [Peoria, IL; Nordyke, Daniel S [Arlington Heights, IL; Crandell, Richard A [Morton, IL; Tomlins, Gregory [Peoria, IL; Fei, Dong [Peoria, IL; Panov, Alexander [Dunlap, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL; Habeger, Craig F [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  12. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  13. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  14. Exhaust gas filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tadamasa; Hiraki, Akimitsu.

    1993-01-01

    A filter material formed by joining glass clothes to both surfaces of a glass fiber non-woven fabric is used. The filter material is disposed at the inside of a square filter material support frame made of stainless steel. The filter material is attached in a zig-zag manner in the flowing direction of the exhaust gases so as to increase the filtration area. Separators, for example, made of stainless steel are inserted between the filter materials. The separator is corrugated so as to sandwich and support the filter materials from both sides by the ridged crests. The longitudinal bottom of the separator formed by corrugating it defines a flow channel of the exhaustion gases. The longitudinal bottom is also used as a channel for back blowing air. With such a constitution, combustion gases of radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes can be completely filtered. In addition, a back wash can be conducted under high temperature. (I.N.)

  15. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  16. Balancing multiple roles through consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates how participants in haircutting sessions merge different roles during one of the most sensitive moments of an encounter: requesting and/or making revisions to a new cut. During the process of arriving at a consensus of whether or not changes need to be made to the new cut......, the stylist and the client negotiate not only the quality of the cut, but also their expected roles. Caring about both the bodies and the minds of customers is an important element in measuring the quality of cosmetological services, a consideration which may oblige stylists to immediately agree with and act...... upon every client request or concern. However, simply yielding to the customer’s opinions can threaten the stylist’s role as a beauty expert, one who possesses their own professional standards. The analysis reveals that the participants frequently transform revision requests/offers into mutual...

  17. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  18. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  19. Functional limb weakness and paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J; Aybek, S

    2016-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) limb weakness describes genuinely experienced limb power or paralysis in the absence of neurologic disease. The hallmark of functional limb weakness is the presence of internal inconsistency revealing a pattern of symptoms governed by abnormally focused attention. In this chapter we review the history and epidemiology of this clinical presentation as well as its subjective experience highlighting the detailed descriptions of authors at the end of the 19th and early 20th century. We discuss the relevance that physiological triggers such as injury and migraine and psychophysiological events such as panic and dissociation have to understanding of mechanism and treatment. We review many different positive diagnostic features, their basis in neurophysiological testing and present data on sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic bedside tests with the most evidence are Hoover's sign, the hip abductor sign, drift without pronation, dragging gait, give way weakness and co-contraction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  1. Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome : Consensus Recommendations From the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouvet, Philippe; Thomas, Neal J.; Willson, Douglas F.; Erickson, Simon; Khemani, Robinder; Smith, Lincoln; Zimmerman, Jerry; Dahmer, Mary; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael; Sapru, Anil; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Rimensberger, Peter C.; Kneyber, Martin; Tamburro, Robert F.; Curley, Martha A. Q.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Valentine, Stacey; Emeriaud, Guillaume; Newth, Christopher; Carroll, Christopher L.; Essouri, Sandrine; Dalton, Heidi; Macrae, Duncan; Lopez-Cruces, Yolanda; Quasney, Michael; Santschi, Miriam; Watson, R. Scott; Bembea, Melania

    Objective: To describe the final recommendations of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Design: Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. Setting: Not applicable. Subjects: PICU patients with evidence of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress

  2. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  4. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  5. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  6. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  7. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  8. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, N.; Spanos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The

  9. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  10. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  11. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  12. Second threshold in weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of

  13. Coverings, Networks and Weak Topologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dow, A.; Junnila, H.; Pelant, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 287-320 ISSN 0025-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/97/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach spaces * weak topologies * networks topologies Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  15. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families. Keywords. Almost Hermitian ...

  16. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low ...

  17. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods......In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...

  18. Research of spatial filtering algorithms based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuxi; Li, Chuanjun; Li, Xingcheng

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem that the satellite signal power is very weak and susceptible to interference, try to use the spatial filtering algorithm to produce a deeper null in the direction of the interference signal, so as to suppress the interference. In this paper, we will compare the least mean square (LMS), normalized LMS (NLMS) and Recursive least square (RLS) adaptive algorithms for spatial filtering. Finally, the content of the study will be verified by simulation.

  19. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  20. Variational Bayesian Filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2008), s. 5020-5030 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian filtering * particle filtering * Variational Bayes Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/smidl-variational bayesian filtering.pdf

  1. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  2. Independent task Fourier filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  3. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed......Filtering every global constraint of a CPS to are consistency at every search step can be costly and solvers often compromise on either the level of consistency or the frequency at which are consistency is enforced. In this paper we propose two randomized filtering schemes for dense instances...

  4. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  5. History of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    At the 'Jackfest' marking the 65th birthday of Jack Steinberger (see July/August 1986 issue, page 29), T.D. Lee gave an account of the history of the weak interactions. This edited version omits some of Lee's tributes to Steinberger, but retains the impressive insight into the subtleties of a key area of modern physics by one who played a vital role in its development. (orig./HSI).

  6. Weak neutral-current interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)

  7. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  8. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis procedure for interdigital filters with shorted-pin feeds is developed by relating the coupling factors and external Qs to the physical structure of the filter. This new procedure is easily understood and applied, extremely flexible...

  9. China exported birefringent filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Mao, Weijun; Lu, Haitian; Zhu, Yong

    2001-09-01

    Since 1960s, Nanjing Astronomical Instrument Research center of CAS have been developing the birefringent filters for China solar observatories, the most famous one in the world is the 0.15Å(0.12Å)/5324Å(4861Å) filter for the 35cm Solar Magnetic Field Telescope of the Huairou Solar Station of Beijing Observatory. The big success in the field of Lyot filter has been proved by the international solar physics circle, since 1988, Japanese and Korean astronomers have been paying a lot of orders for making Lyot filters from China, up to now we have exported 11 sets of such sophisticated optical instruments, they have been used for routine solar observations in the observatories and planetaria in the two countries. We also begin to repair old Lyot filters made by Germany and France from foreign countries, as India and Germany.

  10. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  11. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  12. Weakly Iπg-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, O.

    2015-01-01

    called weakly Iπg-open sets in ideal topological spaces is introduced and the notion of weakly Iπg-closed sets in ideal topologicalspaces is studied. The relationships of weakly Iπg-closed sets andvarious properties of weakly Iπg-closed sets are investigated

  13. Kalman filter estimation of RLC parameters for UMP transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Amin Siti Nur Aishah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the development of Kalman filter that allows evaluation in the estimation of resistance (R, inductance (L, and capacitance (C values for Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP short transmission line. To overcome the weaknesses of existing system such as power losses in the transmission line, Kalman Filter can be a better solution to estimate the parameters. The aim of this paper is to estimate RLC values by using Kalman filter that in the end can increase the system efficiency in UMP. In this research, matlab simulink model is developed to analyse the UMP short transmission line by considering different noise conditions to reprint certain unknown parameters which are difficult to predict. The data is then used for comparison purposes between calculated and estimated values. The results have illustrated that the Kalman Filter estimate accurately the RLC parameters with less error. The comparison of accuracy between Kalman Filter and Least Square method is also presented to evaluate their performances.

  14. A Comb Filter Design Method Using Linear Phase FIR Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yosuke; Kawamura, Arata; Iiguni, Youji

    This paper proposes a comb filter design method which utilizes two linear phase FIR filters for flexibly adjusting the comb filter's frequency response. The first FIR filter is used to individually adjust the notch gains, which denote the local minimum gains of the comb filter's frequency response. The second FIR filter is used to design the elimination bandwidths for individual notch gains. We also derive an efficient comb filter by incorporating these two FIR filters with an all-pass filter which is used in a conventional comb filter to accurately align the nulls with the undesired harmonic frequencies. Several design examples of the derived comb filter show the effectiveness of the proposed comb filter design method.

  15. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T L; Chan, Henry H; Ho, Wilson W S; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H L; Rogers, John D

    2016-04-01

    Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to develop consensus statements on concepts of facial beauty, key esthetic concerns, facial anatomy, and aging in Southeastern and Eastern Asians, as a prelude to developing consensus opinions on the cosmetic facial use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in these populations. Beautiful and esthetically attractive people of all races share similarities in appearance while retaining distinct ethnic features. Asians between the third and sixth decades age well compared with age-matched Caucasians. Younger Asians' increasing requests for injectable treatments to improve facial shape and three-dimensionality often reflect a desire to correct underlying facial structural deficiencies or weaknesses that detract from ideals of facial beauty. Facial esthetic treatments in Asians are not aimed at Westernization, but rather the optimization of intrinsic Asian ethnic features, or correction of specific underlying structural features that are perceived as deficiencies. Thus, overall facial attractiveness is enhanced while retaining esthetic characteristics of Asian ethnicity. Because Asian patients age differently than Western patients, different management and treatment planning strategies are utilized. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  16. Well-posedness of the limiting equation of a noisy consensus model in opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Bernard; Jiu, Quansen; Li, Qianxiao; Wang, Chu

    2017-07-01

    This paper establishes the global well-posedness of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation for a noisy version of the Hegselmann-Krause model. The equation captures the mean-field behavior of a classic multiagent system for opinion dynamics. We prove the global existence, uniqueness, nonnegativity and regularity of the weak solution. We also exhibit a global stability condition, which delineates a forbidden region for consensus formation. This is the first nonlinear stability result derived for the Hegselmann-Krause model.

  17. Detection method of malignant tumors in DR images -Iris Filter-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuo; Jin, Hua-Rong; Kobatake, Hidefumi

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a study on detecting malignant tumors in DR (digital radiography) images. Tumors can be recognized as lower density areas than their neighborhood in DR image and contrast enhancement method such as difference filters have been widely used to detect them. This paper presents a new filter named Iris Filter to detect tumors. It evaluates distribution pattern of gradient vectors in a relatively wide neighborhood area. It is designed so that its output does not depend on the contrast substantially. The proposed filter is robust against disturbances of long and slender patterns such as blood vessels and/or rib edges. The region of support of the proposed filter is adapted optimally to the local pattern of the processed image. The name 'iris' filter originates from this adaptivity. Experiments to test the performance of the proposed filter have been performed. Chest X-ray images and mammograms were used whether the proposed filter is effective to detect lung cancer and breast cancer. Experimental results show that the proposed filter is very effective in detecting tumors with weak contrast. (author)

  18. International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Orlandi, Richard R; Akdis, Cezmi A; Alt, Jeremiah A; Azar, Antoine; Baroody, Fuad M; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, G Walter; Chacko, Thomas; Cingi, Cemal; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Corey, Jacquelynne; Cox, Linda S; Creticos, Peter Socrates; Custovic, Adnan; Damask, Cecelia; DeConde, Adam; DelGaudio, John M; Ebert, Charles S; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Flanagan, Carrie E; Fokkens, Wytske J; Franzese, Christine; Gosepath, Jan; Halderman, Ashleigh; Hamilton, Robert G; Hoffman, Hans Jürgen; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Houser, Steven M; Hwang, Peter H; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Jarvis, Deborah; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Kingdom, Todd T; Krouse, Helene; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Laury, Adrienne M; Lee, Stella E; Levy, Joshua M; Luong, Amber U; Marple, Bradley F; McCoul, Edward D; McMains, K Christopher; Melén, Erik; Mims, James W; Moscato, Gianna; Mullol, Joaquim; Nelson, Harold S; Patadia, Monica; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; Platt, Michael P; Reisacher, William; Rondón, Carmen; Rudmik, Luke; Ryan, Matthew; Sastre, Joaquin; Schlosser, Rodney J; Settipane, Russell A; Sharma, Hemant P; Sheikh, Aziz; Smith, Timothy L; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Tversky, Jody R; Veling, Maria C; Wang, De Yun; Westman, Marit; Wickman, Magnus; Zacharek, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Critical examination of the quality and validity of available allergic rhinitis (AR) literature is necessary to improve understanding and to appropriately translate this knowledge to clinical care of the AR patient. To evaluate the existing AR literature, international multidisciplinary experts with an interest in AR have produced the International Consensus statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Allergic Rhinitis (ICAR:AR). Using previously described methodology, specific topics were developed relating to AR. Each topic was assigned a literature review, evidence-based review (EBR), or evidence-based review with recommendations (EBRR) format as dictated by available evidence and purpose within the ICAR:AR document. Following iterative reviews of each topic, the ICAR:AR document was synthesized and reviewed by all authors for consensus. The ICAR:AR document addresses over 100 individual topics related to AR, including diagnosis, pathophysiology, epidemiology, disease burden, risk factors for the development of AR, allergy testing modalities, treatment, and other conditions/comorbidities associated with AR. This critical review of the AR literature has identified several strengths; providers can be confident that treatment decisions are supported by rigorous studies. However, there are also substantial gaps in the AR literature. These knowledge gaps should be viewed as opportunities for improvement, as often the things that we teach and the medicine that we practice are not based on the best quality evidence. This document aims to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the AR literature to identify areas for future AR research and improved understanding. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. The emergence of consensus: a primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The origin of population-scale coordination has puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries. Recently, game theory, evolutionary approaches and complex systems science have provided quantitative insights on the mechanisms of social consensus. However, the literature is vast and widely scattered across fields, making it hard for the single researcher to navigate it. This short review aims to provide a compact overview of the main dimensions over which the debate has unfolded and to discuss some representative examples. It focuses on those situations in which consensus emerges `spontaneously' in the absence of centralized institutions and covers topics that include the macroscopic consequences of the different microscopic rules of behavioural contagion, the role of social networks and the mechanisms that prevent the formation of a consensus or alter it after it has emerged. Special attention is devoted to the recent wave of experiments on the emergence of consensus in social systems.

  20. Overlapping community detection using weighted consensus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    . Most of them are unstable and behave non-deterministically. In this paper, we use weighted consensus clustering for combining multiple base covers obtained by classic non-deterministic algorithms to improve the quality of ...

  1. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... TESTING A CONSENSUS CONFERENCE METHOD BY DISCUSSING THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC DENTAL INJURIES IN TANZANIA ... treatment modalities of traumatic dental injuries recommended in western countries in the. Tanzanian situation. ..... fractured crown, leave alone a fractured.

  2. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  3. Judicial Deference Allows European Consensus to Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dothan, Shai

    2018-01-01

    jurisdiction. But the ECHR sometimes defers to countries, even if their policies fall short of the standard accepted by most of the countries in Europe. This deference is accomplished by using the so-called "margin of appreciation" doctrine. Naturally, emerging consensus and margin of appreciation are often......, the paper demonstrates that a correct application of the margin of appreciation doctrine actually helps emerging consensus reach optimal results, by giving countries an incentive to make their policies independently....

  4. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Furthermore, for the management of structural epilepsy AEDs are inevitable in addition to treating the underlying cause, if possible....

  5. Weak decays of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1978-08-01

    The properties that may help to identify the two additional quark flavors that are expected to be discovered. These properties are lifetime, branching ratios, selection rules, and lepton decay spectra. It is also noted that CP violation may manifest itself more strongly in heavy particle decays than elsewhere providing a new probe of its origin. The theoretical progress in the understanding of nonleptonic transitions among lighter quarks, nonleptonic K and hyperon decay amplitudes, omega minus and charmed particle decay predictions, and lastly the Kobayashi--Maskawa model for the weak coupling of heavy quarks together with the details of its implications for topology and bottomology are treated. 48 references

  6. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    . Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...... environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...

  7. Pragmatism and Political Pluralism - Consensus and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet

    2015-07-01

    In our day the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has in a way revived these Peircean insights, putting forward an influential theory to the effect that consensus indeed plays a key role in human praxis, so that the primary task of philosophy is to foster it by eliminating the disagreement which we constantly have to face in the course of our daily life. In his “communicative theory of consensus,” furthermore, he claims that human communication rests on an implicit commitment to a sort of “ideal speech situation” which is the normative foundation of agreement in linguistic matters. Consequently, the quest for consensus is a constitutive feature of our nature of (rational human beings: rationality and consensus are tied together. A very strong consequence derives from Habermas’ premises: were we to abandon the search for consensus we would lose rationality, too, and this makes us understand that he views the pursuit of consensus as a regulative principle (rather than as a merely practical objective. Rescher opposes both Peirce’s eschatological view and Habermas’ regulative and idealized one.

  8. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  9. Exit, cohesion, and consensus: social psychological moderators of consensus among adolescent peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Virtually all social diffusion work relies on a common formal basis, which predicts that consensus will develop among a connected population as the result of diffusion. In spite of the popularity of social diffusion models that predict consensus, few empirical studies examine consensus, or a clustering of attitudes, directly. Those that do either focus on the coordinating role of strict hierarchies, or on the results of online experiments, and do not consider how consensus occurs among groups in situ . This study uses longitudinal data on adolescent social networks to show how meso-level social structures, such as informal peer groups, moderate the process of consensus formation. Using a novel method for controlling for selection into a group, I find that centralized peer groups, meaning groups with clear leaders, have very low levels of consensus, while cohesive peer groups, meaning groups where more ties hold the members of the group together, have very high levels of consensus. This finding is robust to two different measures of cohesion and consensus. This suggests that consensus occurs either through central leaders' enforcement or through diffusion of attitudes, but that central leaders have limited ability to enforce when people can leave the group easily.

  10. Time—periodic weak solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriques de Brito

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.

  11. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  12. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  13. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  14. Dust filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupoux, J.

    1975-01-01

    The composition of dust filters used in cleanup systems for radioactive gaseous effluents is described as well as the technical controls, especially efficiency measured by a soda fluorescein aerosol [fr

  15. Vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, T.

    2007-01-01

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [de

  16. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Switching power supply filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  19. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  20. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  1. Democracy-based consensus in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto; Mucchetti, Marta; Nobile, Leda; Landoni, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    High-quality evidence and derived guidelines, as typically published in major academic journals, are a major process that shapes physician decision-making worldwide. However, for many aspects of medical practice, there is a lack of High-quality evidence or an overload of somewhat contradictory low-quality information, which makes decision-making a difficult, uncertain, and unpredictable process. When the issues in question are important and evidence limited or controversial, the medical community seeks to establish common ground for "best practice" through consensus conferences and consensus statements or guidelines. Such consensus statements are seen as a useful tool to establish expert agreement, define the boundaries of acceptable practice, provide priorities for the research agenda, and obtain opinions from different countries and healthcare systems. This standard approach, however, can be criticized for being elitist, noninclusive, and poorly representative of the community of clinicians who will have to make decisions about the implementation of such recommendations. Accordingly, the authors propose a new model based on a combination of a local core meeting (detailed review and expert input) followed by a worldwide web-based network assessment (democracy-based consensus). The authors already have applied this approach to develop consensus on all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality in critically ill patients and in those with acute kidney injury. The methodology was based on 5 sequential local and web-based steps. Both a panel of experts and a large number of professionals from all over the world were involved, giving birth to a new type of "democracy-based consensus." This new type of "democracy-based consensus" has the potential to increase grass-root clinician involvement, expand the reach to less-developed countries, provide a more global perspective on proposed interventions, and perhaps more importantly, increase

  2. Weak transitions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some techniques to calculate the effects of the strong interactions on the matrix elements of weak processes are described. The lattice formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics is used to account for the low energy gluons, and the corresponding numerical methods are explained. The high energy contributions are included in effective lagrangians and the problem of matching the different scales related to the renormalization of the operators and wavefunctions is also discussed. The ..delta..l = 1/2 enhancement rule and the K/sup 0/-anti-K/sup 0/ are used to illustrate these techniques and the results of a numerical calculation is reported. The values obtained are very encouraging and they certainly show good qualitative agreement with the experimental values. The emphasis is on general techniques, and in particular, several improvements to this particular calculation are proposed.

  3. Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavidovique, M

    2010-01-01

    For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax–Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523–44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493–506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton–Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401–20)

  4. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  5. Stochastic Resonance Phenomenon of Two-coupled Duffing Oscillator and its Application on Weak Signal Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By taking two-coupled duffing oscillator system as the research object, the study found under the synergistic effect of weak periodic signal and noise, the two-coupled duffing oscillator system has typical stochastic resonance and even could achieve better output of stochastic resonance than single duffing oscillator. Based on this phenomenon, this paper proposes a new method to detect the weak periodic signal through the stochastic resonance of two-coupled duffing oscillator. The experimental study indicates that we could achieve excellent detection effect by using the method we mentioned in this paper at low SNR (signal-to-noise ratios, especially, it has excellent filter effect for filtering and shaping of weak square signals and has potential values in the application of digital communications.

  6. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  7. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  8. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  9. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.

    2009-01-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  10. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  11. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of consensus in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  13. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.; Bergman, W.; Beason, D.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  15. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  16. Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana

    2014-05-01

    Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical

  17. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin

    2016-01-01

    trials: the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT). DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the EQUATOR Network's methodological framework, 137 exercise experts were invited to participate in a Delphi consensus study. A list of 41 items was identified from a meta-epidemiologic study of 73 systematic reviews......BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials, hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical...

  18. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  19. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  20. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  1. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  2. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  3. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  4. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  5. The Geometry And Significance Of Weak Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Parks, A D

    2000-01-01

    Summary: The theory of weak values for quantum mechanical observables has come to serve as a useful basis for contemporary discussions concerning such varied topics as the tunnelling-time controversy and quantum stochastic processes. An intrinsic complex-valued weak energy has recently been observed experimentally and reported in the literature. In this paper it is shown that: (a) the real and imaginary valued parts of this weak energy have geometric interpretations related to a phase acquired from parallel transport in Hilbert space and the variational dynamics occurring in the associated projective Hilbert space, respectively; (b) the weak energy defines functions which translate correlation amplitudes and probabilities in time; (c) correlation probabilities can be controlled by manipulating the weak energy and there exists a condition of weak stationarity that guarantees their time invariance; and (d) a time-weak energy uncertainty relation of the usual form prevails when a suitable set of dynamical constr...

  6. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  7. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  8. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J. K.; Lorenz, J.

    2010-06-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor.

  9. Tipping diffusivity in information accumulation systems: more links, less consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J K; Lorenz, J

    2010-01-01

    Assume two different communities each of which maintain their respective opinions mainly because of the weak interaction between them. In such a case, it is an interesting problem to find the necessary strength of inter-community interaction in order for the two communities to reach a consensus. In this paper, the information accumulation system (IAS) model is applied to investigate the problem. With the application of the IAS model, the opinion dynamics of the two-community problem is found to belong to a wider class of two-species problems appearing in population dynamics or in the competition of two languages, for all of which the governing equations can be described in terms of coupled logistic maps. Tipping diffusivity is defined as the maximal inter-community interaction such that the two communities maintain different opinions. For a problem with a simple community structure and homogeneous individuals, the tipping diffusivity is calculated theoretically. As a conclusion of the paper, the convergence of the two communities to the same value is less possible the more overall interaction, intra-community and inter-community, takes place. This implies, for example, that the increase in the interaction between individuals caused by the development of modern communication tools, such as Facebook and Twitter, does not necessarily improve the tendency towards global convergence between different communities. If the number of internal links increases by a factor, the number of inter-community links must be increased by an even higher factor, in order for consensus to be the only stable attractor

  10. 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roila, Fausto; Warr, David; Hesketh, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: An update of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute and delayed emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy published after the last MASCC/ESMO antiemetic consensus conference in 2009 has been carried out. METHODS: A systematic literature search using PubMed from Janua...

  11. Overlapping community detection using weighted consensus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many overlapping community detection algorithms have been proposed. Most of them are unstable and behave non-deterministically. In this paper, we use weighted consensus clustering for combining multiple base covers obtained by classic non-deterministic algorithms to improve the quality of the results. We first ...

  12. Consensus and Cognitivism in Habermas's Discourse | Moellendorf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habermas asserts that his discourse ethics rests on two main commitments: 1) Moral judgements have cognitive content analogous to truth value; and 2) moral justification requires real- life discourse. Habermas elaborates on the second claim by making actual consensus a necessary condition of normative validity. I argue ...

  13. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Innes, N.P.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.; Schwendicke, F.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current

  14. THE 'CONSENSUS GENEVENSIS' REVISITED THE GENESIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divine election was presented over against the intervention of Jerome Bolsec. The ministers of Geneva presented their internal consensus on predestination and sought the approval of the Swiss churches. This paper argues on historical, literary and ma- terial grounds that not Calvin's book De aeterna praedestinatione Dei ...

  15. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert ...

  16. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  17. Consensus over peri-implantaire infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, A J

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, in a workshop of the European Federation on Periodontology, a consensus was reached concerning oral peri-implant infections on the basis of the state of the art in the relevant sciences. Important conclusions were that peri-implant mucositis occurs in 80% of subjects with oral implants, and

  18. ESMO consensus conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladetto, M; Buske, C; Hutchings, M

    2016-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommen...

  19. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... the purpose of this consensus map (containing QTL) is to provide a tool for scientists to accurately locate molecular markers to ... community with powerful tools for comparative genomics. (Gai et al., 2000; Mekhdov et al., ...... and controlled by almost the same loci (Marquez et al.,. 2000). In the present study ...

  20. Epistemic Iterations and Consensus Definitions of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Behizadeh, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In his article, Paul E. Newton has conducted a review of selected perspectives on validity theory with the goal of disambiguating the definition of validity and describing a consensus definition of validity. Newton provides a nuanced discussion of the evolution of the concept of validity over the years. His Focus article has two major goals: (1)…

  1. Adult Asthma Consensus Guidelines Update 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.

  2. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Juan G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the -stable and generalized- . We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the "normal" equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  3. Mappings on weakly Lindelöf and weakly regular-Lindel¨of spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Jabor Fawakhreh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the effect of mappings and some decompositions of continuity on weakly Lindelöf spaces and weakly regular-Lindelöf spaces. We show that some mappings preserve these topological properties. We also show that the image of a weakly Lindelöf space (resp. weakly regular-Lindelöf space under an almost continuous mapping is weakly Lindelöf (resp. weakly regular-Lindelöf. Moreover, the image of a weakly regular-Lindelöf space under a precontinuous and contracontinuousmapping is Lindelöf.

  4. Weak boson emission in hadron collider processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, U.

    2007-01-01

    The O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections to many hadron collider processes are known to become large and negative at high energies, due to the appearance of Sudakov-like logarithms. At the same order in perturbation theory, weak boson emission diagrams contribute. Since the W and Z bosons are massive, the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections and the contributions from weak boson emission are separately finite. Thus, unlike in QED or QCD calculations, there is no technical reason for including gauge boson emission diagrams in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In most calculations of the O(α) electroweak radiative corrections, weak boson emission diagrams are therefore not taken into account. Another reason for not including these diagrams is that they lead to final states which differ from that of the original process. However, in experiment, one usually considers partially inclusive final states. Weak boson emission diagrams thus should be included in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In this paper, I examine the role of weak boson emission in those processes at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC for which the one-loop electroweak radiative corrections are known to become large at high energies (inclusive jet, isolated photon, Z+1 jet, Drell-Yan, di-boson, tt, and single top production). In general, I find that the cross section for weak boson emission is substantial at high energies and that weak boson emission and the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections partially cancel

  5. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  6. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS -1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. Filter and Passband Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with achieving precision in photometric measurements of stars are examined. The thermal stabilization of glass and interference filters and the determination of correct analytic representations of bandwidth effects in data reduction are particularly discussed. Spectral sampling requirements are also addressed.

  8. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  9. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  10. Building consensus in developing radioactive waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, R.; Philpott, R.; Smith, S.L.; Gibson, J.

    1991-01-01

    To successfully develop radioactive waste management systems, national authorities must work to establish consensus on numerous complex issues among many affected and interested parties. This paper explores the meaning of consensus in waste management, with special attention to the different arenas in which consensus is established and how DOE can respond if consensus is withheld. Highlights of other national waste management programs are introduced to provide a broader perspective on consensus. It is suggested that the US waste management program has reached a point where Congress needs to act to reaffirm consensus on the direction of the US program

  11. Recleaning of HEPA filters by reverse flow - evaluation of the underlying processes and the cleaning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H.; Leiber, T.; Doeffert, I.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    HEPA filter operation at high concentrations of fine dusts requires the periodic recleaning of the filter units in their service locations. Due to the low mechanical stress induced during the recleaning process the regenration via low pressure reverse flow is a very suitable technique. Recleanability of HEPA filter had been attained for particle diameter >0,4 μm at air velocities up to 1 m/s, but filter clogging occurred in case of smaller particles. The recleaning forces are too weak for particles [de

  12. Prediction Task Assignment of Multi-UAV Approach Based on Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Qin, Zheng; Xing, Jian-Kuan

    In the battlefield, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) needs to assign tasks dynamically by using the radar tracking information, but when the poor weather comes, or UAV enters blind area, the radar cannot gather the accurate information which severely impair the assignment result. A new task assignment prediction method was proposed in this paper. We first predict the UAV information using UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter) algorithm, and then clear up the collision by auction algorithm. Finally, we assign the tasks. The results show that the algorithm performs better than greedy task assignment and consensus based auction algorithm.

  13. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  14. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  15. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well-known that, if f : M → N is an isomorphism, then there is a one-to-one corres- pondence between the submodules of M and the submodules of N. Therefore, any module. (lattice) isomorphic to a weakly distributive module, is itself weakly distributive. Lemma 2.1. Let M be a weakly distributive module and f : M → N be ...

  16. Robust weak measurements on finite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A new weak measurement procedure is introduced for finite samples which yields accurate weak values that are outside the range of eigenvalues and which do not require an exponentially rare ensemble. This procedure provides a unique advantage in the amplification of small nonrandom signals by minimizing uncertainties in determining the weak value and by minimizing sample size. This procedure can also extend the strength of the coupling between the system and measuring device to a new regime

  17. Are weak and electromagnetic interactions unified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines how well the standard electroweak model agrees with experiment. Attempts to explain to a nonparticle physicist why weak and electromagnetic interactions are unified. Discusses the Glashow model (unified SU(2)xU(1)); some basic questions; an alternative viewpoint; unified theories; non-unified theories; and weak interactions as strong interactions. Concludes that SU(2)xU(1) is a good phenomenological model for weak and electromagnetic interactions in the energy region accessible to experiment

  18. Numerical test of weak turbulence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, G. L.; Nicholson, D. R.; Shen, Mei-Mei

    1989-01-01

    The analytic theory of weak Langmuir turbulence is well known, but very little has previously been done to compare its predictions with numerical solutions of the basic dynamical evolution equations. In this paper, numerical solutions of the statistical weak turbulence theory are compared with numerical solutions of the Zakharov model of Langmuir turbulence, and good agreement in certain regimes of very weak field strength is found.

  19. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...... indicate that IIR filters are the most effective in a number of situations....

  20. Performance Analysis of Local Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin T.

    2018-03-01

    Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an important data assimilation method for high-dimensional geophysical systems. Efficient implementation of EnKF in practice often involves the localization technique, which updates each component using only information within a local radius. This paper rigorously analyzes the local EnKF (LEnKF) for linear systems and shows that the filter error can be dominated by the ensemble covariance, as long as (1) the sample size exceeds the logarithmic of state dimension and a constant that depends only on the local radius; (2) the forecast covariance matrix admits a stable localized structure. In particular, this indicates that with small system and observation noises, the filter error will be accurate in long time even if the initialization is not. The analysis also reveals an intrinsic inconsistency caused by the localization technique, and a stable localized structure is necessary to control this inconsistency. While this structure is usually taken for granted for the operation of LEnKF, it can also be rigorously proved for linear systems with sparse local observations and weak local interactions. These theoretical results are also validated by numerical implementation of LEnKF on a simple stochastic turbulence in two dynamical regimes.

  1. Consensus statement update on posttraumatic stress disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, James C; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lecrubier, Yves; Nutt, David J; Marshall, Randall D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Shalev, Arieh Y; Yehuda, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To provide an update to the "Consensus Statement on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder From the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety" that was published in a supplement to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2000) by presenting important developments in the field, the latest recommendations for patient care, and suggestions for future research. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty who were invited by the chair were Randall D. Marshall, Charles B. Nemeroff, Arieh Y. Shalev, and Rachel Yehuda. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review articles in this supplement and the related scientific literature. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed topics to be represented by the 7 review articles in this supplement, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all faculty. There have been advancements in the science and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Attention to this disorder has increased with recent world events; however, continued efforts are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. Consensus statement on social anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Bobes, J; Beidel, D C; Ono, Y; Westenberg, H G

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this consensus statement is to provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Julio Bobes, Deborah C. Beidel, Yukata Ono, and Herman G. M. Westenberg. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review papers published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these papers. The group met over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement underlines the importance of recognizing social anxiety disorder and provides recommendations on how it may be distinguished from other anxiety disorders. It proposes definitions for response and remission and considers appropriate management strategies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy, and effective treatment should be continued for at least 12 months. Long-term treatment is indicated if symptoms are unresolved, the patient has a comorbid condition or a history of relapse, or there was an early onset of the disorder.

  3. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...... amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude...

  4. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  5. Consensus Through Conversation How to Achieve High-Commitment Decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dressler, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Facilitation expert Larry Dressler's Consensus Through Conversation is a guide for the effective facilitation and practice of one of business's most popular - but most widely misunderstood - decision-making models: consensus.

  6. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  7. On fractional filtering versus conventional filtering in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.; Omay, Tolga; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we compare the Hodrick-Prescott Filter technique with the Fractional filtering technique that has recently started to be used in various applied sciences like physics, engineering, and biology. We apply these filtering techniques to quarterly GDP data from Turkey for the period 1988:1-2003:2. The filtered series are analyzed using Minimum Square Error (MSE) and real life evidence. In the second part of the study, we use simulated data to analyze the statistical properties of the aforementioned filtering techniques.

  8. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  9. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...

  10. ESMO Consensus Conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buske, C; Hutchings, M; Ladetto, M

    2018-01-01

    recommendations on critical subjects difficult to consider in detail in the ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. The following areas were identified: (1) the elderly patient, (2) prognostic factors suitable for clinical use, and (3) the 'ultra-high-risk' group. Before the conference, the expert panel was divided...... into three working groups; each group focused on one of these areas in order to address clinically-relevant questions relating to that topic. All relevant scientific literature, as identified by the experts, was reviewed in advance. During the consensus conference, each working group developed...... of the three key areas identified. This manuscript presents the consensus recommendations regarding the clinical management of elderly patients diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Four clinically-relevant topics identified by the panel were: 1) how to define patient fitness, 2) assessing quality of life, 3...

  11. [Consensus on safe infant's furniture: brief version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Several products that are used for support, transportation or recreation in infants and children can cause non intentional injuries. This consensus tries to provide pediatricians and families with the necessary elements to recognize and choose safe infant's furniture. A group of 24 experts developed a consensus according to Delphi's method, which consists in successiverounds of questions. Recommendations are supported with bibliography. Infant walkers are not recommended, as they are considered useless and dangerous. Guidelines are given to choose appropriate child restraint systems, when and how to use them, and how to install them in a safe way. Injuries and prevention measures related to strollers, high chairs, cribs and bunk beds are described. Risks and the way to avoid them are diagrammed in figures that can be used to transmit recommendations to families. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient...... paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more...... for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based...

  13. Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.

  14. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  15. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  16. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  18. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  19. A note on Weak Stability Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Fernando; Gómez Muntané, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to clarify the algorithmic definition of the weak stability boundary in the framework of the planar Restricted Three Body Problem. The role of the invariant hyperbolic manifolds associated to the central manifolds of the libration points L1 and L2, as boundary of the weak stability region, is shown Peer Reviewed

  20. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs

  2. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references

  3. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    flood of papers involving contractive definition that do not require the continuity of T . This result was further generalized and extended in various ways by many authors. On the other hand Sessa [11] defined weak commutativity and proved common fixed point theorem for weakly commuting maps. Further Jungck [5] ...

  4. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  5. Moving Beyond Weak Identifiers for Proxemic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    is significantly closer than what is actually the case. This makes the smartphone a weak identifier for applications that need to track persons. With a focus on feasible interaction design, we present a concept and prototype of a platform, which seek to support proxemic interaction beyond weak identifiers...

  6. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  7. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  8. Consensus for physiotherapy for shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintberg, Ingrid Hultenheim; Cools, Ann M J; Holmgren, Theresa M; Holzhausen, Ann-Christine Gunnarsson; Johansson, Kajsa; Maenhout, Annelies G; Moser, Jane S; Spunton, Valentina; Ginn, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Shoulder pain is a common disorder. Despite growing evidence of the importance of physiotherapy, in particular active exercise therapy, little data is available to guide treatment. The aim of this project was to contribute to the development of an internationally accepted assessment and treatment algorithm for patients with shoulder pain. Nine physiotherapists with expertise in the treatment of shoulder dysfunction met in Sweden 2012 to begin the process of developing a treatment algorithm. A questionnaire was completed prior to the meeting to guide discussions. Virtual conferences were thereafter the platform to reach consensus. Consensus was achieved on a clinical reasoning algorithm to guide the assessment and treatment for patients presenting with local shoulder pain, without significant passive range of motion deficits and no symptoms or signs of instability. The algorithm emphasises that physiotherapy treatment decisions should be based on physical assessment findings and not structural pathology, that active exercises should be the primary treatment approach, and that regular re-assessment is performed to ensure that all clinical features contributing to the presenting shoulder pain are addressed. Consensus was also achieved on a set of guiding principles for implementing exercise therapy for shoulder pain, namely, a limited number of exercises, performed with appropriate scapulo-humeral coordination and humeral head alignment, in a graduated manner without provoking the presenting shoulder pain. The assessment and treatment algorithm presented could contribute to a more formal, extensive process aimed at achieving international agreement on an algorithm to guide physiotherapy treatment for shoulder pain.

  9. [National consensus on the modified Atkins diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarezza, María; Agustinho, Ariela; Alberti, M Julia; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; DeMartini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Diz, Mariana; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Gonzalez, Lara; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Rios, Viviana; Semprino, Marcos; Sosa, Patricia; Toma, Marisol; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-04-16

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease that affects 0.5-1% of the population. One third of the patients become refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Among the non-pharmacological treatments available, the modified Atkins diet is an effective treatment used since 2003 as another alternative for children and adults with refractory epilepsy. The Ketogenic Diet National Committee, which depends on the Argentine Society of Pediatric Neurology, elaborated this consensus on the modified Atkins diet, basing itself on a review of the literature and on their clinical experience. This consensus in Spanish explains the different aspects to be taken into account regarding the modified Atkins diet, patient selection, implementation, different controls and adverse effects. Unlike the classic ketogenic diet, the modified Atkins diet is initiated without fasting or hospital stay, nor does it require protein, calorie or fluid restriction, thus improving patient palatability and consequently patient tolerability. The modified Atkins diet is a useful treatment for patients with intractable epilepsy. The publication of this consensus offers the possibility for new centers to get oriented regarding this diet implementation.

  10. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  11. Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen

    2014-04-08

    An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin.

  12. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Thomas E; Willie, Jon T; Guilleminault, Christian; Siegel, Jerome M

    2009-01-01

    People with narcolepsy often have episodes of cataplexy, brief periods of muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions. Many researchers are now studying mouse models of narcolepsy, but definitions of cataplexy-like behavior in mice differ across labs. To establish a common language, the International Working Group on Rodent Models of Narcolepsy reviewed the literature on cataplexy in people with narcolepsy and in dog and mouse models of narcolepsy and then developed a consensus definition of murine cataplexy. The group concluded that murine cataplexy is an abrupt episode of nuchal atonia lasting at least 10 seconds. In addition, theta activity dominates the EEG during the episode, and video recordings document immobility. To distinguish a cataplexy episode from REM sleep after a brief awakening, at least 40 seconds of wakefulness must precede the episode. Bouts of cataplexy fitting this definition are common in mice with disrupted orexin/hypocretin signaling, but these events almost never occur in wild type mice. It remains unclear whether murine cataplexy is triggered by strong emotions or whether mice remain conscious during the episodes as in people with narcolepsy. This working definition provides helpful insights into murine cataplexy and should allow objective and accurate comparisons of cataplexy in future studies using mouse models of narcolepsy.

  13. Localization of acoustic sources using a decentralized particle filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstoft Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the decentralized localization of an acoustic source in a (wireless sensor network based on the underlying partial differential equation (PDE. The PDE is transformed into a distributed state-space model and augmented by a source model. Inferring the source state amounts to a non-linear non-Gaussian Bayesian estimation problem for whose solution we implement a decentralized particle filter (PF operating within and across clusters of sensor nodes. The aggregation of the local posterior distributions from all clusters is achieved via an enhanced version of the maximum consensus algorithm. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance of our scheme.

  14. Sharpening minimum-phase filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic Dolecek, G.; Fernandez-Vazquez, A.

    2013-02-01

    The minimum-phase requirement restricts that filter has all its zeros on or inside the unit circle. As a result the filter does not have a linear phase. It is well known that the sharpening technique can be used to simultaneous improvements of both the pass-band and stop-band of a linear-phase FIR filters and cannot be used for other types of filters. In this paper we demonstrate that the sharpening technique can also be applied to minimum-phase filters, after small modification. The method is illustrated with one practical examples of design.

  15. A Short Note on t-filters, I-filters and Extended Filters on Residuated Lattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víta, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 271, 15 July (2015), s. 168-171 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : t-filters * I-filters * extended filters * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2015

  16. On weakly hyperbolic spaces and a convergence-extension theorem in weakly hyperbolic spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Pham Viet

    2002-11-01

    In this article we prove some properties of the weakly hyperbolic spaces. Moreover, a convergence-extension theorem for analytic hypersurfaces (not necessarily with normal crossings) in weakly hyperbolic spaces is given. (author)

  17. The joint discourse 'reflexive sustainable development'. From weak towards strong sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Heidi Rapp

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute towards moving the predominant situation of weak sustainable development (WSD) in the direction of strong sustainable development (SSD). More people - academics, politicians, bureaucrats and laymen alike - need to recognize SSD as an alternative to WSD. A joint discourse of WSD and SSD is suggested, called reflexive sustainable development. Here, advocates of WSD and SSD must argue for each specific case why their solution is better. This will expose, amongst other things, the ethical foundations which form part of resulting policy advice. Reflexive sustainable development is to be framed in discourse ethics, thereby remedying the power imbalance and allowing for substantial discussion. Reflexive sustainable development builds on a common theoretical base but will not lead to consensus in all matters. A family metaphor is introduced to inspire a discourse of both consensus and compromise. (author)

  18. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Baldwin, D S; den Boer, J A; Kasper, S; Shear, M K

    1998-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four faculty invited by the chairman also participated: David S. Baldwin, Johan A. den Boer, Siegfried Kasper, and M. Katherine Shear. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review papers that are published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to these issues. There were group meetings held during a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper and the chairman and discussant (Dr. Kasper) identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these key issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chairman and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement provides standard definitions for response and remission and identifies appropriate strategy for the management of panic disorder in a primary care setting. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors are recommended as drugs of first choice with a treatment period of 12 to 24 months. Pharmacotherapy should be discontinued slowly over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  19. Impedance-Based High Frequency Resonance Analysis of DFIG System in Weak Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The impedance-based model of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) systems, including the rotor part (Rotor Side Converter (RSC) and induction machine), and the grid part (Grid Side Converter (GSC) and its output filter), has been developed for analysis and mitigation of the Sub- Synchronous Resonance (SSR). However, the High Frequency Resonance (HFR) of DFIG systems due to the impedance interaction between DFIG system and parallel compensated weak network is often overlooked. This paper thus...

  20. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  1. Dynamical and topological aspects of consensus formation in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacoma, A.; Mato, G.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    The present work analyzes a particular scenario of consensus formation, where the individuals navigate across an underlying network defining the topology of the walks. The consensus, associated to a given opinion coded as a simple message, is generated by interactions during the agent's walk and manifest itself in the collapse of the various opinions into a single one. We analyze how the topology of the underlying networks and the rules of interaction between the agents promote or inhibit the emergence of this consensus. We find that non-linear interaction rules are required to form consensus and that consensus is more easily achieved in networks whose degree distribution is narrower.

  2. Weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    The International Symposium W.E.I.N. 1986 brought together leading experts in the fields of nuclear and elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In addition to current problems in nuclear physics (weak and electromagnetic nuclear properties, electroweak interactions in nuclei, exotic nuclei) this book presents fascinating contributions that arise from the interaction among these fields: lepton number violation and neutrino mass; muon physics; weak interactions and fundamental symmetries; fundamental decays; basic experiments for GUTs; weak interactions and astrophysics; GUTs, SUSYs and the early Universe. The book demonstrates that in this context nuclear physics promises exciting future developments. (orig.)

  3. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  4. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  5. New ICRP recommendations 2005: without full consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ionising radiation is viewed as one of the most studied of all known carcinogens. Over the last 50 years Recommendations of International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been changed regularly every 10 years. At the beginning these changes were significant, sometimes even radical, according to quick acquiring of new scientific evidence on physical, biological and health effects of radiation. In order to handle each new situation evolution of the radiation protection system has been extended and new portions have been added (the ubiquitous exposure of public to radon gas and its progeny, and the need to develop an appropriate response to emergency situations, increasing social desire to participate in decision making processes, concern for the protection of non-human species and environment), that resulted in a system that is increasingly complicated. Over the last few years very broad discussions of major radiation protection concepts have been encouraged by the ICRP in order to achieve consensus on a more operational and coherent system of radiation protection elaborated in a transparent fashion, and presented in readily understandable terms. This process for the first time involves a broad spectrum of stake holders in these discussions. It is further assumed that these debates will eventually result in consensus on the basis for the next round of ICRP general recommendations, probably in the 2005. While now it is certain that the consensus is not yet reached within the international community and the discussion of these issues will continue for some time the new recommendations should be seen as a consolidation of recommendations from 1990 to give a single unified set that can be simply and coherently expressed. The paper presents essential issues of the outcome of the Commission discussions and improvement of the current system of radiation protection.(author)

  6. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Leukodepletion blood filters: filter design and mechanisms of leukocyte removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, S

    1993-04-01

    Modern leukocyte removal filters have been developed after years of refinement in design. Current filters are composite filters in which synthetic microfiber material is prepared as a nonwoven web. The filter material may be surface modified to alter surface tension or charge to improve performance. The housing design promotes effective contact of blood with the filter material and decreases shear forces. The exact mechanisms by which these filters remove leukocytes from blood components are uncertain, but likely represent a combination of both physical and biological processes whose contributions to leukocyte removal are interdependent. Small-pore microfiber webs result in barrier phenomena that permit retention of individual cells and increase the total adsorptive area of the filter. Modifications in surface charge can increase or decrease cell attraction to the fibers. Optimum interfacial surface tensions between blood cells, plasma, and filter fibers not only permit effective blood flow through small fiber pores, but also facilitate cell contact with the material. Barrier retention is a common mechanism for all modern leukocyte-removal filters and applies to all leukocyte subtypes. Because barrier retention does not depend on cell viability, it is operative for cells of any age and will retain any nondeformable cell, including whole nuclei from lymphocytes or monocytes. Barrier retention is supplemented by retention by adhesion. RBCs, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and platelets differ in their relative adhesiveness to filter fibers. Different adhesive mechanisms are used in filters designed for RBCs compared with filters designed for platelets. Although lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes can adhere directly to filter fibers, the biological mechanisms underlying cell adhesion may differ for these cell types. These differences may depend on expression of cell adhesion molecules. In the case of filtration of fresh RBCs, platelet-leukocyte interaction

  8. Intelligibility of bandpass filtered speech: The effect of filter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have examined the contribution of different spectral bands to speech intelligibility, measuring recognition scores of filtered speech stimuli. For a given filter bandwidth, the influence of filter properties on such experiments has been studied mainly with respect to transition band slopes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether nominal transition band slope is a sufficient characterization of filter properties. Several types of filters, both finite impulse response and infinite impulse response types were examined in three experiments to determine if details of the transition band behavior, as well as group delay properties, had any influence on recognition scores. The results of a total of 72 participants showed that for 1/3 octave passbands, differences between filters having the same nominal transition band slopes, but of different types, were large and statistically significant. Linearity of phase response, however, did not influence the results. Further experiments using passband widths of 1/2 and 2/3 octaves revealed that only for the latter the difference in recognition scores between filter types ceased to be significant. These results have important implications for studies which involve filtered speech as well as models that employ different types of filters to emulate peripheral auditory processing.

  9. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Valdovinos

    2017-04-01

    Results and conclusions: Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy.

  10. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  11. International consensus and States non-Parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.

    1996-01-01

    It is significant to recognize the contribution that international law can make to the promotion of consensus for arms control. Issues surface with a constancy that demand consistent, codified responses. International law should be more powerful, especially in addressing non-members and non-complying states. Successful negotiation of a multilateral treaty is not an end but a means to establish a law enforcement system capable of promoting important global interests. Accordingly arms control should generate the development of authoritative legal doctrines and institutions that can meet the challenge

  12. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    the economic and social challenge posed by management of brain diseases in European countries. To setup a platform for discussion, EBC published in 2006 a Consensus Document on European Brain Research, describing needs and achievements of research in Europe and presenting proposals for future research programs....... Since 2006, European research in neuroscience has advanced tremendously. The present document represents an update elaborated to reflect changes in research priorities and advances in brain research that have taken place since 2006. The same approach and format have been used here as in the previous...

  13. Sarcopenia With Limited Mobility: An International Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, John E.; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Argiles, Josep M.; Baracos, Vickie; Bauer, Juergen; Bhasin, Shalender; Cederholm, Tommy; Stewart Coats, Andrew J.; Cummings, Steven R.; Evans, William J.; Fearon, Kenneth; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fielding, Roger A.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2011-01-01

    A consensus conference convened by the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders has concluded that “Sarcopenia, ie, reduced muscle mass, with limited mobility” should be considered an important clinical entity and that most older persons should be screened for this condition. “Sarcopenia with limited mobility” is defined as a person with muscle loss whose walking speed is equal to or less than 1 m/s or who walks less than 400 m during a 6-minute walk, and who has a lean appendicu...

  14. Teacher effectiveness in physical education-consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Judith

    2014-09-01

    This article synthesizes the series of manuscripts on teacher effectiveness in physical education recently published by the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport and highlights both the consensus and points of disagreement. Although there is much agreement as to the mission to develop a physically active lifestyle, there is a great deal of disagreement on how to get there, which makes the task of measuring effectiveness difficult. The current reform effort in education to measure teacher effectiveness makes it essential that professionals in physical education at all levels be participants in this process.

  15. Distributed Particle Filter for Target Tracking: With Reduced Sensor Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Ghirmai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For efficient and accurate estimation of the location of objects, a network of sensors can be used to detect and track targets in a distributed manner. In nonlinear and/or non-Gaussian dynamic models, distributed particle filtering methods are commonly applied to develop target tracking algorithms. An important consideration in developing a distributed particle filtering algorithm in wireless sensor networks is reducing the size of data exchanged among the sensors because of power and bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we propose a distributed particle filtering algorithm with the objective of reducing the overhead data that is communicated among the sensors. In our algorithm, the sensors exchange information to collaboratively compute the global likelihood function that encompasses the contribution of the measurements towards building the global posterior density of the unknown location parameters. Each sensor, using its own measurement, computes its local likelihood function and approximates it using a Gaussian function. The sensors then propagate only the mean and the covariance of their approximated likelihood functions to other sensors, reducing the communication overhead. The global likelihood function is computed collaboratively from the parameters of the local likelihood functions using an average consensus filter or a forward-backward propagation information exchange strategy.

  16. Current problems in the weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, A

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references. (JFP)

  17. Current problems in the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references

  18. Weakly supervised object detection with posterior regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Hakan; Pedersoli, Marco; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Bilen H., Pedersoli M., Tuytelaars T., ''Weakly supervised object detection with posterior regularization'', 25th British machine vision conference - BMVC 2014, 12 pp., September 1-5, 2014, Nottingham, UK.

  19. Tandem HEPA filter tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, B G; Osetek, D J

    1978-02-01

    Current methods for evaluating the performance and reliability of high-efficiency air cleaning systems use forward light-scattering photometers and DOP aerosol. This method is limited to measuring protection factors of 10(4) or 10(5) and has poor sensitivity to particles less than .3 micron. More accurate determination of system performance could be made by measuring two filter stages with a single test. Because of the large protection factors of a two-stage system, it is necessary to use high challenge aerosol concentrations and long downstream sampling times. Concentrations were measured using an intra-cavity laser light-scattering aerosol spectrometer which is capable of detection of single particles ranging in size from 0.07 to 3.00 micron diameter. The results of several tests with challenge aerosols of both NaCl and DOP yielded protection factors ranging from 1.4 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(9) for two HEPA filters in series.

  20. Nanoparticle optical notch filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinadhuni, Pradeep Kumar

    Developing novel light blocking products involves the design of a nanoparticle optical notch filter, working on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). These light blocking products can be used in many applications. One such application is to naturally reduce migraine headaches and light sensitivity. Melanopsin ganglion cells present in the retina of the human eye, connect to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the body's clock) in the brain, where they participate in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms. As the Melanopsin ganglion cells are involved in triggering the migraine headaches in photophobic patients, it is necessary to block the part of visible spectrum that activates these cells. It is observed from the action potential spectrum of the ganglion cells that they absorb light ranging from 450-500nm (blue-green part) of the visible spectrum with a λmax (peak sensitivity) of around 480nm (blue line). Currently prescribed for migraine patients is the FL-41 coating, which blocks a broad range of wavelengths, including wavelengths associated with melanopsin absorption. The nanoparticle optical notch filter is designed to block light only at 480nm, hence offering an effective prescription for the treatment of migraine headaches.

  1. About some distinguishing features of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that, in contrast to strong and electromagnetic theories, additive conserved numbers (such as lepton, aromatic and another numbers) and γ 5 anomaly do not appear in the standard weak interaction theory. It means that in this interaction the additive numbers cannot be conserved. These results are the consequence of specific character of the weak interaction: the right components of spinors do not participate in this interaction. The schemes of violation of the aromatic and lepton numbers were considered

  2. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  3. Weakly Secure Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kadhe, Swanand; Sprintson, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of secure distributed data storage under the paradigm of \\emph{weak security}, in which no \\emph{meaningful information} is leaked to the eavesdropper. More specifically, the eavesdropper cannot get any information about any individual message file or a small group of files. The key benefit of the weak security paradigm is that it incurs no loss in the storage capacity, which makes it practically appealing. In this paper, we present a coding scheme, using a coset codin...

  4. Markovian bridges: Weak continuity and pathwise constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumont, Loïc; Uribe Bravo, Gerónimo

    2011-01-01

    A Markovian bridge is a probability measure taken from a disintegration of the law of an initial part of the path of a Markov process given its terminal value. As such, Markovian bridges admit a natural parameterization in terms of the state space of the process. In the context of Feller processes with continuous transition densities, we construct by weak convergence considerations the only versions of Markovian bridges which are weakly continuous with respect to their parameter. We use this ...

  5. Joint and weak measurements on qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.L.; Pryde, G.J.; Bartlett, S.D.; Ralph, T.C.; Wiseman, H.M.; White, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Along with the well-known concept of projective measurements, quantum mechanics allows various kinds of generalized measurement operators. Two important examples are: joint measurements on two or more quantum systems that cannot be achieved by local operations (LOCC); and weak measurements that obtain less information about a system than does a projective measurement, but with correspondingly less disturbance. Unlike the result of a strong measurement, the average value of a weak measurement of an observable (its weak value), when followed by projective postselection in a complementary basis, can lie outside the range of eigenvalues. This discrepancy is not observed in analogous classical measurements. Weak values aid the resolution of quantum paradoxes, and can simplify analysis of weakly coupled systems. We use a generalized measurement device to measure the weak value of a photon's polarization in the horizontal/vertical basis (the Stokes operator S1 = |H> weak up to 47, outside the usual range -1 ≤ S1 ≤ 1. Unlike previous observations of weak values, our measurement works by entangling two separate systems, and thus can only be described by quantum theory, not a classical wave theory. Also, we have used a two-qubit joint measurement based on a controlled-NOT gate by which certain twoqubit unentangled states can be more reliably distinguished than by using LOCC. We quantify this using a payoff function, for which the optimal LOCC measurement attains 2/3, and our experimental measurement attains 0.72 ± 0.02, close to the global optimum of 3/4. (author)

  6. Synchronization of weakly coupled canard oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Köksal Ersöz, Elif; Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Synchronization has been studied extensively in the context of weakly coupled oscillators using the so-called phase response curve (PRC) which measures how a change of the phase of an oscillator is affected by a small perturbation. This approach was based upon the work of Malkin, and it has been extended to relaxation oscillators. Namely, synchronization conditions were established under the weak coupling assumption, leading to a criterion for the existence of synchron...

  7. Data assimilation the ensemble Kalman filter

    CERN Document Server

    Evensen, Geir

    2007-01-01

    Data Assimilation comprehensively covers data assimilation and inverse methods, including both traditional state estimation and parameter estimation. This text and reference focuses on various popular data assimilation methods, such as weak and strong constraint variational methods and ensemble filters and smoothers. It is demonstrated how the different methods can be derived from a common theoretical basis, as well as how they differ and/or are related to each other, and which properties characterize them, using several examples. Rather than emphasize a particular discipline such as oceanography or meteorology, it presents the mathematical framework and derivations in a way which is common for any discipline where dynamics is merged with measurements. The mathematics level is modest, although it requires knowledge of basic spatial statistics, Bayesian statistics, and calculus of variations. Readers will also appreciate the introduction to the mathematical methods used and detailed derivations, which should b...

  8. Attending to weak signals: the leader's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-12-01

    Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.

  9. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  10. Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR ∼20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR ∼5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur

  11. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  12. High-frequency filtering for low-temperature thermal transport studies in nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Torgovkin, Andrii

    2012-01-01

    Filtering of external unwanted RF-noise and thermal noise generated at the high-temperature parts of the measuring circuit is essential for successful measurements of thermal transport of nanostructures at low temperatures. This is because of thermal decoupling of the systems, i.e. the extreme weakness of thermal conduction at sub-Kelvin temperatures, leading easily to overheating even with excess power in sub pW range. We have started to improve the noise filtering in our cryogenic diluti...

  13. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  14. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Gerald S.

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the ...

  15. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  16. Methodological Quality of Consensus Guidelines in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions.

  17. Calcium hydroxylapatite for jawline rejuvenation: consensus recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallara, Jean-Marie; Baspeyras, Martine; Bui, Patrick; Cartier, Hugues; Charavel, Marie-Hélène; Dumas, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Age-associated volume loss is now known to play an important role in the structural changes of the aging face. In the lower face, this manifests as drooping of the corners of the mouth and jowl leading to a loss of the oval jawline of youth. Jawline reshaping by replacing volume has therefore become an indispensable component of modern facial rejuvenation. Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA; Radiesse® , Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany) is an injectable filler with a cosmetic indication for tissue augmentation. The ability of calcium hydroxylapatite to provide immediate and long-lasting volume enhancement makes it an ideal agent for restoring an oval jawline. This consensus statement has been developed to assist clinicians who would like to gain more experience in the use of volumizing agents to achieve an optimal outcome with this procedure. Using the recently developed Merz Aesthetics Scale® for jawline, the consensus provides a treatment protocol for individuals at each stage of oval loss and presents a series of before and after images to illustrate the improvements that can be achieved. Specific recommendations for calcium hydroxylapatite including type of anesthesia, injection techniques, volume for injection, use in combination with other procedures, and expected duration of corrections are provided. Techniques for minimizing and managing expected problems and potential complications are also described. Calcium hydroxylapatite is appropriate for treating patients at any stage of oval loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dialogic Consensus In Clinical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul; Lovat, Terry

    2016-12-01

    This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives other than their own, and be attuned to the demands of inter-subjectivity. Applicable to clinical practice, we propose and justify a Habermasian approach as one useful means of achieving what can be described as dialogic consensus. The Habermasian approach builds around, first, his discourse theory of morality as universalizable to all and, second, communicative action as a cooperative search for truth. It is a concrete way to ground the discourse which must be held in complex medical decision-making situations, in its actual reality. Considerations about the theoretical underpinnings of the application of dialogic consensus to clinical practice, and potential difficulties, are explored.

  19. Consensus statement on round window vibroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Achille M; Todt, Ingo; Sprinzl, Georg; Profant, Milan; Schwab, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to review current knowledge regarding implantation of the Vibrant Soundbridge floating mass transducer (FMT) at the round window (round window vibroplasty) as well as to form a consensus on steps for a reliable, stable surgical procedure. Review of the literature and experimental observations by the authors. Round window (RW) vibroplasty has been established as a reliable procedure that produces good and stable results for patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. The experience gained over the past few years of the authors' more than 200 implantations has led to consensus on several key points: (1) a wide and bloodless access to the middle ear with facial nerve monitoring, (2) the careful and correct identification and exposure of the round window membrane, (3) a good setup for efficient energy transition of the FMT, namely, perpendicular placement of the FMT with no contact to bone and the placement of cartilage behind the FMT to create a preloaded "spring" function, and (4) 4 points of FMT fixation: a rim of the round window bony overhang left intact both anterior and posterior to the FMT, conductor link stabilization, and cartilage behind the FMT. In addition, the FMT should be covered with soft tissue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Consensus for the brain metastases treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabadan, Alejandra; Diez, Blanca; Martinez, Ana M.; Antico, Julio; Saidon, Patricia; Christiansen, Silvia; Rojas, Galeno

    2006-01-01

    The advancement in oncology therapies has made brain metastases treatment a major factor influencing the survival time and quality of life of patients with cancer. Although there are numerous publications on the issue, there is not yet to be consensus regarding the best strategy for treatment, which is probably due to population heterogeneity in terms of functional status, type of neoplasia, control of the systemic disease, and the number and localization of the lesions in the central nervous system. Our objective is to present general recommendations based on rational analysis in order to guide the practical management of brain metastases. With this purpose, a multidisciplinary team composed by neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, neuro-pathologist, radio therapist and neurologists was brought together, conducting a thorough search, in english and spanish, for publications in Pub- Med from 1980 to July 2006 (the starting period was set at the beginning of use of RM in medical practice). Review and original articles with n= or >20 were selected. Also, book chapters of renowned authors in the different consulted areas were included. The assessment of the literature, in addition to the experience of the authors allowed for the development of the 'Consensus for the brain metastases treatment'. Finally, the authors expect the present work will contribute to the multidisciplinary approach for the management of brain metastases with simple and practical recommendations, and probably stimulating future developments in this field. (author)

  1. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  2. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  3. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballenger, JC; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, DJ; Baldwin, DS; den Boer, JA; Kasper, S; Shear, MK

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. Participants: The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C.

  4. Consensus statement on posttraumatic stress disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Foa, E B; Kessler, R C; McFarlane, A C; Shalev, A Y

    2000-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate management strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Edna B. Foa, Ronald C. Kessler, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Arieh Y. Shalev. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. PTSD is often a chronic and recurring condition associated with an increased risk of developing secondary comorbid disorders, such as depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are generally the most appropriate choice of first-line medication for PTSD, and effective therapy should be continued for 12 months or longer. The most appropriate psychotherapy is exposure therapy, and it should be continued for 6 months, with follow-up therapy as needed.

  5. Bridging the ensemble Kalman filter and particle filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordal, Andreas Stoerksen; Karlsen, Hans A.; Naevdal, Geir; Skaug, Hans J.; Valles, Brice

    2009-12-15

    The nonlinear filtering problem occurs in many scientific areas. Sequential Monte Carlo solutions with the correct asymptotic behavior such as particle filters exist but they are computationally too expensive when working with high-dimensional systems. The ensemble Kalman filter is a more robust method that has shown promising results with a small sample size but the samples are not guaranteed to come from the true posterior distribution. By approximating the model error with Gaussian kernels we get the advantage of both a Kalman correction and a weighting step. The resulting Gaussian mixture filter has the advantage of both a local Kalman type correction and the weighting/re sampling step of a particle filter. The Gaussian mixture approximation relies on a tunable bandwidth parameter which often has to be kept quite large in order to avoid weight collapse in high dimensions. As a result, the Kalman correction is too large to capture highly non-Gaussian posterior distributions. In this paper we have extended the Gaussian mixture filter (Hoteit et al., 2008b) and also made the connection to particle filters more transparent. In particular we introduce a tuning parameter for the importance weights. In the last part of the paper we have performed a simulation experiment with the Lorenz40 model where our method has been compared to the EnKF and a full implementation of a particle filter. The results clearly indicate that the new method has advantages compared to the standard EnKF. (Author)

  6. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  7. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  8. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  9. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  10. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    LCL filters are widely used in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. However, it also introduces a pair of unstable resonant poles that may challenge the controller stability. The passive damping is a convenient possibility to tackle the resonance problem at the cost of system overall efficiency....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated......, which has revealed that negative variations of the resonant frequency can seriously affect the system stability. In order to make the controller more robust against grid impedance variations, the notch filter frequency is thus designed smaller than the LCL filter resonant frequency, which is done...

  11. Envelope analysis with a genetic algorithm-based adaptive filter bank for bearing fault detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myeongsu; Kim, Jaeyoung; Choi, Byeong-Keun; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a fault detection methodology for bearings using envelope analysis with a genetic algorithm (GA)-based adaptive filter bank. Although a bandpass filter cooperates with envelope analysis for early identification of bearing defects, no general consensus has been reached as to which passband is optimal. This study explores the impact of various passbands specified by the GA in terms of a residual frequency components-to-defect frequency components ratio, which evaluates the degree of defectiveness in bearings and finally outputs an optimal passband for reliable bearing fault detection.

  12. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  13. Improved pulsed photoacoustic detection by means of an adapted filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Santiago, G.; Peuriot, A.; Slezak, V.; Mosquera, C.

    2005-06-01

    We present a numerical and experimental study of two adapted filters devised to the quantitative analysis of weak photoacoustic signals. The first one is a simple convolution-type one and the other is based on neural networks of the multilayer perceptron type. The theoretical signal used as one of the inputs in both filters is derived from the solution of the transient response of the acoustic cell modeled with a simple transmission-line analogue. The filters were tested numerically by using the theoretical signal corrupted with white noise. After 500 iterations it was possible to define an average error for the returned value of each filter. Since the neural network outperformed the convolution-type, we assessed its performance by measuring SF6 traces diluted in N2 and excited by tuned TEA CO2 laser. The results show the use of the neural network filter allows recovering a signal with poor signal-to-noise ratio without resorting to extensive averaging, thus reducing the acquisition time while improving the precision of the measurement.

  14. The Problem of Weak Governments and Weak Societies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that, for Eastern Europe, the simultaneous presence of weak governments and weak societies is a crucial obstacle which must be faced by analysts and reformers. The understanding of other normatively significant processes will be deficient without a consciousness-raising deliberation on this problem and its implications. This paper seeks to articulate the “relational” approach to state and society. In addition, the paper lays out a typology of possible patterns of relationship between state and society, dependent on whether the state is weak or strong and whether society is weak or strong. Comparative data are presented in order to provide an empirical support for the theses. Finally, the paper outlines two reform approaches which could enable breaking the vicious circle emerging in the context of weak governments and weak societies.

  15. On the Control of Consensus Networks: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias

    Signed networks allow the study of positive and negative interactions between agents. In this thesis, three papers are presented that address controllability of networked dynamics. First, controllability of signed consensus networks is approached from a symmetry perspective, for both linear and nonlinear consensus protocols. It is shown that the graph-theoretic property of signed networks known as structural balance renders the consensus protocol uncontrollable when coupled with a certain type of symmetry. Stabilizability and output controllability of signed linear consensus is also examined, as well as a data-driven approach to finding bipartite consensus stemming from structural balance for signed nonlinear consensus. Second, an algorithm is constructed that allows one to grow a network while preserving controllability, and some generalizations of this algorithm are presented. Submodular optimization is used to analyze a second algorithm that adds nodes to a network to maximize the network connectivity.

  16. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This article explored the models, roles, tools and methods of consensus decision making. The results were that consensus decision making brings people together and cements the relationship among employees. The lone ranger’s decision is only consented to by staff but inwardly disagreeable resulting in short term benefits but long term collapse of organizations.

  17. Robust Distributed Kalman Filter for Wireless Sensor Networks with Uncertain Communication Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address a state estimation problem over a large-scale sensor network with uncertain communication channel. Consensus protocol is usually used to adapt a large-scale sensor network. However, when certain parts of communication channels are broken down, the accuracy performance is seriously degraded. Specifically, outliers in the channel or temporal disconnection are avoided via proposed method for the practical implementation of the distributed estimation over large-scale sensor networks. We handle this practical challenge by using adaptive channel status estimator and robust L1-norm Kalman filter in design of the processor of the individual sensor node. Then, they are incorporated into the consensus algorithm in order to achieve the robust distributed state estimation. The robust property of the proposed algorithm enables the sensor network to selectively weight sensors of normal conditions so that the filter can be practically useful.

  18. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  19. Networks maximizing the consensus time of voter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamasa, Yuni; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-07-01

    We explore the networks that yield the largest mean consensus time of voter models under different update rules. By analytical and numerical means, we show that the so-called lollipop graph, barbell graph, and double-star graph maximize the mean consensus time under the update rules called the link dynamics, voter model, and invasion process, respectively. For each update rule, the largest mean consensus time scales as O (N3), where N is the number of nodes in the network.

  20. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  2. Level 3 filters at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Level 3 stage in CDF online filtering is currently under development. This system should support a flexible division between online and offline software filters within the constraints of the full data acquisition system. Multimicroprocessor (MMP) structures like the ACP system used by CDF could be improved with multi-rank architectures to meet SSC requirements

  3. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  4. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  5. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  6. Diabatic initialization using recursive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Huang, Xiang-Yu

    1994-10-01

    Several initialization schemes based on recursive filters are formulated and tested with a numerical weather prediction model, HIRLAM. These have an advantage over schemes which use non-recursive filters in that they derive the initialized values from a diabatic trajectory passing through the original analysis. The changes to the analysed fields are comparable in size to typical observational errors. A non-recursive implementation of the recursive filters makes the new initialization schemes as easy to use as the original non-recursive filter schemes. It also allows use of higher-order filters without added cost. An initialization method using a 6th order filter is compared to a scheme based on an non-recursive optimal filter, and is found to produce similar results for less than half the computational cost. If the sole aim is noise suppression, a filter whose output validates later than the initial time may be used. The advantage of this is that computation time is further reduced and phase error completely eliminated.

  7. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  8. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  9. Bessel smoothing filter for spectral-element mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, P. T.; Brossier, R.; Métivier, L.; Virieux, J.; Wellington, P.

    2017-06-01

    Smoothing filters are extremely important tools in seismic imaging and inversion, such as for traveltime tomography, migration and waveform inversion. For efficiency, and as they can be used a number of times during inversion, it is important that these filters can easily incorporate prior information on the geological structure of the investigated medium, through variable coherent lengths and orientation. In this study, we promote the use of the Bessel filter to achieve these purposes. Instead of considering the direct application of the filter, we demonstrate that we can rely on the equation associated with its inverse filter, which amounts to the solution of an elliptic partial differential equation. This enhances the efficiency of the filter application, and also its flexibility. We apply this strategy within a spectral-element-based elastic full waveform inversion framework. Taking advantage of this formulation, we apply the Bessel filter by solving the associated partial differential equation directly on the spectral-element mesh through the standard weak formulation. This avoids cumbersome projection operators between the spectral-element mesh and a regular Cartesian grid, or expensive explicit windowed convolution on the finite-element mesh, which is often used for applying smoothing operators. The associated linear system is solved efficiently through a parallel conjugate gradient algorithm, in which the matrix vector product is factorized and highly optimized with vectorized computation. Significant scaling behaviour is obtained when comparing this strategy with the explicit convolution method. The theoretical numerical complexity of this approach increases linearly with the coherent length, whereas a sublinear relationship is observed practically. Numerical illustrations are provided here for schematic examples, and for a more realistic elastic full waveform inversion gradient smoothing on the SEAM II benchmark model. These examples illustrate well the

  10. Consensus formation in science modeled by aggregated bibliographic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2012-01-01

    The level of consensus in science has traditionally been measured by a number of different methods. The variety is important as each method measures different aspects of science and consensus. Citation analytical studies have previously measured the level of consensus using the scientific journal...... as their unit of analysis. To produce a more fine grained citation analysis one needs to study consensusformation on an even more detailed level – i.e. the scientific document or article. To do so, we have developed a new technique that measures consensus by aggregatedbibliographiccouplings (ABC) between...

  11. Agnew's Plea Bargain: Between Rhetorics of Consensus and Confrontation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Rollin W.

    1977-01-01

    Proposes that negotiated pleas be classified as "compromise rhetoric" which is defined as a class of rhetorical transactions that provide continuity between consensus and confrontation rhetorics. (MH)

  12. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yu-Pin; Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Jinn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states

  13. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  14. Weak measurements in non-Hermitian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, A.

    2012-11-01

    Weak measurements’—involving a weak unitary interaction between a quantum system and a meter followed by a projective measurement—are investigated when the system has a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show in particular how the standard definition of the ‘weak value’ of an observable must be modified. These studies are undertaken in the context of bound-state scattering theory, a non-Hermitian formalism for which the involved Hilbert spaces are unambiguously defined and the metric operators can be explicitly computed. Numerical examples are given for a model system. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  15. Weak antilocalization of composite fermions in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that composite fermions in monolayer graphene display weak antilocalization. Our experiments deal with fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states in high-mobility, suspended graphene Corbino disks in the vicinity of ν =1 /2 . We find a strong temperature dependence of conductivity σ away from half filling, which is consistent with the expected electron-electron interaction-induced gaps in the FQH state. At half filling, however, the temperature dependence of conductivity σ (T ) becomes quite weak, as anticipated for a Fermi sea of composite fermions, and we find a logarithmic dependence of σ on T . The sign of this quantum correction coincides with the weak antilocalization of graphene composite fermions, indigenous to chiral Dirac particles.

  16. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  17. Weak self-adjoint differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias, M L

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 318 742-57; 2007 Arch. ALGA 4 55-60). In Ibragimov (2007 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 311-28), a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In this paper, we generalize the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. We find a class of weak self-adjoint quasi-linear parabolic equations. The property of a differential equation to be weak self-adjoint is important for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation. (fast track communication)

  18. Rooted triple consensus and anomalous gene trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Heiko A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous gene trees (AGTs are gene trees with a topology different from a species tree that are more probable to observe than congruent gene trees. In this paper we propose a rooted triple approach to finding the correct species tree in the presence of AGTs. Results Based on simulated data we show that our method outperforms the extended majority rule consensus strategy, while still resolving the species tree. Applying both methods to a metazoan data set of 216 genes, we tested whether AGTs substantially interfere with the reconstruction of the metazoan phylogeny. Conclusion Evidence of AGTs was not found in this data set, suggesting that erroneously reconstructed gene trees are the most significant challenge in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species with current data. The new method does however rule out the erroneous reconstruction of deep or poorly resolved splits in the presence of lineage sorting.

  19. Consensus document on European brain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Luca, Monica; Baker, Mary; Corradetti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological diseases combined represent a considerable social and economic burden in Europe. A recent study conducted by the European Brain Council (EBC) quantified the 'cost and burden' of major brain diseases in Europe, amounting to €386bn per year. Considering that these costs...... will increase exponentially in the years to come due to ageing of the European population, it is necessary to act now in order to curb this increase and possibly reverse the trend. Thus, establishing a strong European platform supporting basic and clinical research in neuroscience is needed to confront...... the economic and social challenge posed by management of brain diseases in European countries. To setup a platform for discussion, EBC published in 2006 a Consensus Document on European Brain Research, describing needs and achievements of research in Europe and presenting proposals for future research programs...

  20. Distributed consensus and fault tolerance - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a world where clusters with thousands of nodes are becoming commonplace, we are often faced with the task of having them coordinate and share state. As the number of machines goes up, so does the probability that something goes wrong: a node could temporarily lose connectivity, crash because of some race condition, or have its hard drive fail. What are the challenges when designing fault-tolerant distributed systems, where a cluster is able to survive the loss of individual nodes? In this lecture, we will discuss some basics on this topic (consistency models, CAP theorem, failure modes, byzantine faults), detail the raft consensus algorithm, and showcase an interesting example of a highly resilient distributed system, bitcoin.

  1. Distributed consensus and fault tolerance - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a world where clusters with thousands of nodes are becoming commonplace, we are often faced with the task of having them coordinate and share state. As the number of machines goes up, so does the probability that something goes wrong: a node could temporarily lose connectivity, crash because of some race condition, or have its hard drive fail. What are the challenges when designing fault-tolerant distributed systems, where a cluster is able to survive the loss of individual nodes? In this lecture, we will discuss some basics on this topic (consistency models, CAP theorem, failure modes, byzantine faults), detail the raft consensus algorithm, and showcase an interesting example of a highly resilient distributed system, bitcoin.

  2. Consensus and new improvements of disability glare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early cataract may have normal visual acuity(VAbut complain that they have problems in driving at night, like seeing things through a veil. This phenomenon is defined as disability glare which maybe caused by growing stray light. Patients with intraocular lens following cataract surgery may complain about glare, halos and shadows in visual field, which are also resulted from dysphotopia. Disability glare is the VA loss due to disturbing luminance in visual field. In other words, it's the retinal contrast sensitivity reduction because of the straylight. This article contains the consensus and new progress of disability glare. It provides solutions according to its effect factors and offers clues for further study.

  3. CONSENSUS STATEMENT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF URTICARIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godse, Kiran V; Zawar, Vijay; Krupashankar, DS; Girdhar, Mukesh; Kandhari, Sanjiv; Dhar, Sandipan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Rajagopalan, Murlidhar; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This consensus statement was developed by Special Interest Group – Urticaria (IADVL). Urticaria, a heterogeneous group of diseases, often cannot be recognized by its morphology. Due to non-specific and non-affordable diagnosis, management of urticaria, especially chronic urticaria, is very challenging. This guideline includes definition, causes, classification and management of urticaria. Urticaria has a profound impact on the quality of life and causes immense distress to patients, necessitating effective treatment. One approach to manage urticaria is identification and elimination of the underlying cause(s) and/or eliciting trigger(s), while the second one is treatment aimed at providing symptomatic relief. This guideline recommends use of second-generation non-sedating H1 antihistamines as the first-line treatment. The dose can be increased up to four times to meet the expected results. In case patients still do not respond, appropriate treatment options can be selected depending on the cost. PMID:22121259

  4. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    of nodding in a particular professional-client setting, namely, hair salon interactions. My interest specifically lies in the frequent occurrence of synchronized head nods during the “service-assessment sequence,” where both service provider and customer inspect and determine whether the completed work...... is adequate. I pursue mechanisms of synchronized head nods by revealing exactly how participants collaborate in producing a nod, and how their verbal actions may at times be designed accordingly. In doing so, the study provides insight into what consensus may look like at service encounters in Japan......While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role...

  5. Approximately Liner Phase IIR Digital Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Ćertić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with linear-phase FIR filter banks exhibiting similar magnitude responses. The effects of coefficient quantization are analyzed.

  6. [Wound management with enzyme alginogels : Expert consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohal, R; Assenheimer, B; Augustin, M; Hämmerle, G; Läuchli, S; Pundt, B; Stern, G; Storck, M; Ulrich, C

    2017-01-01

    The challenges of modern wound management, such as the treatment of chronic wounds and their phase-specific handling, are demanding and require optimally adapted therapeutic measures. The principles of moist wound care as well as an adequate debridement have priority here. To support these necessary measures, different options are available, e.g., a new product group operating across several wound phases. A new treatment principle in modern wound management based on an expert consensus is presented. On the basis of clinical experience reports and published evidence, the current and new principles of wound treatment were discussed in a panel of experts and formulated as a consensus statement. Enzyme alginogels represent a combination of agents that allow phase-specific wound care. They exhibit autolytic, absorbent, and antimicrobial properties and simultaneously cover three components of wound management based on the TIME framework. Thus, according to the experts, they differ from other wound healing products and can be classified in a distinct product group. Clinical studies, as well as clinical experiences, provide evidence for the efficacy of enzyme alginogels. According to the experts, the potential of enzyme alginogels used considering the principles of moist wound care, comprises the three-fold effect (continuous and significantly simplified debridement, maintaining a moist wound environment and antimicrobial effect without cytotoxicity), the ease of use, and the flexible application. In addition, the flexibility of the product class regarding frequency of application, duration of treatment and combinability with secondary dressings, are of economic benefit in the health care sector.

  7. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, M A; Montijo, E; Abreu, A T; Heller, S; González-Garay, A; Bacarreza, D; Bielsa-Fernández, M; Bojórquez-Ramos, M C; Bosques-Padilla, F; Burguete-García, A I; Carmona-Sánchez, R; Consuelo-Sánchez, A; Coss-Adame, E; Chávez-Barrera, J A; de Ariño, M; Flores-Calderón, J; Gómez-Escudero, O; González-Huezo, M S; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Larrosa-Haro, A; Morales-Arámbula, M; Murata, C; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rizo-Robles, T; Peláez-Luna, M; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Torre, A; Urquidi-Rivera, M E; Vázquez, R; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Guarner, F

    Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology. Controlled clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to 2015 were selected, using the MESH terms: probiotics, gastrointestinal diseases, humans, adults, AND children. The Delphi method was employed. Eighteen gastroenterologists treating adult patients and 14 pediatric gastroenterologists formulated statements that were voted on until agreement>70% was reached. The level of evidence based on the GRADE system was evaluated for each statement. Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Robust point matching via vector field consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayi Ma; Ji Zhao; Jinwen Tian; Yuille, Alan L; Zhuowen Tu

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called vector field consensus, for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a very large number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to a limited number of true correspondences (inliers). Next, we solve for correspondence by interpolating a vector field between the two point sets, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a nonparametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose nonparametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, using Tikhonov regularizers in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We illustrate this method on data sets in 2D and 3D and demonstrate that it is robust to a very large number of outliers (even up to 90%). We also show that in the special case where there is an underlying parametric geometrical model (e.g., the epipolar line constraint) that we obtain better results than standard alternatives like RANSAC if a large number of outliers are present. This suggests a two-stage strategy, where we use our nonparametric model to reduce the size of the putative set and then apply a parametric variant of our approach to estimate the geometric parameters. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and we provide code for others to use it. In addition, our approach is general and can be applied to other problems, such as learning with a badly corrupted training data set.

  9. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  10. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  11. Weak interactions of the b quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    In weak-interaction models with two charged W bosons of comparable mass, there exists a novel possibility for the weak interactions of the b quark, in which the (u-barb)/sub R/ current occurs with maximal strength. It is noted that multimuon production in e + e - annihilation at above Q 2 > or approx. = (12 GeV) 2 will distinguish this scheme from the conventional one. We also present a Higgs system that leads naturally to this type of coupling, in a class of gauge models

  12. Gravitational Wave Detection via Weak Measurements Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A universal amplification scheme of ultra-small phase based on weak measurements is given and a weak measurements amplification based laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (WMA-LIGO) is suggested. The WMA-LIGO has potential to amplify the ultra-small phase signal to at least $10^{3}$ order of magnitude such that the sensitivity and bandwidth of gravitational-wave detector can be further improved. Our results not only shed a new light on the quantum measurement but also open a ne...

  13. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  14. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  15. Fast measure proceeding of weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, J.

    1953-01-01

    The process of fast measure of the weak currents that we are going to describe briefly apply worthy of the provided currents by the sources to elevated value internal resistance, as it is the case for the ionization chamber, the photocells, mass spectroscopic tubes. The problem to measure weak currents is essentially a problem of amplifier and of input circuit. We intended to achieve a whole amplifier and input circuit with advanced performances, meaning that for a measured celerity we wanted to have an signal/noise ratio the most important as in the classic systems and for a same report signal/noise a more quickly done measure. (M.B.) [fr

  16. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Rhetorical Flaws in Brutus’ Forum Speech in Julius Caesar: A Carefully Controlled Weakness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Cheetham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Julius Caesar Shakespeare reproduces one of the pivotal moments in European history. Brutus and Mark Antony, through the medium of their forum speeches, compete for the support of the people of Rome. In the play, as in history, Mark Antony wins this contest of language. Critics are generally agreed that Antony has the better speech, but also that Brutus’ speech is still exceptionally good. Traditionally the question of how Antony’s speech is superior is argued by examining differences between the two speeches, however, this approach has not resulted in any critical consensus. This paper takes the opening lines of the speeches as the only point of direct convergence between the content and the rhetorical forms used by Brutus and Antony and argues that Brutus’ opening tricolon is structurally inferior to Marc Antony’s. Analysis of the following rhetorical schemes in Brutus’ speech reveals further structural weaknesses. Shakespeare gives Brutus a speech rich in perceptually salient rhetorical schemes but introduces small, less salient, structural weaknesses into those schemes. The tightly structured linguistic patterns which make up the majority of Brutus’ speech give an impression of great rhetorical skill. This skilful impression obscures the minor faults or weaknesses that quietly and subtly reduce the overall power of the speech. By identifying the weaknesses in Brutus’ forms we add an extra element to the discussion of these speeches and at the same time display how subtly and effectively Shakespeare uses rhetorical forms to control audience response and appreciation.

  18. A novel permanently magnetised high gradient magnetic filter using assisted capture for fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.H.P. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the structure and properties of a novel permanently magnetised magnetic filter for fine friable radioactive material. Previously a filter was described and tested. This filter was designed so that the holes in the filter are left open as capture proceeds which means the pressure drop builds up only slowly. This filter is not suitable for friable composite particles which can be broken by mechanical forces. The structure of magnetic part of the second filter has been changed so as to strongly capture particles composed of fine particles weakly bound together which tend to break when captured. This uses a principle of assisted-capture in which coarse particles aid the capture of the fine fragments. The technique has the unfortunate consequence that the pressure drop across the filter rises faster as capture capture proceeds than the filter described previously. These filters have the following characteristics: (1) No external magnet is required. (2) No external power is required. (3) Small is size and portable. (4) Easily interchangeable. (5) Can be cleaned without demagnetising.

  19. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  20. International multispecialty consensus on how to evaluate ultrasound competence: a Delphi consensus survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G Tolsgaard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To achieve international consensus across multiple specialties on a generic ultrasound rating scale using a Delphi technique. METHODS: Ultrasound experts from Obstetrics-Gynaecology, Surgery, Urology, Radiology, Rheumatology, Emergency Medicine, and Gastro-Enterology representing North America, Australia, and Europe were identified. A multi-round survey was conducted to obtain consensus between these experts. Of 60 invited experts, 44 experts agreed to participate in the first Delphi round, 41 remained in the second round, and 37 completed the third Delphi round. Seven key elements of the ultrasound examination were identified from existing literature and recommendations from international ultrasound societies. All experts rated the importance of these seven elements on a five-point Likert scale in the first round and suggested potential new elements for the assessment of ultrasound skills. In the second round, the experts re-rated all elements and a third round was conducted to allow final comments. Agreement on which elements to include in the final rating scale was pre-defined as more than 80% of the experts rating an element four or five, on importance to the ultrasound examination. RESULTS: Two additional elements were suggested by more than 10% of the experts in the first Delphi round. Consensus was obtained to include these two new elements along with five of the original elements in the final assessment instrument: 1 Indication for the examination 2 Applied knowledge of ultrasound equipment 3 Image optimization 4 Systematic examination 5 Interpretation of images 6 Documentation of examination and 7 Medical decision making. CONCLUSION: International multispecialty consensus was achieved on the content of a generic ultrasound rating scale. This is the first step to ensure valid assessment of clinicians in different medical specialties using ultrasound.

  1. Consensus building on access to controlled medicines: a four-stage Delphi consensus procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Saskia; Brearley, Sarah; Payne, Sheila; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Lynch, Thomas; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Controlled Substances Policies-Guidance for Availability and Accessibility of Controlled Medicines, presenting a revised version of the previous guidelines from 2000. To describe the consensus process that guided the revision of the guidelines. A four-stage revision process was undertaken with a panel of 29 international experts from palliative care, public health, and harm reduction: 1) a qualitative inventory of required changes by means of a structured checklist, 2) & 3) a two-round online consensus Delphi process about the draft revision of the guidelines, and 4) a WHO advisory meeting for the discussion of remaining controversies and final issues. The qualitative inventory resulted in a draft revision of the guidelines meeting requirements on different levels, such as a broader focus and more accurate evidence. Operationalization of the guidelines was improved by specifying measures, procedures, and responsibilities. The Delphi procedure provided concrete indications for the rewording of both the guidelines and the associated text. During the advisory meeting, any persistent disagreements were systematically discussed to achieve consensus on the new version of the guidelines. The four-stage multimethod consensus process resulted in a substantial revision to the WHO guidelines. This takes into account the increase in knowledge about opioid medication since the first edition of the guidelines. Disagreement emerging from the process underlines the complexity of preparing guidance because of the delicate balance between need and control. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Borkovec, T D; Rickels, K; Stein, D J; Wittchen, H U

    2001-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate treatment strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R.T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four additional faculty members invited by the chair were Karl Rickels, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Dan J. Stein, and Thomas D. Borkovec. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. GAD is the most common anxiety disorder in primary care and is highly debilitating. Furthermore, it is frequently comorbid with depression and other anxiety disorders, which exacerbates functional impairment. Antidepressants (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsedating tricyclic antidepressants) are generally the most appropriate first-line pharmacotherapy for GAD, since they are also effective against comorbid psychiatric disorders and are suitable for long-term use. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred form of psychotherapy for GAD, although when GAD is comorbid with depression, pharmacotherapy is increasingly indicated.

  3. Development of a Wien filter electron polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatshahi, N.M

    1999-04-01

    According to current ideas only left-handed fermion currents participate in the weak interaction. However there exist left-right symmetric variants of electroweak theory with right-handed currents which couple with equal intrinsic strength, whose contribution is suppressed by the presumed relatively greater mass of the mediating vector bosons. One route to detecting the presence of right-handed currents is to measure the velocity-dependence of the polarization of electrons from mixed Fermi/Gamow-Teller {beta}-transitions. This thesis describes the theory, construction and operation of a Wien filter which is a system of crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields which transmits electrons of velocity v = E/B, and is therefore an ideal instrument for precise velocity measurements. The filter is based on a 2.5 meter long uniform field electromagnet purpose built at Oak Ridge some thirty years ago to study the electric and magnetic dipole moments of the neutron. The thesis comes in two parts: the first part presents the exact theory of relativistic electron motion in an ideal crossed field system, together with numerical programs for examining the effects of imperfections of which electric field non-uniformity and remnant magnetism turn out to be the most important. This is followed by the constructional details of the velocity filter including electric and magnetic field measurements, vacuum performance and the method for detecting and processing electron signals. This part concludes with an account of the successful testing of the filter using 62.5 keV and 84.5 keV internal conversion electrons from an electron-capture source of 453 day {sup 109}Cd. The second part of the thesis deals with the dynamics of electron spin motion in crossed fields; in particular with spin rotation from longitudinal to transverse orientation which is necessary for applying the method of Mott scattering from heavy nuclei for electron polarization determination. This part also describes

  4. The skewed weak lensing likelihood: why biases arise, despite data and theory being sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellentin, Elena; Heymans, Catherine; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    We derive the essentials of the skewed weak lensing likelihood via a simple Hierarchical Forward Model. Our likelihood passes four objective and cosmology-independent tests which a standard Gaussian likelihood fails. We demonstrate that sound weak lensing data are naturally biased low, since they are drawn from a skewed distribution. This occurs already in the framework of ΛCDM. Mathematically, the biases arise because noisy two-point functions follow skewed distributions. This form of bias is already known from CMB analyses, where the low multipoles have asymmetric error bars. Weak lensing is more strongly affected by this asymmetry as galaxies form a discrete set of shear tracer particles, in contrast to a smooth shear field. We demonstrate that the biases can be up to 30% of the standard deviation per data point, dependent on the properties of the weak lensing survey and the employed filter function. Our likelihood provides a versatile framework with which to address this bias in future weak lensing analyses.

  5. Weak universality in inhomogeneous Ising quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, Dragi

    2006-01-01

    The Ising quantum chain with arbitrary coupling distribution {λ i } leading to an anisotropic scaling is considered. The smallest gap of the chain is connected to the surface magnetization by the relation Λ 1 = m s ({λ i })m s ({λ -1 i }). For some aperiodic distribution {λ i }, a weak universality of the critical behaviour is found. (letter to the editor)

  6. Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2 we discuss the basics of neutrino–photon effective action and the fermion propagators in a magnetized medium. Section 3 contains the details of the calculation of the one-loop diagram and in §4 we consider the weak-field limit. Finally, we conclude with a discussion.

  7. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Can the laws of physics distinguish between the two coordinate systems? Except for the weak interaction, all other laws of physics are symmetric under mirror reflection and hence cannot be used to distinguish between the left and right coordinate systems. The significance of this left{right symmetry, as well as its violation ...

  8. QCD anomalies in hadronic weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.-M.; Trine, S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the flavor-changing operators associated with the strong axial and trace anomalies. Their short-distance generation through penguinlike diagrams is obtained within the QCD external field formalism. Standard-model operator evolution exhibits a suppression of anomalous effects in K and B hadronic weak decays. A genuine set of dimension-eight ΔS=1 operators is also displayed

  9. Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-08-01

    An overview of the results of the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Group is given. The theory behind the measurement of Weak Interaction Matrix Elements using staggered fermions is presented, and contrasted with that for Wilson fermions. This is followed by a preliminary discussion of numerical results on a 12 3 x 30 lattice. 10 refs., 4 figs

  10. Frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility of weakly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility of weakly contaminated soil sediments. Low field magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out on soil sediments at Bomo irrigation dam, Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, (ABU), Zaria, using the MS2D field loop.

  11. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.), Vol. 111, No. 2, May 2001, pp. 241–247. Printed in India. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps. RENU CHUGH and SANJAY KUMAR. Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124 001, India. MS received 31 January 2000; revised 11 December 2000.

  12. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions. G Rajasekaran. General Article Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 18-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0018-0044 ...

  13. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  14. Thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in weak electrically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    maintained at constant temperatures T0 and T1 (with T0 > T1) respectively. In addition to a temperature gradient, a vertical magnetic field is also imposed across the layer (see figure 1). The system of equations of hydromagnetics describing the Rayleigh-Benard sit- uation in a weak electrically conducting liquid is the ...

  15. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  16. Weak NNM couplings and nuclear parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    After many years of careful theoretical and experimental study of nuclear parity violation, rough empirical values for weak parity violation nucleon-nucleon-meson vertices have been deduced. We address some of the physics which has been learned from this effort and show that it has implications for work going on outside this field. (author)

  17. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The history of weak interactions starting with. Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Dis- coveries of parity violation, matter{antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted. Introduction. Sun gives us ...

  18. Broken color symmetry and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Broken colour symmetry predicts a very rich spectrum of new particles. If broken colour is relevant at all, charged psi-particles should be found in particular at the 4 GeV region. For the weak hadronic currents no completely satisfactory suggestion exists. Broken colour symmetry describes qualitatively several of the new effects observed recently. (BJ) [de

  19. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  20. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  1. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  2. Legitimacy Building under Weak Institutional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja; Harvold, Kjell; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    Local strategies for adaptation to climate change in Denmark and Norway are discussed. In both countries, the national impetus for local adaptation is weak; it is largely left to local actors to take the initiative. The dynamics of the different approaches to climate-change adaptation at the loca...

  3. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approximate identity for B, bounded in A. In addition, a necessary condition for the weak complete continuity of A is ... continuous elements of a Banach algebra A and symmetric abstract Segal algebras B with respect to A, in the case ..... [13] Hewitt E and Ross K A, Abstract harmonic analysis, 2nd edn. I, II (1970) (New York,.

  4. Weak and strong nonlinearities in magnetic bearings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 7 (2004), s. 779-795 ISSN 0094-114X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471; GA AV ČR IBS2076301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : weak nonlinearitiy * strong nonlinearity * magnetics bearings Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004

  5. Theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1973-01-01

    The problem discussed is how to construct field theories of the weak interaction which make sense and in particular how to construct field theories in which divergences either do not appear at all or can be eliminated in a physically reasonable way. (U.S.)

  6. Nonstationary weak signal detection based on normalization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haibin Zhang

    Time-varying signal; weak signal detection; varying parameters; stochastic resonance. 1. Introduction. In general view, noise ..... the numerical solution for the typical first-order differential equation as Eq. (2). The discrete fourth-rank Runge–Kutta method [27] as follows is applied to solve the equation numerically. x. 0 ¼ dx dt.

  7. Thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection in weak electrically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermorheological effect on magnetoconvection. Before we embark on a discussion of the results obtained in the study, we present below the values of various physical quantities with respect to Mazola corn oil, which is a weak electrically conducting liquid (WECL) [13-15]: σ(T) = [0.21 + 0.03(T -10°)] x10-. 10 mho/m,.

  8. Axion monodromy and the weak gravity conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Axions with broken discrete shift symmetry (axion monodromy) have recently played a central role both in the discussion of inflation and the 'relaxion' approach to the hierarchy problem. We suggest a very minimalist way to constrain such models by the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls: While the electric side of the conjecture is always satisfied if the cosine-oscillations of the axion potential are sufficiently small, the magnetic side imposes a cutoff, Λ 3 ∝mfM pl , independent of the height of these 'wiggles'. We compare our approach with the recent related proposal by Ibanez, Montero, Uranga and Valenzuela. We also discuss the non-trivial question which version, if any, of the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls should hold. In particular, we show that string compactifications with branes of different dimensions wrapped on different cycles lead to a 'geometric weak gravity conjecture' relating volumes of cycles, norms of corresponding forms and the volume of the compact space. Imposing this 'geometric conjecture', e.g. on the basis of the more widely accepted weak gravity conjecture for particles, provides at least some support for the (electric and magnetic) conjecture for domain walls.

  9. Gauge theories of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1978-08-01

    Two lectures are presented on the Weinberg--Salam--Glashow--Iliopoulos--Maiani gauge theory for weak interactions. An attempt is made to give some impressions of the generality of this model, how it was developed, variations found in the literature, and the status of the standard model. 21 references

  10. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOTs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this review was to adopt the SWOT concept to elucidate the biological Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to Ebola virus as a pathogen, with a view to understanding and devising holistic strategies at combating and overcoming the scourge of EVD. Method: This systematic review and ...

  12. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    to be taken into account when using TMS in the context of neuroimaging. We then discuss the use of specific brain mapping techniques in conjunction with TMS. We emphasize that the various neuroimaging techniques offer complementary information and have different methodologic strengths and weaknesses....... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need...

  13. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  14. Gas cleaning with Granular Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Ingunn Roald

    2007-01-01

    The panel bed filter (PBF) is a granular filter patented by A. M. Squires in the late sixties. PBFs consist of louvers with stationary, granular beds. Dust is deposited in the top layers and on the bed surface when gas flows through. PBFs are resistant to high temperatures, variations in the gas flow and hot particles. The filter is cleaned by releasing a pressure pulse in the opposite direction of the bulk flow (a puff back pulse). A new louver geometry patented by A. M. Squires is the filte...

  15. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, G. S.

    1980-09-01

    An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.

  16. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  17. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  18. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  19. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates and rejects the effectiveness of consensus building as a mechanism for conflict resolution in Africa. Drawing from the conflict/ consensus theoretical debates of the 1960s, the paper argues that because of the inherent character of power, and considering the nature of the state in. Africa which is ...

  20. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... availability of one new and seven revised consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International...

  1. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sugano (Kentaro); J. Tack (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); D.Y. Graham (David Y.); E. El-Omar; S. Miura (Soichiro); K. Haruma (Ken); M. Asaka (Masahiro); N. Uemura (Naomi); P. Malfertheiner

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate

  2. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent cushing's syndrome: A consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M.K. Biller; A. Grossman (Ashley Barry); P.M. Stewart; S. Melmed (Shlomo); X. Bertagna; J. Bertherat (Jerome); M. Buchfelder; A. Colao (Annamaria); A.R.M.M. Hermus (Ad); L.J. Hofland (Leo); A. Klibanski; A. Lacroix; J.R. Lindsay; J. Newell-Price; L.K. Nieman; S. Petersenn; N. Sonino; G.K. Stalla (Günter); B. Swearingen; M.L. Vance; J.A.H. Wass (John); M. Boscaro

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Our objective was to evaluate the published literature and reach a consensus on the treatment of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, because there is no recent consensus on the management of this rare disorder. Participants: Thirty-two leading endocrinologists,

  3. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biller, B.M.; Grossman, A.B.; Stewart, P.M.; Melmed, S.; Bertagna, X.; Bertherat, J.; Buchfelder, M.; Colao, A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hofland, L.J.; Klibanski, A.; Lacroix, A.; Lindsay, J.R.; Newell-Price, J.; Nieman, L.K.; Petersenn, S.; Sonino, N.; Stalla, G.K.; Swearingen, B.; Vance, M.L.; Wass, J.A.; Boscaro, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the published literature and reach a consensus on the treatment of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, because there is no recent consensus on the management of this rare disorder. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two leading endocrinologists, clinicians,

  4. Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Sampled Information and Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider consensus problems of first-order multiagent systems with sampled information and noisy measurements. A distributed stochastic approximation type algorithm is employed to attenuate the measurement noises. We provide conditions under which almost sure strong consensus is guaranteed for fixed and switching directed network topologies. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  5. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates and rejects the effectiveness of consensus building as a mechanism for conflict resolution in Africa. Drawing from the conflict/consensus theoretical debates of the 1960s, the paper argues that because of the inherent character of power, and considering the nature of the state in Africa which is ...

  6. Part Two: Infantile Spasms--The New Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellock, John M.; O'Hara, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the conclusion made by the consensus group regarding infantile spasms. The consensus group concluded that "infantile spasms are a major form of severe epileptic encephalopathy of early childhood that results in neurodevelopmental regression and imposes a significant health burden." The entire group agrees that the best…

  7. Remotely operated top loading filter housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment

  8. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panellists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: (i) trauma care processes to be measured; (ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and (iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Panellists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1--0.58; Round 2--0.66; Round 3--0.76; and Round 4--0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage--vital signs are recorded within 15 min of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation--a large bore IV was placed within 15 min of patient arrival; referral--if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar filters in HICs and obstetric care filters in LMICs

  9. An Adaptive Filtering Method Based on Crowdsourced Big Trace Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Luliang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles' GPS traces collected by crowds have being as a new kind of big data and are widely applied to mine urban geographic information with low-cost, quick-update and rich-informative. However, the growing volume of vehicles' GPS traces has caused difficulties in data processing and their low quality adds uncertainty when information mining. Thus, it is a hot topic to extract high-quality GPS data from the crowdsourced traces based on the expected accuracy. In this paper, we propose an efficient partition-and-filter model to filter trajectories with expected accuracy according to the spatial feature of high-precision GPS data and the error rule of GPS data. First, the proposed partition-and-filter model to partition a trajectory into sub-trajectories based on the constrained distance and angle, which are chosen as the basic unit for the next processing step. Secondly, the proposed method collects high-quality GPS data from each sub-trajectory according to the similarity between GPS tracking points and the reference baselines constructed using random sample consensus algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively pick up high quality GPS data from crowdsourced trace data sets with the expected accuracy.

  10. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  11. Consensus of Switched Multiagent Systems under Relative State Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consensus problem is presented for the switched multiagent system (MAS, where the MAS is switched between continuous- and discrete-time systems with relative state constraints. With some standard assumptions, we obtain the fact that the switched MAS with relative state constraints can achieve consensus under both fixed undirected graphs and switching undirected graphs. Furthermore, based on the absolute average value of initial states, we propose sufficient conditions for consensus of the switched MAS. The challenge of this study is that relative state constraints are considered, which will make the consensus problem much more complex. One of the main contributions is that, for the switched MAS with relative state constraints, we explore the solvability of the consensus problem. Finally, we present two simulation examples to show the effectiveness of the results.

  12. Breaking projective chaos synchronization secure communication using filtering and generalized synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, G.; Li Shujun; Montoya, F.; Pastor, G.; Romera, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the security weaknesses of a recently proposed secure communication method based on chaotic masking using projective synchronization of two chaotic systems. We show that the system is insecure and how to break it in two different ways, by high-pass filtering and by generalized synchronization

  13. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-03-03

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  14. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  15. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  16. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  17. Dimensional reduction in nonlinear filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Sowers, R. B.; Sri Namachchivaya, N.

    2010-02-01

    The theory of nonlinear filtering forms the framework of many data assimilation problems. When the rates of change of different variables differ by orders of magnitude, efficient data assimilation can be accomplished by constructing nonlinear filtering equations for the coarse-grained signal. We consider the conditional law of a signal given the observations in a multi-scale context. In particular, we study how scaling interacts with filtering via stochastic averaging. This is an extension of our previous work (Park et al 2008 Stoch. Dyn. 8 543-60) where the observation process depended only on the fast variable, so the filter became independent of the observation in the limit. Here, we investigate a more realistic setting in which the observation depends on both the slow and the fast variables. Paper dedicated to Professor Manfred Denker on the occasion of his 65th birthday.

  18. Consensus conference on irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Danish government is obliged to define its attitude to a proposal made by the European Communities regarding common regulations for the irradiation of food (May 1989). Denmark, in comparison to some other European countries, tends to show reserve on this issue. At the consensus conference a panel discussed related questions. The participants reached the conclusion that as yet disagreement and uncertainty about the subjects of safety, public health and food quality is so significant that they were not able to recommend that sanctions for irradiation of food should be given in Denmark. It was also agreed that problems related to control and determination of radiation content were too serious to allow this method of food preservation. The panel felt that there were many areas of research, such as long-term biological effects, that had not been investigated satisfactorily. Experiments carried out in India and China did not encourage confidence, as the people tested had recommenced eating food preserved by other methods, so that long term effects could not be measured. The specialists claim that Danish standards in relation to the food industry are very high so that alternative methods of preservation to those already used do not appear to be necessary. The only applications to the National Food Agency for authorization to irradiate food had come from producers of spices and in relation to educative acitivites. (AB)

  19. [Argentine consensus of non-invasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ana R; Abbona, Horacio; Ferrero, Gerardo; Figueroa Casas, Juan C; De Vega, Marcelino; Lisanti, Raul; Lopez, Ana M; Menga, Guillermo; Montiel, Guillermo C; Perez Chada, Daniel; Raimondi, Alejandro C; Raimondi, Guillermo A; Uribe Echevarria, María Elisa; Vázquez, Walter D

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is nowadays increasingly used. The significant decrease in tracheal intubation related complications makes it particularly attractive in patients with moderately acute respiratory failure (ARF) who still have some degree of respiratory autonomy. It has also been used to support patients with chronic respiratory failure. However, final outcomes are variable according to the conditions which determined its application. This Consensus was performed in order to review the evidence supporting the use of positive pressure NIV. The patho-physiological background of NIV and the equipment required technology are described. Available evidence clearly suggests benefits of NIV in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (Recommendation A). When considering ARF in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome results are uncertain, unless dealing with immunosupressed patients (Recommendation B). Positive results are also shown in weaning of mechanical ventilation (MV), particularly regarding acute exacerbation of COPD patients (Recommendation A). An improved quality of life in chronic respiratory failure and a longer survival in restrictive disorders has also been shown (Recommendation B) while its benefit in stable COPD patients is still controversial (Recommendation C). NIV should be performed according to pre-established standards. A revision of NIV related complications is performed and the cost-benefit comparison with invasive MV is also considered.

  20. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  1. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  2. The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a contested concept. While there are many national and regional definitions, there is no universal legal definition approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations (the one proposed by the Security Council in Res. 1566 (2004 is non-binding, lacking legal authority in international law. The Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism of the 6th (legal Committee of the General Assembly has, with some interruptions, been trying to reach a legal definition since 1972 - but in vain. In the absence of a legal definition, attempts have been made since the 1980s to reach agreement on an academic consensus definition. The latest outcome is the revised definition reprinted below. It is the result of three rounds of consultations among academics and other professionals. A description how it was arrived at can be found on pp. 39 - 98 of Alex P. Schmid (Ed.. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. The same volume also contains 260 other definitions compiled by Joseph J. Easson and Alex P. Schmid on pp. 99 -200.

  3. "Management of Achalasia cardia: Expert consensus statements".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Mohan; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Nabi, Zaheer; Chouhan, Radhika; Bapaye, Amol; Bhatia, Shobhna; Mehta, Nilay; Dhawan, Pankaj; Chaudhary, Adarsh; Ghoshal, Uday; Philip, Mathew; Neuhaus, Horst; Deviere, Jacques; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2018-01-29

    Achalasia cardia (AC) is a frequently encountered motility disorder of the esophagus resulting from an irreversible degeneration of neurons. Treatment modalities are palliative in nature and there is no curative treatment available for AC as of now. Significant advancements have been made in the management of AC over last decade. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) and per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) have strengthened the diagnostic and therapeutic armamentarium of AC. HRM allows for the characterization of the type of achalasia which in turn has important therapeutic implications. The endoscopic management of AC has been reinforced with the introduction of POEM which has been found to be highly effective and safe in palliating the symptoms in short to mid-term follow-up studies. POEM is less invasive than Heller's myotomy and provides the endoscopist with the opportunity of adjusting the length and orientation of esophageal myotomy according to the type of AC. The management of achalasia needs to be tailored for each patient and the role of pneumatic balloon dilatation, POEM or Heller's myotomy needs to be revisited. In this review, we discuss the important aspects of diagnosis as well as management of AC. The statements presented in the manuscript reflect the cumulative efforts of an expert consensus group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring Athlete Training Loads: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Pitre C; Cardinale, Marco; Murray, Andrew; Gastin, Paul; Kellmann, Michael; Varley, Matthew C; Gabbett, Tim J; Coutts, Aaron J; Burgess, Darren J; Gregson, Warren; Cable, N Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring the load placed on athletes in both training and competition has become a very hot topic in sport science. Both scientists and coaches routinely monitor training loads using multidisciplinary approaches, and the pursuit of the best methodologies to capture and interpret data has produced an exponential increase in empirical and applied research. Indeed, the field has developed with such speed in recent years that it has given rise to industries aimed at developing new and novel paradigms to allow us to precisely quantify the internal and external loads placed on athletes and to help protect them from injury and ill health. In February 2016, a conference on "Monitoring Athlete Training Loads-The Hows and the Whys" was convened in Doha, Qatar, which brought together experts from around the world to share their applied research and contemporary practices in this rapidly growing field and also to investigate where it may branch to in the future. This consensus statement brings together the key findings and recommendations from this conference in a shared conceptual framework for use by coaches, sport-science and -medicine staff, and other related professionals who have an interest in monitoring athlete training loads and serves to provide an outline on what athlete-load monitoring is and how it is being applied in research and practice, why load monitoring is important and what the underlying rationale and prospective goals of monitoring are, and where athlete-load monitoring is heading in the future.

  5. Sarcopenia With Limited Mobility: An International Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E.; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Argiles, Josep M.; Baracos, Vickie; Bauer, Juergen; Bhasin, Shalender; Cederholm, Tommy; Stewart Coats, Andrew J.; Cummings, Steven R.; Evans, William J.; Fearon, Kenneth; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fielding, Roger A.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Inui, Akio; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Mantovani, Giovanni; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Newman, Anne B.; Rossi-Fanelli, Filippo; Rosano, Giuseppe M. C.; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schambelan, Morris; Sokol, Gerald H.; Storer, Thomas W.; Vellas, Bruno; von Haehling, Stephan; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Anker, Stefan D.

    2016-01-01

    A consensus conference convened by the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders has concluded that “Sarcopenia, ie, reduced muscle mass, with limited mobility” should be considered an important clinical entity and that most older persons should be screened for this condition. “Sarcopenia with limited mobility” is defined as a person with muscle loss whose walking speed is equal to or less than 1 m/s or who walks less than 400 m during a 6-minute walk, and who has a lean appendicular mass corrected for height squared of 2 standard deviations or more below the mean of healthy persons between 20 and 30 years of age of the same ethnic group. The limitation in mobility should not clearly be a result of otherwise defined specific diseases of muscle, peripheral vascular disease with intermittent claudication, central and peripheral nervous system disorders, or cachexia. Clinically significant interventions are defined as an increase in the 6-minute walk of at least 50 meters or an increase of walking speed of at least 0.1 m/s. “A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of a living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and the time when it is used.”—Oliver Wendell Holmes PMID:21640657

  6. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with onset in infancy affecting 0.5-1% of the population. One third of the patients is refractory to antiepileptic drugs and they pose a challenge for the health care team. The ketogenic diet is an effective, non-pharmacological, alternative treatment for the management of refractory epilepsy. There is a need to establish guidelines for the adequate and increased use of the ketogenic diet in Spanish-speaking countries. The National Committee on the Ketogenic Diet, consisting of paediatric neurologists, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians, of the Argentine Society of Child Neurology has developed this consensus statement to standardize the use of the ketogenic diet based on the literature and clinical experience. Patient selection, pre-treatment family counseling, drug interactions, micronutrient supplementation, adverse effects, and discontinuation of the diet are discussed. The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for children with refractory epilepsy. Education and collaboration of the patient and their family is essential. The patient should be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team using a protocol. The formation of a national multidisciplinary team and the publication of this document provide possibilities for new centers to integrate the ketogenic diet into their treatment options.

  7. The Delphi Technique: Making Sense of Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a widely used and accepted method for gathering data from respondents within their domain of expertise. The technique is designed as a group communication process which aims to achieve a convergence of opinion on a specific real-world issue. The Delphi process has been used in various fields of study such as program planning, needs assessment, policy determination, and resource utilization to develop a full range of alternatives, explore or expose underlying assumptions, as well as correlate judgments on a topic spanning a wide range of disciplines. The Delphi technique is well suited as a method for consensus-building by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data from a panel of selected subjects. Subject selection, time frames for conducting and completing a study, the possibility of low response rates, and unintentionally guiding feedback from the respondent group are areas which should be considered when designing and implementing a Delphi study.

  8. Consensus and Synchronization in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks is one of the most captivating cooperative phenomena in nature and has been shown to be of fundamental importance in such varied circumstances as the continued existence of species, the functioning of heart pacemaker cells, epileptic seizures, neuronal firing in the feline visual cortex and cognitive tasks in humans. E.g. coupled visual and acoustic interactions make fireflies flash, crickets chirp, and an audience clap in unison. On the other hand, in distributed systems and networks, it is often necessary for some or all of the nodes to calculate some function of certain parameters, e.g. sink nodes in sensor networks being tasked with calculating the average measurement value of all the sensors or multi-agent systems in which all agents are required to coordinate their speed and direction. When all nodes calculate the same function of the initial values in the system, they are said to reach consensus. Such concepts - sometimes also called state agreement, rendezvous, and ...

  9. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  10. Current Conveyor Based Multifunction Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar; M.C. Srivastava; Umesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a current conveyor based multifunction filter. The proposed circuit can be realized as low pass, high pass, band pass and elliptical notch filter. The circuit employs two balanced output current conveyors, four resistors and two grounded capacitors, ideal for integration. It has only one output terminal and the number of input terminals may be used. Further, there is no requirement for component matching in the circuit. The parameter resonance frequency (\\omega_0) and bandw...

  11. Stochastic processes and filtering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jazwinski, Andrew H

    1970-01-01

    This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab

  12. Filter Fabrics for Airport Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    pneumatically filling a woven polypropylene stocking with sand and vibrating it into a prebored hole, while another method uses a polyester nonwoven fabric...Selected Nonwoven Filter Fabrics," Letter Report, June 1977, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. 18. BalL, J. E...woven and nonwoven plastic filter fabric. It has been developed based on limited field performance observations and the laboratory test evaluation of

  13. Weak mixing below the weak scale in dark-matter direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure

    2018-02-01

    If dark matter couples predominantly to the axial-vector currents with heavy quarks, the leading contribution to dark-matter scattering on nuclei is either due to one-loop weak corrections or due to the heavy-quark axial charges of the nucleons. We calculate the effects of Higgs and weak gauge-boson exchanges for dark matter coupling to heavy-quark axial-vector currents in an effective theory below the weak scale. By explicit computation, we show that the leading-logarithmic QCD corrections are important, and thus resum them to all orders using the renormalization group.

  14. Dark-Matter Particles without Weak-Scale Masses or Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason

    2008-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders

  15. Enhancement of noisy EDX HRSTEM spectrum-images by combination of filtering and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Pavel; Longo, Paolo; Okunishi, Eiji

    2017-05-01

    STEM spectrum-imaging with collecting EDX signal is considered in view of the extraction of maximum information from very noisy data. It is emphasized that spectrum-images with weak EDX signal often suffer from information loss in the course of PCA treatment. The loss occurs when the level of random noise exceeds a certain threshold. Weighted PCA, though potentially helpful in isolation of meaningful variations from noise, might provoke the complete loss of information in the situation of weak EDX signal. Filtering datasets prior PCA can improve the situation and recover the lost information. In particular, Gaussian kernel filters are found to be efficient. A new filter useful in the case of sparse atomic-resolution EDX spectrum-images is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of adaptive filter amplifier in UV communication based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhaoshun; Wu, Hanping; Li, Junyu

    2016-10-01

    According to the problem of the weak signal at receiving end in UV communication, we design a high gain, continuously adjustable adaptive filter amplifier. Based on proposing overall technical indicators and analyzing its working principle of the signal amplifier, we use chip LMH6629MF and two chips of AD797BN to achieve three-level cascade amplification. And apply hardware of DSP TMS320VC5509A to implement digital filtering. Design and verification by Multisim, Protel 99SE and CCS, the results show that: the amplifier can realize continuously adjustable amplification from 1000 to 10000 times without distortion. Magnification error is <=%4@1000 10000. And equivalent input noise voltage of amplification circuit is <=6 nV/ √Hz @30KHz 45KHz, and realizing function of adaptive filtering. The design provides theoretical reference and technical support for the UV weak signal processing.

  17. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  18. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  19. The Weak Gravity Conjecture in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Miguel [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics & Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Lo Ka Chung Building, Lee Shau Kee Campus, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-10-28

    We study weakly coupled U(1) theories in AdS{sub 3}, their associated charged BTZ solutions, and their charged spectra. We find that modular invariance of the holographic dual two-dimensional CFT and compactness of the gauge group together imply the existence of charged operators with conformal dimension significantly below the black hole threshold. We regard this as a form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) in three dimensions. We also explore the constraints posed by modular invariance on a particular discrete ℤ{sub N} symmetry which arises in our discussion. In this case, modular invariance does not guarantee the existence of light ℤ{sub N}-charged states. We also highlight the differences between our discussion and the usual heuristic arguments for the WGC based on black hole remnants.

  20. Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-28

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.

  1. A dynamical weak scale from inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tevong, E-mail: tty20@cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical scanning of the Higgs mass by an axion-like particle during inflation may provide a cosmological component to explaining part of the hierarchy problem. We propose a novel interplay of this cosmological relaxation mechanism with inflation, whereby the backreaction of the Higgs vacuum expectation value near the weak scale causes inflation to end. As Hubble drops, the relaxion's dissipative friction increases relative to Hubble and slows it down enough to be trapped by the barriers of its periodic potential. Such a scenario raises the natural cut-off of the theory up to ∼ 10{sup 10} GeV, while maintaining a minimal relaxion sector without having to introduce additional scanning scalars or new physics coincidentally close to the weak scale.

  2. A proof of the weak gravity conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    The weak gravity conjecture suggests that, in a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity, the strength of gravity is bounded from above by the strengths of the various gauge forces in the theory. In particular, this intriguing conjecture asserts that in a theory describing a U(1) gauge field coupled consistently to gravity, there must exist a particle whose proper mass is bounded (in Planck units) by its charge: m/mP attracted the attention of physicists and mathematicians over the last decade. It should be emphasized, however, that despite the fact that there are numerous examples from field theory and string theory that support the conjecture, we still lack a general proof of its validity. In the present paper, we prove that the weak gravity conjecture (and, in particular, the mass-charge upper bound m/mP law of thermodynamics, a law which is widely believed to reflect a fundamental aspect of the elusive theory of quantum gravity.

  3. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  4. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  5. Surgical Management of Degenerative Meniscus Lesions: The 2016 ESSKA Meniscus Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, P; Becker, R; Kopf, S; Englund, M; Verdonk, R; Ollivier, M; Seil, R

    2017-06-01

    knee radiography should be used as an imaging tool to support a diagnosis of osteoarthritis or to detect certain rare pathologies, such as tumours or fractures of the knee. Discussion  The present work offers a clear framework for the management of degenerative meniscus lesions, with the aim to balance information extracted from the scientific evidence and clinical expertise. Because of biases and weaknesses of the current literature and lack of definition of important criteria such as mechanical symptoms, it cannot be considered as an exact treatment algorithm. It summarises the results of the "ESSKA Meniscus Consensus Project" ( http://www.esska.org/education/projects ) and is the first official European consensus on this topic. The consensus may be updated and refined as more high-quality evidence emerges. Level of Evidence  I.

  6. Surgical management of degenerative meniscus lesions: the 2016 ESSKA meniscus consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Ph; Becker, R; Kopf, S; Englund, M; Verdonk, R; Ollivier, M; Seil, R

    2017-02-01

    an imaging tool to support a diagnosis of osteoarthritis or to detect certain rare pathologies, such as tumours or fractures of the knee. The present work offers a clear framework for the management of degenerative meniscus lesions, with the aim to balance information extracted from the scientific evidence and clinical expertise. Because of biases and weaknesses of the current literature and lack of definition of important criteria such as mechanical symptoms, it cannot be considered as an exact treatment algorithm. It summarises the results of the "ESSKA Meniscus Consensus Project" ( http://www.esska.org/education/projects ) and is the first official European consensus on this topic. The consensus may be updated and refined as more high-quality evidence emerges. I.

  7. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS......). For a moderately concentrated dispersion in a marginal solvent the transition on cooling from the effective stability to a weak attraction is monitored, The degree of attraction is determined in the framework of the sticky spheres model (SSM), SANS and rheological results are correlated....

  8. Summary of the hadronic weak interaction session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, G.; Bryman, D.A.; Numao, T.

    1993-01-01

    The authors summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the open-quotes Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities.close quotes Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1-1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond

  9. On weak compactness in L_1 spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009

  10. On weak solutions of stochastic differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Martina; Seidler, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2012), s. 100-121 ISSN 0736-2994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic differential equations * weak solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.303, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/hofmanova-0373626.pdf

  11. An unusual cause of hypokalemic muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, J; Tucker, P; Kattah, J

    1983-09-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with proximal muscle weakness, cramps, and a serum potassium level of 2.7 mEq/l. During her hospitalization she was noted to use excessive quantities of a snuff preparation containing glycyrrhizinic acid, a potent mineralocorticoid analogue. With discontinuation of this substance, her potassium returned to normal values and her strength improved. This case is submitted as a hypokalemia myopathy induced by snuff dipping.

  12. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanjit Singh Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.

  13. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  14. A stochastic grid filter for multi-target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Surrey; Kouritzin, Michael A.; Long, Hongwei; McCrosky, Jesse D.; Zhao, Xingqiu

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss multi-target tracking for a submarine model based on incomplete observations. The submarine model is a weakly interacting stochastic dynamic system with several submarines in the underlying region. Observations are obtained at discrete times from a number of sonobuoys equipped with hydrophones and consist of a nonlinear function of the current locations of submarines corrupted by additive noise. We use filtering methods to find the best estimation for the locations of the submarines. Our signal is a measure-valued process, resulting in filtering equations that can not be readily implemented. We develop Markov chain approximation approach to solve the filtering equation for our model. Our Markov chains are constructed by dividing the multi-target state space into cells, evolving particles in these cells, and employing a random time change approach. These approximations converge to the unnormalized conditional distribution of the signal process based on the back observations. Finally we present some simulation results by using the refining stochastic grid (REST) filter (developed from our Markov chain approximation method).

  15. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  16. Synchronization of weakly coupled canard oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal Ersöz, Elif; Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Synchronization has been studied extensively in the context of weakly coupled oscillators using the so-called phase response curve (PRC) which measures how a change of the phase of an oscillator is affected by a small perturbation. This approach was based upon the work of Malkin, and it has been extended to relaxation oscillators. Namely, synchronization conditions were established under the weak coupling assumption, leading to a criterion for the existence of synchronous solutions of weakly coupled relaxation oscillators. Previous analysis relies on the fact that the slow nullcline does not intersect the fast nullcline near one of its fold points, where canard solutions can arise. In the present study we use numerical continuation techniques to solve the adjoint equations and we show that synchronization properties of canard cycles are different than those of classical relaxation cycles. In particular, we highlight a new special role of the maximal canard in separating two distinct synchronization regimes: the Hopf regime and the relaxation regime. Phase plane analysis of slow-fast oscillators undergoing a canard explosion provides an explanation for this change of synchronization properties across the maximal canard.

  17. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  18. Public Awareness of the Scientific Consensus on Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Hamilton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions about climate change elicit some of the widest political divisions of any items on recent U.S. surveys. Severe polarization affects even basic questions about the reality of anthropogenic climate change (ACC, or whether most scientists agree that humans are changing the Earth’s climate. Statements about scientific consensus have been contentious among social scientists, with some arguing for consensus awareness as a “gateway cognition” that leads to greater public acceptance of ACC, but others characterizing consensus messaging (deliberate communication about the level of scientific agreement as a counterproductive tactic that exacerbates polarization. A series of statewide surveys, with nationwide benchmarks, repeated questions about the reality of ACC and scientific consensus many times over 2010 to 2016. These data permit tests for change in beliefs and polarization. ACC and consensus beliefs have similar trends and individual background predictors. Both rose gradually by about 10 points over 2010 to 2016, showing no abrupt shifts that might correspond to events such as scientific reports, leadership statements, or weather. Growing awareness of the scientific consensus, whether from deliberate messaging or the cumulative impact of many studies and publicly engaged scientists, provides the most plausible explanation for this rise in both series. In state-level data, the gap between liberal and conservative views on the reality of ACC did not widen over this period, whereas the liberal–conservative gap regarding existence of a scientific consensus narrowed.

  19. A collaborative platform for consensus sessions in pathology over Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Eric; Le Bozec, Christel; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    The design of valid databases in pathology faces the problem of diagnostic disagreement between pathologists. Organizing consensus sessions between experts to reduce the variability is a difficult task. The TRIDEM platform addresses the issue to organize consensus sessions in pathology over the Internet. In this paper, we present the basis to achieve such collaborative platform. On the one hand, the platform integrates the functionalities of the IDEM consensus module that alleviates the consensus task by presenting to pathologists preliminary computed consensus through ergonomic interfaces (automatic step). On the other hand, a set of lightweight interaction tools such as vocal annotations are implemented to ease the communication between experts as they discuss a case (interactive step). The architecture of the TRIDEM platform is based on a Java-Server-Page web server that communicate with the ObjectStore PSE/PRO database used for the object storage. The HTML pages generated by the web server run Java applets to perform the different steps (automatic and interactive) of the consensus. The current limitations of the platform is to only handle a synchronous process. Moreover, improvements like re-writing the consensus workflow with a protocol such as BPML are already forecast.

  20. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    was judged to be significantly better than the air downstream of the 6-month-old F7 filter, and was comparable to that from an unused F7 filter. Additionally, the combination filters removed more ozone from the air than the F7 filter, with their respective fractional removal efficiencies roughly scaling......As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...

  1. ECHM Consensus Conference and levels of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Susannah

    2017-06-01

    The ECHM Consensus Conference on indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) was a welcome update of the evidence for HBOT use. However, clarification is requested in relation to how the GRADE system (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was modified and how levels of evidence were applied in the case of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). GRADE has a low kappa value for inter-observer agreement, so is modification valid? The original GRADE criteria, using consensus, grades evidence (defined as high, low and very low) and uses this to adjust the strength of recommendations. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) score highly. The ECHM have modified the GRADE system without explanation, assigning grades as levels 1 to 4 and have asserted that RCTs which are double-blinded constitute level 1 or 2 evidence. This has important implications for HBOT research. The term double-blinded is not used in the abstract, which leads the reader to wonder; where do RCTs which are not double-blinded fit in? The ECHM, by including the term double blinded as a requirement for level 1 or 2, has lifted the evidence bar. Does this constitute a form of research "bracket creep"? Double-blinding is viewed by many to require a 'sham' treatment in hyperbaric research. Many conditions require multiple doses requiring daily hospital attendance with associated costs of lost time from work and daily transport costs. Even with a crossover after the sham, a requirement of many ethics committees, the lost time for a patient is a considerable burden. Delaying HBOT until crossover in those randomised to the control group in a disease that has a narrow therapeutic temporal window, such as idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL), may affect the chance of recovery. Double blinding is logistically difficult with HBOT. A sham treatment may be achieved by using air instead of oxygen; however, this exposes the non-intervention group to a risk

  2. Consensus statement on diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While T1DM has been traditionally seen as a minor concern in the larger picture of pediatric ailments, new data reveals that the incidence of T1DM has assumed alarming proportions. It has long been clear that while the disease may be diagnosed at an early age, its impact is not isolated to afflicted children. The direct impact of the disease on the patient is debilitating due to the nature of the disease and lack of proper access to treatment in India. But this impact is further compounded by the utter apathy and often times antipathy, which patients withT1DM have to face. Lack of awareness of the issue in all stakeholders, low access to quality healthcare, patient, physician, and system level barriers to the delivery of optimal diabetes care are some of the factors which hinder successful management of T1DM. The first international consensus meet on diabetes in children was convened with the aim of providing a common platform to all the stakeholders in the management of T1DM, to discuss the academic, administrative and healthcare system related issues. The ultimate aim was to articulate the problems faced by children with diabetes in a way that centralized their position and focused on creating modalities of management sensitive to their needs and aspirations. It was conceptualized to raise a strong voice of advocacy for improving the management of T1DM and ensuring that "No child should die of diabetes". The unique clinical presentations of T1DM coupled with ignorance on the part of the medical community and society in general results in outcomes that are far worse than that seen with T2DM. So there is a need to substantially improve training of HCPs at all levels on this neglected aspect of healthcare.

  3. Consensus statement on diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Kumar, K M; Dev, N Prabhu; Raman, K V; Desai, Rajnanda; Prasadini, T Geetha; Das, A K; Ramoul, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    While T1DM has been traditionally seen as a minor concern in the larger picture of pediatric ailments, new data reveals that the incidence of T1DM has assumed alarming proportions. It has long been clear that while the disease may be diagnosed at an early age, its impact is not isolated to afflicted children. The direct impact of the disease on the patient is debilitating due to the nature of the disease and lack of proper access to treatment in India. But this impact is further compounded by the utter apathy and often times antipathy, which patients withT1DM have to face. Lack of awareness of the issue in all stakeholders, low access to quality healthcare, patient, physician, and system level barriers to the delivery of optimal diabetes care are some of the factors which hinder successful management of T1DM. The first international consensus meet on diabetes in children was convened with the aim of providing a common platform to all the stakeholders in the management of T1DM, to discuss the academic, administrative and healthcare system related issues. The ultimate aim was to articulate the problems faced by children with diabetes in a way that centralized their position and focused on creating modalities of management sensitive to their needs and aspirations. It was conceptualized to raise a strong voice of advocacy for improving the management of T1DM and ensuring that "No child should die of diabetes". The unique clinical presentations of T1DM coupled with ignorance on the part of the medical community and society in general results in outcomes that are far worse than that seen with T2DM. So there is a need to substantially improve training of HCPs at all levels on this neglected aspect of healthcare.

  4. Searching in GaBoDS deep survey for clusters of galaxies by weak gravitational lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is detection of galaxy clusters based on weak gravitational lensing method. We apply mass aperture statistics method to 0.32 square degrees data obtained with the WFI@MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope and detect mass peaks based on their mass not the luminosity. So by the application of proper filter function, shear profile and mass map are produced. Finally mass peaks with higher detection significance are extracted. In future works, redshift of these mass concentrations and so their mass can be obtained.‎

  5. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  6. Impedance-Based High Frequency Resonance Analysis of DFIG System in Weak Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The impedance-based model of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) systems, including the rotor part (Rotor Side Converter (RSC) and induction machine), and the grid part (Grid Side Converter (GSC) and its output filter), has been developed for analysis and mitigation of the Sub- Synchronous...... Resonance (SSR). However, the High Frequency Resonance (HFR) of DFIG systems due to the impedance interaction between DFIG system and parallel compensated weak network is often overlooked. This paper thus investigates the impedance characteristics of DFIG systems for the analysis of HFR. The influences...... of the rotor speed variation, the machine mutual inductance and the digital control delay are evaluated. Two resonances phenomena are revealed, i.e., 1) the series HFR between the DFIG system and weak power grid; 2) the parallel HFR between the rotor part and the grid part of DFIG system. The impedance...

  7. Consensus control of a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengtao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with consensus control of a class of nonlinear systems with Lipschitz nonlinearities. Certain features of the Laplacian matrix are explored in the real Jordan form to identify conditions for global consensus control. Under the identified conditions, consensus control and stability of the proposed control are analysed in time domain through Lyapunov functions in real domain. The proposed control uses relative state information of the system. A simulation study is included to demonstrate the proposed control designs with some simulation results shown.

  8. Accelerometer North Finding System Based on the Wavelet Packet De-noising Algorithm and Filtering Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yongle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a method and system for north finding with a low-cost piezoelectricity accelerometer based on the Coriolis acceleration principle. The proposed setup is based on the choice of an accelerometer with residual noise of 35 ng•Hz-1/2. The plane of the north finding system is aligned parallel to the local level, which helps to eliminate the effect of plane error. The Coriolis acceleration caused by the earth’s rotation and the acceleration’s instantaneous velocity is much weaker than the g-sensitivity acceleration. To get a high accuracy and a shorter time for north finding system, in this paper, the Filtering Circuit and the wavelet packet de-nosing algorithm are used as the following. First, the hardware is designed as the alternating currents across by filtering circuit, so the DC will be isolated and the weak AC signal will be amplified. The DC is interfering signal generated by the earth's gravity. Then, we have used a wavelet packet to filter the signal which has been done through the filtering circuit. Finally, compare the north finding results measured by wavelet packet filtering with those measured by a low-pass filter. Wavelet filter de-noise data shows that wavelet packet filtering and wavelet filter measurement have high accuracy. Wavelet Packet filtering has stronger ability to remove burst noise and higher engineering environment adaptability than that of Wavelet filtering. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and project implementation of the accelerometer north finding method based on wavelet packet de-noising algorithm.

  9. Derivative-Free Distributed Filtering for MIMO Robotic Systems under Delays and Packet Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to distributed state estimation-based control of nonlinear MIMO systems, capable of incorporating delayed measurements in the estimation algorithm while also being robust to packet losses. First, the paper examines the problem of distributed nonlinear filtering over a communication/sensors network, and the use of the estimated state vector in a control loop. As a possible filtering approach, an extended information filter (EIF is proposed. The extended information filter requires the computation of Jacobians which in the case of high order nonlinear dynamical systems can be a cumbersome procedure, while it also introduces cumulative errors to the state estimation due to the approximative linearization performed in the Taylor series expansion of the system's nonlinear model. To overcome the aforementioned weaknesses of the extended information filter, a derivative-free approach to extended information filtering has been proposed. Distributed filtering is now based on a derivative-free implementation of Kalman filtering which is shown to be applicable to MIMO nonlinear dynamical systems. In the proposed derivative-free extended information filtering, the system is first subject to a linearization transformation that makes use of the differential flatness theory. It is shown how the proposed distributed filtering method can succeed in compensation of random delays and packet drops which may appear during the transmission of measurements and of state vector estimates, thus assuring a reliable performance of the distributed filtering-based control scheme. Evaluation tests are carried out on benchmark MIMO nonlinear systems, such as multi-DOF robotic manipulators.

  10. 21 CFR 211.72 - Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...

  11. Water washable stainless steel HEPA filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filter apparatus and system, and method for assaying particulates. The HEPA filter provides for capture of 99.99% or greater of particulates from a gas stream, with collection of particulates on the surface of the filter media. The invention provides a filter system that can be cleaned and regenerated in situ.

  12. Unscented Kalman filtering for articulated human tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen Lindbo Larsen, Anders; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    -of-the-art trackers utilize particle filters, our unimodal likelihood model allows us to use an unscented Kalman filter. This robust and efficient filter allows us to improve the quality of the tracker while using substantially fewer likelihood evaluations. The system is compared to one based on a particle filter...

  13. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  14. Scientific consensus and climate change: the codification of a global research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, S.

    1993-01-01

    The 'scientific consensus' which influenced the Framework Convention on Climate Change was carefully drafted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) between 1988 and 1992. In spite of it, there have been divergent national responses and policy controversy continues. The willingness of States to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases appears to be declining. An explanation for this is proposed which stresses the question of whether the nature of the scientific advice as sought and given bears some responsibility for the weak policy response. Institutional and personality factors in the formulation of IPCC advice are explored, as is the policy model upon which advice was given. It is concluded that this model is intrinsically unable to generate decisive environmental policy, but rather invites the institutions of the natural sciences and macro-economics to endow their research agendas with claims to policy relevance through the production of future 'findings'. (Author)

  15. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphail, I.

    1979-08-01

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  16. The development of a consensus definition for healthcare improvement science (HIS) in seven European countries: A consensus methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Rooney, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    There is a limited body of research in the field of healthcare improvement science (HIS). Quality improvement and 'change making' should become an intrinsic part of everyone's job, every day in all parts of the healthcare system. The lack of theoretical grounding may partly explain the minimal transfer of health research into health policy. This article seeks to present the development of the definition for healthcare improvement science. A consensus method approach was adopted with a two-stage Delphi process, expert panel and consensus group techniques. A total of 18 participants were involved in the expert panel and consensus group, and 153 answers were analysed as a part of the Delphi survey. Participants were researchers, educators and healthcare professionals from Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Italy, England, Poland, and Romania. A high level of consensus was achieved for the broad definition in the 2nd Delphi iteration (86%). The final definition was agreed on by the consensus group: 'Healthcare improvement science is the generation of knowledge to cultivate change and deliver person-centred care that is safe, effective, efficient, equitable and timely. It improves patient outcomes, health system performance and population health.' The process of developing a consensus definition revealed different understandings of healthcare improvement science between the participants. Having a shared consensus definition of healthcare improvement science is an important step forward, bringing about a common understanding in order to advance the professional education and practice of healthcare improvement science.

  17. Systematic review: role of acid, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Smout, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH <4), weakly acidic (pH 4-7) and weakly alkaline (pH >7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their

  18. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  19. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  20. Compact, Pneumatically Actuated Filter Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighy, Bradley D.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, pneumatically actuated filter shuttle has been invented to enable alternating imaging of a wind-tunnel model in two different spectral bands characteristic of the pressure and temperature responses of a pressure and temperature-sensitive paint. This filter shuttle could also be used in other settings in which there are requirements for alternating imaging in two spectral bands. Pneumatic actuation was chosen because of a need to exert control remotely (that is, from outside the wind tunnel) and because the power leads that would be needed for electrical actuation would pose an unacceptable hazard in the wind tunnel. The entire shuttle mechanism and its housing can be built relatively inexpensively [camera used for viewing the wind-tunnel model. The mechanism includes a pneumatic actuator connected to a linkage. The linkage converts the actuator stroke to a scissor-like motion that places one filter in front of the camera and the other filter out of the way. Optoelectronic sensors detect tabs on the sliding panels for verification of the proper positioning of the filters.