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Sample records for filtered rolling average

  1. The use of difference spectra with a filtered rolling average background in mobile gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, A.J. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Rankine Avenue, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.cresswell@suerc.gla.ac.uk; Sanderson, D.C.W. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Rankine Avenue, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-21

    The use of difference spectra, with a filtering of a rolling average background, as a variation of the more common rainbow plots to aid in the visual identification of radiation anomalies in mobile gamma spectrometry systems is presented. This method requires minimal assumptions about the radiation environment, and is not computationally intensive. Some case studies are presented to illustrate the method. It is shown that difference spectra produced in this manner can improve signal to background, estimate shielding or mass depth using scattered spectral components, and locate point sources. This approach could be a useful addition to the methods available for locating point sources and mapping dispersed activity in real time. Further possible developments of the procedure utilising more intelligent filters and spatial averaging of the background are identified.

  2. Spatial filters for high average power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Alvin C

    2012-11-27

    A spatial filter includes a first filter element and a second filter element overlapping with the first filter element. The first filter element includes a first pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a first distance. Each of the first pair of cylindrical lenses has a first focal length. The first filter element also includes a first slit filter positioned between the first pair of cylindrical lenses. The second filter element includes a second pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a second distance. Each of the second pair of cylindrical lenses has a second focal length. The second filter element also includes a second slit filter positioned between the second pair of cylindrical lenses.

  3. Ground roll attenuation using a curvelet-SVD filter: a case study from the west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Bahareh; Torabi, Siyavash; Javaherian, Abdorahim; Mortazavi, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    data, quantitative and qualitative assessments using f-k, average amplitude and power spectra proved that the curvelet-SVD filter attenuated ground roll better than either the adaptive curvelet or the ASVD. On the other hand, an ASVD filter damages reflections, while the curvelet-SVD does not.

  4. Rolling bearing feature frequency extraction using extreme average envelope decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kunju; Liu, Shulin; Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Hongli

    2016-09-01

    The vibration signal contains a wealth of sensitive information which reflects the running status of the equipment. It is one of the most important steps for precise diagnosis to decompose the signal and extracts the effective information properly. The traditional classical adaptive signal decomposition method, such as EMD, exists the problems of mode mixing, low decomposition accuracy etc. Aiming at those problems, EAED(extreme average envelope decomposition) method is presented based on EMD. EAED method has three advantages. Firstly, it is completed through midpoint envelopment method rather than using maximum and minimum envelopment respectively as used in EMD. Therefore, the average variability of the signal can be described accurately. Secondly, in order to reduce the envelope errors during the signal decomposition, replacing two envelopes with one envelope strategy is presented. Thirdly, the similar triangle principle is utilized to calculate the time of extreme average points accurately. Thus, the influence of sampling frequency on the calculation results can be significantly reduced. Experimental results show that EAED could separate out single frequency components from a complex signal gradually. EAED could not only isolate three kinds of typical bearing fault characteristic of vibration frequency components but also has fewer decomposition layers. EAED replaces quadratic enveloping to an envelope which ensuring to isolate the fault characteristic frequency under the condition of less decomposition layers. Therefore, the precision of signal decomposition is improved.

  5. Novel averaging window filter for SIFT in infrared face recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Bai; Yong Ma; Jing Li; Fan Fan; Hongyuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of stable local features directly affects the performance of infrared face recognition algorithms. Recent studies on the application of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) to infrared face recognition show that star-styled window filter (SWF) can filter out errors incorrectly introduced by SIFT. The current letter proposes an improved filter pattern called Y-styled window filter (YWF) to further eliminate the wrong matches. Compared with SWF, YWF patterns are sparser and do not maintain rotation invariance; thus, they are more suitable to infrared face recognition. Our experimental results demonstrate that a YWF-based averaging window outperforms an SWF-based one in reducing wrong matches, therefore improving the reliability of infrared face recognition systems.%@@ The extraction of stable local features directly affects the performance of infrared face recognition algorithms.Recent studies on the application of scale invariant feature transform(SIFT) to infrared face recognition show that star-styled window filter(SWF) can filter out errors incorrectly introduced by SIFT.

  6. Diagonal slice spectrum assisted optimal scale morphological filter for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a novel signal processing scheme, diagonal slice spectrum assisted optimal scale morphological filter (DSS-OSMF), for rolling element fault diagnosis. In this scheme, the concept of quadratic frequency coupling (QFC) is firstly defined and the ability of diagonal slice spectrum (DSS) in detection QFC is derived. The DSS-OSMF possesses the merits of depressing noise and detecting QFC. It can remove fault independent frequency components and give a clear representation of fault symptoms. A simulated vibration signal and experimental vibration signals collected from a bearing test rig are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method has a superior performance in extracting fault features of defective rolling element bearing. In addition, comparisons are performed between a multi-scale morphological filter (MMF) and a DSS-OSMF. DSS-OSMF outperforms MMF in detection of an outer race fault and a rolling element fault of a rolling element bearing.

  7. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  8. Fault Early Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearings Combining Wavelet Filtering and Degree of Cyclostationarity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Fu-chang; CHEN Jin; HE Jun; BI Guo; LI Fu-cai; ZHANG Gui-cai

    2005-01-01

    The vibration signals of rolling element bearing are produced by a combination of periodic and random processes due to the machine's rotation cycle and interaction with the real world. The combination of such components can give rise to signals, which have periodically time-varying ensemble statistical and are best considered as cyclostationary. When the early fault occurs, the background noise is very heavy, it is difficult to disclose the latent periodic components successfully using cyclostationary analysis alone. In this paper the degree of cyclostationarity is combined with wavelet filtering for detection of rolling element bearing early faults. Using the proposed entropy minimization rule. The parameters of the wavelet filter are optimized. This method is shown to be effective in detecting rolling element bearing early fault when cyclostationary analysis by itself fails.

  9. Online Prediction Under Model Uncertainty via Dynamic Model Averaging: Application to a Cold Rolling Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E; Kárný, Miroslav; Ettler, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    We consider the problem of online prediction when it is uncertain what the best prediction model to use is. We develop a method called Dynamic Model Averaging (DMA) in which a state space model for the parameters of each model is combined with a Markov chain model for the correct model. This allows the "correct" model to vary over time. The state space and Markov chain models are both specified in terms of forgetting, leading to a highly parsimonious representation. As a special case, when the model and parameters do not change, DMA is a recursive implementation of standard Bayesian model averaging, which we call recursive model averaging. The method is applied to the problem of predicting the output strip thickness for a cold rolling mill, where the output is measured with a time delay. We found that when only a small number of physically motivated models were considered and one was clearly best, the method quickly converged to the best model, and the cost of model uncertainty was small; indeed DMA performed slightly better than the best physical model. When model uncertainty and the number of models considered were large, our method ensured that the penalty for model uncertainty was small. At the beginning of the process, when control is most difficult, we found that DMA over a large model space led to better predictions than the single best performing physically motivated model. We also applied the method to several simulated examples, and found that it recovered both constant and time-varying regression parameters and model specifications quite well.

  10. daptive Filter Used as a Dynamic Compensator in Automatic Gauge Control of Strip Rolling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ROMAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a control structure of the strip thickness in a rolling mill of quarto type (AGC – Automatic Gauge Control. It performs two functions: the compensation of errors induced by unideal dynamics of the tracking systems lead by AGC system and the control adaptation to the change of dynamic properties of the tracking systems. The compensation of dynamical errors is achieved through inverse models of the tracking system, implemented as adaptive filters.

  11. Rolling element bearing defect diagnosis under variable speed operation through angle synchronous averaging of wavelet de-noised estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C.; Samantaray, A. K.; Chakraborty, G.

    2016-05-01

    Rolling element bearings are widely used in rotating machines and their faults can lead to excessive vibration levels and/or complete seizure of the machine. Under special operating conditions such as non-uniform or low speed shaft rotation, the available fault diagnosis methods cannot be applied for bearing fault diagnosis with full confidence. Fault symptoms in such operating conditions cannot be easily extracted through usual measurement and signal processing techniques. A typical example is a bearing in heavy rolling mill with variable load and disturbance from other sources. In extremely slow speed operation, variation in speed due to speed controller transients or external disturbances (e.g., varying load) can be relatively high. To account for speed variation, instantaneous angular position instead of time is used as the base variable of signals for signal processing purposes. Even with time synchronous averaging (TSA) and well-established methods like envelope order analysis, rolling element faults in rolling element bearings cannot be easily identified during such operating conditions. In this article we propose to use order tracking on the envelope of the wavelet de-noised estimate of the short-duration angle synchronous averaged signal to diagnose faults in rolling element bearing operating under the stated special conditions. The proposed four-stage sequential signal processing method eliminates uncorrelated content, avoids signal smearing and exposes only the fault frequencies and its harmonics in the spectrum. We use experimental data1

  12. Composer Recognition based on 2D-Filtered Piano-Rolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Weyde, Tillman; Cancino Chacón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for music classification based on the use of convolutional models on symbolic pitch-time representations (i.e. piano-rolls) which we apply to composer recognition. An excerpt of a piece to be classified is first sampled to a 2D pitch-time representation which is then subjected...... to various transformations, including convolution with predefined filters (Morlet or Gaussian) and classified by means of support vector machines. We combine classifiers based on different pitch representations (MIDI and morphetic pitch) and different filter types and configurations. The method does...... not require parsing of the music into separate voices, or extraction of any other predefined features prior to processing; instead it is based on the analysis of texture in a 2D pitch-time representation. We show that filtering significantly improves recognition and that the method proves robust to encoding...

  13. A Sensor Fusion Method Based on an Integrated Neural Network and Kalman Filter for Vehicle Roll Angle Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vargas-Meléndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel estimator based on sensor fusion, which combines the Neural Network (NN with a Kalman filter in order to estimate the vehicle roll angle. The NN estimates a “pseudo-roll angle” through variables that are easily measured from Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensors. An IMU is a device that is commonly used for vehicle motion detection, and its cost has decreased during recent years. The pseudo-roll angle is introduced in the Kalman filter in order to filter noise and minimize the variance of the norm and maximum errors’ estimation. The NN has been trained for J-turn maneuvers, double lane change maneuvers and lane change maneuvers at different speeds and road friction coefficients. The proposed method takes into account the vehicle non-linearities, thus yielding good roll angle estimation. Finally, the proposed estimator has been compared with one that uses the suspension deflections to obtain the pseudo-roll angle. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed NN and Kalman filter-based estimator.

  14. A Sensor Fusion Method Based on an Integrated Neural Network and Kalman Filter for Vehicle Roll Angle Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Meléndez, Leandro; Boada, Beatriz L; Boada, María Jesús L; Gauchía, Antonio; Díaz, Vicente

    2016-08-31

    This article presents a novel estimator based on sensor fusion, which combines the Neural Network (NN) with a Kalman filter in order to estimate the vehicle roll angle. The NN estimates a "pseudo-roll angle" through variables that are easily measured from Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors. An IMU is a device that is commonly used for vehicle motion detection, and its cost has decreased during recent years. The pseudo-roll angle is introduced in the Kalman filter in order to filter noise and minimize the variance of the norm and maximum errors' estimation. The NN has been trained for J-turn maneuvers, double lane change maneuvers and lane change maneuvers at different speeds and road friction coefficients. The proposed method takes into account the vehicle non-linearities, thus yielding good roll angle estimation. Finally, the proposed estimator has been compared with one that uses the suspension deflections to obtain the pseudo-roll angle. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed NN and Kalman filter-based estimator.

  15. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegała, Michał; Jakubowska, Teresa; Markowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and measuring tube voltage. On the base of exposure parameters, an average glandular dose for each of 100 female patients was estimated. The images obtained by using AEC system had the acceptable threshold contrast visibility irrespective of the applied anode/filter combination. Mean glandular doses in the females, examined with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination, were on average 23.6% lower than that of the Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh anode/filter combinations. It is recommended to use a combination of the W/Rh anode /filter which exhibited lower mean glandular doses.

  16. Asynchronous H∞ filtering for linear switched systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Gang; Dang, Chuangyin

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the H∞ filtering problem for a class of continuous-time linear switched systems with the asynchronous behaviours, where 'asynchronous' means that the switching of the filters to be designed has a lag to the switching of the system modes. By using the Lyapunov-like functions and the average dwell time technique, a sufficient condition is obtained to guarantee the asymptotic stability with a weighted H∞ performance index for the filtering error system. Moreover, the results are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities that are numerical feasible. As a result, the filter design problem is solved. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the results.

  17. Moving Average Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loops: Performance Analysis and Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    The phase locked-loops (PLLs) are probably the most widely used synchronization technique in grid-connected applications. The main challenge associated with the PLLs is how to precisely and fast estimate the phase and frequency when the grid voltage is unbalanced and/or distorted. To overcome...... this challenge, incorporating moving average filter(s) (MAF) into the PLL structure has been proposed in some recent literature. A MAF is a linear-phase finite impulse response filter which can act as an ideal low-pass filter, if certain conditions hold. The main aim of this paper is to present the control...... design guidelines for a typical MAF-based PLL. The paper starts with the general description of MAFs. The main challenge associated with using the MAFs is then explained, and its possible solutions are discussed. The paper then proceeds with a brief overview of the different MAF-based PLLs. In each case...

  18. Medical Image Fusion Based on Rolling Guidance Filter and Spiking Cortical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaiqi, Liu; Jie, Zhao; Mingzhu, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. Although numerous medical image fusion methods have been proposed, most of these approaches are sensitive to the noise and usually lead to fusion image distortion, and image information loss. Furthermore, they lack universality when dealing with different kinds of medical images. In this paper, we propose a new medical image fusion to overcome the aforementioned issues of the existing methods. It is achieved by combining with rolling guidance filter (RGF) and spiking cortical model (SCM). Firstly, saliency of medical images can be captured by RGF. Secondly, a self-adaptive threshold of SCM is gained by utilizing the mean and variance of the source images. Finally, fused image can be gotten by SCM motivated by RGF coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both subjectively visual performance and objective criteria.

  19. Medical Image Fusion Based on Rolling Guidance Filter and Spiking Cortical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shuaiqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. Although numerous medical image fusion methods have been proposed, most of these approaches are sensitive to the noise and usually lead to fusion image distortion, and image information loss. Furthermore, they lack universality when dealing with different kinds of medical images. In this paper, we propose a new medical image fusion to overcome the aforementioned issues of the existing methods. It is achieved by combining with rolling guidance filter (RGF and spiking cortical model (SCM. Firstly, saliency of medical images can be captured by RGF. Secondly, a self-adaptive threshold of SCM is gained by utilizing the mean and variance of the source images. Finally, fused image can be gotten by SCM motivated by RGF coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both subjectively visual performance and objective criteria.

  20. Normalized Weighted Averages for Tracing Continuous Trends of Data and Easy Filtering of Discontinuous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PURUSHOTHAMAN NAIR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a set of normalized weighted averages which may be called as bi-average, tri-average, quadric-average or in general kth poly average, k=2,3,4,… is introduced. The weights can be easily assigned using the integer k. The linear combination of the weights with the samples is biased to latest samples of a given discrete data set when the samples are considered chronologically or sequentially. Hence these averages can generate moving and realistic trends of data without being a moving average. Computations of these averages are not explicitly depending on the size of the data set and can be done in a progressive way. The advantage is that it is not necessary to store the data samples or its size for computing these averages. An inferring mechanism is derived based on which one can easily decide whether current sample is continuous or not with previous samples based on the computed average. Illustrative examples are presented to establish the effectiveness of this inferring mechanism in testing continuous trends and filtering of discontinuous samples of flight telemetry data of a typical launch vehicle and that of sample data sets of standard continuous signals. Mathematical properties ofthese averages are discussed.

  1. A Bio-Realistic Analog CMOS Cochlea Filter With High Tunability and Ultra-Steep Roll-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Koickal, Thomas Jacob; Hamilton, Alister; Cheung, Rebecca; Smith, Leslie S

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental results of a cochlea filter in analog very large scale integration (VLSI) which highly resembles physiologically measured response of the mammalian cochlea. The filter consists of three specialized sub-filter stages which respectively provide passive response in low frequencies, actively tunable response in mid-band frequencies and ultra-steep roll-off at transition frequencies from pass-band to stop-band. The sub-filters are implemented in balanced ladder topology using floating active inductors. Measured results from the fabricated chip show that wide range of mid-band tuning including gain tuning of over 20 dB, Q factor tuning from 2 to 19 as well as the bio-realistic center frequency shift are achieved by adjusting only one circuit parameter. Besides, the filter has an ultra-steep roll-off reaching over 300 dB/dec. By changing biasing currents, the filter can be configured to operate with center frequencies from 31 Hz to 8 kHz. The filter is 9th order, consumes 59.5 ∼ 90.0 μW power and occupies 0.9 mm2 chip area. A parallel bank of the proposed filter can be used as the front-end in hearing prosthesis devices, speech processors as well as other bio-inspired auditory systems owing to its bio-realistic behavior, low power consumption and small size.

  2. Ground roll attenuation using SVD and time-frequency-wavenumber filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-10-01

    Ground roll (GR) is a coherent noise phenomenon with high-amplitude and low-frequency patterns that conceal reflections. To create a correct velocity model, especially from medium to great depth, attenuation of the GR is unavoidable. To carry out attenuation and preserve a virgin data set, out of noise-cone singular value decomposition (SVD) and time-frequency-wavenumber (TFK) filters are used. Here four steps are introduced: (1) SVD, (2) FK filtering, (3) the Gabor transform (GT) and (4) a time-variant band-pass filter. SVD decomposes data into singular vectors and gives us the ability to have sub-images that relate to different singular values. The data set is reconstructed using first singular-vectors that relate to first singular-values, and include more signal and less noise. To preserve the reflection signal, the GR event is flattened using a forward normal move out correction (NMO) followed by the application of SVD to preserve 50% of the introduced events (to remove a part of the GR) and then finally reverse NMO is conducted. Although the FK filter is able to remove all of the GR energy based on the low velocity, the choice of low-dip for filtering causes high-amplitude smearing and distorts waveforms. Consequently, FK is applied to remove events with dips of more than 40 ≤ft(≤ft.{}\\text{ms}\\right/{}\\text{trace}\\right) . The results of SVD plus high-dip FK have some issues that are created by merging high-amplitude and low-frequency events at the apex of the noise cone with reflections. Since at shallow depth and near offsets primary reflections have a higher frequency than the GR, the GT was used to deduce the dominant frequency of the GR for different times. Based on the estimated noise frequency, a cone area was chosen to filter the remaining noise and detect reflection events. These procedures were applied on real shot gathers to show the results of GR attenuation.

  3. Sub-volume averaging of repetitive structural features in angularly filtered electron tomographic reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, L; Kereïche, S; Matula, P; Raška, I

    2014-01-01

    Electron tomographic reconstructions suffer from a number of artefacts arising from effects accompanying the processes of acquisition of a set of tilted projections of the specimen in a transmission electron microscope and from its subsequent computational handling. The most pronounced artefacts usually come from imprecise projection alignment, distortion of specimens during tomogram acquisition and from the presence of a region of missing data in the Fourier space, the "missing wedge". The ray artefacts caused by the presence of the missing wedge can be attenuated by the angular image filter, which attenuates the transition between the data and the missing wedge regions. In this work, we present an analysis of the influence of angular filtering on the resolution of averaged repetitive structural motives extracted from three-dimensional reconstructions of tomograms acquired in the single-axis tilting geometry.

  4. Target-adaptive polarimetric synthetic aperture radar target discrimination using maximum average correlation height filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2006-05-01

    We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.

  5. Memory efficient and constant time 2D-recursive spatial averaging filter for embedded implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qifeng; Seoud, Lama; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Langlois, J. M. Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Spatial Averaging Filters (SAF) are extensively used in image processing for image smoothing and denoising. Their latest implementations have already achieved constant time computational complexity regardless of kernel size. However, all the existing O(1) algorithms require additional memory for temporary data storage. In order to minimize memory usage in embedded systems, we introduce a new two-dimensional recursive SAF. It uses previous resultant pixel values along both rows and columns to calculate the current one. It can achieve constant time computational complexity without using any additional memory usage. Experimental comparisons with previous SAF implementations shows that the proposed 2D-Recursive SAF does not require any additional memory while offering a computational time similar to the most efficient existing SAF algorithm. These features make it especially suitable for embedded systems with limited memory capacity.

  6. Applying the conventional moving average filter for estimation of low radiation doses using EPR spectroscopy: Benefits and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M., E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Radiation Dosimetry Department, Ministry of Scientific Research, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, Giza, Haram 12211 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities, Salman Bin AbdulAziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-11

    Alanine/EPR is the most common dosimetry system for high radiation doses because of its high stability and wide linear response, however, use of alanine in most of medical applications still require special sophisticated methodologies and techniques in order to extend alanine detection limit to low levels of radiation doses. One of these techniques is the use of digital processing of acquired alanine spectra for enhancing useful components in spectra while useless features are suppressed. Simple moving average filter (MA) impacts on alanine EPR spectra have been studied in terms of peak-to-peak height, peak-to-peak line width, and associated uncertainty. Three types of the used filter were investigated: upward MA, central MA, and downward MA filters, effects of each on the peak position for different values of filter width were studied. It was found that MA filter always lead to the reduction in signal intensity and the increase of line width of the central peak of alanine spectrum. Peak position also changes in cases of the upward MA and downward MA filters while no significant changes were observed in the case of central MA. Uncertainties associated to the averaging process were evaluated and plotted versus the filter width resulting in a linear relationship. Filter width value should be carefully selected in order to avoid probable distortion in processed spectra while gaining less noisy spectra with less associated uncertainties.

  7. Rolling ball algorithm as a multitask filter for terrain conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Portable frequency domain electromagnetic devices, commonly known as terrain conductivity meters, have become increasingly popular in recent years, especially in locating underground utilities. Data collected using these devices, however, usually suffer from major problems such as complexity and interference of apparent conductivity anomalies, near edge local spikes, and fading of conductivity contrast between a utility and the surrounding soil. This study presents the experience of adopting the rolling ball algorithm, originally designed to remove background from medical images, to treat these major problems in terrain conductivity measurements. Applying the proposed procedure to data collected using different terrain conductivity meters at different locations and conditions proves the capability of the rolling ball algorithm to treat these data both efficiently and quickly.

  8. A Lowpass Filter with Sharp Roll - off and High Relative Stopband Bandwidth Using Asymmetric High - Low Impedance Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As. Abdipour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, a microstrip lowpass filter with -3 dB cut-off frequency at 1.286 GHz is proposed. By using two main resonators which are placed symmetrically around Y axis a sharp roll-off rate (250 dB/GHz is obtained. The proposed resonators are consisted of two asymmetric high-low impedance patches. To achieve a high relative stopband bandwidth (1.82 four high - low impedance resonators and four radial stubs as suppressing cells are employed. Furthermore, a flat insertion loss in the passband and a low return loss in the stopband can prove desired in-band and out-band frequency response. The proposed LPF has a high FOM about 63483.

  9. Improved maximum average correlation height filter with adaptive log base selection for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehsin, Sara; Rehman, Saad; Awan, Ahmad B.; Chaudry, Qaiser; Abbas, Muhammad; Young, Rupert; Asif, Afia

    2016-04-01

    Sensitivity to the variations in the reference image is a major concern when recognizing target objects. A combinational framework of correlation filters and logarithmic transformation has been previously reported to resolve this issue alongside catering for scale and rotation changes of the object in the presence of distortion and noise. In this paper, we have extended the work to include the influence of different logarithmic bases on the resultant correlation plane. The meaningful changes in correlation parameters along with contraction/expansion in the correlation plane peak have been identified under different scenarios. Based on our research, we propose some specific log bases to be used in logarithmically transformed correlation filters for achieving suitable tolerance to different variations. The study is based upon testing a range of logarithmic bases for different situations and finding an optimal logarithmic base for each particular set of distortions. Our results show improved correlation and target detection accuracies.

  10. Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) Modeling Method for Gyro Random Noise Using a Robust Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei

    2015-09-30

    To solve the problem in which the conventional ARMA modeling methods for gyro random noise require a large number of samples and converge slowly, an ARMA modeling method using a robust Kalman filtering is developed. The ARMA model parameters are employed as state arguments. Unknown time-varying estimators of observation noise are used to achieve the estimated mean and variance of the observation noise. Using the robust Kalman filtering, the ARMA model parameters are estimated accurately. The developed ARMA modeling method has the advantages of a rapid convergence and high accuracy. Thus, the required sample size is reduced. It can be applied to modeling applications for gyro random noise in which a fast and accurate ARMA modeling method is required.

  11. 一种改进的均值滤波算法%A MODIFIED AVERAGE FILTERING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱士虎; 游春霞

    2013-01-01

    针对均值滤波在抑制噪声的过程中会损失图像的边缘等细节信息从而导致整幅图像模糊的问题,提出一种均值滤波改进算法。算法中局部窗口内中心像素灰度均值的计算既考虑了窗口内各像素与中心像素间的灰度值差异,又顾及了窗口内各像素与中心像素间的距离。实验结果表明,该算法能有效去除噪声,较好地保留图像边缘细节,相比传统均值滤波和自适应均值滤波算法有更好的去噪能力。%Details of image are broken by mean filter in image processing , and consequently the image turns out to be blurry .In light of this, we propose a modified average filtering algorithm .In the algorithm, the computation of gray averaging value of central pixel in local window considers both the gray value difference and the spatial distance between the central pixel and other neighbouring pixels in current local window.Experimental results show that the presented algorithm can effectively remove Gaussian noise as well as preserving the edge details of the image well .It is superior to tradition mean filter and adaptive averaging filter algorithms in de-noise capability .

  12. Comparison of wing-span averaging effects on lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions and for two turbulence representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical method of computing the averaging effect of wing-span size on the loading of a wing induced by random turbulence was adapted for use on a digital electronic computer. The turbulence input was assumed to have a Dryden power spectral density. The computations were made for lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions, rectangular and elliptic. Data are presented to show the wing-span averaging effect for wing-span ratios encompassing current airplane sizes. The rectangular wing-span loading showed a slightly greater averaging effect than did the elliptic loading. In the frequency range most bothersome to airplane passengers, the wing-span averaging effect can reduce the normal lift load, and thus the acceleration, by about 7 percent for a typical medium-sized transport. Some calculations were made to evaluate the effect of using a Von Karman turbulence representation. These results showed that using the Von Karman representation generally resulted in a span averaging effect about 3 percent larger.

  13. Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using Integrated Nonlocal Means Denoising with Modified Morphology Filter Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mien Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impulses in vibration signals are used to identify faults in the bearings of rotating machinery. However, vibration signals are usually contaminated by noise that makes the process of extracting impulse characteristic of localized defect very challenging. In order to effectively diagnose bearing with noise masking vibration signal, a new methodology is proposed using integrated (i nonlocal means- (NLM- based denoising and (ii improved morphological filter operators. NLM based denoising is first employed to eliminate or reduce the background noise with minimal signal distortion. This denoised signal is then analysed by a proposed modified morphological analysis (MMA. The MMA analysis introduces a new morphological operator which is based on Modified-Different (DIF filter to include only fault relevant impulsive characteristics of the vibration signal. To improve further performance of the methodology the length of the structure element (SE used in MMA is optimized using a particle swarm optimization- (PSO- based kurtosis criterion. The results of simulated and real vibration signal show that the integrated NLM with MMA method as well as the MMA method alone yields superior performance in extracting impulsive characteristics of vibrations signals, especially for signal with high level of noise or presence of other sources masking the fault.

  14. Spatiotemporal Rank Filtering Improves Image Quality Compared to Frame Averaging in 2-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Pinkard

    Full Text Available Live imaging of biological specimens using optical microscopy is limited by tradeoffs between spatial and temporal resolution, depth into intact samples, and phototoxicity. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2P-LSM, the gold standard for imaging turbid samples in vivo, has conventionally constructed images with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR generated by sequential raster scans of the focal plane and temporal integration of the collected signals. Here, we describe spatiotemporal rank filtering, a nonlinear alternative to temporal integration, which makes more efficient use of collected photons by selectively reducing noise in 2P-LSM images during acquisition. This results in much higher SNR while preserving image edges and fine details. Practically, this allows for at least a four fold decrease in collection times, a substantial improvement for time-course imaging in biological systems.

  15. Spatiotemporal Rank Filtering Improves Image Quality Compared to Frame Averaging in 2-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, Henry; Corbin, Kaitlin; Krummel, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    Live imaging of biological specimens using optical microscopy is limited by tradeoffs between spatial and temporal resolution, depth into intact samples, and phototoxicity. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2P-LSM), the gold standard for imaging turbid samples in vivo, has conventionally constructed images with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) generated by sequential raster scans of the focal plane and temporal integration of the collected signals. Here, we describe spatiotemporal rank filtering, a nonlinear alternative to temporal integration, which makes more efficient use of collected photons by selectively reducing noise in 2P-LSM images during acquisition. This results in much higher SNR while preserving image edges and fine details. Practically, this allows for at least a four fold decrease in collection times, a substantial improvement for time-course imaging in biological systems.

  16. Anomaly Detection in Electroencephalogram Signals Using Unconstrained Minimum Average Correlation Energy Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electroencepharogram (EEG is an extremely complex signal with very low signal to noise ratio and these attributed to difficulty in analyzing the signal. Hence for detecting abnormal segment, a distinctive method is required to train the technologist to distinguish the anomalous in EEG data. The objective of this study was to create a framework to analyze EEG signals recorded from epileptic patients by evaluating the potential of UMACE filter to detect changes in single-channel EEG data during routine epilepsy monitoring. Approach: Normally, the peak to side lobe ratio (PSR of a UMACE filter was employed as an indicator if a test data is similar to an authentic class or vice versa, however in this study, the consistent changes of the correlation output known as Region Of Interest (ROI was plotted and monitored. Based on this approach, a novel method to analyze and distinguish variances in scalp EEG as well as comparing both normal and abnormal regions of the patient’s EEG was assessed. The performance of the novelty detection was examined based on the onset and end time of each seizure in the ROI plot. Results: Results showed that using ROI plot of variances one can distinguish irregularities in the EEG data. The advantage of the proposed technique was that it did not require large amount of data for training. Conclusion: As such, it was feasible to perform seizure analysis as well as localizing seizure onsets. In short, the technique can be used as a guideline for faster diagnosis in a lengthy EEG recording.

  17. Bayesian model averaging using particle filtering and Gaussian mixture modeling: theory, concepts, and simulation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rings, J.; Vrugt, J.A.; Schoups, G.; Huisman, J.A.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a standard method for combining predictive distributions from different models. In recent years, this method has enjoyed widespread application and use in many fields of study to improve the spread-skill relationship of forecast ensembles. The BMA predictive

  18. Bayesian model averaging using particle filtering and Gaussian mixture modeling: Theory, concepts, and simulation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rings, J.; Vrugt, J.A.; Schoups, G.; Huisman, J.A.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a standard method for combining predictive distributions from different models. In recent years, this method has enjoyed widespread application and use in many fields of study to improve the spread-skill relationship of forecast ensembles. The BMA predictive probabi

  19. Bayesian model averaging using particle filtering and Gaussian mixture modeling: theory, concepts, and simulation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rings, J.; Vrugt, J.A.; Schoups, G.; Huisman, J.A.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a standard method for combining predictive distributions from different models. In recent years, this method has enjoyed widespread application and use in many fields of study to improve the spread-skill relationship of forecast ensembles. The BMA predictive probabi

  20. Managing the rate of increase in average co-ancestry in a rolling front tree breeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R J; McRae, T A; Dutkowski, G W; Tier, B

    2015-04-01

    In breeding forest trees, as for livestock, the goal is to capture as much genetic gain as possible for the breeding objective, while limiting long- and short-term inbreeding. The Southern Tree Breeding Association (STBA) is responsible for breeding Australia's two main commercial forest tree species and has adopted algorithms and methods commonly used in animal breeding to achieve this balance. Discrete generation breeding is the norm for most tree breeding programmes. However, the STBA uses an overlapping generation strategy, with a new stream of breeding initiated each year. A feature of the species bred by the STBA (Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus) is the long interval (up to 7 years) between when an individual is mated and when its progeny is first assessed in field trials and performance data included in the national performance database. Mate selection methods must therefore recognize the large pool of unmeasured progeny generated over recent years of crossing. In addition, the substantial delay between when an individual is selected in a field trial and when it is clonally copied into a mating facility (breeding arboretum) means that selection and mating must occur as a two-step process. In this article, we describe modifications to preselection and mate selection algorithms that allow unmeasured progeny (juveniles) to be recognized. We also demonstrate that the addition of hypothetical new progeny to the juvenile pool is important for computing the increase in average co-ancestry in the population. Methods outlined in this article may have relevance to animal breeding programmes where between mating and progeny measurement, new rounds of mating are initiated.

  1. Quantifying the effects of different post-processing quality filters on regionally and temporally averaged ACOS XCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.; O'Dell, C.; Mandrake, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) group has been producing and distributing total column CO2 (XCO2) products using JAXA/NIES/MOE Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) spectra and has accumulated almost 4 years of data with version 3.3. While the ACOS team strives to only process soundings that the retrieval algorithm can handle well, we are conservative in what we reject from processing. Consequently, some soundings get processed which do not yield reliable results. We have developed post-processing filters based on comparisons to a few truth proxies (model means, TCCON, and the southern hemisphere approximation) to flag the less reliable soundings. Here we compare regionally (using TRANSCOM spatial bins) and monthly averaged XCO2 that have been filtered by our normal method (described in the ACOS Level 2 Data User's Guide) and a newer method, which we have named warn levels. Mean XCO2 differences are quantified spatially and temporally to inform possible biases in carbon cycle studies that could potentially be introduced by the application of differing post-processing screening methodologies to the ACOS products.

  2. A structurally-controllable spin filter in a δ-doped magnetically modulated semiconductor nanostructure with zero average magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Hua; Ma, Wen-Yue; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Shi-Peng

    2015-07-01

    We report on a theoretical investigation of spin-polarized transport in a δ-doped magnetically modulated semiconductor nanostructure, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic stripe on the top of a semiconductor heterostructure and by using the atomic layer doping technique such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is shown that although such a nanostructure has a zero average magnetic filed, a sizable spin polarization exists due to the Zeeman splitting mechanism. It is also shown that the degree of spin polarization varies sensitively with the weight and/or position of the δ-doping. Therefore, one can conveniently tailor the behaviour of the spin-polarized electron by tuning the δ -doping, and such a device can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics.

  3. Estimation of Q factors from reflection seismic data for a band-limited and stabilized inverse Q filter driven by an average-Q model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengbao; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Yanghua; Li, Jingye

    2014-02-01

    Reliable Q estimation is desirable for model-based inverse Q filtering to improve seismic resolution. On the one hand, conventional methods estimate Q from the amplitude spectra or frequency variations of individual wavelets at different depth (or time) levels, which is vulnerable to the effects of spectral interference and ambient noise. On the other hand, most inverse Q filtering algorithms are sensitive to noise, in order not to boost them, sometimes at the expense of degrading compensation effect. In this paper, the average-Q values are obtained from reflection seismic data based on the Gabor transform spectrum of a seismic trace. We transform the 2-D time-variant frequency spectrum into the 1-D spectrum, and then estimate the average-Q values based on the amplitude attenuation and compensation functions, respectively. Driven by the estimated average-Q model, we also develop a modified inverse Q filtering algorithm by incorporating a time-variant bandpass filter (TVBF), whose high cut off frequency follows a hyperbola along the traveltime from a specified time. Finally, we test this modified inverse Q filtering algorithm on synthetic data and perform the Q estimation procedure on a real reflection seismic data, followed by applying the modified inverse Q filtering algorithm. The synthetic data test and the real data example demonstrate that the algorithm driven by average-Q model may enhance the seismic resolution, without degrading the signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Space debris tracking based on fuzzy running Gaussian average adaptive particle filter track-before-detect algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torteeka, Peerapong; Gao, Peng-Qi; Shen, Ming; Guo, Xiao-Zhang; Yang, Da-Tao; Yu, Huan-Huan; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Zhao, You

    2017-02-01

    Although tracking with a passive optical telescope is a powerful technique for space debris observation, it is limited by its sensitivity to dynamic background noise. Traditionally, in the field of astronomy, static background subtraction based on a median image technique has been used to extract moving space objects prior to the tracking operation, as this is computationally efficient. The main disadvantage of this technique is that it is not robust to variable illumination conditions. In this article, we propose an approach for tracking small and dim space debris in the context of a dynamic background via one of the optical telescopes that is part of the space surveillance network project, named the Asia-Pacific ground-based Optical Space Observation System or APOSOS. The approach combines a fuzzy running Gaussian average for robust moving-object extraction with dim-target tracking using a particle-filter-based track-before-detect method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is experimentally evaluated, and the results show that the scheme achieves a satisfactory level of accuracy for space debris tracking.

  5. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad;

    2010-01-01

    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... background EEG in various input signal to noise ratios. While both methods can be applied to track dynamical changes, the simplified Kalman filter has an advantage over the Sliding Window Averaging, most notable in a better noise suppression when both are optimized for faster changing latency and amplitude...

  6. Condition Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings Using Optimal Gabor Filters%采用Gabor滤波器的轴承状态监控方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 隋文涛; 郭前建

    2016-01-01

    针对滚动轴承状态监控中最优共振频带难确定的问题,提出一种新的寻优方法和目标函数,可快速准确地定位共振频带,提取状态信息。通过两步网格搜索法,以包络稀疏性为目标函数,对Gabor滤波器参数寻优;然后对振动信号进行滤波并得到信号包络;最后运用包络自相关谱抑制噪声,突出运行状态信息。用仿真信号和实际信号对该方法进行了验证,结果表明,该方法能准确判明轴承运行状态。%Aiming to the difficulty in finding the resonant frequency band in condition monitoring of roll-ing element bearings, a new optimization method and objective function was proposed. The resonant fre-quency band can be located through this proposed method. Firstly, the parameters of Gabor filter are op-timized through the two-step grid search method, in which the envelope sparseness is as objective func-tion. The vibration signal was filtered through the optimal filter and the envelop signal was calculated. The envelop autocorrelation spectrum was adopted to restrain noise and highlight operation condition infor-mation. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method were proved through the simulation sig-nal and experimental signals. It is shown that the bearing operation condition can be recognized accurate-ly by the proposed method.

  7. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...

  8. Distributed parameter system coupled ARMA expansion identification and adaptive parallel IIR filtering - A unified problem statement. [Auto Regressive Moving-Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. R., Jr.; Balas, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel interconnection of distributed parameter system (DPS) identification and adaptive filtering is presented, which culminates in a common statement of coupled autoregressive, moving-average expansion or parallel infinite impulse response configuration adaptive parameterization. The common restricted complexity filter objectives are seen as similar to the reduced-order requirements of the DPS expansion description. The interconnection presents the possibility of an exchange of problem formulations and solution approaches not yet easily addressed in the common finite dimensional lumped-parameter system context. It is concluded that the shared problems raised are nevertheless many and difficult.

  9. Comparison between wavelet transform and moving average as filter method of MODIS imagery to recognize paddy cropping pattern in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Nugroho, Kreshna; Pebrianto, Singgih; Arif Fatoni, Muhammad; Fatikhunnada, Alvin; Liyantono; Setiawan, Yudi

    2017-01-01

    Information on the area and spatial distribution of paddy field are needed to support sustainable agricultural and food security program. Mapping or distribution of cropping pattern paddy field is important to obtain sustainability paddy field area. It can be done by direct observation and remote sensing method. This paper discusses remote sensing for paddy field monitoring based on MODIS time series data. In time series MODIS data, difficult to direct classified of data, because of temporal noise. Therefore wavelet transform and moving average are needed as filter methods. The Objective of this study is to recognize paddy cropping pattern with wavelet transform and moving average in West Java using MODIS imagery (MOD13Q1) from 2001 to 2015 then compared between both of methods. The result showed the spatial distribution almost have the same cropping pattern. The accuracy of wavelet transform (75.5%) is higher than moving average (70.5%). Both methods showed that the majority of the cropping pattern in West Java have pattern paddy-fallow-paddy-fallow with various time planting. The difference of the planting schedule was occurs caused by the availability of irrigation water.

  10. Modification of the Filter in the Turbid Circulating Water System at Meishan Steel Hot Rolling Mill and Operating results%梅钢热轧浊循环系统过滤器的改造及运行效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹正东

    2015-01-01

    针对梅钢热轧浊循环系统过滤器出现的问题,进行了详细的分析,并制定了相关改进措施.认为过滤器本体设计、制造存在缺陷,对其改进后,运行稳定性得到了显著提高.%Problems in the high-speed sand filter of the turbid circulating cooling water system at Meishan Steel Hot Rolling Mill were analyzed in detail and corresponding im-provement measures were also drawn up. It was found that the design and manufacture of the filter body had defects and modification was carried out, which has significantly improved op-eration stability.

  11. dq-Frame Cascaded Delayed Signal Cancellation-Based PLL:Analysis, Design, and Comparison With Moving Average Filter-Based PLL

    OpenAIRE

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.; MONFARED, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    To improve the performance of phase-locked loops (PLLs) under adverse grid conditions incorporating different filtering techniques into their structures have been proposed in literature. These filtering techniques can be broadly classified into in-loop and pre-loop filtering techniques depending on their position in the PLL structure. Inspired from the concept of delayed signal cancellation (DSC), the idea of cascaded DSC (CDSC) has recently been introduced as an effective solution to improve...

  12. [Paper] Low-light Color Reproduction by Selective Averaging in Multi-aperture Camera with Bayer Color-filter Low-noise CMOS Image Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Bo; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takasawa, Taishi; Seo, Min Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    .... In the prototype camera, which is being developed, low-noise Bayer color-filter 0.18um CMOS image sensors based on the folding-integration and cyclic column ADCs with 1280 x 1024 effective pixels are utilized...

  13. Effect of sizes of forming rolls on cold ring rolling by 3D-FE numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Liang-gang; YANG He

    2006-01-01

    During cold ring rolling process,changing the sizes of forming rolls including driver roll and idle roll will lead to a change of amount of feed △h and contact areas between ring blank and forming rolls,thus a change of the shape and dimension of deformation zone located in the gap of forming rolls is found. It has a significant effect on metal flow and the forming quality of deformed ring. So the size effect of forming rolls on cold ring rolling was investigated by three-dimensional dynamic explicit FEM under ABAQUS environment. The obtained results thoroughly reveal the influence laws of the sizes of forming rolls on the average spread,fishtail coefficient,degree of inhomogeneous deformation and force and power parameters etc not only provide an important basis for design of the forming rolls and optimization of cold ring rolling process,but also reveal the plastic deformation mechanism of cold ring rolling.

  14. Variation in Texture and Lankford Value of 1070 Aluminum Sheet Rolled by Cone-shaped Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasumasa Chino; Xinsheng Huang; Kazutaka Suzuki; Mamoru Mabuchi

    2013-01-01

    A rolling with cone-shaped roll,the diameter of which continuously varies along the axial direction,has been proposed as a new shear rolling for controlling the texture of an aluminum alloy sheet.In this study,variations in the texture and Lankford value of a 1070 aluminum sheet rolled by the cone-shaped roll were investigated.Rolling with the cone-shaped roll was found to impose intense shear strain at the edges of the specimen,specifically near the surface.The shear directions in the left and right portions of the specimen were opposite to each other.The surface and middle layer of the specimen rolled by the cone-shaped roll and the reference specimen were characterized by a shear texture and typical recrystallization texture components,respectively.Notably,the specimen rolled by the cone-shaped roll exhibited smaller texture intensity than the reference specimen,especially at the surface,and the shear texture-components were observed at relatively deeper positions.As a result of Lankford value measurements,the specimen rolled with the cone-shape roll exhibited a smaller planar anisotropy than the reference specimen and an average Lankford value close to unity,which are likely due to the texture modifications introduced during rolling with the cone-shaped roll.

  15. Rolling Uphill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    In a recent letter to this journal, Mungan noted that translational energy can be converted into gravitational potential energy when an object is projected vertically, but rotational energy is not usually converted in this manner. As an exception, he gave an example where "a ball initially rolling without slipping will travel higher up a…

  16. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  17. 基于广义高斯混合模型的图像加权平均滤波去噪方法%Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model and Weighted Average Image Filter Denoising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晨燕; 谢从华; 苏剑峰; 于丹

    2012-01-01

      To remove the trailing noise, histogram fuzzy based filter denoising methods often have the problems of image blurring and residual noisy. To address this problem, the authors of this paper propose a new image de⁃noising method based on Generalized Gaussian Mixture (GGM) model and weighted average image filter. Firstly, the generalized Gaussian mixture model for image is constructed. Secondly, the noise data is determined accord⁃ing to the feature differences between this point and its neighbors. Finally, a weighted average filter is construct⁃ed by the GGM to build an image denoising. Histogram based filter and classical partial differential equation method are compared with the proposed method. Experimental results show that the method has a better denois⁃ing effect than the other methods.%  基于直方图的模糊滤波方法对图像的拖尾噪声去噪会导致图像模糊、残留的噪声较多等问题,本文提出一种新的基于广义高斯混合模型的图像去噪方法。首先,建立图像的广义高斯分布及其有限混合模型;其次,通过像素周围点特征值的变化范围确定噪声数据;最后,利用广义高斯函数构建一个加权平均滤波器进行图像去噪。对基于直方图的滤波方法、经典的偏微分方程和本文方法进行比较实验,结果表明本文方法具有更好的去噪效果。

  18. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...

  19. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;

    1994-01-01

    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  20. 一种基于双滑动平均滤波器的单相软件锁相环%A Single-phase Software Phase-locked Loop Based on Double Moving Average Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕广强; 纪海平; 李嘉; 苗荻; 伏祥运

    2015-01-01

    为了提高基于同步参考坐标系的单相软件锁相环在电网谐波畸变情况下的性能,提出了一种基于双滑动平均滤波器的单相软件锁相环。该锁相环采用双滑动平均滤波器来滤去同步坐标系中dq 轴上由单相电压奇次谐波转化而来的4k+4(k=0,1,2,…)次谐波,以得到用来锁相的基波相位。考虑到单相电压频率变化会造成锁相环的锁相误差,先采用角频率重构模块得到变化后的频率,再利用加权平均值法来减小频率变化对所述锁相环滤波部分的误差。实验结果表明,该锁相环可以在单相电压含有谐波和频率变化的情况下准确得到基波的幅值和相位,并具有良好的动态响应特性。%In order to improve the performance of single-phase software phase-locked loop (PLL) based on synchronous reference frame in power system harmonic distortion,this paper proposes a single-phase software PLL with double moving average filter.The proposed single-phase software PLL adopts double moving average filters to filter the 4k+4(k=0,1,2,…) harmonics in the dq axes components of the synchronous reference frame,which is transformed from the odd harmonic component of single-phase voltage.In order to reduce the impact of single-phase voltage frequency-variation on the proposed single-phase software PLL,it applies the weighted average method to mitigate the error of the fundamental wave extraction element due to frequency-variation with the stable frequency from the angular frequency reconstructor module. The experimental results show that the proposed single-phase software PLL is able to obtain accurate amplitude and phase angle of the fundamental under the condition of the presence of harmonics and frequency-variation in the single-phase voltage,plus good dynamic response.

  1. Analysis of CVC roll contour and determination of roll crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Xu; Xianjun Liu; Jiarong Zhao; Junwei Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of continuous variable crown (CVC) roll contour used in CSP production line was conducted and the roll contour function of CVC roll was obtained. The validation with actual CVC roll contour shows that the calculation values of the roll contour function and the actual roll contour parameters given by equipment provider are the same, which proves that the roll contour function of CVC rolls given in this article is correct. The nonlinear relationship between the roll crown of CVC rolls and roll shift amounts was deduced. The concept of crown extremum was given.

  2. 超声清洗法回收冷轧厂磁过滤物中的纳米铁粉%Recovering Nano-sized Iron Powders from Magnetic Filter Products of Cold Rolling Plant Using Ultrasonic Wave Cleaning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 赵立宁; 张月萍

    2012-01-01

    A method of recovering nano-sized iron powders from the magnetic filter products of cold rolling plant was developed. Pure nano-sized iron powders were obtained after the amusable oil on the surface was removed utilizing ultrasonic wave cleaning method. The influence of the ultrasonic frequency, power and temperature on the oil-removing effect was researched. The samples of iron powders were characterized by XRD and SEM. The results show that corresponding to mechanical stirring cleaning method, the oil removal capability of the cleaning liquid can be improved by using ultrasonic wave cleaning method. The mass fraction of iron in the nano-sized iron powders can reach 95.75% under the conditions that washing the iron powder 4 times of 20 minutes every time with cleaning liquid at 40 ?, ultrasonic frequency is 40 kHz, powder density is 0.44 W/cm2, rinsing with deionized water until clarifying and vacuum drying 5 h.%研究一种冷轧厂磁过滤物中纳米铁粉的回收方法,采用超声清洗法除去铁粉表面的油污,得到纯净的纳米铁粉,通过试验研究超声频率、功率密度、清洗温度对除油效果的影响,采用X射线衍射和扫描电子显微镜对铁粉产品进行表征.结果表明,相对于机械搅拌清洗,采用超声清洗含油铁粉,可提高清洗液的除油能力;超声频率为40 kHz,功率密度为0.44 W/cm2,清洗温度为40℃时,用清洗液清洗4次,每次清洗时间为20 min,用去离子水漂洗至澄清,真空干燥5h,所得纳米铁粉中铁元素的质量分数为95.75%.

  3. Iris Localization Algorithm Based on Two-dimensional Wavelet Transform and Neighborhood Average Filter%基于二维小波变换及邻域均值滤波的虹膜定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2013-01-01

    为了提高虹膜定位的准确率和速度,提出了一种基于二维小波变换及邻域均值滤波的虹膜定位算法.采用阈值法分割瞳孔,使用边缘检测算子检测瞳孔区域边缘,定位虹膜内边缘;然后对人眼图像进行二维小波处理降低虹膜图像的分辨率,以减少虹膜本身的纹理对判断外边缘点时所产生的影响;最后采用邻域均值滤波进行虹膜外边缘点提取,根据所得虹膜外边缘点确定虹膜外边界.仿真结果表明:该算法定位虹膜内外边界的平均时间为1.75s,准确卒为99.7%,其中虹膜外边缘定位误差小于4.2%,在虹膜识别系统中有较高的实际应用价值.%An iris localization algorithm based on two-dimensional wavelet transform and neighborhood average filter is proposed to improve the accuracy and the speed of the iris localization. Firstly, the algorithm segments the pupil area of the iris by the threshold. Secondly, it locates the iris inner edge by the edge detection operator in the pupil area. Thirdly, the human eye iris images is processed by the two-dimensional wavelet transform to reduce the image resolution, In order to reduce the impact of the iris texture on the judgment of the iris outer edge points. Fourthly, the algorithm extracts the iris outer edge points by the neighborhood average filter. Finally, it locates the iris outer edge by the outer edge points. The simulation results show that the algorithm locates the iris inner and outer edge with average time of 1. 75 s and accuracy of 99. 7%, the error of iris outer edge localization is less than 4. 2%, The algorithm has a higher practical value in the iris recognition system.

  4. Influence of rolling parameters on dynamically recrystallized microstructures in AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional rolling experiments via the embedded pin in rolling sheet method were carried out at different reduction rates, starting rolling temperatures, and rolling speeds, and the effects of rolling parameters (i.e., temperature, equivalent strain, and rolling time on dynamically recrystallized (DRX microstructures of AZ31 alloy during hot rolling were studied quantitatively. The temperature-strain dependence of the high-angle grain boundary fraction (HAGB% was examined through electron backscattered diffraction. Results showed that as-rolled microstructures with high HAGB% may be obtained under average rolling temperatures of 270–320 °C, equivalent strains higher than 0.8, and a rolling speed of 246 mm/s. These results may be related to the DRX kinetics and dynamic recovery which are controlled by deformation temperature and strain. HAGB% decreased with increasing rolling time (decreasing rolling speed, which is attributed to dynamic recovery, and the recrystallized grain size decreased as rolling time increased. However, further increases in rolling time increased average grain sizes but decreased mean subgrain sizes; these results are attributed to increases in the low-angle grain boundary (LAGB length per unit area with rolling time. LAGB formation was controlled by dynamic recovery, which consistently follows polygonization or formation of new subgrains inside larger grains; hence, average subgrain sizes decreased with the rolling time. The effect of dynamic recovery on HAGB and LAGB formation and their related mechanisms over a wide range of strains and temperatures were discussed in detail.

  5. Effect of Rolling Massage on Particle Moving Behaviour in Blood Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Hou-Hui; FAN Li-Juan; YANG Xiao-Feng; CHEN Yan-Yan

    2008-01-01

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases.Here the effect of the rolling massage on the particle moving property in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the particle moving behaviour depends on the rolling velocity, the distance between particle position and rolling position. The average values, including particle translational velocity and angular velocity, increase as the rolling velocity increases almost linearly. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  6. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of behaviour of particles moving in blood vessels under the rolling massage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Hou-Hui; Yang Xiao-Feng; Wang Cai-Feng; Li Hua-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques.

  8. Perovskite solar cells for roll-to-roll fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cell (PSCs is considered as the game changer in emerging photovoltaics technology. The highest certified efficiency is 22% with high temperature processed (∼500 °C TiO2 based electron transport layer (ETL. High temperature process is a rudimentary hindrance towards roll-to-roll processing of PSCs on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process (<150 °C ZnO based ETL is one of the most promising candidate for large scale roll-to-roll fabrication of cells as it has nearly identical electron affinity (4.2 eV of TiO2. The mixed organic perovskite (MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 devices with Al doped ZnO (AZO ETL demonstrate average cell efficiency over 16%, which is the highest ever reported efficiency for this device configuration. The energy level alignment and related interfacial charge transport dynamics at the interface of ZnO and perovskite films and the adjacent charge transport layers are investigated. Significantly improved device stability, hysteresis free device photocurrent have been observed in MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. A systematic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency dependent capacitance spectra, surface morphology and topography characterization have been conducted to understand the role of interfacial electronic properties between perovskite and neighbouring layers in perovskite device. A standardized degradation study, interfacial electronic property and capacitive spectra analysis of aged device, have been measured to understand the enhanced device stability in mixed MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. Slow perovskite material decomposition rate and augmented device lifetime with AZO based devices have been found to be correlated with the more hydrophobic and acidic nature of AZO surface compared to pristine ZnO film.

  9. The effects of forming parameters on conical ring rolling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wen; Zhao, Guoqun; Guan, Yanjin

    2014-01-01

    The plastic penetration condition and biting-in condition of a radial conical ring rolling process with a closed die structure on the top and bottom of driven roll, simplified as RCRRCDS, were established. The reasonable value range of mandrel feed rate in rolling process was deduced. A coupled thermomechanical 3D FE model of RCRRCDS process was established. The changing laws of equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) and temperature distributions with rolling time were investigated. The effects of ring's outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes on the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions, average rolling force, and average rolling moment were studied. The results indicate that the PEEQ at the inner layer and outer layer of rolled ring are larger than that at the middle layer of ring; the temperatures at the "obtuse angle zone" of ring's cross-section are higher than those at "acute angle zone"; the temperature at the central part of ring is higher than that at the middle part of ring's outer surfaces. As the ring's outer radius growth rate increases at its reasonable value ranges, the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions increase. Finally, the optimal values of the ring's outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes were obtained.

  10. The Effects of Forming Parameters on Conical Ring Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plastic penetration condition and biting-in condition of a radial conical ring rolling process with a closed die structure on the top and bottom of driven roll, simplified as RCRRCDS, were established. The reasonable value range of mandrel feed rate in rolling process was deduced. A coupled thermomechanical 3D FE model of RCRRCDS process was established. The changing laws of equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ and temperature distributions with rolling time were investigated. The effects of ring’s outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes on the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions, average rolling force, and average rolling moment were studied. The results indicate that the PEEQ at the inner layer and outer layer of rolled ring are larger than that at the middle layer of ring; the temperatures at the “obtuse angle zone” of ring’s cross-section are higher than those at “acute angle zone”; the temperature at the central part of ring is higher than that at the middle part of ring’s outer surfaces. As the ring’s outer radius growth rate increases at its reasonable value ranges, the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions increase. Finally, the optimal values of the ring’s outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes were obtained.

  11. New Numerical Solution of von Karman Equation of Lengthwise Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Pernis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of average material contact pressure to rolls base on mathematical theory of rolling process given by Karman equation was solved by many authors. The solutions reported by authors are used simplifications for solution of Karman equation. The simplifications are based on two cases for approximation of the circular arch: (a by polygonal curve and (b by parabola. The contribution of the present paper for solution of two-dimensional differential equation of rolling is based on description of the circular arch by equation of a circle. The new term relative stress as nondimensional variable was defined. The result from derived mathematical models can be calculated following variables: normal contact stress distribution, front and back tensions, angle of neutral point, coefficient of the arm of rolling force, rolling force, and rolling torque during rolling process. Laboratory cold rolled experiment of CuZn30 brass material was performed. Work hardening during brass processing was calculated. Comparison of theoretical values of normal contact stress with values of normal contact stress obtained from cold rolling experiment was performed. The calculations were not concluded with roll flattening.

  12. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming of copper strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It conducts a hot rolling process using waste heat after continuous extrusion. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming was simulated with DEFORM-3DT. Influences of extrusion wheel velocity and rolling reduction on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming were analyzed. It was shown that as extrusion wheel velocity increases, torque of extrusion wheel, chamber force and rolling force, will drop; temperature of the billet in the area of abutment which is highest will increase. As the rolling reduction is increased, torque of the extrusion wheel and force acting on the chamber decrease, while torque and force of the rolls increase. The experimental results showed that a homogeneously distributed and equiaxed grains microstructure can be formed in copper strip billets with an average grain size of about 80 μm, after continuous extrusion. Grains of the copper strips are stretched clearly, during rolling, along the rolling direction, to form a stable orientation. Nevertheless, the grain boundaries are still relatively clear to see.

  13. CISM Course on Rolling Contact Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kalker, Joost

    2000-01-01

    Preface.- Rolling Contact Phenomena - Linear Elasticity.- Finite Element Methods for Rolling Contact.- Plastic Deformation in Rolling Contact.- Non-Steady State Rolling Contact and Corrugations.- Modelling of Tyre Force and Moment Generation.- Rolling Noise.- Lubrication

  14. High-speed steel rolls used for cold rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Haixia; WU Qiong; SUN Dale

    2015-01-01

    During cold rolled production of steel,each change of rolls causes a halt in production and affects the roll’s grinding maintenance and consumption.Consequently,rolls are very critical to the costs of steel production. Besides the rolling accidents,surface quality problems,including inhomogeneous wear and a decrease of the surface roughness of the rolls are other main reasons for outage and a change of the rolls.Therefore,safe rolls,with superior wear resistance and roughness retentivity will be a future trend in the cold rolling steel industry.In this study,the property characteristics and in-service performance of high-speed steel(HSS)cold rolling work rolls at Baosteel are discussed.The results of this study indicate that in-service performance of HSS cold work rolls has an improvement over conventional rolls.Implementation of HSS work rolls will prolong the rolling campaign and improve the rolling stability,thus,the cost of cold rolling production can be better controlled.

  15. Quantum dice rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Aharon, N.; Silman, J.

    2009-01-01

    A coin is just a two sided dice. Recently, Mochon proved that quantum weak coin flipping with an arbitrarily small bias is possible. However, the use of quantum resources to allow N remote distrustful parties to roll an N-sided dice has yet to be addressed. In this paper we show that contrary to the classical case, N-sided dice rolling with arbitrarily small bias is possible for any N. In addition, we present a six-round three-sided dice rolling protocol, achieving a bias of 0.181, which inco...

  16. Rolled-Up Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schwaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review metamaterials fabricated from self-rolling strained metal-semiconductor layer systems. These systems relax their strain upon release from the substrate by rolling up into microtubes with a cross-section similar to a rolled-up carpet. We show that the walls of these microtubes represent three-dimensional optical metamaterials which so far could be used, for example, for the realization of broadband hyperlenses, fishnet metamaterials, or optically active three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing the unique possibility to stack optically active semiconductor heterostructures and metallic nanostructures. Furthermore, we discuss THz metamaterials based on arrays of rolled-up metal semiconductor microtubes and helices.

  17. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...... dealing with the transient response period is employed. This allows for a comprehensive parameter study. Coulomb friction, including a stick-slip condition, is used as a first approximation. It is found that length scale effects increase both the forces applied to the roll, the roll torque, and thus...

  18. Rolling Regressions with Stata

    OpenAIRE

    Kit Baum

    2004-01-01

    This talk will describe some work underway to add a "rolling regression" capability to Stata's suite of time series features. Although commands such as "statsby" permit analysis of non-overlapping subsamples in the time domain, they are not suited to the analysis of overlapping (e.g. "moving window") samples. Both moving-window and widening-window techniques are often used to judge the stability of time series regression relationships. We will present an implementation of a rolling regression...

  19. Rolling resistance of tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junio, M.; Roesgen, A.; Corvasce, F. [Goodyear Technical Center Luxembourg, Colmar-Berg (Luxembourg)

    1999-07-01

    After a review of the contribution of tire rolling resistance to fuel economy, the tire rolling resistance is defined and measurement methods discussed. The significant effects of the 'external' factors such as load, inflation, temperature, speed, etc. that are not controlled by the tire developers, are reviewed. Tire construction changes that reduce deformations and compound changes reducing hysteresis are discussed and information is provided on what has been achieved so far and what might be done in the future. (orig.)

  20. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  1. Rolling Force and Rolling Moment in Spline Cold Rolling Using Slip-line Field Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dawei; LI Yongtang; FU Jianhua; ZHENG Quangang

    2009-01-01

    Rolling force and rolling moment are prime process parameter of external spline cold rolling. However, the precise theoretical formulae of rolling force and rolling moment are still very fewer, and the determination of them depends on experience. In the present study, the mathematical models of rolling force and rolling moment are established based on stress field theory of slip-line. And the isotropic hardening is used to improve the yield criterion. Based on MATLAB program language environment, calculation program is developed according to mathematical models established. The rolling force and rolling moment could be predicted quickly via the calculation program, and then the reliability of the models is validated by FEM. Within the range of module of spline m=0.5-1.5 mm, pressure angle of reference circle α=30.0°-45.0°, and number of spline teeth Z=19-54, the rolling force and rolling moment in rolling process (finishing rolling is excluded) are researched by means of virtualizing orthogonal experiment design. The results of the present study indicate that:the influences of module and number of spline teeth on the maximum rolling force and rolling moment in the process are remarkable;in the case of pressure angle of reference circle is little, module of spline is great, and number of spline teeth is little, the peak value of rolling force in rolling process may appear in the midst of the process;the peak value of rolling moment in rolling process appears in the midst of the process, and then oscillator weaken to a stable value. The results of the present study may provide guidelines for the determination of power of the motor and the design of hydraulic system of special machine, and provide basis for the farther researches on the precise forming process of external spline cold rolling.

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  3. Establishment of mathematical moment model in twin casting rolling rolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌煜; 苑世剑; 张洪; 杜艳平; 张芳萍

    2002-01-01

    In continuous casting rolling process, the deformed body is different from the hot rolling strip. The metal in casting rolling zone is first assumed to be viscous fluid and the mathematical model of casting rolling force is established, then the calculating formula for casting rolling torque is derived. In addition, considering the effects of deforming cone and appendant torque of rotary junctions sealing ring, the calculating model which accords with casting rolling condition is found out. Theoretical formula is proved by experiment.

  4. Effect of Rolling Route on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Twin-Roll Casting AZ31 Mg Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin-roll casting AZ31 Mg alloy sheets have been fabricated by normal unidirectional-rolling, head-to-tail rolling, and clock-rolling, respectively. It has been demonstrated that head-to-tail rolling is the most effective to refine the microstructure and weaken the basal texture among the three rolling routes. Excellent integrated tensile properties can be obtained by the head-to-tail rolling. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and plastic elongation are 196 MPa, 301 MPa, and 28.9%, respectively. The strength can benefit from the fine grains (average value of 4.0 μm of the AZ31 alloy processed by the head-to-tail rolling route, while the excellent plastic elongation is achieved owing to the weakened basal texture besides the fine grains. Results obtained here can be used as a basis for further study of some simple rolling methods, which is critical to the development of Mg alloys with high strength and plasticity.

  5. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Lattice Boltzmann simulation of behaviour of particles moving in blood vessels under the rolling massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Cai-Feng; Li, Hua-Bing

    2009-07-01

    The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques.

  6. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  7. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance...... limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...... and the applicability of different mathematical models, and it surveys the control methods that have been implemented and validated with full scale experiments. The paper also presents an outlook on what are believed to be potential areas of research within this topic....

  8. Sliding and Rolling: The Physics of a Rolling Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierrezuelo, J.; Carnero, C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an approach that provides a simple and adequate procedure for introducing the concept of rolling friction. Discusses some aspects related to rolling motion that are the source of students' misconceptions. Presents several didactic suggestions. (JRH)

  9. Stochastic disks that roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  10. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  11. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  12. Offensive Rolling in Sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Koepfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Soviet born martial art of sambo has become increasingly well known in martial art circles. This is largely due to the success of sambo fighters in various mixed martial art venues. Offered here is a brief description of sambo’s development as well as a delineation of one of sambo’s hallmark strategies: offensive rolling. Examples of proper forward rolling and three related offensive techniques are presented. This paper provides a brief introduction to sambo’s history and one of its key tactical philosophies.

  13. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  14. Research on work roll thermal crown in cold rolling mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Shen, Mingang; Chen, Xuebo; Wang, Junsheng

    2013-05-01

    The factors which have influence on the work roll thermal crown in cold strip rolling are discussed. The heat transferring in three directions (radial axis and circumference) were considered for calculating the work roll thermal deformation. Therefore, it is a three dimensions unstable system for the work roll temperature calculation. The plastic deformation work and friction heat are calculated by the divided element and digital integration method. The simplified calculation model is built for the heat transferring along work roll. There are four zones for work roll heat transferring: roll gap zone air cooling zone emulsion zone rolls contact zone. The heat transferring between the zones is decided by the temperature difference. The inter temperature field and thermal deformation of work roll can be calculated by two-dimension finite difference method. The work roll temperature and thermal crown of actual application cold rolling mill are analyzed by the model. By the comparison between calculated values and measured values, the work roll thermal calculation model can meet the accuracy requirement of on-line control.

  15. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Taraborrelli, Valeria Taraborrelli

    Margheritini and Valeria Taraborrelli(valeria.taraborrelli@hotmail.it) with a total of 3 day visit from the developers. Laboratory tests in irregular waves will be performed by Lucia Margheritini. The report is aimed at the first stage testing of the Rolling Cylinder wave energy device. This phase includes...

  16. Roll Eccentricity Control Using Identified Eccentricity of Top/Bottom Rolls by Roll Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Koshinuma, Kazuyoshi

    Roll eccentricity is a periodic disturbance caused by a structure of back up rolls in rolling mills, and it affects product thickness accuracy. It cannot be measured directly by sensors, so it should be identified by measured thickness or measured roll force. When there is a large difference of diameters between top and bottom back up roll, the performance of roll eccentricity control using feedback signals of roll force or thickness has not been so good. Also it has been difficult for the control to be applied from the most head end because it is necessary to identify the roll eccentricity during rolling. A new roll eccentricity control has been developed to improve these disadvantages and to get better performance. The method identifies top and bottom roll eccentricity respectively from one signal of roll force and it can start the control from head end. In this paper the new control method is introduced and actual application results to a hot strip mill are shown.

  17. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  18. Walk and roll robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  19. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  20. Roll of honour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-07-01

    This article gives details of the design and construction of dams selected by members of the dam construction industry for praise as feats of construction. The dams covered in the roll of honour include the dam at the Guri hydroelectric power station in Venezuela on the Caroni river, the Contra dam on the Verzrasca river in Switzerland, and the double curvature arc Ertan dam on the Yalong river in China. (UK)

  1. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accommodate a trial run of inert single base pellet feed for use in a twin screw extruder. 15. SUBJECT TERMS INIT248, Advanced Propellant Technology...Bldg. 4909-5 – Shear Roll Mill Pilot Plant at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) in order to produce pellet feed for a twin screw extruder used...propellant to simulate feed for a twin screw extruder. Preventive maintenance procedures were in progress in final preparation for running with

  2. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of Rolling Massage on Particle Moving Behaviour in Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Fan, Li-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2008-09-01

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here the effect of the rolling massage on the particle moving property in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the particle moving behaviour depends on the rolling velocity, the distance between particle position and rolling position. The average values, including particle translational velocity and angular velocity, increase as the rolling velocity increases almost linearly. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  3. Recalibrated Equations for Determining Effect of Oil Filtration on Rolling Bearing Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needelman, William M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, Needelman and Zaretsky presented a set of empirically derived equations for bearing fatigue life (adjustment) factors (LFs) as a function of oil filter ratings. These equations for life factors were incorporated into the reference book, "STLE Life Factors for Rolling Bearings." These equations were normalized (LF = 1) to a 10-micrometer filter rating at Beta(sub x) = 200 (normal cleanliness) as it was then defined. Over the past 20 years, these life factors based on oil filtration have been used in conjunction with ANSI/ABMA standards and bearing computer codes to predict rolling bearing life. Also, additional experimental studies have been made by other investigators into the relationship between rolling bearing life and the size, number, and type of particle contamination. During this time period filter ratings have also been revised and improved, and they now use particle counting calibrated to a new National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference material, NIST SRM 2806, 1997. This paper reviews the relevant bearing life studies and describes the new filter ratings. New filter ratings, Beta(sub x(c)) = 200 and Beta(sub x(c)) = 1000, are benchmarked to old filter ratings, Beta(sub x) = 200, and vice versa. Two separate sets of filter LF values were derived based on the new filter ratings for roller bearings and ball bearings, respectively. Filter LFs can be calculated for the new filter ratings.

  4. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  5. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  6. Grooved roll for a high speed twin roll caster

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; HIROOKA, K.; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of roll-surface on the strip-surface. Improvement ofsmall cracks on the strip-surface was tried and effect of groove at the roll surface on the strip surface was shown.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was high speed twin roll caster withgrooved roll. Two kinds of grooves were used: one was parallel groove and the other was cross groove machinedby knurling and bite attached to a lathe.Findings: Findings ...

  7. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  8. Roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maury, P.; Turkenburg, D.H.; Stroeks, N.; Giesen, P.; Barbu, I.; Meinders, E.R.; Bremen, A. van; Iosad, N.; Werf, R. van der; Onvlee, H.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography tool as a way to pattern flexible PET foil with µm-resolution. As a way to overcome dimensional instability of the foil and its effect on overlay, a self-align approach was investigated, that permits to make several layers in a single lithography step

  9. Rolling Mill Work Roll Stress Analysis and Strain Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. K. Jones

    1999-03-01

    This study of a rolling mill work roll failure consisted of (a) a review of related published materials, (b) measuring strain on the spindles with strain gages, (c) performing finite element analyses (FEA) modeling of the work roll thrust groove section (using the measured spindle loading), (d) fabricating and testing an physical model of the work roll, using the good end of a broken work roll, (e) recording motor voltage and current, and (f) processing, analyzing, and comparing the results. A methodical approach was taken to determine the causes of the failures. The actual loading to which the work rolls were subjected was determined, then these loads were used in a FEA of the thrust groove sections of three work roll designs: failed, current, and proposed. To verify the FEA results, a physical model was fabricated, built, and subjected to instrumented tests. The study offered the following recommendations: remove the undercut groove in the thrust groove section on future procurements; investigate possible methods of removing the transverse keyway; forego the larger drive train upgrades proposed by the mill manufacturer; continue frequent thrust groove inspections; require chemical and mechanical property certifications on all future procurements; and immediately scrap any work rolls that exhibit surface cracking.

  10. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  11. A new de-noising method for acoustic emission signal of rolling bearings with low speed based on morphological filtering in frequency domain%基于频域形态滤波的低速滚动轴承声发射信号降噪新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修文; 阳建宏; 黎敏; 徐金梧

    2013-01-01

    声发射检测技术以其灵敏度高、频响范围宽、信息量大等优点,为机械故障诊断提供了一条新的检测途径,但应用于旋转机械设备时,容易混入各种有色噪声.当噪声频率与声发射信号重叠时,传统的降噪方法难以满足要求.将形态滤波应用到信号频域,可以有效消除有色噪声的干扰.根据声发射频响特性,对频谱进行拟合平滑高斯白噪声的影响,最后重构到时域.仿真和实际低速轴承信号表明此方法具有较好的降噪效果,有利于信号后续的处理和分析.%Acoustic emission technique provides a new measuring approach for machinery fault diagnosis because of its characteristics of high sensitivity, wide frequency response range and containing much information. An acoustic emission signal often is mixed with a variety of color noise when applied to a rotating machinery. Traditional noise reduction methods can not meet the measuring requirements when the frequencies of noise and those of acoustic emission signals overlap. Here, morphological filtering was applied to eliminate color noise in frequency domain. According to the acoustic emission frequency response characteristic, a spectrum was fitted in order to smooth white Gaussian noise. Finally, a time domain waveform was reconstructed. The simulation results and the real signals of rolling bearings with low speed showed that the proposed methodology can achieve good effect of noise reduction, and is beneficial to the subsequent processing and analysis of signals.

  12. Rolling up a Graphene Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Quintana, Mildred; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Nanotubes, CNTs, have been described as rolled-up graphene layers. Matching this concept to experiments has been a great experimental challenge for it requires a method to exfoliate graphite, generate ordered and stable dangling carbon bonds, and roll up the layer without affecting the

  13. LEDs are on a roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, P.W.M.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes are more efficient than conventional lighting, but high production costs limit their uptake. Organic versions that can be produced using a cheap newspaper-style 'roll-to-roll' printing process are likely to revolutionize our lighting and signage, say Paul Blom and Ton van Mol.

  14. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van J.; Klugt, van der P.G.M.; Nauta Lemke, van H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has onl

  15. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  16. Roll and Bank Estimation Using GPS/INS and Suspension Deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell S. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method that provides an estimate of road bank by decoupling the vehicle roll due to the dynamics and the roll due to the road bank. Suspension deflection measurements were used to provide a measurement of the relative roll between the vehicle body frame and the axle frame or between the sprung mass and the unsprung mass, respectively. A deflection scaling parameter was found via suspension geometry and dynamic analysis. The relative roll measurement was then incorporated into two different kinematic navigation models based on extended Kalman filter (EKF architectures. Each algorithm was tested and then verified on the Prowler ATV experimental platform at the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT. Experimental data showed that both the cascaded and coupled approach performed well in providing estimates of the current vehicle roll and instantaneous road bank.

  17. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling....

  18. Ground roll attenuation using polarization analysis in the t-f-k domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    S waves travel slower than P waves and have a lower dominant frequency. Therefore, applying common techniques such as time-frequency filtering and f-k filtering to separate S waves from ground roll is difficult because ground roll is also characterized by slow velocity and low frequency. In this study, we present a method for attenuating ground roll using a polarization filtering method based on the t-f-k transform. We describe the particle motion of the waves by complex vector signals. Each pair of frequency components, whose frequencies have the same absolute value but different signs, of the complex signal indicate an elliptical or linear motion. The polarization parameters of the elliptical or linear motion are explicitly related to the two Fourier coefficients. We then extend these concepts to the t-f-k domain and propose a polarization filtering method for ground roll attenuation based on the t-f-k transform. The proposed approach can define automatically the time-varying reject zones on the f-k panel at different times as a function of the reciprocal ellipticity. Four attributes, time, frequency, apparent velocity and polarization are used to identify and extract the ground roll simultaneously. Thus, the ground roll and body waves can be separated as long as they are dissimilar in one of these attributes. We compare our method with commonly used filtering techniques by applying the methods to synthetic and real seismic data. The results indicate that our method can attenuate ground roll while preserving body waves more effectively than the other methods.

  19. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling-type tex......Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling...

  20. Avoiding the parametric roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Ancuţa, Cristian; Andrei, Cristian; Boştinǎ, Alina; Boştinǎ, Aurel

    2016-12-01

    Ships are mainly built to sail and transport cargo at sea. Environmental conditions and state of the sea are communicated to vessels through periodic weather forecasts. Despite officers being aware of the sea state, their sea time experience is a decisive factor when the vessel encounters severe environmental conditions. Another important factor is the loading condition of the vessel, which triggers different behaviour in similar marine environmental conditions. This paper aims to analyse the behaviour of a port container vessel in severe environmental conditions and to estimate the potential conditions of parametric roll resonance. Octopus software simulation is employed to simulate vessel motions under certain conditions of the sea, with possibility to analyse the behaviour of ships and the impact of high waves on ships due to specific wave encounter situations. The study should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.

  1. Design and responses of Butterworth and critically damped digital filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D Gordon E; Dowling, James J

    2003-12-01

    For many years the Butterworth lowpass filter has been used to smooth many kinds of biomechanical data, despite the fact that it is underdamped and therefore overshoots and/or undershoots data during rapid transitions. A comparison of the conventional Butterworth filter with a critically damped filter shows that the critically damped filter not only removes the undershooting and overshooting, but has a superior rise time during rapid transitions. While analog filters always create phase distortion, both the critically damped and Butterworth filters can be modified to become zero-lag filters when the data are processed in both the forward and reverse directions. In such cases little improvement is realized by applying multiple passes. The Butterworth filter has superior 'roll-off' (attenuation of noise above the cutoff frequency) than the critically damped filter, but by increasing the number of passes of the critically damped filter the same 'roll-off' can be achieved. In summary, the critically damped filter was shown to have superior performance in the time domain than the Butterworth filter, but for data that need to be double differentiated (e.g. displacement data) the Butterworth filter may still be the better choice.

  2. Applications of nonwoven filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    The multi-client technical and marketing report, Nonwovens in Filtration (1987) World Wide, has been completed by Filter Media Consulting, Inc. According to this 450-page report, $818 million in sales worldwide in nonwoven filter media represents a substantial segment of the entire nonwoven market. This total is mainly roll goods with a few exceptions. Meltblown composites represent $108 million, 13% of the total, and is the fastest growing segment as compared to needled felts, dry formed, thermobonded, spunbonded, wet laid and other unique processes, all extensively covered in this report. Included are 20 filtration applications covered in 190 pages, such as baghouse and dust filtration, Torit-type cartridge filters, HEPA/ULPA filtration, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Major markets are addressed, and trends in different fields are highlighted throughout the report.

  3. The effect of mold materials on the overlay accuracy of a roll-to-roll imprinting system using UV LED illumination within a transparent mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Kook, YunHo; Kim, ChulHo; Yoo, SoonSung; Park, Kwon-Shik; Kim, Seok-min; Kang, Shinill

    2016-06-01

    Although several studies on the roll-to-roll (R2R) imprinting process have reported achieving flexible electronics, improving the alignment accuracy in the overlay process of R2R imprinting is recognized as the biggest problem for the commercialization of this technology. For an overlay technique with high alignment accuracy, it is essential to develop a roll mold with high positional accuracy. In this study, a method for fabricating a roll mold with high positional accuracy is proposed by wrapping a thin glass substrate flexible mold around the transparent roll base, because it can provide higher mechanical strength and thermal stability than a conventional polymer substrate. To confirm the usability of the proposed process, the prepared roll mold was used to fabricate a test pattern of thin-film transistor backplane for a rollable display. The positional and overlay accuracy of the roll mold with the proposed thin glass substrate flexible mold were compared with the roll mold with a conventional polymer substrate flexible mold. Large-area transparent flexible molds with a size of 470  ×  370 mm were fabricated by an ultraviolet (UV) imprinting process on thin glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, and these flexible molds were wrapped around a roll base of 125 mm radius through a precision alignment process. After an anti-adhesion treatment and the wrapping process, the roll mold with the polymer substrate showed a ~180 μm positional error, whereas the thin glass substrate showed a ~30 μm positional error. After the overlay process using the R2R imprinting system with the alignment system, an average overlay error of ~3 μm was obtained when the thin glass flexible wrapped roll mold was used, whereas a ~22 μm overlay error was obtained when the polymer substrate flexible wrapped roll mold was used.

  4. MECHANICS ANALYSIS ON PRECISE FORMING PROCESS OF EXTERNAL SPLINE COLD ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dawei; LI Yongtang; FU Jianhua; ZHENG Quangang

    2007-01-01

    According to the suitable assumption, the deformation process of external spline cold rolling is analyzed. By the graphing method, the slip-line field of plastically deforming area in process of external spline cold rolling is set up. Different friction-conditions are used in different contact areas in order to realistically reflect the actual situation. The unit average pressure on contact surface of the rolling process is solved according to the stress filed theory of slip-line. And the formulae of the rolling-force and rolling-moment are established. The theoretical result is well consistent with the finite element analysis. A theoretical basis is provided for the precise forming process of spline cold rolling and the production of external splined shafts.

  5. Rolling of microalloyed magnesium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotirov, N.; Riemelmoser, F.O.; Kuhlein, M.; Kettner, M. [ARC Leichmetallkompetenzzentrum GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria); Uggowitzer, P.J. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Materials, Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology; Spencer, K. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a rolling process for a micro-alloyed zinc-manganese (Zn-Ca-Ag-Mn) magnesium alloy. The micro-alloyed magnesium alloy L1 was investigated in order to achieve a finer grain structure and to avoid normal grain growth during rolling. Rolling parameters included billet temperature; rolls temperature and rolls radius; rolling speed; and lubrication. Standard tensile tests were conducted with the rolled alloy L1 flat specimens at room temperature with a test length of 50 mm and a test width of 12.5 mm. Specimens heat treated at 100 degrees C and 200 degrees C showed good balance of strength and elongation. Elongation increased with increasing heat treatment times. Results of the tests demonstrated that the Zn-Ca-Ag-Mn alloy L1 showed exceptionally high elongations to fracture at room temperatures. A pronounced work hardening regime was also observed. It was concluded that the grain structure of the L1 alloy was not influenced after heat treatments until temperatures reached 350 degrees C for 20 minutes. Significant grain coarsening occurred after preliminary heat treatments of 400 degrees C. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  7. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  8. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  9. Aggregation and Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  10. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  11. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  12. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Bayesian Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pham, Dinh-Tuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates an approximation scheme of the optimal nonlinear Bayesian filter based on the Gaussian mixture representation of the state probability distribution function. The resulting filter is similar to the particle filter, but is different from it in that, the standard weight-type correction in the particle filter is complemented by the Kalman-type correction with the associated covariance matrices in the Gaussian mixture. We show that this filter is an algorithm in between the Kalman filter and the particle filter, and therefore is referred to as the particle Kalman filter (PKF). In the PKF, the solution of a nonlinear filtering problem is expressed as the weighted average of an "ensemble of Kalman filters" operating in parallel. Running an ensemble of Kalman filters is, however, computationally prohibitive for realistic atmospheric and oceanic data assimilation problems. For this reason, we consider the construction of the PKF through an "ensemble" of ensemble Kalman filters (EnKFs) instead, ...

  13. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  14. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  15. FORMATION OF SHAFT SPLINES USING ROLLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design of rolling heads used for cold rolling of straight-sided splines on shafts and presents theoretical principles of this process. These principles make it possible to calculate an effort which is required for pushing billet through rolling-on rolls with due account of metal hardening during deformation.

  16. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia;

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  17. FEM Analysis of Rolling Pressure Along Strip Width in Cold Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-hua; SHI Xu; LI Shan-qing; XU Jian-yong; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    Using 3-D elastic-plastic FEM, the cold strip rolling process in a 4-high mill was simulated. The elastic deformation of rolls, the plastic deformation of the strip, and the pressure between the work roll and the backup roll were taken into account. The distribution of rolling pressure along the strip width was obtained. Based on the simulation results, the peak value of rolling pressure and the location of the peak were analyzed under different rolling conditions. The effects of the roll bending force and the strip width on the distribution of rolling pressure along the width direction were determined.

  18. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact...

  19. Analysis of Roll Gap Pressure in Sendzimir Mill by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Chao; Park Hae-doo

    2008-01-01

    The acting force on the roll system of Sendzimir mill was analyzed using 3D FEM. The roll gap pressure distribution and the acting force between rolls S and O, rolls O and I, rolls O and J, rolls I and A, rolls I and B, as well as rolls J and B were analyzed. The results showed that the roll gap pressure mainly affected the roll surface layer, 50 mm for backup roll; the roll gap pressure distribution is of double peaks among the work roll, the 1st intermediate roll (IMR), and the 2nd IMR; the maximum value of the roll gap pressure between the backup roll and the second IMR appears on the edge of the barrel of rolls; the component force presents the in-para-curve distribution. These are important for reducing the wear of rolls and the break of the backup roll and guiding for production.

  20. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  1. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  2. Your Average Nigga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vershawn Ashanti

    2004-01-01

    "Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

  3. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  4. Effect of Rolling Parameters on Plate Curvature during Snake Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yao; XIE Shuisheng; XIONG Baiqing; HUANG Guojie; CHENG Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the plate curvature during snake rolling,FE model was constructed based on plane strain assumption.The accuracy of the FE model was verified by the comparison between the plate curvature conducted by FE model and experiment respectively.By using FE model,the effect of offset distance,speed ratio,reduction,roll radius and initial plate thickness on the plate curvature during snake rolling was investigated.The experimental results show that,a proper offsetting distance can efficiently decrease plate curvature,however an excessive offsetting distance will increase plate curvature.A larger speed ratio,reduction will cause a large plate curvature,however a larger roll radius has effect to reduce plate curvature.Plate which undergoes a larger reduction and plate with a larger initial thickness always need a larger offset distance to keep the plate the minimum plate curvature,but for a larger roll radius a smaller offset distance is needed.

  5. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  6. Dissipative descent: rocking and rolling down an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, N. J.; Bush, J. W. M.; Vener, D.; Young, W. R.

    We consider the dynamics of a hollow cylindrical shell that is filled with viscous fluid and another, nested solid cylinder, and allowed to roll down an inclined plane. A mathematical model is compared to simple experiments. Two types of behaviour are observed experimentally: on steeper slopes, the device accelerates; on shallower inclines, the cylinders rock and roll unsteadily downhill, with a speed that is constant on average. The theory also predicts runaway and unsteady rolling motions. For the rolling solutions, however, the inner cylinder cannot be suspended in the fluid by the motion of the outer cylinder, and instead falls inexorably toward the outer cylinder. Whilst only occurs after an infinite time, the system slows progressively as the gap between the cylinders narrows, owing to heightened viscous dissipation. Such a deceleration is not observed in the experiments, suggesting that some mechanism limits the approach to contact. Coating the surface of the inner cylinder with sandpaper of different grades changes the rolling speed, consistent with the notion that surface roughness is responsible for limiting the acceleration.

  7. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  8. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  9. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossander, Lea Hildebrandt; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2014-01-01

    The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording...... scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil...... as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find...

  10. Ambient roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible solar cells based on small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yuze; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2013-01-01

    All solution-processed roll-to-roll flexible solar cells based on a starshaped small molecule donor and PCBMacceptor were fabricated by slot-die coating, as the first successful example reported for small molecule roll-to-roll flexible solar cells.......All solution-processed roll-to-roll flexible solar cells based on a starshaped small molecule donor and PCBMacceptor were fabricated by slot-die coating, as the first successful example reported for small molecule roll-to-roll flexible solar cells....

  11. Multilayer Steel Materials Deformation Resistance and Roll Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kolesnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To create new types of cars, raise their reliability, gain operational life, and decrease in metal consumption of products it is necessary to improve mechanical, physical, and also special properties of the constructional materials applied in mechanical engineering. Presently, there are intensive researches and developments under way to create materials with ultrafine-grained structure (the sizes of grains in their crystal lattice make less than 1 micron in one of the measurements.BMSTU developed a manufacturing technology of multilayer steel sheets with steady ultrafine-grained structure based on the multiple hot rolling of billet as a composition consisting of the alternating metal sheets. A principled condition for implementation of such technology is existence of different crystallographic modifications in the adjoining sheets of the composition at specified temperature of rolling.Power parameters of rolling are important technical characteristics of the process. Usually, to determine a deformation resistance value when rolling the diverse multilayer materials, is used the actual resistance value averaging in relation to the components of the composition. The aim of this work is a comparative analysis of known calculated dependences with experimental data when rolling the 100-layer samples. Objects of research were the 100-layer compositions based on the alternating layers of steel 08H18N10 and U8.Experimental samples represented the vacuumized capsules with height, width, and length of 53 mm x 53 mm x 200 mm, respectively, in which there were the 100-layer packs from sheets, each of 0.5 mm, based on the composition of steels (U8+08H18N10. Rolling was made on the double-high mill with rolls of 160 mm in diameter during 19 passes to the thickness of 7 mm with the speed of 0,1 m/s. Relative sinking in each pass was accepted to be equal 10±2,5%. Rolling forces were measured by the strain-gauging method using the measuring cells, located under

  12. Human Ocular Counter-Rolling and Roll Tilt Perception during Off-Vertical Axis Rotation after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Denise, Pierre; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) induced by whole body tilt in roll has been explored after spaceflight as an indicator of the adaptation of the otolith function to microgravity. It has been claimed that the overall pattern of OCR responses during static body tilt after spaceflight is indicative of a decreased role of the otolith function, but the results of these studies have not been consistent, mostly due to large variations in the OCR within and across individuals. By contrast with static head tilt, off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) presents the advantage of generating a sinusoidal modulation of OCR, allowing averaged measurements over several cycles, thus improving measurement accuracy. Accordingly, OCR and the sense of roll tilt were evaluated in seven astronauts before and after spaceflight during OVAR at 45 /s in darkness at two angles of tilt (10 and 20 ). There was no significant difference in OCR during OVAR immediately after landing compared to preflight. However, the amplitude of the perceived roll tilt during OVAR was significantly larger immediately postflight, and then returned to control values in the following days. Since the OCR response is predominantly attributed to the shearing force exerted on the utricular macula, the absence of change in OCR postflight suggests that the peripheral otolith organs function normally after short-term spaceflight. However, the increased sense of roll tilt indicates an adaptation in the central processing of gravitational input, presumably related to a re-weigthing of the internal representation of gravitational vertical as a result of adaptation to microgravity.

  13. Modeling and identification of HAGC system of temper rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shang-hong; ZHONG Jue

    2005-01-01

    Including servo valve, hydraulic cylinder, mill and sensor and ignoring nonlinear factors, the linear dynamic model of hydraulic automatic gage control(HAGC) system of a temper rolling mill was theoretically derived. The order of the model is 4/4, and can be reduced to 2/2. Based on modulating functions method, utilizing numerical integration, we constructed the equivalent identification model of HAGC, and the least square estimation algorithm was established. The input and output data were acquired on line at temper rolling mill in Shangshai Baosteel Group Corporation, and the continuous time model of HAGC system was estimated with the proposed method. At different modulating window intervals, the estimated parameters changed remarkably. When the frequency bandwidth of modulating filter matches that of estimated system, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Finally, the dynamic model of the HAGC was obtained and validated based on the spectral analysis result.

  14. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  15. Lubrication in strip cold rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlin Sun; Yonglin Kang; Tianguo Xiao; Jianze Wang

    2004-01-01

    A lubrication model was developed for explaining how to form an oil film in the deformation zone, predicting the film thickness and determining the characteristics of lubrication in the strip rolling process, combined with the knowledge of hydrodythicknesses in the strip cold rolling. Results from the experiment and calculation show that the oil film forming in hydrodynamic lubrication is up to the bit angle and a higher rolling speed or a higher rolling oil viscosity. The mechanism of mechanical entrainment always affects the film thickness that increases with the rolling oil viscosity increasing or the reduction rate decreasing in rolling.

  16. Overlay welding for corrugating roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of chemical compositions and microstructures on wearability properties of overlaid corrugating roll were studied, and the factors governing the hardness and the wearability of overlaid layer were explored.The results show that the hardness and wearability of the overlaid layer significantly rise with the increase of the mass fraction of various types of eutectic, but the crack-resistance falls. The chief factor governing the hardness of overlaid layer is the matrix microstructure, especially the amount of austenite; and the second is the amount of carbide. The principal factor governing the wearability of overlaid layer is the amount of special carbide, particularly the amount of eutectic; and the second is the hardness of overlaid layer. Meanwhile, high alloying electrodes may cause the gear-surface hardness of corrugating roll to be higher than 63HRc, and may enhance the wearability of the gear-surface of corrugating roll by a factor of 5.63 and 9.08.

  17. Real-time estimation of projectile roll angle using magnetometers: in-lab experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changey, S.; Pecheur, E.; Wey, P.; Sommer, E.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the roll angle of a projectile is decisive to apply guidance and control law. For example, the goal of ISL's project GSP (Guided Supersonic Projectile) is to change the flight path of an airdefence projectile in order to correct the aim error due to the target manoeuvres. The originality of the concept is based on pyrotechnical actuators and onboard sensors which control the angular motion of the projectile. First of all, the control of the actuators requires the precise control of the roll angle of the projectile. To estimate the roll angle of the projectile, two magnetometers are embedded in the projectile to measure the projection of the Earth magnetic field along radial axes of the projectiles. Then, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to compute the roll angle estimation. As the rolling frequency of the GSP is about 22 Hz, it was easy to test the navigation algorithm in laboratory. In a previous paper [1], the In-Lab demonstration of this concept showed that the roll angle estimation was possible with an accuracy of about 1◦ . In this paper, the demonstration is extended to high-speed roll rate, up to 1000 Hz. Thus, two magnetometers, a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and a LED (Light Eminent Diode), are rotated using a pneumatic motor; the DSP runs an EKF and a guidance algorithm to compute the trigger times of the LED. By using a high-speed camera, the accuracy of the method can be observed and improved.

  18. Improvement of rolling 6 mm thin plates in plate rolling mill PT. Krakatau Posco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiyanto, Hamdani

    2017-01-01

    A 6-mm thin plate is difficult to produce especially if the product requires wide size and high strength. Flatness is the main quality issue in rolling 6-mm plate using a 4-high reversing mill which use ±1100-mm work roll. Thus some methods are applied to overcome such issue in order to comply to customer quality requirement. Pre-rolling, rolling, and post-rolling conditions have to be considered comprehensively. Roll unit management will be the key factor before rolling condition. The roll unit itself has a significant impact on work roll crown wearness in relation with work roll intial crown and thermal crown. Work roll crown along with the modification of hydraulic gap control (HGC) could directly alter the flatness of the plate.

  19. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  20. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  1. The effect of roll with passive segment on the planetary rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ling Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In three-roll planetary rolling process, there is secondary torsion phenomenon that may lead to rolling instability. This article proposed a new idea to alleviate the secondary torsion phenomenon by dividing the secondary torsion segment out of the roll as an independent and passive one. To study the performance of the roll with passive segment, the three-dimensional finite element models of planetary rolling process using actual roll or new roll with passive segment involving elastic–plastic and thermal–mechanical coupling were established by the software ABAQUS/Explicit, and a series of analysis had been done successfully. The rolling temperature and rolling force of planetary mill were in good agreement with the measured results, which indicated that the finite element method would supply important reference merit for three-dimensional thermo-mechanical simulation of the three-roll planetary rolling process. Comparing the simulation results of the two models, the results indicated that the change in the roll structure had just a little influence on the metal deformation, temperature, and rolling force, but it lessened the secondary torsion deformation effectively and improved the outside roundness of the rolled tube slightly. The research provided a new idea for the roll design of three-roll planetary mill (PSW.

  2. Dynamic Correction Algorithm of Rolling Force in Plate Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Hong-lei; WANG Jun; HU Xian-lei; WANG Zhao-dong; WANG Guo-dong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Shougang plat mill project, an on-line dynamic correction algorithm was analyzed. This algorithm can adjust model coefficients better because the reasonable correction is based on the measured and calculated rolling force. The results of application on site show that this on-line dynamic correction algorithm is effective.

  3. Mechanical properties and structure of friction stir welds of rolled Zr-modified AA5083 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malopheyev, S.; Mironov, S.; Kaibyshev, R.

    2016-11-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welds of Zr-modified AA5083 aluminum sheets were studied. The sheets were produced by cold or hot rolling with a total reduction of 80%. In both rolled conditions, the average high angle boundary spacing was 17-18 µm. The density of free dislocations was ˜5.6 × 1013 and ˜3.5 × 1014 m-2 in hot rolled and cold rolled conditions, respectively. The volume fraction of incoherent Al6Mn dispersoids with an average diameter of ˜25 nm was measured to be ˜0.076%. Defect-free welds were produced by double-side friction stir welding (FSW). Friction stir welding led to the formation of fully recrystallized microstructures with the average grain size about 2.5 µm and low dislocation density in the stir zone in both conditions. The average size and volume fraction of Al6Mn particles increased to ˜25 nm and ˜0.1%, respectively. The joint efficiency of the friction stir welds for ultimate tensile strength was found to be 74 and 94% in the cold-rolled and hot-rolled preprocessed material conditions. The relatively low weld strength was attributed to the elimination of dislocation substructure strengthening during FSW.

  4. Single Phase Natural Circulation Behaviors of the Integral Type Marine Reactor Simulator under Rolling Motion Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-jun Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During operation in the sea the reactor natural circulation behaviors are affected by ship rolling motion. The development of an analysis code and the natural circulation behaviors of a reactor simulator under rolling motion are described in this paper. In the case of rolling motion, the primary coolant flow rates in the hot legs and heating channels oscillated periodically, and the amplitude of flow rate oscillation was in direct proportion to rolling amplitude, but in inverse proportion to rolling period. The total mass flow rate also oscillated with half the rolling period, and the average total mass flow rate was less than that in steady state. In the natural circulation under a rolling motion, the flow rate oscillations in the hot legs were controlled by the tangential force; however, the mass flow rate oscillations in the total natural circulation and the heating channels were a result of the combined action of the change of inclination angle, flow resistance, and the extra force arising from the rolling motion. The extra tangential force brought about intense flow rate oscillations in the hot legs, which resulted in increasing total flow resistance; however the extra centrifugal force played a role in increasing thermal driving head.

  5. High performance rolling element bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

  6. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1bis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    Cylinder Phase 1: proof of concept and first optimization”, DCE report 115, ISSN 1901-726X, and it is recommended that the two are consulted together as they were firstly agreed to be in one document. The present report aims at estimate the efficiency of the Rolling Cylinder long model (previously...

  7. FPGA Implementations of Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a special type of IIR filter banks; that is the bireciprocal lattice wave digital filter (BLWDF bank, is presented to simulate scaling and wavelet functions of six-level wavelet transform. 1st order all-pass sections are utilized for the realization of such filter banks in wave lattice structures. The resulting structures are a bireciprocal lattice wave discrete wavelet filter banks (BLW-DWFBs. Implementation of these BLW-DWFBs are accomplished on Spartan-3E FPGA kit. Implementation complexity and operating frequency characteristics of such discrete wavelet 5th order filter bank is proved to be comparable to the corresponding characteristics of the lifting scheme implementation of Bio. 5/3 wavelet filter bank. On the other hand, such IIR filter banks possess superior band discriminations and perfect roll-off frequency characteristics when compared to their Bio. 5/3 wavelet FIR counterparts.

  8. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  9. Notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

  10. Rolling and Forming of Thorium Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabra, A. E.

    1961-05-02

    One vacuum induction melted and cast nuclear grade thorium ingot was satisfactorily rolled and formed into a hemispherical shape. Attempts to roll and form two vacuum induction melted and cast alloy grade thorium ingots were not successful. Rolling and forming procedures are described and metallurgical evaluation is reported.

  11. Influence of Roll Elastic Deformation on Gaugemeter Equation for Plate Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; WANG Jun; WANG Zhao-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    The error of gaugemeter equation decreases the gap setting precision. The precision of gaugemeter equation is strongly influenced by plate width, work roll radius, backup roll radius, work roll crown, backup roll crown and rolling force. And these influences are hard to measure. All these factors are converted to roll deflection deformation and roll flattening deformation for calculation. In order to calculate the deformation, the theory of influence function method was adopted. By using simulation program, the influence of these factors on deformation was obtained. Then a simple model can be built. With this model, it is convenient to analyze the influence of different factors on gaugemeter equation.

  12. A new transducer for roll gap measurements of the roll pressure distribution and the friction condition in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, Jonas; Wanheim, Tarras; Presz, W.

    2005-01-01

    . Conclusions The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and a good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded signals and signals simulated....... Keywords Friction stress, normal pressure distribution, roll bite measurements, cold flat rolling of metals......Background/purpose The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, this to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. Method The new...

  13. Prediction of Rolling Force Using AN Adaptive Neural Network Model during Cold Rolling of Thin Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H. B.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Tieu, A. K.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, G. D.

    Customers for cold rolled strip products expect the good flatness and surface finish, consistent metallurgical properties and accurate strip thickness. These requirements demand accurate prediction model for rolling parameters. This paper presents a set-up optimization system developed to predict the rolling force during cold strip rolling. As the rolling force has the very nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, conventional methods with simple mathematical models and a coarse learning scheme are not sufficient to achieve a good prediction for rolling force. In this work, all the factors that influence the rolling force are analyzed. A hybrid mathematical roll force model and an adaptive neural network have been improved by adjusting the adaptive learning algorithm. A good agreement between the calculated results and measured values verifies that the approach is applicable in the prediction of rolling force during cold rolling of thin strips, and the developed model is efficient and stable.

  14. Influence of Edge Rolling Reduction on Plate-Edge Stress Distribution During Finish Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; CHEN Li-qing; LI Chang-sheng; ZHI Ying; LI Xin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Dimensions of one kind of stainless steel plate before finish rolling were obtained through analysis of the rough rolling processes by finite element method and updated geometrical method.The FE models of finish rolling process with a front edge roll were built,and influences of the edge rolling reduction on-the stress change in the plate edge during finish roiling were analyzed.The results show that when the edge rolling reduction is increased from 0 mm to 2 ram,the compressive stress in plate corner clearly increases in edge rolling process,and the zone of tensile stress during whole rolling decreases;when the edge rolling reduction is increased from 2 mm to 5 mm,the compressive stress in the plate corner seldom changes,and the compressive stress decreases after the horizontal rolling.

  15. Finite Element Analysis for Effect of Roll Radius on Metal Deformation of Hot Rolling Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO De-xing; CHEN Qi-an; LIU Li-wen

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of rolling piece in hot rolling by flat roll with different radii is analyzed with three-dimensional large deformation thermo-mechanical coupling finite element method. The distribution laws of stress, strain and strain energy density in deformation zone with rolls of different radii were studied. The result indicated that under the same condition, the larger the roll radius is, the more vigorous the deformation in deformation zone is.

  16. A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Nazrin; Mohamed, Khairudin; Pin, Lee Tze; Guan, Ooi Su

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments. 81.16.Nd.

  17. Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roar Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the performance in terms of power conversion efficiency and operational stability for polymer and organic solar cells is rapidly approaching the key 10–10 targets (10 % efficiency and 10 years of stability the quest for efficient, scalable, and rational processing methods has begun. The 10–10 targets are being approached through consistent laboratory research efforts, which coupled with early commercial efforts have resulted in a fast moving research field and the dawning of a new industry. We review the roll-to-roll processing techniques required to bring the magnificent 10–10 targets into reality, using quick methods with low environmental impact and low cost. We also highlight some new targets related to processing speed, materials, and environmental impact.

  18. A rolling 3-UPU parallel mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhihuai; Yao, Yan'an; Kong, Xianwen

    2013-12-01

    A novel rolling mechanism is proposed based on a 3-UPU parallel mechanism in this paper. The rolling mechanism is composed of two platforms connected by three UPU (universal-prismatic-universal) serial-chain type limbs. The degree-of-freedom of the mechanism is analyzed using screw theory. Gait analysis and stability analysis are presented in detail. Four rolling modes of the mechanism are discussed and simulated. The feasibility of the rolling mechanism is verified by means of a physical prototype. Finally, its terrain adaptability is enhanced through planning the rolling gaits.

  19. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling(CWR)machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process. Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process. Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces. Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR. Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented. There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate. The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates. The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively. Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process. These make the machine retain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine. Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  20. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YuQuan; LI ZhiGang; WANG MingHui; GUAN XiaoFang

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling (CWR) machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process.Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process.Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces.Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR.Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented.There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate.The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates.The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively.Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process.These make the machine re-tain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine.Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  1. Improving Thin Strip Profile Using Work Roll Cross and Work Roll Shifting Methods in Cold Strip Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tibar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of rolling parameters in order to achieve better strip shape and to reduce rolling force is a challenge in rolling practice. In this paper, thin strip asymmetrical rolling of aluminum at various speed ratios under lubricated condition has been investigated at various combinations of work rolls cross (WRC angles and work rolls shifting (WRS values. The effects of strip width, reduction, and rolling speed on strip shape taking WRC and WRS into consideration are discussed. Results show that strip profile improves significantly when the WRC angle is increased from 0° to 1°, with an associated reduction in rolling force. Increasing WRS value from 0 to 8 mm improves the strip profile as well but not as significantly as when WRC angle is increased. No significant improvement was found in strip shape when the strip width was increased. At higher reduction, the strip shape was improved; a decrease in the rolling force was also observed. A higher speed ratio was found to be effective only at a higher WRC angle. The effect of lubrication on the strip profile was significant. Results indicate that an optimum combination of WRC, WRS, reduction, width, and speed ratio under lubricated conditions can ensure an improved exit strip profile, reduce rolling force, and obtain a better quality strip.

  2. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  3. Influence of Hot Rolling Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2008-01-01

    Influence of hot rolling conditions on the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel was investigated.Thermomechanical control processing(TMCP)was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill,in which three different kinds of finish rolling temperatures were applied.The results show that polygonal ferrite,granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained anstenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes.The finer ferrite grain size is produced through the deformation induced transformation during deformation rather than after deformation,which affects the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel.Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finish rolling temperature due to the stabilization of retained austenite.Ultimate tensile strength(UTS),total elongation(TEL)and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation(UTS×TEL)reaches optimal values(791 MPa,36% and 28 476 MPa%,respectively)whenthe specimen was hot rolled for 50% reduction at finish rolling temperature of 700℃.

  4. Rolling contact fatigue of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Hadfield, Mark

    1993-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/steel contacts under lubricated rolling conditions are studied. This work is of interest to ball bearing manufacturers as the use of ceramics in the design of these components has some advantages over traditional bearing-steel materials. Low density and increased stiffness are the mechanical properties which gas-turbine and machine tool manufacturers are most likel...

  5. Nanogrid rolling circle DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, George M.; Porreca, Gregory J.; Shendure, Jay; Rosenbaum, Abraham Meir

    2017-04-18

    The present invention relates to methods for sequencing a polynucleotide immobilized on an array having a plurality of specific regions each having a defined diameter size, including synthesizing a concatemer of a polynucleotide by rolling circle amplification, wherein the concatemer has a cross-sectional diameter greater than the diameter of a specific region, immobilizing the concatemer to the specific region to make an immobilized concatemer, and sequencing the immobilized concatemer.

  6. ROLLING MILL SYSTEM DYNAMIC DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is studied how the aluminum foil chatter mark is produced and controlledThe stableness of hydraulic AGC system,fluid vibration of capsule system,and electromechanical coupling of AC/AC VVVF system and dec oupling are also studiedIt is shown that rolling mill design should go to syst em dynamic design from traditional designThe framed drawing of system dynamic design program is presented

  7. Compression of head-related transfer function using autoregressive-moving-average models and Legendre polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarchi, Sayedali; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    -moving-average (ARMA) filters whose coefficients are calculated using Prony's method. Such filters are specified by a few coefficients which can generate the full head-related impulse responses (HRIRs). Next, Legendre polynomials (LPs) are used to compress the ARMA filter coefficients. LPs are derived on the sphere...

  8. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  9. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  10. Roll Gap Crown Adjustment Characteristics of 1700 mm Cold Rolling Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-bin

    2014-01-01

    The 4-hi cold mill is one of the key wide strip tandem cold rolling mills and has many advantages and characteristics. The mill type is the most important, fundamental and long-term effective factor for the strip shape control. Many advanced mill types such as CVC-4, HCW and PC-4, etc are created based on the conventional four-roll mill. The factors of mill type which affect the deformation of roll system, such as strip width, rolling force, bending force, work roll diameter, backup diameter and so on, are studied how to affect roll gap crown. It provides a good foundation for improving the shape performance of mill.

  11. Effect of annealing cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical property of 100Cr6 steel ring manufactured by cold ring rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文婷; 吴敏

    2014-01-01

    Pre-heat treatment is a vital step before cold ring rolling and it has significant effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of rolled rings. The 100Cr6 steel rings were subjected to pre-heat treatment and subsequent cold rolling process. Scanning electron microscopy and tensile tests were applied to investigate microstructure characteristic and mechanical property variations of 100Cr6 steel rings undergoing different pre-heat treatings. The results indicate that the average diameter of carbide particles, the tensile strength and hardness increase, while the elongation decreases with the decrease of cooling rate. The cooling rate has minor effect on the yield strength of sample. After cold ring rolling, the ferrite matrix shows a clear direction along the rolling direction. The distribution of cementite is more homogeneous and the cementite particles are finer. Meanwhile, the hardness of the rolled ring is higher than that before rolling.

  12. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  13. Rolling element bearing diagnostics—A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Robert B.; Antoni, Jérôme

    2011-02-01

    This tutorial is intended to guide the reader in the diagnostic analysis of acceleration signals from rolling element bearings, in particular in the presence of strong masking signals from other machine components such as gears. Rather than being a review of all the current literature on bearing diagnostics, its purpose is to explain the background for a very powerful procedure which is successful in the majority of cases. The latter contention is illustrated by the application to a number of very different case histories, from very low speed to very high speed machines. The specific characteristics of rolling element bearing signals are explained in great detail, in particular the fact that they are not periodic, but stochastic, a fact which allows them to be separated from deterministic signals such as from gears. They can be modelled as cyclostationary for some purposes, but are in fact not strictly cyclostationary (at least for localised defects) so the term pseudo-cyclostationary has been coined. An appendix on cyclostationarity is included. A number of techniques are described for the separation, of which the discrete/random separation (DRS) method is usually most efficient. This sometimes requires the effects of small speed fluctuations to be removed in advance, which can be achieved by order tracking, and so this topic is also amplified in an appendix. Signals from localised faults in bearings are impulsive, at least at the source, so techniques are described to identify the frequency bands in which this impulsivity is most marked, using spectral kurtosis. For very high speed bearings, the impulse responses elicited by the sharp impacts in the bearings may have a comparable length to their separation, and the minimum entropy deconvolution technique may be found useful to remove the smearing effects of the (unknown) transmission path. The final diagnosis is based on "envelope analysis" of the optimally filtered signal, but despite the fact that this

  14. Novel Object-Based Filter for Improving Land-Cover Classification of Aerial Imagery with Very High Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification using very high spatial resolution (VHSR imaging plays a very important role in remote sensing applications. However, image noise usually reduces the classification accuracy of VHSR images. Image spatial filters have been recently adopted to improve VHSR image land cover classification. In this study, a new object-based image filter using topology and feature constraints is proposed, where an object is considered as a central object and has irregular shapes and various numbers of neighbors depending on the nature of the surroundings. First, multi-scale segmentation is used to generate a homogeneous image object and extract the corresponding vectors. Then, topology and feature constraints are proposed to select the adjacent objects, which present similar materials to the central object. Third, the feature of the central object is smoothed by the average of the selected objects’ feature. This proposed approach is validated on three VHSR images, ranging from a fixed-wing aerial image to UAV images. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to a standard object-based approach (OO, object correlative index (OCI spatial feature based method, a recursive filter (RF, and a rolling guided filter (RGF, and has shown a 6%–18% improvement in overall accuracy.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Vertical Motion Control of Rolls for Variable Gauge Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Jian TAN

    2015-01-01

    The vertical motion control of the roll was studied in order to improve the accuracy in simulation of variable gauge rolling. The discretization was carried out in the transition zone of TRB according to the principle of volume invariance. Based on this assumption, the formula for time step of vertical motion of rolls was proposed and the time-displacement curve of the verti-cal motion of rolls was established. In the preliminary simulation, the time-displacement curve was used as an initial method to control the vertical motion of rolls. Based on the simulation result, the formula for vertical velocity of roll in variable gauge rolling was derived from the common rolling principle. According to the formula, reasonable vertical velocity of rolls in the subsequent simulation was determined. It can accurately control the motion of rolls along the vertical direction. The desired thickness and out-line proifle of transition zone were acquired and the formula proved effective by the simulation. Further analysis shows that the di fference of thickness in the thick zone and the thin zone of TRB, length of the transition zone of TRB, radius of work rolls and rota-tion speed of rolls have a signiifcant effect on the vertical velocity of rolls.

  16. How rolling forecasting facilitates dynamic, agile planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra; Allen, Michael; Schnittger, Stephanie; Hackman, Theresa

    2013-11-01

    Rolling forecasting may be used to replace or supplement the annual budget process. The rolling forecast typically builds on the organization's strategic financial plan, focusing on the first three years of plan projections and comparing the strategic financial plan assumptions with the organization's expected trajectory. Leaders can then identify and respond to gaps between the rolling forecast and the strategic financial plan on an ongoing basis.

  17. Wiener Filter Estimation of Transfer Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The use of a Wiener filter estimate for the linear transfer function can significantly improve the description of behavioral dynamics. This report presents a two-pass, Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that is well suited to repeated-trials local average measurements. The Wiener filter transfer functions strongly suppress noise artifacts as well as…

  18. Numerical Simulation of Temperature Field and Thermal Stress Field of Work Roll During Hot Strip Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-sheng; YU Hai-liang; DENG Guan-yu; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the thermal conduction equations, the three-dimensional (3D) temperature field of a work roll was investigated using finite element method (FEM). The variations in the surface temperature of the work roll during hot strip rolling were described, and the thermal stress field of the work roll was also analyzed. The results showed that the highest roll surface temperature is 593 ℃, and the difference between the minimum and maximum values of thermal stress of the work roll surface is 145.7 MPa. Furthermore, the results of this analysis indicate that temperature and thermal stress are useful parameters for the investigation of roll thermal fatigue and also for improving the quality of strip during rolling.

  19. New Method for Evaluating Thermal Wear of Rolls in Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-sheng; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2008-01-01

    A new method was developed by a thermal wear machine to evaluate the thermal wear of rolls in steel rolling process.The steel strip and rolls were simulated by upper and lower heating disks.The upper heating disk could be kept at a temperature of over 900℃ by induction heating.The pressure between the disks as high as 323.2 MPa could be achieved and the slipping rate could be 12.7%.The thermal wear of high speed steel(HSS)roll material,the wear rate of the HSS roll,and the SEM morphology of a worn HSS roll surface were investigated.This method was useful and could be employed to simulate friction and wear between strip and roll during the strip rolling process.

  20. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  1. Exploiting nonlinearities of micro-machined resonators for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-21

    We demonstrate the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of two electrically coupled microbeam resonators to realize a band-pass filter. More specifically, we combine their nonlinear hardening and softening responses to realize a near flat pass band filter with sharp roll-off characteristics. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and electrostatically actuated microbeams made of silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce a softening frequency response. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the second resonator response of hardening behavior. This overlapping improves the pass band flatness. Also, the sudden jumps due to the softening and hardening behaviors create sharp roll-off characteristics. This approach can be promising for the future generation of filters with superior characteristics.

  2. Fluid management in roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Bonnecaze, R. T.

    2013-06-01

    The key process parameters of UV roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography are identified from an analysis of the fluid, curing, and peeling dynamics. The process includes merging of droplets of imprint material, curing of the imprint material from a viscous liquid to elastic solid resist, and pattern replication and detachment of the resist from template. The time and distances on the web or rigid substrate over which these processes occur are determined as function of the physical properties of the uncured liquid, the cured solid, and the roller configuration. The upper convected Maxwell equation is used to model the viscoelastic liquid and to calculate the force on the substrate and the torque on the roller. The available exposure time is found to be the rate limiting parameter and it is O(√Rho /uo), where R is the radius of the roller, ho is minimum gap between the roller and web, and uo is the velocity of the web. The residual layer thickness of the resist should be larger than the gap between the roller and the substrate to ensure complete feature filling and optimal pattern replication. For lower residual layer thickness, the droplets may not merge to form a continuous film for pattern transfer.

  3. A Framework for Rolling Stock Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    by network buffer times. However, if the problems are more severe, changes must be made to the rolling stock schedule. In this talk we will discuss the Rolling Stock Rescheduling problem and Disruption Management. We will present our current work and planned future work on a framework for solving the Rolling......Rolling Stock schedules are typically made months or weeks prior to the date of execution. It is, however, rare that everything goes exactly as planned due to internal and external factors on the day of operation. If the magnitude of the disturbances is small then the problems may be absorbed...... Stock in a disruption context....

  4. Interactions between stably rolling leukocytes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael R.; Ruscio, Aimee D.; Kim, Michael B.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.

    2005-03-01

    We have characterized the two-dimensional spatial dependence of the hydrodynamic interactions between two adhesively rolling leukocytes in a live venule in the mouse cremaster muscle. Two rolling leukocytes were observed to slow each other down when rolling together in close proximity due to mutual sheltering from the external blood flow in the vessel lumen. A previous study of leukocyte rolling interactions using carbohydrate-coated beads in a parallel-plate flow chamber and a detailed computer model of adhesion in a multicellular environment is in qualitative agreement with the current in vivo results.

  5. Image Mosaicing Algorithm for Rolled Fingerprint Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺迪; 荣钢; 周杰

    2002-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric authentication methods. However, current devices for recording digital fingerprints can only capture plain-touch fingerprints. Rolled fingerprints have much more information for recognition, so a method is needed to construct a rolled fingerprint from a series of plain-touch fingerprints. This paper presents a novel algorithm for image mosaicing for real time rolled fingerprint construction in which the images are assembled with corrections to create a smooth, non-fragmented rolled fingerprint in real time. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness by comparing it with other conventional algorithms.

  6. Role of Friction in Cold Ring Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He YANG; Lianggang GUO; Mei ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    Cold ring rolling is an advanced but complex metal forming process under coupled effects with multi-factors, such as geometry sizes of rolls and ring blank, material, forming process parameters and friction, etc. Among these factors,friction between rolls and ring blank plays animportant role in keeping the stable forming of cold ring rolling. An analytical method was firstly presented for proximately determining the critical friction coefficient of stable forming and then a method was proposed to determine thecritical friction coefficient by combining analytical method with numerical simulation. And the influence of friction coefficient on the quality of end-plane and side spread of ring,rolling force, rolling moment and metal flow characteristic in the cold ring rolling process have been explored using the three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation based on the elastic-plastic dynamic finite element method (FEM)under the ABAQUS software environment, and the results show that increasing the friction on the contact surfaces between rolls and ring blank is useful not only for improving the stability of cold ring rolling but also for improving the geometry and dimension precision of deformed ring.

  7. 21 CFR 136.110 - Bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bread, rolls, and buns. 136.110 Section 136.110... Bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Bread, white bread, and rolls, white rolls, or buns, and white buns are the... be additional optional ingredients in the bread, rolls, or buns. All ingredients in any flour...

  8. Designs rolle i brugerdreven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    spiller i forskellige former for brugerdreven innovation.   Horst Rittel definerer et wicked problem som en rodet problemstilling, hvor man ikke umiddelbart kan systematisere sig ud af kompleksitet, men må træffe valg, der er afgørende for såvel løsning som den måde, et problem forstås på. Med...... udgangspunkt i denne definitionen og Buchanans teoretiske positioner omkring wicked problems og designtænkning bringes disse begreber i anvendelse for at bidrage til en generisk forståelse for den rolle, design spiller i brugerdrevne innovationsprocesser.   De praktiske aspekter af brugerinddragelsen...

  9. Identification of Material Properties Based on Rolling Process at 4-Stand Laboratory Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeliga, D.; Graf, M.; Kawalla, R.; Pietrzyk, M.

    2011-05-01

    The general objective of the work is to estimate the properties of the material in hot strip rolling process. The authors propose a modified inverse algorithm; to make direct use of the manufacturing process instead of conventional plastometric tests. This approach allows to reduce time and costs of identification. The rolling at 4-stand pilot mill at the Institute of Metal Forming, TU Bergakademie, Freiberg was selected. The material was C45 steel. The measured quantities of the process were rolling loads and torques, as well as temperatures. Numerical tests have shown that accuracy of torque predictions is low, therefore, the goal function of inverse analysis was defined as an average square root error between measured and FEM calculated rolling loads only. The first stage of the work was to develop the model of the hot strip rolling, which defines the direct model in the inverse analysis. This model is complex, it composes the whole roughing and finishing rolling. Based on the model and results of the laboratory experiment, the deformation process including the temperature field and the recrystallization up to the last finishing mill is calculated. Moreover, an application of the inverse analysis to the identification of the models of the hot strip rolling and design of the rolling parameters allows to obtain the required microstructure of final products. Inverse analysis and/or optimization of such a manufacturing chain is time-consuming. Large number of control parameters makes the time of the analysis unacceptable. Therefore, the metamodel of the hot rolling is applied to make the inverse calculations efficient. In the work the results of calculations with identified process parameters and experimental data are compared and presented. Also advantages and disadvantages are described.

  10. Rolling into spatial disorientation: Simulator demonstration of the post-roll (Gillingham) illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.; Groen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn)

  11. Rolling into spatial disorientation: Simulator demonstration of the post-roll (Gillingham) illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.; Groen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn)

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Symmetric and Asymmetric Three-roll Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-roll process is a significant technique in the production of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles for structural applications. Better mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles can be achieved due to large plastic deformation by the three-roll process. Asymmetric rolling is a novel technique characterised by a kinematic asymmetry linked to the difference in peripheral speed of the rolls, able to introduce additional shear strains through the bar thickness. In order to achieve this, asymmetrical three-roll rolling process was investigated to better control the deformation compared to the conventional three-roll rolling process in a stand with two three-roll calibers located very close to each other. Simulation of round-triangle-triangle pass rolling was performed. FEM simulations were carried out with using software DEFORM 3D. The influence of the friction coefficient and speed asymmetry on the shear strain and material flow was discussed. The results of simulation can be used to optimize the asymmetric three-roll rolling process to improve the mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles.

  13. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...

  14. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin

  15. 75 FR 16504 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... existence and availability of substitute products; and the level of competition among the Domestic Like... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel...

  16. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393.134 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a roll-on...

  17. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  18. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Bayesian Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters*

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates an approximation scheme of the optimal nonlinear Bayesian filter based on the Gaussian mixture representation of the state probability distribution function. The resulting filter is similar to the particle filter, but is different from it in that the standard weight-type correction in the particle filter is complemented by the Kalman-type correction with the associated covariance matrices in the Gaussian mixture. The authors show that this filter is an algorithm in between the Kalman filter and the particle filter, and therefore is referred to as the particle Kalman filter (PKF). In the PKF, the solution of a nonlinear filtering problem is expressed as the weighted average of an “ensemble of Kalman filters” operating in parallel. Running an ensemble of Kalman filters is, however, computationally prohibitive for realistic atmospheric and oceanic data assimilation problems. For this reason, the authors consider the construction of the PKF through an “ensemble” of ensemble Kalman filters (EnKFs) instead, and call the implementation the particle EnKF (PEnKF). It is shown that different types of the EnKFs can be considered as special cases of the PEnKF. Similar to the situation in the particle filter, the authors also introduce a resampling step to the PEnKF in order to reduce the risk of weights collapse and improve the performance of the filter. Numerical experiments with the strongly nonlinear Lorenz-96 model are presented and discussed.

  19. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  20. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  1. Copper foils with gradient structure in thickness direction and diff erent roughnesses on two surfaces fabricated by double rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-yong Wang; Xue-feng Liu; Wen-jiang Zou; Jian-xin Xie

    2013-01-01

    Copper foils with gradient structure in thickness direction and diff erent roughnesses on two surfaces were fabricated by double rolling. The two surface morphologies of double-rolled copper foils are quite diff erent, and the surface roughness values are 61 and 1095 nm, respectively. The roughness value of matt surface can meet the requirement for bonding the resin matrix with copper foils used for flexible printed circuit boards, thus may omit traditional roughening treatment;the microstructure of double-rolled copper foils demonstrates an obviously asymmetric gradient feature. From bright surface to matt surface in thickness direction, the average grain size first increases from 2.3 to 7.4 µm and then decreases to 3.6 µm; compared with conventional rolled copper foils, the double-rolled copper foils exhibit a remarkably increased bending fatigue life, and the increased range is about 16.2%.

  2. High speed roll casting of Mg alloy strip by a vertical type twin roll caster

    OpenAIRE

    H.Watari; S. Kumai; Haga, T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The possibility of high speed roll casting of AZ31, AM60 and AZ91 was investigated. Warm deep drawing of roll cast magnesium alloy was operated. and formability of roll cast magnesium strip was cleared.Design/methodology/approach: A vertical type high speed twin roll caster was used. The roll casting was operated in the air atmosphere. The casting speed was from 60 m/min up to 180 m/min. Low temperature casting was adopted to realize high speed casting.Findings: Strip thinner 3 mm wi...

  3. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  4. CRITICAL WAVE EPISODES FOR ASSESSMENT OF ROLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2006-01-01

    the time-varying restoring moment and the heave acceleration. The result is the mean outcrossing rate of the roll angle together with corresponding most probable wave scenarios (critical wave episodes), leading to specific maximum roll angles. The procedure is computationally very effective and can thus...

  5. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    by gravity, and a vehicle (such as a car or bicycle ) accelerating along a level road is driven by a motor or by pedalling. In such cases, static...continuously roll. Consider a cart of mass m that is free rolling up an incline, as sketched in figure 1. The total frictional force f on the cart

  6. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending on...

  7. Design of an Active Anti-Roll Bar for Off-Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gosselin-Brisson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of performance between a passive and an active anti-roll bar. Off-road vehicles are subject to large input road motion and appreciable lateral forces, making anti-roll bars desirable. A four DOF linear model is used to represent an independent suspension and to design the controller. For every case the performance is evaluated for severe road input perturbation and lateral acceleration. A method is presented to illustrate the compromise between stability and comfort inherent in passive anti-roll bar selection. This method was used to select a realistic anti-roll bar stiffness. The active anti-roll bar was designed using full state feedback optimal controller. A simplification of the active system is proposed to reduce the number of measurements and eliminate the need for an optimal observer. The results show a superior performance in ride and handling for the active controller in the frequency range of interest. The addition of filters is proposed to maximize controller efficiency and to reduce associated problems.

  8. Effect of Pavement Conditions on Rolling Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Dipanjan Mukherjee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rolling resistance is the force acting on a vehicle over a full journey. It is generated by the hysteresis of tyre and pavement. Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation (or movement of the wheel, roadbed, etc. is recovered when the pressure is removed. A hysteresis phenomenon can be observed when viscoelastic materials undergo a load-then-unload process. A typical hysteresis curve of viscoelastic material can be found. The shadow area enclosed by the hysteresis loop represents energy loss. A characteristic of a deformable material such that the energy of deformation is greater than the energy of recovery. The rubber compound in a tire exhibits hysteresis. As the tire rotates under the weight of the vehicle, it experiences repeated cycles of deformation and recovery, and it dissipates the hysteresis energy loss as heat. Hysteresis is the main cause of energy loss associated with rolling resistance and is attributed to the viscoelastic characteristics of the rubber. Materials that have a large hysteresis effect, such as rubber, which bounce back slowly, exhibit more rolling resistance than materials with a small hysteresis effect that bounce back more quickly and more completely, such as steel or silica. Low rolling resistance tires typically incorporate silica in place of carbon black in their tread compounds to reduce low-frequency hysteresis without compromising traction. Note that railroads also have hysteresis in the roadbed structure. Like the fuel consumption, rolling resistance also has a significant relationship with velocity. experiment has shown that, for a 32-tonn goods vehicle, rolling resistance contributes about 70% of total drag when driven at 50km/h and about 37% at 100km/h. An important issue which should not

  9. Computational Analysis of Ares I Roll Control System Jet Interaction Effects on Rolling Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    2011-01-01

    The computational flow solver USM3D was used to investigate the jet interaction effects from the roll control system on the rolling moment of the Ares I full protuberance configuration at wind tunnel Reynolds numbers. Solutions were computed at freestream Mach numbers from M = 0.5 to M = 5 at the angle of attack 0deg, at the angle of attack 3.5deg for a roll angle of 120deg, and at the angle of attack 7deg for roll angles of 120deg and 210deg. Results indicate that the RoCS housing provided a beneficial jet interaction effect on vehicle rolling moment for M > or = 0.9. Most of the components downstream of the roll control system housing contributed to jet interaction penalties on vehicle rolling moment.

  10. FORMULAS OF TENSION OF CONTINUOUS ROLLING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Z. Zhang; X.P. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The development of computer controlled continuous rolling process calls for a mathematicalexpression that can express the inequality condition of "constant flow". Tension is the link of thecontinuous rolling process. From the condition of dynamic equilibrium, a differential equation oftension is given out. On the basis of the physical rules established from the industrial practice andexperimental studies, the law of volume constancy, the linear relation of forward slip and tension,the state equation of continuous rolling, the formula of dynamic tension, and the formula of statictension have been obtained. These formulae reflect the functional relations between tensions,thickness, roll velocity, and time in the continuous rolling process. It is implied that the continuousrolling process is a gradually steady, controllable, and measurable dynamic system. An assumptionof predicting the thickness of a steel plate using these tension formulae is also put forward.

  11. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiase, F.; Langella, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work has been to develop an automatic roll pass design method, capable of minimizing the number of roll passes. The adoption of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, and a hybrid model for the surface profile evaluation of rolled bars, has allowed us to model the search for the minimal sequence with a tree path search. This approach permitted a geometrical optimization of roll passes while allowing automation of the roll pass design process. Moreover, the heuristic nature of the inferential engine contributes a great deal toward reducing search time, thus allowing such a system to be employed for industrial purposes. Finally, this new approach was compared with other recently developed automatic systems to validate and measure possible improvements among them.

  12. Reducing Noise by Repetition: Introduction to Signal Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes theory and experiments, taken from biophysics and physiological measurements, to illustrate the technique of signal averaging. In the process, students are introduced to the basic concepts of signal processing, such as digital filtering, Fourier transformation, baseline correction, pink and Gaussian noise, and the cross- and…

  13. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  14. Gravity Probe B Timing System and Roll Phase Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Li; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    An oven-controlled crystal oscillator at 16.368 MHz provides clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronizes the data collection, transmission and processing. The sampled science data signals are stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10Hz data strobe divided down from the clock. The GPS receiver supplies an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time. Ground and space flight tests show the time transfer error is within 1 microsecond. The time latency between the effective sample time of science signals and the stamped vehicle time is verified to 1 ms in the ground tests. The GP-B satellite is controlled to roll with a period of 77.5 sec about an axis along the direction to the guide star to average out the disturbance torques fixed to the body of the satellite and reduce the gyroscope readout noise. The roll phase is determined on the ground to high accuracy with the telemetry data from two star trackers and used in the data analysis to separate the drifts of gyroscope spin axes in the orbital plane and perpendicular to the orbital plane. The flight data shows that the roll phase is controlled to within 40 arcsec with a measurement uncertainty of 7 arcsec.

  15. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  16. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  17. CHANGE DETECTION VIA SELECTIVE GUIDED CONTRASTING FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC. The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC, mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All

  18. Change Detection via Selective Guided Contrasting Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizilter, Y. V.; Rubis, A. Y.; Zheltov, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample) as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map) could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO) is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC). The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC), mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All implemented

  19. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossander, Lea H.; Zawacka, Natalia K.; Dam, Henrik F.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Andreasen, Jens W., E-mail: jewa@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find that the formation of textured and untextured crystallites seems uncorrelated, and happens at widely different rates. Untextured P3HT crystallites form later in the drying process than expected which may explain previous studies speculating that untextured crystallization depends on concentration. Textured crystallites, however, begin forming much earlier and steadily increases as the film dries, showing a development similar to other in situ studies of these materials.

  20. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea H. Rossander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find that the formation of textured and untextured crystallites seems uncorrelated, and happens at widely different rates. Untextured P3HT crystallites form later in the drying process than expected which may explain previous studies speculating that untextured crystallization depends on concentration. Textured crystallites, however, begin forming much earlier and steadily increases as the film dries, showing a development similar to other in situ studies of these materials.

  1. Quantized average consensus with delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co

  2. Backup roll contour of a SmartCrown tandem cold rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Yang; Jianguo Cao; Jie Zhang; Shenghui Jia; Renwei Tan

    2008-01-01

    SmartCrown was a new system developed by VAI for improving the strip profile and flatness control first applied in 1700mm tandem cold rolling mills at Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation (WISCO). After tracing and testing, the application of the conventional crown backup roll matching the SmartCrown work roll of the production mill led to heavy and nonuniform wear, and the edge spalling of the backup roll often occurred. A 3-dimension finite element model of roll stacks was established, which was used to analyze the above-mentioned problems, and it was found that the main reason was the highly nonuniform contact pressure distribution between the work roll and the backup roll. A new FSR (flexible shape backup roll) was developed and applied in 1700mm tandem cold rolling mills. A lot of good actual effects of FSR, such as evident improvement in profile and flatness of strips,non-occurring edge spalling, wear uniform, and remarkable decrease in roll consumption were validated by long-term industrial applications.

  3. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Trauma Patients: Prevalence and Management of Thrombus Within the Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Zhao, J; Mei, J; Shao, M; Zhang, J; Wu, H

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of thrombus was investigated within retrievable filters placed in trauma patients with confirmed DVT at the time of retrieval and the optimal treatment for this clinical scenario was assessed. A technique called "filter retrieval with manual negative pressure aspiration thrombectomy" for management of filter thrombus was introduced and assessed. The retrievable filters referred for retrieval between January 2008 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of filter thrombus on a pre-retrieval cavogram. The clinical outcomes of different managements for thrombus within filters were recorded and analyzed. During the study 764 patients having Aegisy Filters implanted were referred for filter removal, from which 236 cases (134 male patients, mean age 50.2 years) of thrombus within the filter were observed on initial pre-retrieval IVC venogram 12-39 days after insertion (average 16.9 days). The incidence of infra-filter thrombus was 30.9%, and complete occlusion of the filter bearing IVC was seen in 2.4% (18) of cases. Retrieval was attempted in all 121 cases with small clots using a regular snare and sheath technique, and was successful in 120. A total of 116 cases with massive thrombus and IVC occlusion by thrombus were treated by CDT and/or the new retrieval technique. Overall, 213 cases (90.3%) of thrombus in the filter were removed successfully without PE. A small thrombus within the filter can be safely removed without additional management. CDT for reduction of the clot burden in filters was effective and safe. Filter retrieval with manual negative pressure aspiration thrombectomy seemed reasonable and valuable for management of massive thrombus within filters in some patients. Full assessment of the value and safety of this technique requires additional studies. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rolling into spatial disorientation: simulator demonstration of the post-roll (Gillingham) illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooij, Suzanne A E; Groen, Eric L

    2011-05-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn) and investigated the effect of roll stimuli on the pilot's ability to stabilize their roll attitude. This resulted in a ground-based demonstration scenario for pilots. The experiments took place in the advanced 6-DOF Desdemona motion simulator, with the subject in a supine position. Roll motions were either fully automated with the subjects blindfolded (BLIND), automated with the subject viewing the cockpit interior (COCKPIT), or self-controlled (LEAD). After the roll stimulus subjects had to cancel all perceived simulator motion without any visual feedback. Both the roll velocity and duration were varied. In 68% of all trials subjects corrected for the perceived motion of rolling back by initiating a roll motion in the same direction as the preceeding roll. The effect was dependent on both rate and duration, in a manner consistent with semicircular canal dynamics. The effect was smallest in the BLIND scenario, but differences between simulation scenarios were non-significant. The results show that the effects of the post-roll illusion on aircraft control can be demonstrated adequately in a flight simulator using an attitude control task. The effect is present even after short roll movements, occurring frequently in flight. Therefore this demonstration is relevant for spatial disorientation training programs for pilots.

  5. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-09-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ̈phi/H dot phi remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime.

  6. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  7. Precision and accuracy of the subjective haptic vertical in the roll plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockisch Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When roll-tilted, the subjective visual vertical (SVV deviates up to 40° from earth-vertical and trial-to-trial variability increases with head roll. Imperfections in the central processing of visual information were postulated to explain these roll-angle dependent errors. For experimental conditions devoid of visual input, e.g. adjustments of body posture or of an object along vertical in darkness, significantly smaller errors were noted. Whereas the accuracy of verticality adjustments seems to depend strongly on the paradigm, we hypothesize that the precision, i.e. the inverse of trial-to-trial variability, is less influenced by the experimental setup and mainly reflects properties of the otoliths. Here we measured the subjective haptic vertical (SHV and compared findings with previously reported SVV data. Twelve healthy right-handed human subjects (handedness assessed based on subjects' verbal report adjusted a rod with the right hand along perceived earth-vertical during static head roll-tilts (0-360°, steps of 20°. Results SHV adjustments showed a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and for counter-clockwise rod rotations to deviate clockwise, indicating hysteresis. Clockwise rod rotations resulted in counter-clockwise shifts of perceived earth-vertical up to -11.7° and an average counter-clockwise SHV shift over all roll angles of -3.3° (± 11.0°; ± 1 StdDev. Counter-clockwise rod rotations yielded peak SHV deviations in clockwise direction of 8.9° and an average clockwise SHV shift over all roll angles of 1.8° (± 11.1°. Trial-to-trial variability was minimal in upright position, increased with increasing roll (peaking around 120-140° and decreased to intermediate values in upside-down orientation. Compared to SVV, SHV variability near upright and upside-down was non-significantly (p > 0.05 larger; both showed an m-shaped pattern of variability as a function of roll position

  8. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  9. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is applied to simulate the effect of the ballasted track. The influence of therolling surfaces roughness and vehicle velocity on the rolling noise is investigated.

  10. PHYSICAL SIMULATION OF CONTINUOUS ROLL CASTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.H. Zhan; J. Zhong; X.Q. Li; M.H. Huang

    2005-01-01

    A series of simulating experimental studies on the rheological behavior and its influential factors of aluminum alloy in continuous roll-casting process have been explored in this paper with a Gleeble-1500 Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Tester and a set of special clamp system. Relevant rheological rules in the process of coupling transient solidification and continuous deformation of roll-casting conditions are obtained. Experimental results indicate that four different characteristic stages exist in the whole rheological process, and relative constitutive models suitable for the given conditions of continuous roll casting process have been established through multivariable linear regression analysis of the experimental data.

  11. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  12. Replication of nanopits and nanopillars by roll-to-roll extrusion coating using a structured cooling roll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel, very high throughput, roll-to-roll (R2R) process for nanostructuring of polymer foils, called R2R extrusion coating. It has the potential to accelerate the integration of nanostructured materials in consumer products for a variety of applications, including optical......, technical, and functional surfaces and devices. In roll-to-roll extrusion coating, a molten polymer film is extruded through a flat die forming a melt curtain, and then laminated onto a carrier foil. The lamination occurs as the melt curtain is pressed between a cooling roller and a counter roller....... By mounting a nanostructured metal shim on the surface of the cooling roller, the relief structure from the shim can be replicated onto a thermoplastic foil. Among the benefits of P oil, the process are availability of a wide range of commercial extruders, off-the-shelf extrusion grade polymers, functional...

  13. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  14. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  15. Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filters Employing Coaxial Stubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    Evanescent mode substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is one of the promising technologies for design of light-weight low-cost microwave components. Traditional realization methods used in the standard evanescent waveguide technology are often not directly applicable to SIW due to dielectric filling...... and small height of the waveguide. In this work, one of the realization methods of evanescent mode waveguides using a single layer substrate is considered. The method is based on the use of coaxial stubs as capacitive susceptances externally connected to a SIW. A microwave filter based on these principles...... of the microwave filter are discussed. The approach is useful in applications where a sharp roll-off at the upper stop-band is required....

  16. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  17. Effect of plate asymmetric rolling parameters on the change of the total unit pressure of roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kawalek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the results of theoretical analysis of asymmetric rolling process of plates in the finishing mill of plate rolling. Its aim was to determine the influence of asymmetry velocity of working rolls on decrease of unit pressure of metal on the rolls. The lower value of the unit pressure will reduce the elastic deflection of the finishing stand and improve the cross-section shape of plate. Three-dimensional simulation of asymmetric hot rolling of S355J2G3 steel plates was done with the aid of FORGE 2008® software. The tensor polynomial interpolation was used for comparing the values of the unit pressure obtaining from symmetric and asymmetric rolling.

  18. Roll paper pilot. [mathematical model for predicting pilot rating of aircraft in roll task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, F. R.; Dillow, J. D.; Hannen, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for predicting the pilot rating of an aircraft in a roll task is described. The model includes: (1) the lateral-directional aircraft equations of motion; (2) a stochastic gust model; (3) a pilot model with two free parameters; and (4) a pilot rating expression that is a function of rms roll angle and the pilot lead time constant. The pilot gain and lead time constant are selected to minimize the pilot rating expression. The pilot parameters are then adjusted to provide a 20% stability margin and the adjusted pilot parameters are used to compute a roll paper pilot rating of the aircraft/gust configuration. The roll paper pilot rating was computed for 25 aircraft/gust configurations. A range of actual ratings from 2 to 9 were encountered and the roll paper pilot ratings agree quite well with the actual ratings. In addition there is good correlation between predicted and measured rms roll angle.

  19. Analysis of Temperature Field and Thermal Crown of Roll During Hot Rolling by Simplified FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-feng; LI Chang-sheng; XU Jian-zhong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    Thermal crown of roll is an important factor, which affects strip profile. It is necessary to analyze the temperature field and thermal crown of roll for hot strip mill. A new simplified finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the temperature field and thermal crown of roll, and corresponding models were built according to the practical boundary conditions. Transient roll temperature field and thermal crown were simulated by ANSYS FEM software with considering transient thermal contact and complex boundary condition. Temperature and thermal crown variations on roll surface nodes were obtained. The thermal crown results of roll obtained by FEM simulation were in good agreement with the measured data, indicating that simplified FEM models and results were correct.

  20. Effects of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2007-01-01

    Effects of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction on the mechanical properties of hot rolled multiphase steel were investigated. Thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP) was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill, in which three different kinds of finishing rolling temperatures and reduction and various austempering times were applied. The results showed that polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes, and that the strain-induced transformation to martensite from the retained austenite can occur gradually when the steel is deformed during tensile test. Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finishing rolling temperature and increasing amount of deformation. The most TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) effect, and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), total elongation (TEL) and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation (UTS× TEL) are obtained at 20 min.

  1. Analysis of noisy signal restoration quality with Lanczos filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, A. S.; Tutov, I. A.; Maykov, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    The differential component of the feedback is used to enhance dynamics of controlled mechanisms in control systems. However, the use of the differential component increases the noise interference, resulting in the need to use different filtering methods. This paper describes the research of a differentiated signal input in a differential Lanczos filter. The influence of the filter order on the integrated square error of the filtered signal is defined. The impact of signal dispersion and a sampling interval on the integrated square error of the filtered signal is identified. Moreover, the most convenient parameter values for the Lanczos filter are determined. The paper also includes the comparison of the exponential moving average filter and the Lanczos filter with selected values of noise dispersion and a sampling interval. The research shows the possibility to apply the Lanczos filter for processing of the differentiated signals.

  2. Determination of the hot rolling stress by means of tensile tests; Determinacion de la tension de laminacion en caliente a partir de ensayos de traccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsalve, A.; Artigas, A.; Celentano, D.; Guzman, A.; Colas, R.; Houbaert, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Prediction of mechanical behavior of hot rolled steels is an important aspect during industrial processing. The rolling stress needed to the process were estimated using three methods, the first of which is related to the Sellars's model that takes into account the friction coefficient and the yield stress. The second method estimates the rolling stress as the average stress obtained during the tensile tests. The third method, estimates the rolling stress from the data of power consumed by the rolling equipment. This methodology was applied in this study to a carbon steel. The conclusion of the work is that results obtained by Sellars's and consumed power, are coincident. The method based on the average tensile stress predicts stresses lower than those obtained with other two methods. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Transparent conductive film by large area roll-to-roll processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Linda Y.L., E-mail: ylwu@simtech.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Kerk, W.T. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Wong, C.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on polyethylene terephthalate film has been used as the substrate for roll-to-roll fabrication of large area printed electronics devices, but it is expensive and could be cracked when bending, limiting its applications. Transparent conductive (TC) electrode made by roll-to-roll coating of transparent conductive ink on flexible substrate is an alternative, but both the ink material and the control of the coating quality are very crucial. The major challenges are the coating performance, coating uniformity and defect control during roll-to-roll processing. In this paper, we report the chemical synthesis of silver nanowires in preferred shape and size, the surface modification of the Ag nanowires for better dispersion into the commercial Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer ink, and the controlled roll-to-roll coating process on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate by a one meter web-width roll-to-roll slot die coating system. We obtained high uniformity PEDOT:PSS coating with optical transmission higher than 80% and sheet resistance lower than 100 Ω/square, and silver containing coating with sheet resistance below 40 Ω/square and maintained optical transmittance. The slot die coating mechanism is investigated and the influencing factors for coating uniformity and defect are defined. The coated transparent conductive film has the same properties as the sputtered ITO and has been used as the TC electrode for printed lighting, whose performance has been proven by standard weathering test for 1000 h. - Highlight: • Controlled synthesis of silver nanowires using trace amount of Cl{sup −} ions • Large area roll-to-roll processed transparent conductive (TC) coatings • TC film has light transmission > 80% and sheet resistance < 100 Ω/sq. • Silver containing ink achieved better property than conductive polymer ink. • Used as the TC electrode for printed

  4. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening ingredient...

  5. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than 50...

  6. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Each...

  7. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  8. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling s

  9. The Critical Choice of PEDOT: PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll‐to‐Roll Processed OPVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Corazza, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll-to-roll (R2R) processed indium tin oxide free modules. Four different PEDOT:PSS inks from two different...... suppliers are used. The modules are manufactured directly on barrier foil without a UV filter to accelerate degradation and enable completion of the study in a reasonable time span. The modules are subjected to stability testing following well-established protocols developed by the international summit...

  10. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...... and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train...

  11. Crisp Fried Beef Rolls(Xiangsu Niuroujuan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    300 grams ground beef 350 grams bread crumbs 2 eggs1 gram MSG2 grams salt10 grams (1 tbsp) cooking wine5 grams chopped spring onion5 grams chopped ginger10 grams (1 tbsp) cornslarch300 grams (3/5 cup) cooking oilMix ground beef with salt, MSG, cooking wine. chopped spring onion and ginger, and 5 grams of cornslarch. Beat eggs in a bowl.Make ground beef into three rolls, about 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. Place on a plate and steam until cooked. Coat the rolls in beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs.Heat oil in a wok. fry the rolls until brown. Cut the meat rolls into 3-cm sections, arrange on a plate, and serve.

  12. Terras: NATO õppuste roll Euroopas kasvab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks

  13. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  14. A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Yuan, Xuebing; Liu, Sheng

    2016-02-20

    To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination.

  15. Quality control of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar modules by complementary imaging methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösch, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Tanenbaum, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT), electro......We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT...

  16. Roll-to-Roll Transfer Printing of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Film

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel thin film transfer mechanism has been studied and developed to transfer chemically reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) thin film using a roll-to-roll printing system. We discover that shear stress generated on the silicon rubber stamp surface facilitates delamination of the deposited r-GO thin film efficiently.A roll-to-roll apparatus is assembled to demonstrate the shear-induced transfer printing in a large scale printing system. Shear stress is applied on the stamp surface by rotating the...

  17. Analysis of Rolling Pressure in Asymmetrical Rolling Process by Slab Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; GUO Yan-hui; WANG Zhao-dong; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    The plane strain asymmetrical rolling was analyzed using slab method. The contact arc was replaced by parabola, and the constant surface friction status was adopted during the analysis. The deformation area was divided into three zones according to the direction of the friction. Then, the three zones were studied, respectively. A rolling force model and a rolling torque model were developed based on the analysis, and they were used to analyze the influence of asymmetrical rolling factors on deformation area and unit pressure if they had good precision which was determined by comparing the calculated results with the measured ones.

  18. Thermal Behaviors of Work Roll in Finishing Trains of Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyze the thermal field and thermal contour of work roll in finishing trains of hot rolling in rolling process, a quasi two-dimension implicit finite difference model is developed. To improve the calculating speed and precision, some special solutions are introduced, including the development of this model, the simplification of boundary conditions and the computation of heat transfer coefficients. The results show that these solutions of thermal behaviors of work roll are very much efficient and the model can be used as an on-line profile and flatness control model of large industrial mills.

  19. Theoretical And Experimental Analysis Of Aluminium Bars Rolling Process In Three-High Skew Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanik A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology of round bars rolling on a three-high skew rolling mills allows rolling of standard materials such as steel and aluminum, as well as new materials, especially hard deformable materials. The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental rolling process of aluminum bars with a diameter of 20 mm. As the stock round bars with a diameter of 25 mm made of aluminum grade 1050A and aluminum alloy grade 2017A were used. The rolling process of aluminum bars has been carried out in a single pass. The numerical analysis was carried out by using computer program Forge2011®. On the basis of theoretical research it has been determined the state of deformation, stress and temperature distribution during rolling of aluminum bars. In addition, the results of theoretical research allowed to determine the schema of the metal plastic flow in the roll gap. Verification of the theoretical research was carried out during the rolling of aluminum bars on the RSP 40/14 laboratory three-high skew rolling mill. From the finished bars were taken the samples to set the shape and compared with the results of theoretical research. Finished aluminum round bars were characterized by low ovality and good surface quality.

  20. FEM Calculation of Work Roll Temperature and Thermal Crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Xiang-wei; XU Jian-zhong; YE He-zhou; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; HE Xiao-ming; BA Li-ying

    2004-01-01

    The simulation of the work roll temperature field was carried out by means of ANSYS software, and the thermal crown of the roll along its axis was obtained. The thermal-structural coupled element and contact element were introduced. In the simulation of work roll temperature field, the convert boundary condition and the transient thermal contact between the roll and strip were studied. Besides, the dynamic variation of the work roll temperature and the transient temperature distribution of the work roll during hot rolling were investigated. The calculated results were in good agreement with the measured data.

  1. Plasmid Rolling-Circle Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Masó, J A; MachóN, C; Bordanaba-Ruiseco, L; Espinosa, M; Coll, M; Del Solar, G

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are DNA entities that undergo controlled replication independent of the chromosomal DNA, a crucial step that guarantees the prevalence of the plasmid in its host. DNA replication has to cope with the incapacity of the DNA polymerases to start de novo DNA synthesis, and different replication mechanisms offer diverse solutions to this problem. Rolling-circle replication (RCR) is a mechanism adopted by certain plasmids, among other genetic elements, that represents one of the simplest initiation strategies, that is, the nicking by a replication initiator protein on one parental strand to generate the primer for leading-strand initiation and a single priming site for lagging-strand synthesis. All RCR plasmid genomes consist of a number of basic elements: leading strand initiation and control, lagging strand origin, phenotypic determinants, and mobilization, generally in that order of frequency. RCR has been mainly characterized in Gram-positive bacterial plasmids, although it has also been described in Gram-negative bacterial or archaeal plasmids. Here we aim to provide an overview of the RCR plasmids' lifestyle, with emphasis on their characteristic traits, promiscuity, stability, utility as vectors, etc. While RCR is one of the best-characterized plasmid replication mechanisms, there are still many questions left unanswered, which will be pointed out along the way in this review.

  2. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-01-01

    Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model) and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is a...

  3. Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force....

  4. A longitudinal perspective on rolling forecasts & interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Holmen, Thea Jarneid; Skurtveit, Ingvild

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization – namely FiGo. Through qualitative research method, the study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how...

  5. Tube bending on the roll machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.

    2013-10-01

    Computer simulation of the elastic-plastic tube bending by pushing on three-roll machine with work hardening effect consideration is presented. Non-steady tube bending process for specified curvature is simulated with axis of bending roll displacement, followed by transfer to the steady-state bending process. Estimation of curvature, constrained by tube section elliptical distortion modeled by plastic hinge mechanism is given. Elastic-plastic bending moment versus curvature and critical curvature estimation reasonably correlated with experiments.

  6. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  7. Partition Decomposition for Roll Call Data

    CERN Document Server

    Leibon, Greg; Rockmore, Daniel N; Savell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we bring to bear some new tools from statistical learning on the analysis of roll call data. We present a new data-driven model for roll call voting that is geometric in nature. We construct the model by adapting the "Partition Decoupling Method," an unsupervised learning technique originally developed for the analysis of families of time series, to produce a multiscale geometric description of a weighted network associated to a set of roll call votes. Central to this approach is the quantitative notion of a "motivation," a cluster-based and learned basis element that serves as a building block in the representation of roll call data. Motivations enable the formulation of a quantitative description of ideology and their data-dependent nature makes possible a quantitative analysis of the evolution of ideological factors. This approach is generally applicable to roll call data and we apply it in particular to the historical roll call voting of the U.S. House and Senate. This methodology provides a...

  8. Rolling in Nature and Robotics: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rhodri H. Armour; Julian F. V. Vincent

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of recent rolling robots including Rollo from Helsinki University of Technology,Spherical Mobile Robot from the Politecnico of Bari,Sphericle from the University of Pisa,Spherobot from Michigan State University,August from Azad University of Qazvin and the University of Tehran,Deformable Robot from Ritsumeijan University,Kickbot from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Gravitational Wheeled Robot from Kinki University,Gyrover from Carnegie Seven rolling robot design principles are presented and discussed (Sprung central member,Car driven,Mobile masses,Hemispherical wheels,Gyroscopic stabilisation,Ballast mass - fixed axis,and Ballast mass - moving axis). Robots based on each of the design principles are shown and the performances of the robots are tabulated. An attempt is made to grade the design principles based on their suitability for movement over an unknown and varied but relatively smooth terrain. The result of this comparison suggests that a rolling robot based on a mobile masses principle would be best suited to this specific application.Some wonderful rolling organisms are introduced and defined as "active" or "passive" depending on whether they generate their own rolling motion or external forces cause their rolling.

  9. Analysis of rolls deflection of Sendzimir mill by 3D FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; LEE Gyoo Taek

    2007-01-01

    The deflection of rolls of Sendzimir mill with double AS-U-Roll was simulated by finite element method(FEM). The influences of rolling pressure, strip width and rolls-assignment on rolls deflection were analyzed. The results show that the work roll deflection increases with the increase of rolling pressure and the reduction of work roll radius, but the rigid displacement of work roll slightly changes; the work roll end might appear negative displacement for the narrow strip width and high rolling pressure that might cause the contact of work rolls. The research results are significant for guiding production and theoretical analysis of the rolls system of Sendzimir mill.

  10. Failure Mechanism of Reflow Conductor Roll of Electroplating Tinning Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The surface roughness of reflow conductor roll was checked on membrane sample. The surface morphology of conductor roll was observed by microscope, and the composition of adhered layer on conductor roll surface was analyzed by X-ray spectroscope. The results show that tin adhesion is the main reason for failure of conductor roll, and the failure of conductor roll is accelerated by wear. The measures to decrease tin adhesion and improve wear resistance were put forward.

  11. An Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arch Band-Pass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation of the dynamics of micromachined arches resonators and their potential to be utilized as band-pass filters. The arches are actuated by a DC electrostatic load superimposed to an AC harmonic load. The dynamic response of the arch is studied analytically using a Galerkin-based reduced-order model when excited near its fundamental and third natural frequencies. Several simulation results are presented demonstrating interesting jumps and snap-through behavior of the arches and their attractive features for uses as band-pass filters, such as their sharp roll-off from pass bands to stop bands and their flat response.

  12. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  13. Filters, reproducing kernel, and adaptive meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Chen, J.-S.; Lu, H.

    Reproducing kernel, with its intrinsic feature of moving averaging, can be utilized as a low-pass filter with scale decomposition capability. The discrete convolution of two nth order reproducing kernels with arbitrary support size in each kernel results in a filtered reproducing kernel function that has the same reproducing order. This property is utilized to separate the numerical solution into an unfiltered lower order portion and a filtered higher order portion. As such, the corresponding high-pass filter of this reproducing kernel filter can be used to identify the locations of high gradient, and consequently serves as an operator for error indication in meshfree analysis. In conjunction with the naturally conforming property of the reproducing kernel approximation, a meshfree adaptivity method is also proposed.

  14. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  15. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...

  16. Development of Intermediate Cooling Technology and Its Control for Two-Stand Plate Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a plate rolling production line, thermomechanically controlled processing is critical for plate quality. In this paper, a set of intermediate cooling equipment of a two-stand plate mill with super density nozzles, medium pressure, and small flow is developed. Based on a simplified dynamic model, a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback, and adaptive algorithms is put forward. The new controlled rolling process and the highly efficient control system improve the controlled rolling efficiency by an average of 17.66%. The proposed intermediate cooling system can also effectively inhibit the growth of austenite grain, improve the impact toughness and yield strength of Q345B steel plate, reduce the formation of secondary oxide scale on the plate surface and the chromatic aberration of the plate surface, and greatly improve the surface quality of the steel plate.

  17. A Novel Approach of Impulsive Signal Extraction for Early Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Aijun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault signals of rolling element bearing are often characterized by the presence of periodic impulses, which are modulated high-frequency harmonic components. The features of early fault in rolling bearing are very weak, which are often masked by background noise. The impulsiveness of the vibration signal has affected the identification of characteristic frequency for the early fault detection of the bearing. In this paper, a novel approach based on morphological operators is presented for impulsive signal extraction of early fault in rolling element bearing. The combination Top-Hat (CTH is proposed to extract the impulsive signal and enhance the impulsiveness of the bearing fault signal, and the envelope analysis is applied to reveal the fault-related signatures. The impulsive extraction performance of the proposed CTH is compared with that of finite impulse response filter (FIR by analyzing the simulated bearing fault signals, and the result indicates that the CTH is more effective in extracting impulsive signals. The method is evaluated using real fault signals from defective bearings with early rolling element fault and early fault located on the outer race. The results show that the proposed method is able to enhance the impulsiveness of early bearing fault signals.

  18. Edge Preserved Speckle Noise Reduction Using Integrated Fuzzy Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiographic images are inherent with speckle noise which makes visual reading and analysis quite difficult. The multiplicative speckle noise masks finer details, necessary for diagnosis of abnormalities. A novel speckle reduction technique based on integration of geometric, wiener, and fuzzy filters is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The denoising applications of fuzzy filters are studied and analyzed along with 26 denoising techniques. It is observed that geometric filter retains noise and, to address this issue, wiener filter is embedded into the geometric filter during iteration process. The performance of geometric-wiener filter is further enhanced using fuzzy filters and the proposed despeckling techniques are called integrated fuzzy filters. Fuzzy filters based on moving average and median value are employed in the integrated fuzzy filters. The performances of integrated fuzzy filters are tested on echocardiographic images and synthetic images in terms of image quality metrics. It is observed that the performance parameters are highest in case of integrated fuzzy filters in comparison to fuzzy and geometric-fuzzy filters. The clinical validation reveals that the output images obtained using geometric-wiener, integrated fuzzy, nonlocal means, and details preserving anisotropic diffusion filters are acceptable. The necessary finer details are retained in the denoised echocardiographic images.

  19. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a rep

  20. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a

  1. Roll-to-roll fabricated lab-on-a-chip devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Mäkelä, Tapio; Majander, Päivi;

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-volume fabrication technique for making polymer lab-on-a-chip devices. Microfluidic separation devices, relying on pinched flow fraction, are roll-to-roll fabricated in a cellulose acetate (CA) film at a volume of 360 devices h−1 for a cost of approximately 0.5 euro/device. The ...

  2. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers (base

  3. Influence of Carbon Content and Rolling Temperature on Rolling Texture in 3 Pct Si Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Y.; Takashima, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Effects of carbon and rolling temperature up to 453 K (180 °C) on rolling texture of 3 pct Si steel at a reduction of 66 pct were investigated using a single crystal with an initial orientation of {110}. With residual-level carbon, uniform slip deformation was observed in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature and most of initial orientation {110} rotated to {111} during the rolling. With carbon addition, the formation of the deformation twins and the shear bands were promoted in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature. Regions with {110} were observed inside the shear bands. Warm-rolled specimen with residual-level carbon had microbands containing tiny {110} regions. Warm-rolled specimen with carbon addition had both the shear bands and the microbands but no deformation twin. Additionally, there were unique band structures with rotated crystal orientation around the rolling direction from initial orientation {110}. These experimental results suggest that the carbon addition inhibits dislocation migration by the increase of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and that the high deformation temperature activates multiple slip systems by the reduction of CRSS and further that the carbon addition and high deformation temperature superimposed bring about the activation of symmetrical {110} slip systems additionally.

  4. Comparing Acute Bouts of Sagittal Plane Progression Foam Rolling vs. Frontal Plane Progression Foam Rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Corey A; Krein, Darren D; Antonio, Jose; Sanders, Gabriel J; Silver, Tobin A; Colas, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Many strength and conditioning professionals have included the use of foam rolling devices within a warm-up routine prior to both training and competition. Multiple studies have investigated foam rolling in regards to performance, flexibility, and rehabilitation; however, additional research is necessary in supporting the topic. Furthermore, as multiple foam rolling progressions exist, researching differences that may result from each is required. To investigate differences in foam rolling progressions, 16 athletically trained males underwent a 2-condition within-subjects protocol comparing the differences of 2 common foam rolling progressions in regards to performance testing. The 2 conditions included a foam rolling progression targeting the mediolateral axis of the body (FRml) and foam rolling progression targeting the anteroposterior axis (FRap). Each was administered in adjunct with a full-body dynamic warm-up. After each rolling progression, subjects performed National Football League combine drills, flexibility, and subjective scaling measures. The data demonstrated that FRml was effective at improving flexibility (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with FRap. No other differences existed between progressions.

  5. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers (base

  6. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Ali; Forouzan, Mohammad R

    2013-01-01

    Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed.

  7. Analysis of the thermal profile of work rolls in the hot strip rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanli Zhang; Jie Zhang; Xiaoyan Li; Haixia Li; Gangcheng Wei

    2004-01-01

    A 2-dimension axisymmetric model was developed by the finite-difference method, which can be used to predict the transient temperature field and thermal profile of work rolls in the hot strip rolling process. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution developed, the calculation results were compared with the production data of a 1700 mm hot strip rolling mill and good agreement was found between them. The effect of strip width and roll shifting on the thermal expansion of the work rolls was studied.It is found that the strip width has marked effect on the efficient thermal crown. Initially, when the rolling strip changes from narrow to wide, a bigger efficient thermal crown can be quickly achieved; afterwards, when the rolling strip changes from wide to narrow,not only the influence of uneven wear can be reduced but also the excessive efficient thermal crown can be avoided. It is also found that the work roll shifting has a determinate but not obvious effect on the reduction of the efficient thermal crown, and will make the strip shape unstable without being used properly.

  8. Practice of Improving Roll Deformation Theory in Strip Rolling Process Based on Boundary Integral Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhengwen; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Hongbiao

    2014-02-01

    Precise strip-shape control theory is significant to improve rolled strip quality, and roll flattening theory is a primary part of the strip-shape theory. To improve the accuracy of roll flattening calculation based on semi-infinite body model, a new and more accurate roll flattening model is proposed in this paper, which is derived based on boundary integral equation method. The displacement fields of the finite length semi-infinite body on left and right sides are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) and displacement decay functions on left and right sides are established. Based on the new roll flattening model, a new 4Hi mill deformation model is established and verified by FEM. The new model is compared with Foppl formula and semi-infinite body model in different strip width, roll shifting value and bending force. The results show that the pressure and flattening between rolls calculated by the new model are more precise than other two models, especially near the two roll barrel edges.

  9. Influence of Carbon Content and Rolling Temperature on Rolling Texture in 3 Pct Si Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Y.; Takashima, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Effects of carbon and rolling temperature up to 453 K (180 °C) on rolling texture of 3 pct Si steel at a reduction of 66 pct were investigated using a single crystal with an initial orientation of {110}. With residual-level carbon, uniform slip deformation was observed in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature and most of initial orientation {110} rotated to {111} during the rolling. With carbon addition, the formation of the deformation twins and the shear bands were promoted in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature. Regions with {110} were observed inside the shear bands. Warm-rolled specimen with residual-level carbon had microbands containing tiny {110} regions. Warm-rolled specimen with carbon addition had both the shear bands and the microbands but no deformation twin. Additionally, there were unique band structures with rotated crystal orientation around the rolling direction from initial orientation {110}. These experimental results suggest that the carbon addition inhibits dislocation migration by the increase of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and that the high deformation temperature activates multiple slip systems by the reduction of CRSS and further that the carbon addition and high deformation temperature superimposed bring about the activation of symmetrical {110} slip systems additionally.

  10. Material-Process-Performance Relationships for Roll-to-Roll Coated PEM Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Scott; Neyerlin, K.C.; Stickel, Jonathan; Ulsh, Michael; More, Karren; Wood, David

    2017-04-26

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) coating is the most economical and highest throughput method for producing fuel cell electrodes. R2R coating encompasses many different methodologies to create uniform films on a moving web substrate. Here we explore two coating methods, gravure and slot die, to understand the impacts of each on film uniformity and performance.

  11. Superhydrophobic Properties of Nanotextured Polypropylene Foils Fabricated by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecka, Agnieszka; Murthy, Swathi; Sun, Ling

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of roll-to-roll extrusion coating (R2R-EC) for fabrication of nanopatterned polypropylene (PP) foils with strong antiwetting properties. The antiwetting nanopattern is originated from textured surfaces fabricated on silicon wafers by a single-step method of reactive ion...

  12. Generalized Hampel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.

  13. Analytical study on web deformation by tension in roll-to-roll printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. S.; Hong, M. S.; Lee, S. H.; Jeon, Y. H.; Kang, D.; Lee, N. K.; Lee, M. G.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, flexible devices have gained high intentions for flexible display, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), bio-sensor and so on. For manufacturing of the flexible devices, roll-to-roll process is a good candidate because of its low production cost and high productivity. Flexible substrate has a non-uniform deformation distribution by tension. Because the roll-to-roll process carries out a number of overlay printing processes, the deformation affect overlay printing precision and printable areas. In this study, the deformation of flexible substrate was analyzed by using finite element analysis and it was verified through experiments. More deformation occurred in the middle region in the direction parallel to rolling of the flexible substrate. It is confirmed through experiments and analysis that deformation occurs less at the both ends than in the middle region. Based on these results, a hourglass roll is proposed as a mechanical design of the roll to compensate the non-uniform deformation of the flexible substrate. In the hourglass roll, high stiffness material is used in the core and low stiffness material such as an elastic material is wrapped. The diameter of the core roll was designed to be the minimum at the middle and the maximum at both ends. We tried to compensate the non-uniform deformation distribution of the flexible substrate by using the variation of the contact stiffness between the roll and the flexible substrate. Deformation distribution of flexible substrates was confirmed by finite element analysis by applying hourglass roll shape. In the analysis when using the hourglass roll, it is confirmed that the stress distribution is compensated by about 70% and the strain distribution is compensated by about 67% compared to the case using the hourglass roll. To verify the compensation of the non-uniform deformation distribution due to the tension, deformation measurement experiment when using the proposed hourglass roll was carried out

  14. Widespread Occurrence of Trenching Patterns in the Granulation Field: Evidence for Roll Convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getling, A. V.; Buchnev, A. A.

    2008-04-01

    Time-averaged series of granulation images are analysed using COLIBRI, a purpose-adapted version of a code originally developed to detect straight or curvilinear features in aerospace images. The image-processing algorithm utilises a nonparametric statistical criterion that identifies a straight-line segment as a linear feature (lineament) if the photospheric brightness at a certain distance from this line on both sides is stochastically lower or higher than at the line itself. Curvilinear features can be detected as chains of lineaments, using a modified criterion. Once the input parameters used by the algorithm are properly adjusted, the algorithm highlights “ridges” and “trenches” in the relief of the brightness field, drawing white and dark lanes. The most remarkable property of the trenching patterns is a nearly universally present parallelism of ridges and trenches. Since the material upflows are brighter than the downflows, the alternating, parallel light and dark lanes should reflect the presence of roll convection in the subphotospheric layers. If the numerous images processed by us are representative, the patterns revealed suggest a widespread occurrence of roll convection in the outer solar convection zone. In particular, the roll systems could form the fine structure of larger scale, supergranular and/or mesogranular convection flows. Granules appear to be overheated blobs of material that could develop into convection rolls owing to instabilities of roll motion.

  15. 75 FR 77828 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil...-rolled flat-rolled carbon- quality steel products from Brazil for the period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. See Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil...

  16. 75 FR 32160 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil... certain hot-rolled flat- rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil. See Agreement Suspending the... review of the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products...

  17. 75 FR 64246 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil... products from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel...\\ See also the Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From...

  18. Effect of Controlled Cooling After Hot Rolling on Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; LI Zhuang; L(U) Hui-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A three-step cooling pattern on the runout table (ROT) was conducted for the hot rolled TRIP steel. Microstructural evolution during thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) was investigated. Proeessing condition of controlled cooling on a ROT in the laboratory rolling mill was discussed. The results indicated that the microstructure containing polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and a significant amount of the stable retained austenite can be obtained through three-step cooling on the ROT after hot rolling. TMCP led to ferrite grain refinement. Controlled cooling after hot rolling resulted in the stability of the remaining austenite and a satisfactory TRIP effect. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained through TMCP for the hot rolled TRIP steel.

  19. Research on the rolling moment in the symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Research distribution the rolling moments symmetrical and asymmetrical report presents great importance both in theory and to introduce clarifications to the calculation of rolling resistance line assemblies. Clarifying individuals of metallic material deformation between the rolls single cylinder diameters act of any difference of work and analysis of advance and delay phenomena. Torque drive value for each of the rolling cylinders was done by reducing the thickness of the laminate samples, an experimental facility located in the laboratory of plastic deformation of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara. The analysis of research results show that in terms of power consumption for deformation and safety equipment in operation is rational for mills which require such a difference between the work rolls to execute about one cylinder operated.

  20. Dimensional ranges and rolling efficiency in a tandem cold rolling mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkiola, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this work, physical models and a neural network theory have been combined in order to predict the properties of a steel strip and to optimise the process parameters in cold rolling. The prediction of the deformation resistance of the material and the friction parameter is based on the physical model presented by Bland, Ford and Ellis and artificial neural network computing (ANN). The accuracy of these models has been tested and proved by using a large amount of the measured data. With the aid of these models it has been shown that (a) the small change to the relative reduction distribution can have a clear effect upon the rolling efficiency, (b) the dimensional ranges of the tandem cold roll mill can be determined and optimised and (c) the possibility to cold roll a new product of new width, strength or thickness can be determined and the parameters of the tandem cold rolling process can be optimised. (orig.) 43 refs.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of roll load, torque and material properties in the roll forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathna, Buddhika; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) are increasingly used in the current automotive industry because of their high strength and weight saving potential. As a sheet forming process, roll forming is capable of forming such materials with precise dimensions, however a small change in processing may results in significant change in the material properties such as yield strength and hardening exponent from coil to coil or within the same coil. This paper presents the effect of yield strength and the hardening exponent on roll load, torque of the roll forming process and the longitudinal bow. The roll forming process is numerically simulated, and then the regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques are employed to establish the relationships among the aforementioned parameters and to determine the percentage influence of material properties on longitudinal bow, roll load and torque.

  2. Studies on the influence of surface morphology of ZnO nail beds on easy roll off of water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutha, S.; Vanithakumari, S. C.; George, R. P.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Raj, Baldev; Ravi, K. R.

    2015-08-01

    A ZnO nanorods based superhydrophobic surface with extremely low roll-off angle is fabricated using a two-step solution based approach-Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). The grown ZnO nanorods have average diameter of 285 nm with a predominant growth direction of [002]. The static contact angle of ZnO nanorods superhydrophobic surface is 155°, and the dynamic contact angles contact angle hysteresis and roll-off angle is 2° and 1°, respectively. Furthermore, to comprehend the mechanism governing the extremely low roll-off angle of ZnO nanorods based superhydrophobic surface, an analytical model has been developed by incorporating the topographical (diameter, density of nanorods and solid area fraction) and droplet parameters (surface tension, mass and volume). The theoretically calculated roll-off angle closely matches with the experimental results and reported results.

  3. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  4. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  5. Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...

  6. The staircasing effect in neighborhood filters and its solution

    OpenAIRE

    Buades, Antoni; Coll, Bartomeu; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Many classical image denoising methods are based on a local averaging of the color, which increases the signal/noise ratio. One of the most used algorithms is the neighborhood filter by Yaroslavsky or sigma filter by Lee, also called in a variant "SUSAN" by Smith and Brady or "Bilateral filter" by Tomasi and Manduchi. These filters replace the actual value of the color at a point by an average of all values of points which are simultaneously close in space and in color. Unfortunately, these f...

  7. Ultrasound speckle reduction using modified Gabor filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G; Costa, Eduardo T

    2007-03-01

    B-mode ultrasound images are characterized by speckle artifact, which may make the interpretation of images difficult. One widely used method for ultrasound speckle reduction is the split spectrum processing (SSP), but the use of one-dimensional (1-D), narrow-band filters makes the resultant image experience a significant resolution loss. In order to overcome this critical drawback, we propose a novel method for speckle reduction in ultrasound medical imaging, which uses a bank of wideband 2-D directive filters, based on modified Gabor functions. Each filter is applied to the 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data, resulting in a B-mode image filtered in a given direction. The compounding of the filters outputs give rise to a final image in which speckle is reduced and the structure is enhanced. We have denoted this method as directive filtering (DF). Because the proposed filters have effectively the same bandwidth as the original image, it is possible to avoid the resolution loss caused by the use of narrow-band filters, as with SSP. The tests were carried out with both simulated and real clinical data. Using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to quantify the amount of speckle of the ultrasound images, we have achieved an average SNR enhancement of 2.26 times with simulated data and 1.18 times with real clinical data.

  8. Roll-to-roll deposition of TCO films for solar cells and other applications; Roll-to-roll-Abscheideverfahren von TCO-Schichten fuer Solarzellen und andere Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlatmann, R.; Stannowski, B. [Akzo Nobel Chemicals, Arnheim (Netherlands). Research and Technology Center

    2005-07-01

    In the Helianthos project, a production process is developed which is to reduce the KWh cost of solar systems. In this process, flexible silicon wafers are produced in a continuous roll-to-roll process which is to reduce the per module production cost. The rolls can be integrated in prefabricated elements (e.g. roof elements), thus reducing the installation cost. The two improvements together reduce the kWh cost. The module efficiency need not be as high as for today's crystalline Si modules. (orig.) [German] Im Helianthos-Projekt wird ein Produktionsverfahren entwickelt, um die kWh-Kosten von Solaranlagen zu senken. In diesem Prozess werden flexible Duennschicht-Silizium-Solarmodule in einem kontinuierlichen Roll-to-Roll-Verfahren gefertigt, wodurch die Modul-Produktionskosten reduziert werden. Des Weiteren sind diese Rollen geeignet, um z. B. in fertige Bauelemente (etwa Dachelemente) integriert zu werden, um die Installationskosten senken zu koennen. Beides zusammen ermoeglicht niedrige kWh-Kosten, wobei der Wirkungsgrad der Module nicht so hoch sein muss wie der von heutigen kristallinen Si-Modulen.

  9. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  10. Magnon inflation: slow roll with steep potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blas, Diego [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Patil, Subodh P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva,24 Quai Ansermet, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-04

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy G{sup ab}∂{sub a}V∂{sub b}V≪V{sup 2}/M{sub p}{sup 2} (where G{sub ab} is the target-space metric). They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on V because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides one particular example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for its background evolution. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization of the single-field Cuscuton models. The multi-field case introduces a new feature, however: the scalar kinetic terms define a target-space 2-form, F{sub ab}, whose antisymmetry gives new ways for slow roll to be achieved.

  11. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  12. Roll and roll-to-roll process scaling through development of a compact flexo unit for printing of back electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    We report manufacture of fully printed and coated polymer solar cells on a small scale roll-to-roll coater representing the intermediate scale between laboratory and pilot scale. We highlight the enormous span in scale between the laboratory scale and the intended industrial scale by a factor...... electrode printing that is parsimonious in terms of ink usage and more gentle than laboratory scale flexo units where the foil transport is either driven by the flexo unit or the flexo unit is driven by the foil transport. We demonstrate fully operational flexible polymer solar cell manufacture using...

  13. Influence of sway motion on passive anti-rolling tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The passive anti-rolling tank is one of important ship stabilizers widely used today. But at present, research of the tank is most aimed at its rolling movement. In this paper, the influence of sway motion on the passive anti-rolling tank is considered, the mathematical model of "ship-passive anti-rolling tank" system coupled with sway motion is developed basing on the U-shaped passive anti-rolling tank theory. Both simulation results and experimental data indicate that it is necessary to consider the influence of sway motion on the anti-rolling tank, which is more agreeable to the actual circumstance.

  14. Measurement of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    by the fric-tion conditions. To achieve this important informa-tion, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are re-quested. The direction of the friction stresses is changing during the rolling gap. At the entrance of the de-formation zone, the peripherical velocity...... of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll, generating frictional stresses contrary to the direction of rolling...

  15. FE Simulation of the Stress-Strain State during Shear-Compression Testing and Asymmetric Three-Roll Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-roll rolling process is a significant technique in the production of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles for structural applications. Better mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles can be achieved due to large plastic deformation by the three-roll rolling process. Asymmetric rolling is a novel technique characterized by a kinematic asymmetry linked to the difference in peripheral speed of the rolls, able to introduce additional shear strains through the bar thickness. Physical simulation of shear strain, which is similar to that occurring in asymmetric three-roll rolling process, is very important for design of technology of producing ultrafine grain materials. Shear testing is complicated by the fact that a state of large shear is not easily achievable in most specimen geometries. Application of the shear-compression testing and specimen geometry to physical simulation of asymmetric three-roll rolling process is discussed in the paper. FEM simulation and comparison of the stress-strain state during shear-compression testing and asymmetric three-roll rolling process is presented. The results of investigation can be used to optimize the physical simulation of asymmetric three-roll rolling processes and for design of technology of producing ultrafine grain materials by severe plastic deformation.

  16. Investigation of the Chinese rolling tongue consonants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ligang; Keni'ti Kido

    2000-01-01

    Some special monosyllabic Chinese words which contain rolling tongue consonants are discussed. Based on the spectrum analysis, the special characteristic is found at a frequency higher than 3 kHz. The distinction is not only in the consonant part but also in the vowel part.The people in the north region of China distinguish the rolling tongue consonants from the straight tongue consonants both in utterance and in hearing, but those in the south region of China do not. The results of the hearing investigation using synthesized speech show that the consonant part corresponding to the normal one has more effect than the vowel part on the recognition of the words containing the rolling tongue consonant.

  17. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  18. Can Quintessence Be the Rolling Tachyon?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新洲; 郝建纲; 刘道军

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the recent works by Sen (hep-th/0203211, hep-th/0203265, hep-th/0204143) and Gibbons (helth/0204008), we present a phase-plane analysis on the cosmology containing a rolling tachyon field in a potential resulting from string theory. We show that there is no stable point on the phase-plane, which indicates that there is a coincidence problem if we consider the tachyon as a candidate for quintessence. Furthermore, we also analyse the phase-plane of the cosmology containing a rolling tachyon field for an exactly solvable toy potential in which the critical point is stable. Therefore, it is possible for the rolling tachyon to be a candidate for quintessence if we give up the strict constraint on the potential or find a more appropriate effective potential for the tachyon from M/string theory.

  19. Mirror averaging with sparsity priors

    CERN Document Server

    Dalalyan, Arnak

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.

  20. Computer Aided Filter Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14

  1. A unified Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    When considering problems of linear sequential estimation, two versions of the Kalman filter, the continuous-time version and the discrete-time version, are often used. (A hybrid filter also exists.) In many applications in which the Kalman filter is used, the system to which the filter is applied is a linear continuous-time system, but the Kalman filter is implemented on a digital computer, a discrete-time device. The two general approaches for developing a discrete-time filter for implementation on a digital computer are: (1) approximate the continuous-time system by a discrete-time system (called discretization of the continuous-time system) and develop a filter for the discrete-time approximation; and (2) develop a continuous-time filter for the system and then discretize the continuous-time filter. Generally, the two discrete-time filters will be different, that is, it can be said that discretization and filter generation are not, in general, commutative operations. As a result, any relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time versions of the filter for the same continuous-time system is often obfuscated. This is particularly true when an attempt is made to generate the continuous-time version of the Kalman filter through a simple limiting process (the sample period going to zero) applied to the discrete-time version. The correct result is, generally, not obtained. In a 1961 research report, Kalman showed that the continuous-time Kalman filter can be obtained from the discrete-time Kalman filter by taking limits as the sample period goes to zero if the white noise process for the continuous-time version is appropriately defined. Using this basic concept, a discrete-time Kalman filter can be developed for a continuous-time system as follows: (1) discretize the continuous-time system using Kalman's technique; and (2) develop a discrete-time Kalman filter for that discrete-time system. Kalman's results show that the discrete-time filter generated in

  2. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    . The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Study on Influence of Initial Rolling Temperature for Rolling Process Based on Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Licheng; LIU Bo; XING Sufang; ZHANG Runli

    2006-01-01

    Wire rolling is a typical large deformation process and its principle is very complex, which includes material non-linearity, geometry non-linearity and boundary non-linearity. It is difficult to obtain theory analytical results by trying to roll or physical experiment because they will induce many problems such as high cost, waste time and venture. With the rapid advancement of computing technology and numerical method, the finite element method is regarded as the best one, which can account for the large plastic deformation, thermo-mechanical coupling and complex boundary conditions of the rollers and the workpiece interactions in the rolling process. Under the different initial rolling temperature, the two-pass hot continuous rolling process of high-speed wire has been simulated accurately for the pre-finishing rolling section. The metal fluxion law and the deformation field have been obtained. Strain, temperature, rolling force and torque also have been simulated and discussed. The results of simulation are useful for practical manufacture and the optimization of process-parameters.

  4. Time calibration of thermal rolling shutter infrared cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Louarroudi, E.; De Greef, D.; Vanlanduit, S.; Dirckx, J. J. J.; Steenackers, G.

    2017-01-01

    The working principle of nearly all uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging systems is based on the rolling shutter principle. This results in time delays between rows giving rise to distorted and blurred images which are difficult to correlate with, for example instantaneous numerical simulation results for nondestructive evaluation. Until today high-end and high-cost thermal cameras need to be used for instantaneous measurements. Furthermore, quantitative defect evaluation on average conductive materials is difficult to perform as a result of the rolling shutter blur of the uncooled cameras. In this contribution, a time delay compensation method is designed. The developed algorithm is described and a measurement routine is elaborated to measure the inter- and intra-frame delays between two pixels. Finally, an artificial global shutter image sequence is developed using linear interpolation between the original fluctuating frames. We will show that by applying our proposed method, the intra-frame delay can be predicted and compensated with an accuracy of 16 μs . Besides, there is only made use of low-cost equipment to provide a straight-forward methodology which makes it applicable for the further integration of low-cost microbolometers in industry. This means that we have made the application of low-cost microbolometers feasible for instantaneous measurements.

  5. Influence of cold rolling and annealing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity of an artificial microcomposite Cu-18% Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Stepanov, N. D.; Salishchev, G. A.; Pantsyrnyi, V. I.; Khlebova, N. E.

    2010-11-01

    The influence of cold rolling and subsequent annealing at different temperatures on the micro-structure, strength properties, and electrical conductivity of a microcomposite Cu-18% Nb alloy fabricated by bundling and deformation is studied. A composite billet is rolled up to a total true strain of 3.5 and 5.1. After rolling, a nanocrystalline structure is obtained with an average filament width of 70-100 nm depending on the rolling strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the rolled foils is 867-934 MPa and the electrical conductivity is 19-40% of the pure copper conductivity. It is shown that annealing at 550°C results in an increase in the conductivity from 40 to 60% at a retained strength (microhardness) of the alloy.

  6. A study on centrifugal casting of high speed steel roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    High speed steel (HSS) rolls can replace traditional rolls such as alloyed cast iron rolls and powder metallurgical (PM) hard alloy rolls. The main reasons for the replacement are that the wear resistance of low-cost alloyed cast iron rolls is poor and the cost of high-quality PM hard alloy rolls is very high. By means of centrifugal casting, HSS rolls having excellent wear resistance have been manufactured. The hardness of the HSS roll is 65~ 67 HRC, the range of variation is smaller than 2 HRC and its impact toughness is 15 J/cm2. The wear rate of HSS rolls used in the pre-finishing stands of high-speed hot wire-rod rolling mill reaches 2.5 × 10-4 mm per ton steel. Furthermore, the manufacturing cost of HSS rolls is significantly lower than that of PM hard alloy rolls; it is only 30 percent of that of PM hard alloy rolls.

  7. Roll waves numerical simulation in closed channels

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Utilizando um método numérico especializado em problemas hiperbólicos chamado Riemann Solver, é feito um estudo para avaliar o processo de evolução de roll waves em canais fechados. Todo o estudo se baseia em fenômenos de propagação de ondas hiperbólicas do tipo ondas de gravidade. Foi utilizado um modelo unidimensional para representar a dinâmica das roll waves. Inicialmente foi feita uma análise das velocidades características envolvidas, a qual indicou, para o arranjo estratificado...

  8. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre....... Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TY - JOUR T1 - Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping......, Issue 2, Autumn 2007 ER - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Always review your references for accuracy and make any necessary corrections before using. Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here...

  9. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...... upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated...

  10. Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Donald A.

    1982-06-01

    Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of the understory of these crown streets after two fires showed uncharred tree trunks along a center line. This evidence supports a hypothesis of vortex action causing strong downward motion of air along the streets. Additionally, photographs of two ongoing crown fires show apparent horizontal roll vortices. Discussion also includes laboratory and numerical studies in fluid dynamics that may apply to crown fires.

  11. A Granular Model of Rolling Grain Ripples

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, K H

    1999-01-01

    A simple model is presented for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow from a surface wave. The model is related to physical parameters of the problem, and is solved for the equilibrium spacing and height of the ripples. Good agreement between the model and measurements of rolling grain ripples is demonstrated. It is found that the length of the ripples scale with the square-root of the non-dimensional shear stress on a flat bed.

  12. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

  14. Influence of Strip Bite Time in Work Rolls Gap on Dynamic Loads in Strip Rolling Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiukh Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons of increase of dynamic coefficients of main drive lines are discussed. Methods of their calculation and technical solutions for their reduction are offered by means of increase of elastic torsion angle of main drive lines during unsteady rolling when metal bites happen. According to results of calculations of elastic shaft-energy accumulator it was recommended to install it in motor section of #4A rolling stand of hot rolling mill 1700 of PJSC ‘ILYICH iron and steel works’ (Mariupol city, Ukraine.

  15. On the bi-dimensional variational decomposition applied to nonstationary vibration signals for rolling bearing crack detection in coal cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chao; Peng, Z.

    2016-06-01

    This work aims to detect rolling bearing cracks using a variational approach. An original method that appropriately incorporates bi-dimensional variational mode decomposition (BVMD) into discriminant diffusion maps (DDM) is proposed to analyze the nonstationary vibration signals recorded from the cracked rolling bearings in coal cutters. The advantage of this variational decomposition based diffusion map (VDDM) method in comparison to the current DDM is that the intrinsic vibration mode of the crack can be filtered into a limited bandwidth in the frequency domain with an estimated central frequency, thus discarding the interference signal components in the vibration signals and significantly improving the crack detection performance. In addition, the VDDM is able to simultaneously process two-channel sensor signals to reduce information leakage. Experimental validation using rolling bearing crack vibration signals demonstrates that the VDDM separated the raw signals into four intrinsic modes, including one roller vibration mode, one roller cage vibration mode, one inner race vibration mode, and one outer race vibration mode. Hence, reliable fault features were extracted from the outer race vibration mode, and satisfactory crack identification performance was achieved. The comparison between the proposed VDDM and existing approaches indicated that the VDDM method was more efficient and reliable for crack detection in coal cutter rolling bearings. As an effective catalyst for rolling bearing crack detection, this newly proposed method is useful for practical applications.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMAL FILTERS OBTAINED THROUGH CONVOLUTION METHODS, USED FOR FINGERPRINT IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin LUPU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of optimal filters through covolution methods, necessary for restoring, correcting and improving fingerprints acquired from a sensor, able to provide the most ideal image in the output. After the image was binarized and equalized, Canny filter is applied in order to: eliminate the noise (filtering the image with a Gaussian filter, non-maxima suppression, module gradient adaptive binarization and extension edge points edges by hysteresis. The resulting image after applying Canny filter is not ideal. It is possible that the result will be an image with very fragmented edges and many pores in ridge. For the resulting image, a bank of convolution filters are applied one after another (Kirsch, Laplace, Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, Frei-Chen, averaging convolution filter, circular convolution filter, lapacian convolution filter, gaussian convolution filter, LoG convolution filter, DoG, inverted filters, Wiener, the filter of ”equalization of the power spectrum” (intermediary filter between the Wiener filter and the inverted filter, the geometrical average filter , etc. with different features.

  17. Three-zone pupil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  18. NON-CENTRAL ROLLING OF FLAT WORKS WITH TAPERED THICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Isaevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of forming of variable shape strips with rolling in non-drive waves with rounding by the movable arbor strip is analyzed. The way of rolling with derivation of speeds of deforming instruments is offered.

  19. Generalized Mathematical Model for Hot Rolling Process of Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenshan CUI; Bingye XU

    2003-01-01

    A generalized mathematical model is developed to predict the changes of temperature, rolling pressure, strain,strain rate, and austenite grain size for plate hot rolling and cooling processes. The model is established mainly by incorporating analytical an

  20. Optimal Portfolio Strategy under Rolling Economic Maximum Drawdown Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojian Yu; Siyu Xie; Weijun Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal portfolio strategy under the constraints of rolling economic maximum drawdown. A more practical strategy is developed by using rolling Sharpe ratio in computing the allocation proportion in contrast to existing models. Besides, another novel strategy named “REDP strategy” is further proposed, which replaces the rolling economic drawdown of the portfolio with the rolling economic drawdown of the risky asset. The simulation tests prove that REDP stra...

  1. Research on Frequency Response Characteristics of Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiZhengguo; ZhangKenan

    2005-01-01

    The measurement method of frequency response characteristics for rolling mill is established by imposing different signal excitation on PID input of rolling mill under the different rolling conditions. The analysis results declare that sweep sine signal was relative efficient to evaluation for the frequency response character of hydraulic system. The practical application shows that the corresponding relationship between the parameters and the frequency response range of the rolling mill is helpful for parameters verification of process control and condition monitoring of hydraulic system.

  2. Application of directed-miss guidance for roll-pointing of unidirectional warheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, J. E.

    1981-08-01

    A directed-miss (DM) guidance law is presented which allows the integration of terminal guidance and roll pointing of a unidirectional warhead. This guidance law was derived using assumptions similar to those used for derivations of proportional navigation, and the relationship between proportional navigation and DM guidance was demonstrated. The DM guidance law was implemented in a thorough 6-DOF simulation of an air breathing air-to-air missile along with a generic model for seeker signal processing, guidance filtering and glint noise.

  3. Crowdsourcing Rock N' Roll Multimedia Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G.M. Snoek; B. Freiburg; J. Oomen; R. Ordelman

    2010-01-01

    In this technical demonstration, we showcase a multimedia search engine that facilitates semantic access to archival rock n' roll concert video. The key novelty is the crowdsourcing mechanism, which relies on online users to improve, extend, and share, automatically detected results in video fragmen

  4. Improved measurement methods for railway rolling noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Janssens, M.H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the issues related to railway noise type testing are discussed and potential improvements to existing procedures are put forward. New and improved methods that also go beyond the scope of type testing are presented that help to characterize and analyze rolling noise more accurately. These

  5. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  6. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  8. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have shown several incidents with dramatic damage on container vessels caused by parametric resonance. When the resonance starts, the roll oscillation at a sub-harmonic frequency of the wave excitation may be completely unexpected. Timely warning about the onset of the resonance phen...

  9. The riddles of rock and roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order ra

  10. Malaria. Can WHO roll back malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, M

    2000-10-20

    In October 1998, World Health Organization Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland announced Roll Back Malaria, a multiagency crusade that aims to cut malaria mortality in half over the next 10 years. Brundtland might just be the one to pull it off, say numerous public health experts, although some researchers question whether the goal is realistic.

  11. Discrete particle modelling of granular roll waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    A granular current flowing down an inclined chute or plane can undergo an instability that leads to the formation of surface waves, known as roll waves. Examples of roll waves are found in avalanches and debris flows in landslides, and in many industrial processes. Although related to the Kapitza instability of viscous fluid films, granular roll waves are not yet as well understood. Laboratory experiments typically measure the surface height and velocity of a current as functions of position and time, but they do not give insight into the processes below the surface: in particular, the possible formation of a boundary layer at the free surface as well as the base. To overcome this, we are running discrete particle model (DPM) simulations. Simulations are validated against our laboratory experiments, but they also allow us to examine a much larger range of parameters, such as material properties, chute geometry and particle size dispersity, than that which is possible in the lab. We shall present results from simulations in which we vary particle size and dispersity, and examine the implications on roll wave formation and propagation. Future work will include simulations in which the shape of the chute is varied, both cross-sectionally and in the downstream direction. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Research Fellowship (Vriend).

  12. The riddles of rock and roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order ra

  13. 33 CFR 159.107 - Rolling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rolling test. 159.107 Section 159.107 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... the plane of the bottom of the device, and parallel to any tank baffles. The device must then...

  14. Lederens rolle i den innovative praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voxted, Søren; Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    Rapporten er afrapportering af forskningsprojektet 'Lederens rolle i den innovative praksis'. Gennem 12 måneder fulgte de tre forfattere ledere syv ledere forskellige steder i den offentlige sektor for at se, hvordan de gennem innovation håndtere de forandringskrav deres respektive organisationer...

  15. Assurance of operate reliability of rolling stock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gubacheva; L.A.; Naish; N.; M.

    2005-01-01

    The safety of movement of rolling stock is mainly related to operate reliability of conjugated parts of running carriages which are characterized by their ability of no failure operation in complex conditions of service and have a sufficient high strength and wear resistance.……

  16. Assurance of operate reliability of rolling stock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The safety of movement of rolling stock is mainly related to operate reliability of conjugated parts of running carriages which are characterized by their ability of no failure operation in complex conditions of service and have a sufficient high strength and wear resistance.

  17. Design of Rolling State Observers for Application to Control of Thickness and Tension in Rolling Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Koofigar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the necessity of designing state observers to be used in controller synthesis for rolling processes. This is motivated by the fact that using several kinds of sensors for measuring all of process variables is technically and economically avoided. On the other hand, using exact measurement in feedback control systems could considerably improve the quality of products. In other word, there is a trade-off between high quality and the implementation limitations, managed here by developing rolling state observers. The proposed observers estimate the states not measured directly by the installed sensors. This technique is applicable to both hot rolling and cold rolling processes. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation algorithm.

  18. Optimization of Roll Bonding by Hot Rolling in Experimental and Industrial Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the major topic were the bonding properties of the layer-clad aluminum sheets. The bonding was performed between AlMn1Si0.8 and AlSi10 alloys using hot rolling (a VON ROLL experimental duo mill. The experimental temperatures were 460, 480 and 500°C. The goodness of bonding was tested by tensile test and T-peel test. T-peel test provided a good description about the quality of bonding. Structure analysis was also performed by light microscopy to detect typical bonding faults. The aim of this investigation is modelling the bonding conformation in experimental conditions. Further aim of this investigation is to produce some typical bonding faults and find the cause of formation. The influence of the rolling temperature and surface roughness on the bonding was also analyzed. Rolling schedule and the role of first pass on the development of perfect bonding were experimentally determined.

  19. Development of a rolling technology for twin-roll cast magnesium strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ullmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the best lightweight potential of all metallic construction materials, magnesium primarily helps to increase energy efficiency over the lifecycle of automotive and non-automotive industrial products. Yet to assess overall energy efficiency, the production process must also be taken into account. This paper provides an insight into the energy-efficient production of magnesium strips up to 0,8 mm in thickness based on twin-roll casting and strip rolling on an industrial scale, as developed at the Institute of Metal Forming at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany in cooperation with MgF Magnesium Flachprodukte GmbH (Germ any. The technology of twin-roll casting and strip rolling on a four-high reversing mill is described.

  20. Sub-optimality analysis of mobile robot rolling path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯刚; 席裕庚

    2003-01-01

    Rolling planning is an efficient method for path planning in uncertain environment. In this paper, the general principle and algorithm of mobile robot path planning based on rolling windows are studied. The sub-optimality of rolling path planning is analyzed in details and explained with a concrete example.

  1. Simulation of damage evolution during hot ring rolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Ring rolling provides a cost-effective process route for manufacturing seamless rings. The bearing rings, i.e. the inner race and the outer race of a rolling bearing, are typically manufactured by the hot ring rolling process. Bearing steels have a relatively high alloy content for improved hardenab

  2. Tool deformation during the shape rolling of stator vanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tool deformation is an important issue in the shape rolling of stator vanes as it directly influences the thickness of the rolled vane. This means that for the design of an accurate production process the deformation of the tools has to be accounted for. The shape rolling of symmetrical straight van

  3. NORMAL PRESSURE AND FRICTION STRESS MEASUREMENT IN ROLLING PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Lagergren, Jonas;

    2005-01-01

    A load transducer has been developed to measure the contact forces in the deformation zone during rolling. The transducer consists of a strain gauge equipped insert, embedded in the surface of the roll. The length of the insert exceeds the contact length between material and roll. By analyzing...

  4. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available induced during roll compaction of titanium strips were measured for strips of different densities. The different densities were achieved by rolling two different particle size (100 and 325 mesh) titanium powders varying the roll gap (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm...

  5. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  6. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana de Paula Martins; André Luis Moreira de Carvalho; Angelo Fernando Padilha

    2012-01-01

    A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC) process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1) to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2) to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001}

  7. Roll-to-Roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    With the prospect of extremely fast manufacture of very low cost devices, organic electronics prepared by thin film processing techniques that are compatible with roll-to-roll (R2R) methods are presently receiving an increasing interest. Several technologies using organic thin films...... research fields such as organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors, light-emitting diodes, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and electrochromic devices. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 000: 000–000, 2012...

  8. Optimization of Rolling Force Distribution Based on Niche Genetic Algorithm in Continuous Hot Rolling Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zi-ping; LI Li-xin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the niche genetic algorithm, the intelligent and optimizing model for the rolling force distribution in hot strip mills was put forward. The research showed that the model had many advantages such as fast searching speed, high calculating pre-cision and suiting for on-line calculation. A good strip shape could be achieved by using the model and it is appropriate and practica-ble for rolling producing.

  9. Noncontact conductivity and dielectric measurement for high throughput roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Orloff, Nathan D.; Long, Christian J; Jan Obrzut; Laurent Maillaud; Francesca Mirri; Kole, Thomas P.; McMichael, Robert D.; Matteo Pasquali; Stranick, Stephan J.; J. Alexander Liddle

    2015-01-01

    Advances in roll-to-roll processing of graphene and carbon nanotubes have at last led to the continuous production of high-quality coatings and filaments, ushering in a wave of applications for flexible and wearable electronics, woven fabrics, and wires. These applications often require specific electrical properties, and hence precise control over material micro- and nanostructure. While such control can be achieved, in principle, by closed-loop processing methods, there are relatively few n...

  10. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  11. Crux vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin H; Johnson, Eric D; Kopchok, George E; Fogarty, Thomas J; Arko, Frank R

    2009-09-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are widely accepted for pulmonary embolic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. While long-term complications have been associated with permanent filters, retrievable filters are now available and have resulted in the rapid expansion of this technology. Nonetheless, complications are still reported with optional filters. Furthermore, device tilting and thrombus load may prevent retrieval in up to 30% of patients, thereby eliminating the benefits of this technology. The Crux vena cava filter is a novel, self-centering, low-profile filter that is designed for ease of delivery, retrievability and improved efficacy while limiting fatigue-related device complications. This device has been proven safe and user-friendly in an ovine model and has recently been implanted in human subjects.

  12. CrowdFilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Lind; Wallace, Byron C.; Kraska, Tim

    for complex multi-criteria search problems through crowdsourcing. The CrowdFilter system is capable of supporting both criteria-level labels and n-gram rationales, capturing the human decision making process behind each filtering choice. Using the data provided through CrowdFilter we also introduce a novel......Multi-criteria filtering of mixed open/closed-world data is a time-consuming task, requiring significant manual effort when latent open-world attributes are present. In this work we introduce a novel open-world filtering framework CrowdFilter, enabling automatic UI generation and label elicitation...... multi-criteria active learning method; capable of incorporating labels and n-gram rationales per inclusion criteria, and thus capable of determining both clear includes/excludes, as well as complex borderline cases. By incorporating the active learning approach into the elicitation process of Crowd...

  13. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  14. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.

    2006-01-01

    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase ...... and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and showed good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded and simulated signals.......The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase...... selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust...

  15. Laser direct write system for fabricating seamless roll-to-roll lithography tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzelka, Joseph E.; Hardt, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Implementations of roll to roll contact lithography require new approaches towards manufacturing tooling, including stamps for roll to roll nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and soft lithography. Suitable roll based tools must have seamless micro- or nano-scale patterns and must be scalable to roll widths of one meter. The authors have developed a new centrifugal stamp casting process that can produce uniform cylindrical polymer stamps in a scalable manner. The pattern on the resulting polymer tool is replicated against a corresponding master pattern on the inner diameter of a centrifuge drum. This master pattern is created in photoresist using a UV laser direct write system. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a laser direct write system targeting the internal diameter of a rotating drum. The design uses flying optics to focus a laser beam along the axis of the centrifuge drum and to redirect the beam towards the drum surface. Experimental patterning results show uniform coatings of negative photoresist in the centrifuge drum that are effectively patterned with a 405 nm laser diode. Seamless patterns are shown to be replicated in a 50 mm diameter, 60 mm long cylindrical stamp made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Direct write results show gratings with line widths of 10 microns in negative photoresist. Using an FPGA, the laser can be accurately timed against the centrifuge encoder to create complex patterns.

  16. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  17. Roll-to-roll embossing of optical linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XinQuan; Liu, Kui; Shan, Xuechuan; Liu, Yuchan

    2014-12-15

    Roll-to-roll manufacturing has been proven to be a high-throughput and low-cost technology for continuous fabrication of functional optical polymer films. In this paper, we have firstly studied a complete manufacturing cycle of linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration in the aspects of ultra-precision diamond machining of metal roller mold, roll-to-roll embossing, and measurement on film profile and functionality. A metal roller mold patterned with linear Fresnel lenses is obtained using single point diamond turning technique. The roller mold is installed onto a self-developed roll-to-roll UV embossing system to realize continuous manufacturing of linear Fresnel lens film. Profile measurement of the machined roller mold and the embossed polymer film, which is conducted using a stylus profilometer, shows good agreement between measured facet angles with designed ones. Functionality test is conducted on a solar simulation system with a reference solar cell, and results show that strong light concentration is realized.

  18. Rolling Force Prediction in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on Uniform Differential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the rolling force is critical to assuring the quality of the final product in steel manufacturing. Exit thickness of plate for each pass is calculated from roll gap, mill spring, and predicted roll force. Ideal pass scheduling is dependent on a precise prediction of the roll force in each pass. This paper will introduce a concept that allows obtaining the material model parameters directly from the rolling process on an industrial scale by the uniform differential neural network. On the basis of the characteristics that the uniform distribution can fully characterize the solution space and enhance the diversity of the population, uniformity research on differential evolution operator is made to get improved crossover with uniform distribution. When its original function is transferred with a transfer function, the uniform differential evolution algorithms can quickly solve complex optimization problems. Neural network structure and weights threshold are optimized by uniform differential evolution algorithm, and a uniform differential neural network is formed to improve rolling force prediction accuracy in process control system.

  19. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  20. Fundamentals of Stochastic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of stochastic filtering is to determine the best estimate for the state of a stochastic dynamical system from partial observations. The solution of this problem in the linear case is the well known Kalman-Bucy filter which has found widespread practical application. The purpose of this book is to provide a rigorous mathematical treatment of the non-linear stochastic filtering problem using modern methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the theoretical analysis of numerical methods for the solution of the filtering problem via particle methods. The book should provide sufficient

  1. A 3-D miniaturized high selectivity bandpass filter in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission zeros are used to improve the roll-off factors of filters but as a consequence, the out-of-band rejection decreases. In this work, an LTCC filter design is presented which employs a series inductor (implemented as a via hole) to improve the out-of-band rejection by introducing a third transmission zero. The filter, designed for GPS band (1.57 GHz), has one of the smallest reported foot prints ((0.063×0.048×0.005)λg) and demonstrates the highest roll off factor (16.7 dB/100 MHz) for this band. With only four LTCC layers, the design is cost effective and thus highly suitable for miniaturized, ultra-thin system-on-package applications. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  2. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... party group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 16504, April 1, 2010) were adequate. A record... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... Brazil and Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia. SUMMARY:...

  3. Development of centrifugal casting high speed steel rolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanguang Fu; Aimin Zhao; Jiandong Xing

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims at developing the high speed steel (HSS) as roll materials to replace the traditional roll materials such as the alloy cast iron and powder metallurgical (PM) hard alloy. The HSS roll billet was formed by centrifugal casting, and the billet was rough machined after soften annealing heat treatment, then it was quenched and tempered to get suitable hardness and toughness. After that the HSS roll was finish machined to the final dimension of φ285 mm in the outer diameter, φ160 mm in the inner diameter and 120 mm in width and its surface hardness was tested. Finally the HSS roll was used in high speed wire rod mill. The test results show that a high and homogeneous hardness can obtain on the work surface of HSS rolls, the surface hardness is 63-65HRC and its variation is smaller than 2HRC. The impact toughness of this kind of HSS is about 16 J/cra2. The results of on-line service investigation in high speed wire rod mill indicate that the HSS rolls have excellent wear resistance, the steel rolling quantity per mm of HSS rolls is 3120 t, the service life-span of HSS rolls is 4 times longer than that of high chromium cast iron rolls and it is close to that of the PM hard alloy rolls. The manufacturing burden of HSS rolls is obviously lower than that of the PM hard alloy rolls, it is only 25% of that of the PM hard alloy rolls.

  4. Upgrading of the Mono Media Filters in Water Treatment Plants by Changing Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackground and Objectives:Dual media filters have two different layer beds consist of sand and Anthracite. Advantage of dual media filters is longer run duration and more filtration rate. The purpose of this study was to achieve a performable model to improve single media Filters in water treatment plants."nMaterials and Methods: in this cross-sectional study, two pilots; mono and dual media were made and in a 5 month period samples taking were done. Total samples taken from input and output of each pilot, was 40. The samples then introduced for the measurment of turbidity and total organic carbon. Meanwhile the filters head loss also quantified in 40 times head loss measurement was done."nResults: Average turbidity removal in mono and two layer pilots were 63 and 65 percent respectively. Average removal of Total Organic Carbon in mono and two media pilots were 40 and 66 percent respectively. Head loss in dual and single media pilots were 0 .68 and 1.15 m respectively."nConclusion: Although average torbidity removal disparity between two pilots was not significant the amount of total organic carbon removed was considerable. Average head loss in single media pilot was more than dual media type. Ratio of UFRV in dual media to mono media filter was 51:30 it shows that filtration rate capacity will be improved up to70 percent by changing media type.

  5. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 strip

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Ikawa, M; H.Watari; S. Kumai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin aluminum alloy strip. 6016aluminum alloy is used for sheet metal of the automobile. Therefore, casting of 6016 was tried in this study.Castability and characteristics of roll cast 6016 strip were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. The 6016 could...

  6. Roll caster for the three-layer clad-strip

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, R; T. Yamabayashi; T. Haga; S. Kumai; H. Watari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to show the characteristics of two kinds of roll casters for three-layer clad strip of aluminium alloys. Moreover, the characteristics of these twin roll casters were compeered with the early type of roll casters for clad strip.Design/methodology/approach: Design was tried to attain the fabrication of the roll casters to cast the three-layers-clad-strip. One caster was an unequal diameter roll caster equipped with a scraper. The scraper was adopted to prevent the mix...

  7. Static measurements of slender delta wing rolling moment hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Levin, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Slender delta wing planforms are susceptible to self-induced roll oscillations due to aerodynamic hysteresis during the limit cycle roll oscillation. Test results are presented which clearly establish that the static rolling moment hysteresis has a damping character; hysteresis tends to be greater when, due to either wing roll or side slip, the vortex burst moves back and forth over the wing trailing edge. These data are an indirect indication of the damping role of the vortex burst during limit cycle roll oscillations.

  8. Toward large-area roll-to-roll printed nanophotonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Hiltunen, Jussi; Aikio, Sanna M.; Alajoki, Teemu; Tuominen, Jarkko; Hiltunen, Marianne; Siitonen, Samuli; Kontturi, Ville; Böhlen, Karl; Hauser, Rene; Charlton, Martin; Boersma, Arjen; Lieberzeit, Peter; Felder, Thorsten; Eustace, David; Haskal, Eliav

    2014-05-01

    Polymers have become an important material group in fabricating discrete photonic components and integrated optical devices. This is due to their good properties: high optical transmittance, versatile processability at relative low temperatures and potential for low-cost production. Recently, nanoimprinting or nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has obtained a plenty of research interest. In NIL, a mould is pressed against a substrate coated with a moldable material. After deformation of the material, the mold is separated and a replica of the mold is formed. Compared with conventional lithographic methods, imprinting is simple to carry out, requires less-complicated equipment and can provide high-resolution with high throughput. Nanoimprint lithography has shown potential to become a method for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication of nanostructures. We show the development process of nano-structured, large-area multi-parameter sensors using Photonic Crystal (PC) and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) methodologies for environmental and pharmaceutical applications. We address these challenges by developing roll-to-roll (R2R) UV-nanoimprint fabrication methods. Our development steps are the following: Firstly, the proof of concept structures are fabricated by the use of wafer-level processes in Si-based materials. Secondly, the master molds of successful designs are fabricated, and they are used to transfer the nanophotonic structures into polymer materials using sheet-level UV-nanoimprinting. Thirdly, the sheet-level nanoimprinting processes are transferred to roll-to-roll fabrication. In order to enhance roll-to-roll manufacturing capabilities, silicone-based polymer material development was carried out. In the different development phases, Photonic Crystal and SERS sensor structures with increasing complexities were fabricated using polymer materials in order to enhance sheet-level and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. In addition, chemical and molecular

  9. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  10. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean

    2017-10-01

    A major goal of the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is to enable high-performance research reactors to operate with low-enriched uranium rather than the high-enriched uranium currently used. To this end, uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) represents an ideal candidate because of its stable gamma phase, low neutron caption cross section, acceptable swelling response, and predictable irradiation behavior. However, because of the complexities of the fuel design and the need for rolled monolithic U-10Mo foils, new developments in processing and fabrication are necessary. This study used a finite-element code, LS-DYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog-boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated: hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling. Simulation results demonstrated that reducing the mismatch in strength between the coupon and can material improves the quality of the rolled sheet. Bare-rolling simulation results showed a defect-free rolled coupon. The finite-element model developed and presented in this study can be used to conduct parametric studies of several process parameters (e.g., rolling speed, roll diameter, can material, and reduction).

  11. Troll, a Language for specifying Dice-rolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2009-01-01

    natural language to describe rolls. Even Dungeons & Dragons use formal notation only for some of the dice-roll methods used in the game. Hence, a more complete notation is in this paper proposed, and a tool for pseudo-random rolls and (nearly) exact probability calculations is described. The notation......Dice are used in many games, and often in fairly complex ways that make it difficult to unambiguously describe the dice-roll mechanism in plain language. Many role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, use a formalised notation for some instances of dice-rolls. This notation, once explained...... is called "Troll", combining the initial of the Danish word for dice ("terninger") with the English word "roll". It is a development of the language Roll described in an earlier paper. The present paper describes the most important features of Troll and its implementation....

  12. Measurement of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    For the rolling process, knowledge about interface conditions is important since it directly influences the maximum reduction ratio and thereby the num-ber of steps required for a given reduction. The mechanical properties of the produced sheet and the surface quality of it are also influenced...... by the fric-tion conditions. To achieve this important informa-tion, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are re-quested. The direction of the friction stresses is changing during the rolling gap. At the entrance of the de-formation zone, the peripherical velocity...... of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll, generating frictional stresses contrary to the direction of rolling...

  13. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  14. NBCM with Flat Roll in the Finish Stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangwei KONG; Hezhou YE; Jianzhong XU; Guodong WANG; Xianghua LIU; Junwei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    With the development of the market, it becomes a demanding task for producers to make flexible production schedules to shorten production cycle. Schedule-free rolling is needed. If the CVC work roll of the F6 and F7 stands in certain 2050 mm hot rolled strip mill are substituted by flat roll (aim to SFR) and the strip profile is controlled by the existing bending force, the control ability is not adequate. This fact has been tested through on-line experiment and has been given in this article. The NBCM (new backup roll crowning method) is recommended to improve the profile control ability. Finally the plastic deformation of the strip and the elastic deformation of the roll are analyzed by employing coupled calculation of rigid-plastic finite element method and G-function method, and the optimal range of the crown of backup roll is given theoretically.

  15. ROLLING PROCESS WITH OHSAS AND TEXTURE FORMATION– A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CHANDRAMOHAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rolling is a mechanical treatment, which plays an important part in the processing of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Texturing is an important phenomenon that occurs after rolling process. Preferred orientation increases the strength of the material enormously. Hence the research is focused on the rolling studies and the texture formation, which occurs after rolling process. This review mainly focuses on rolling process carried out in different alloys. It also highlights the analysis made on various rolling parameters for improving the mechanical properties. Texture studies carried on various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; particularly in nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel is discussed. Finally the need for implementation of occupational health and safety during a thermomechanical treatment is also discussed. The state of art in this field is encouraging and showing positive signs of commercializing rolled nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel after proper texture control.

  16. Rolling ball sifting algorithm for the augmented visual inspection of carotid bruit auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Lee, Chung-Wei; Liu, Hon-Man

    2016-07-01

    Carotid bruits are systolic sounds associated with turbulent blood flow through atherosclerotic stenosis in the neck. They are audible intermittent high-frequency (above 200 Hz) sounds mixed with background noise and transmitted low-frequency (below 100 Hz) heart sounds that wax and wane periodically. It is a nontrivial task to extract both bruits and heart sounds with high fidelity for further computer-aided auscultation and diagnosis. In this paper we propose a rolling ball sifting algorithm that is capable to filter signals with a sharper frequency selectivity mechanism in the time domain. By rolling two balls (one above and one below the signal) of a suitable radius, the balls are large enough to roll over bruits and yet small enough to ride on heart sound waveforms. The high-frequency bruits can then be extracted according to a tangibility criterion by using the local extrema touched by the balls. Similarly, the low-frequency heart sounds can be acquired by a larger radius. By visualizing the periodicity information of both the extracted heart sounds and bruits, the proposed visual inspection method can potentially improve carotid bruit diagnosis accuracy.

  17. Optical security features and filters using plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinet, Benjamin; Lütolf, Fabian; Duempelmann, Luc; Basset, Guillaume; Luu-Dinh, Angélique; Schnieper, Marc; Bosshard, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonics involves the interaction of light with metallic structures at the nanoscale, which enables in particular the generation of strong reflection and absorption effects in the visible and near infrared range. The fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures using ultra-violet (UV) imprint and thin metallic coatings is reported. Wafer-scale fabrication and process compatibility with cost-efficient roll-to-roll production are demonstrated, which paves the road towards an industrial implementation. The color, phase, polarization and direction of the transmitted light are controlled by tuning the process parameters and the symmetry of the nanostructures. A family of devices is presented, for which the potential for sensing, filtering, anticounterfeiting and optical security is evaluated.

  18. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computin

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  20. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter...

  1. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  2. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  3. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  4. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  5. Naive Bayesian for Email Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a method of email filter based on Naive Bayesian theory that can effectively filter junk mail and illegal mail. Furthermore, the keys of implementation are discussed in detail. The filtering model is obtained from training set of email. The filtering can be done without the users specification of filtering rules.

  6. Average Likelihood Methods of Classification of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    the proposition of a weight for averaging CDMA codes. This weighting function is referred in this discussion as the probability of the code matrix...Given a likelihood function of a multivariate Gaussian stochastic process (12), one can assume the values L and U and try to estimate the parameters...such as the average of the exponential functions were formulated. Averaging over a weight that depends on the TSC behaves as a filtering process where

  7. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-11155, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-91176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ({mu}). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 {mu}. If {mu} > 2/7 tan {theta}, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  8. Transfer of adhesive tape between calender rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Kauzlarich, J. J.

    2004-03-01

    In the calendering process a tape or sheet of deformable material passes through the nip between hard cylindrical rollers. Usually the rolls are driven at the same peripheral speed, but small differences in speed, often referred to as 'creep', can occur if one of the rolls is externally driven and the other is driven by the friction in the contact. In these circumstances it has been observed that a tape that enters the nip adhering to the driven (slower) surface may transfer at exit to the driving (faster) surface but not the other way round. The mechanics of this transfer process is examined theoretically and experimentally in this paper for the case of double sided adhesive tape. It is argued that on emerging from the nip the tape will separate from the surface at which the shear strain in the adhesive is greater and that for transfer to occur the contact load must be sufficient to cause plastic extension of the tape.

  9. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  10. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; 10.1088/0143-0807/32/4/017

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the article using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ($\\mu$). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the article the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is $2/7}\\ \\mu$. If $\\mu> 2/7 \\tan\\theta$, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling center of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  11. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  12. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures.

  13. Real time microcontroller implementation of an adaptive myoelectric filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, P J; Chappell, P H

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a real time digital adaptive filter for processing myoelectric signals. The filter time constant is automatically selected by the adaptation algorithm, giving a significant improvement over linear filters for estimating the muscle force and controlling a prosthetic device. Interference from mains sources often produces problems for myoelectric processing, and so 50 Hz and all harmonic frequencies are reduced by an averaging filter and differential process. This makes practical electrode placement and contact less critical and time consuming. An economic real time implementation is essential for a prosthetic controller, and this is achieved using an Intel 80C196KC microcontroller.

  14. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, S; Valarmathy, S; Prabhu, E

    2015-01-01

    Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures.

  15. Analysis of Vertical-Horizontal Coupling Vibration Characteristics of Rolling Mill Rolls Based on Strip Dynamic Deformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamic rolling forces in the vertical and horizontal directions are, respectively, established, considering the impact of vertical and horizontal directions vibration of rolls. Then a vertical-horizontal coupling nonlinear vibration dynamic model of rolling mill rolls is proposed, based on the interactions between this dynamic rolling force and mill structure. The amplitude-frequency equations of the main resonance and inner resonance are carried out by using multiple-scale method. The characteristics of amplitude frequency under nonlinear stiffness, damping, and amplitude of the disturbance are obtained by adopting the actual parameters of 1780 rolling mills. Finally, the bifurcation behavior of the system is studied, and it is found that many dynamic behaviors such as period, period-3 motion, and chaos exist in rolling mill, and this behavior could be restrained effectively by choosing proper system parameters.

  16. Constraint Cooling of Hot Rolled Coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-juan; ZHANG Chun-li

    2004-01-01

    The layer thermal conductivity during constraint cooling of hot rolled coil was described by using equivalent thermal conductivity model and finite element method. Two radial stress concentration zones in constraint cooled coil were shown by numerical analysis, and the tension stress was assumed to be the main factor to induce stress corrosion. The experimental results show that the longer the water cooling time is, the smaller the grain size and the more uniform the grains are.

  17. [WHO's malaria program Roll Back Malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrvang, B; Godal, T

    2000-05-30

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the world with 300-500 millions cases yearly and about one million deaths, mainly children in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1990s the malaria problem in Africa has increased, although we have methods to control the disease. In 1998 the new secretary general of WHO, Gro Harlem Brundtland, established the Roll Back Malaria programme, with the aim to markedly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Governments in malaria-affected countries have to take the lead in Roll Back Malaria. Their health systems must be improved and malaria control integrated into the general health system, and the methods available for prevention and treatment have to be intensified and improved. At the same time, Roll Back Malaria will encourage and promote malaria research which hopefully will result in new medicines, vaccines and other tools which will improve the chances of reducing malaria-related deaths and suffering. Roll Back Malaria is a cabinet project within the WHO, and the organisation has a key role as manager, co-ordinator and monitor of the project. However, it depends for resources on international support and commitment from other UN bodies, the World Bank, governments in the western world, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropists and other sources. At present an optimistic view prevails, and the preliminary aim, to halve the malaria mortality by the year 2010, seems realistic even with the control methods of today. However, if research efforts result in new and better tools to combat the disease, the task will definitely be easier.

  18. Damping of roll vibrations of vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.

    2014-04-01

    Small forced vibrations of an axle model of independent suspensions having four degrees of freedom are studied. The exact analytical solution of the generalised Lagrange equation enables one to produce 3D plots of the normalised amplitudes of forced vibrations versus frequency and excitation ratio or phase difference of the road inputs. The analysis of these plots exhibits some deficiency in damping of roll vibrations of conventional vehicle suspensions. The possibilities of improvement are discussed.

  19. Inhomogeneous Fragmentation of the Rolling Tachyon

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Gary N; Kofman, Lev

    2004-01-01

    Dirac-Born-Infeld type effective actions reproduce many aspects of string theory classical tachyon dynamics of unstable Dp-branes. The inhomogeneous tachyon field rolling from the top of its potential forms topological defects of lower codimensions. In between them, as we show, the tachyon energy density fragments into a p-dimensional web-like high density network evolving with time. We present an analytic asymptotic series solution of the non-linear equations for the inhomogeneous tachyon an...

  20. Contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available to that encountered along the pitch-line of gear teeth \\[1\\]. In the early stages of damage, pure rolling forms a highly polished surface, as shown in the case of a bearing cup from a large thrust (a) (b) Fig. 1. Schematic... the inner ring of a thrust bearing \\[5\\]. Extensive surface damage, probably resulting from the action of solid particles entrapped in the lubricating fluid, is clearly noticeable, as is the through- crack emanating from...

  1. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  2. Die Rolle der kommerziellen Akteure im Snowboardsport

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Im Snowboardsport spielen kommerzielle Akteure für die informelle Organisation und das Funktionieren der Sportart eine bedeutende Rolle. Der Sport wird meist unabhängig von Vereinen und Verbänden in lokalen Gruppen von Gleichgesinnten betrieben und besitzt im Gegensatz zu klassischen Sportarten eine alternative Organisationsstruktur. Die kommerziellen Akteure springen in diese Lücke und versuchen mit Wettbewerben, Showevents und Snowparks Treffpunkte und Inhalt für Szeneanhänger zu kreieren. ...

  3. Quantitative filter forensics for indoor particle sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, D; Siegel, J A

    2017-03-01

    Filter forensics is a promising indoor air investigation technique involving the analysis of dust which has collected on filters in central forced-air heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) or portable systems to determine the presence of indoor particle-bound contaminants. In this study, we summarize past filter forensics research to explore what it reveals about the sampling technique and the indoor environment. There are 60 investigations in the literature that have used this sampling technique for a variety of biotic and abiotic contaminants. Many studies identified differences between contaminant concentrations in different buildings using this technique. Based on this literature review, we identified a lack of quantification as a gap in the past literature. Accordingly, we propose an approach to quantitatively link contaminants extracted from HVAC filter dust to time-averaged integrated air concentrations. This quantitative filter forensics approach has great potential to measure indoor air concentrations of a wide variety of particle-bound contaminants. Future studies directly comparing quantitative filter forensics to alternative sampling techniques are required to fully assess this approach, but analysis of past research suggests the enormous possibility of this approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR PERIODIC AUTOREGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A useful class of models for seasonal time series that cannot be filtered or standardized to achieve second-order stationarity is that of periodic autoregressive moving average (PARMA) models, which are extensions of ARMA models that allow periodic (seasonal) parameters. An approximation to the exact likelihood for Gaussian PARMA processes is developed, and a straightforward algorithm for its maximization is presented. The algorithm is tested on several periodic ARMA(1, 1) models through simulation studies and is compared to moment estimation via the seasonal Yule-Walker equations. Applicability of the technique is demonstrated through an analysis of a seasonal stream-flow series from the Rio Caroni River in Venezuela.

  5. Assessment of personal noise exposure of overhead-traveling crane drivers in steel-rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Lin; CHAI Dong-liang; LI Hui-juan; LEI Zhuo; ZHAO Yi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Noise is widespread occupational hazard in iron and steel industry. Overhead-traveling cranes are widely used in this industry, but few studies characterized the overhead-traveling crane drivers' noise exposure level so far. In this study, we assessed and characterized personal noise exposure levels of overhead-traveling crane drivers in two steel-rolling mills.Methods One hundred and twenty-four overhead-traveling crane drivers, 76 in the cold steel-rolling mill and 48 in the hot steel-rolling mill, were enrolled in the study. Personal noise dosimeters (AIHUA Instruments Model AWA5610e,Hangzhou, China) were used to collect full-shift noise exposure data from all the participants. Crane drivers carried dosimeters with microphones placed near their collars during the work shifts. Work logs had been taken by the drivers simultaneously. Personal noise exposure data were divided into segments based on lines in which they worked. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS 13.0.Results The average personal noise exposure (LAeq.8h) of overhead-traveling crane drivers in the hot steel-rolling mills ((85.03±2.25) dB(A)) was higher than that in the cold one ((83.05±2.93) dB(A), P<0.001). There were 17 overhead traveling cranes in the hot steel-rolling mill and 24 cranes in the cold one, of which carrying capacities varied from 15 tons to 100 tons. The average noise exposure level based on different lines in the hot and cold steel-rolling mills were (85.2±2.61) dB(A) and (83.3±3.10) dB(A) respectively (P=0.001), which were similar to the average personal noise exposure in both mills. The noise exposure levels were different among different lines (P=0.021).Conclusion Noise exposure levels, depending upon background noise levels and the noise levels on the ground, are inconstant. As the noise exposure levels are above the 85 dB(A) criteria, these drivers should be involved in the Hearing Conservation Program to protect their hearing.

  6. Compaction behavior of isomalt after roll compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Mosig, Johanna; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-09-27

    The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.

  7. Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kleinebudde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.

  8. Effects of Viewpoint Jitters Onf Roll Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Nakamura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been revealed that random viewpoint jitters or periodical viewpoint oscillation superimposed in visual stimulus which simulates the observer's self-motion can enhance visually induced self-motion perception (vection, even if there are sustained conflicts between visual and vestibular information. The effects of jitter/oscillation have been confirmed both using forward self-motion induced by expanding display and horizontal linear self-motion induced laterally moving visual pattern. In the present investigation, we examined whether jitter/oscillation advantage would affect visually induced self-rotation (roll vection induced by rotating visual pattern. In psychophysical experiments with 12 undergraduate participants, we compared perceived strength of roll vection between the stimulus conditions where simulated viewpoint jitters were superimposed or not. The results indicated that viewpoint jitters significantly weakened strength of perceived self-rotation. On the other hand, random roll component superimposed in pure radial expanding pattern can enhance illusory forward self-motion. These results suggest that the effects of viewpoint jitter would affect differently on linear vection induced by expanding optical flow and circular vection induced by visual rotation.

  9. Roll-to-roll light directed electrophoretic deposition system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascall, Andrew J.; Kuntz, Joshua

    2017-06-06

    A roll-to-roll light directed electrophoretic deposition system and method advances a roll of a flexible electrode web substrate along a roll-to-roll process path, where a material source is positioned to provide on the flexible electrode web substrate a thin film colloidal dispersion of electrically charged colloidal material dispersed in a fluid. A counter electrode is also positioned to come in contact with the thin film colloidal dispersion opposite the flexible electrode web substrate, where one of the counter electrode and the flexible electrode web substrate is a photoconductive electrode. A voltage source is connected to produce an electric potential between the counter electrode and the flexible electrode web substrate to induce electrophoretic deposition on the flexible electrode web substrate when the photoconductive electrode is rendered conductive, and a patterned light source is arranged to illuminate the photoconductive electrode with a light pattern and render conductive illuminated areas of the photoconductive electrode so that a patterned deposit of the electrically charged colloidal material is formed on the flexible electrode web substrate.

  10. ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER OF WORK ROLL COOLING IN HOT ROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigo Solimani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The roll cooling in Hot Rolling of flats directly affects two fundamental characteristics of the rolls:.the durability due to surface degradation. The other is the thermal expansion, which affects the shape and dimensions of the strip. Cooling is done by water jets that need to be properly adjusted. The determination of heat transfer coefficients is essential to optimize the process and thus increase its durability and quality of the strip. Results of experimental and numerical effects of cooling using a water jet fan-shaped on a prototype roll at temperatures between 50°C and 350°C are performed. Water pressure, nozzle type and the position along the length of the fan-shaped (center and edge influence the efficiency of roll cooling. The maximum value found in the coefficient of heat transfer was 6.0 kW/m2°C, and a 14.3% difference between the center and end of the jet fan-shaped is observed.

  11. Data assimilation in the early phase: Kalman filtering RIMPUFF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Turcanu, C.; Puch, R.O.;

    2004-01-01

    of RODOS (Realtime Online DecisiOn Support system for nuclear emergencies) – has been developed. It is built on the Kalman filtering algorithm and it assimilates 10-minute averaged gamma dose rates measured atground level stations. Since the gamma rates are non-linear functions of the state vector...... variables, the applied Kalman filter is the so-called Extended Kalman filter. In more ways the implementation is non standard: 1) the number of state vectorvariables varies with time, and 2) the state vector variables are prediction updated with 1-minute time steps but only Kalman filtered every 10 minutes......, and this based on time averaged measurements. Given reasonable conditions, i.e. a spatially densedistribution of gamma monitors and a realistic wind field, the developed ADUM module is found to be able to enhance the prediction of the gamma dose field. Based on some of the Kalman filtering parameters, another...

  12. Fast O(1) bilateral filtering using trigonometric range kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kunal Narayan; Unser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that spatial averaging can be realized (in space or frequency domain) using algorithms whose complexity does not depend on the size or shape of the filter. These fast algorithms are generally referred to as constant-time or O(1) algorithms in the image processing literature. Along with the spatial filter, the edge-preserving bilateral filter [bilateralFilter] involves an additional range kernel. This is used to restrict the averaging to those neighborhood pixels whose intensity are similar or close to that of the pixel of interest. The range kernel operates by acting on the pixel intensities. This makes the averaging process non-linear and computationally intensive, especially when the spatial filter is large. In this paper, we show how the O(1) averaging algorithms can be leveraged for realizing the bilateral filter in constant-time, by using trigonometric range kernels. This is done by generalizing the idea in [bilateralFilter_fast] of using polynomial range kernels. The class of trigonomet...

  13. The advantages of a rolling foot in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D

    2006-10-01

    The plantigrade human foot rolls over the ground during each walking step, roughly analogous to a wheel. The center of pressure progresses on the ground like a wheel of radius 0.3 L (leg length). We examined the effect of varying foot curvature on the mechanics and energetics of walking. We controlled curvature by attaching rigid arc shapes of various radii to the bottoms of rigid boots restricting ankle motion. We measured mechanical work performed on the center of mass (COM), and net metabolic rate, in human subjects (N=10) walking with seven arc radii from 0.02-0.40 m. Simple models of dynamic walking predict that redirection of COM velocity requires step-to-step transition work, decreasing quadratically with arc radius. Metabolic cost would be expected to change in proportion to mechanical work. We measured the average rate of negative work performed on the COM, and found that it followed the trend well (r2=0.95), with 2.37 times as much work for small radii as for large. Net metabolic rate (subtracting quiet standing) also decreased with increasing arc radius to a minimum at 0.3 L, with a slight increase thereafter. Maximum net metabolic rate was 6.25 W kg(-1) (for small-radius arc feet), about 59% greater than the minimum rate of 3.93 W kg(-1), which in turn was about 45% greater than the rate in normal walking. Metabolic rate was fit reasonably well (r2=0.86) by a quadratic curve, but exceeded that expected from COM work for extreme arc sizes. Other factors appear to increase metabolic cost for walking on very small and very large arc feet. These factors may include effort expended to stabilize the joints (especially the knee) or to maintain balance. Rolling feet with curvature 0.3 L appear energetically advantageous for plantigrade walking, partially due to decreased work for step-to-step transitions.

  14. Structural causes of defects in a cast iron mill roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analysis of a defective microstructure of a mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll was collected. That roll was made of mottled cast iron. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed nearby the fracture in the roll. Observations were conducted on polished sections, first not etched, and then etched, which allowed us to trace carefully the propagation of the fracture. There was found a strict correlation between the microstructure of the roll and the progress occurring in the crack. It was ascertained that the basic reason for the damage to the roll was banded precipitations of ledeburitic cementite. In addition, cementite formed a continuous network. Another microstructure defects of that roll are also precipitations of secondary carbides on the boundaries of former grain of austenite as well as the occurrence of upper bainite in its matrix. The results obtained hereunder allow broadening the data base relative to the genesis of damages to mill rolls, which in future will permit one to design a proper microstructure of cast iron mill rolls. Proper microstructure of cast iron mill roll should be shaped at the stage of designing the chemical composition, conditions of crystallization or heat treatment if any.

  15. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  16. Adaptive sparsest narrow-band decomposition method and its applications to rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Junsheng; Peng, Yanfeng; Yang, Yu; Wu, Zhantao

    2017-02-01

    Enlightened by ASTFA method, adaptive sparsest narrow-band decomposition (ASNBD) method is proposed in this paper. In ASNBD method, an optimized filter must be established at first. The parameters of the filter are determined by solving a nonlinear optimization problem. A regulated differential operator is used as the objective function so that each component is constrained to be a local narrow-band signal. Afterwards, the signal is filtered by the optimized filter to generate an intrinsic narrow-band component (INBC). ASNBD is proposed aiming at solving the problems existed in ASTFA. Gauss-Newton type method, which is applied to solve the optimization problem in ASTFA, is irreplaceable and very sensitive to initial values. However, more appropriate optimization method such as genetic algorithm (GA) can be utilized to solve the optimization problem in ASNBD. Meanwhile, compared with ASTFA, the decomposition results generated by ASNBD have better physical meaning by constraining the components to be local narrow-band signals. Comparisons are made between ASNBD, ASTFA and EMD by analyzing simulation and experimental signals. The results indicate that ASNBD method is superior to the other two methods in generating more accurate components from noise signal, restraining the boundary effect, possessing better orthogonality and diagnosing rolling element bearing fault.

  17. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1...... filter and the DD2 filter. It also contains functions for Unscented Kalman filters as well as several versions of particle filters. The toolbox requires MATLAB version 7, but no additional toolboxes are required....

  18. Optimal reconstruction of natural images by small sets of Gabor filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, JH; Cristobal, G

    1998-01-01

    Images can be reconstructed after being filtered by a Gaussian and a few Gabor filters. Several search methods for the filter parameters for a (near) optimal reconstruction are examined. At first, the search is performed on a 1-D signal which satisfies the radial spectrum of the average of natural i

  19. Investigation of MINACE composite filter capabilities for multicolor images correlation recognition purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtikhiev, N. N.; Zlokazov, E. Yu; Petrova, E. K.; Starikov, R. S.; Shaulskiy, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    Article represents the results of investigations in the area of distortion invariant images recognition using composite correlation filters. One of the most successive for application is a filter known as MINACE (minimum noise and average correlation energy). The capabilities of MINACE filter synthesis for multicolor image recognition problem are discussed.

  20. Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Paula Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A 7.4 mm thick strip of 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the industrial twin-roll casting (TRC process was homogenized at 500 °C for 12 hours, after which it was cold rolled in two conditions: 1 to reduce the strip's thickness by 67%, and 2 to reduce it by 91%. The alloy was annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour in both conditions. The results revealed that a rotated cube texture, the {001} component, predominated in the as-cast condition and was transformed into brass, copper and S type textures during the cold rolling process. There was practically no difference between the deformation textures at the two thickness reductions.

  1. Fatigue Behavior of High Speed Steel Roll Materials for Hot Rolling by Laser Impacting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; SUN Da-le; LIU Chang-sheng; WU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of high speed steel (HSS) roll materials for hot rolling was researched under water-cooling conditions by laser impacting. The microstructure of HSS sample and the morphologies of fatigue samples were observed by scanning electron microscope. The phase structure was detected by XRD. The morphology of situ oxide scale was observed by optical microscope, and the expansion coefficient was measured by TGA. The experiment results indicate that the cracks come into being at the carbide-matrix interface, but there are no cracks in the matrix after many times of laser impacting treatment, for the situ sample taken from the fractured roll surface, big carbides are more sensitive to the fatigue, and peel off prior to small ones. The relevant fatigue mechanisms are also discussed.

  2. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Upscaling of the manufacture of polymer solar cells is detailed with emphasis on cost analysis and practical approach. The device modules were prepared using both slot-die coating and screen printing the active layers in the form of stripes that were serially connected. The stripe width was varied...... factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated...... and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar cell...

  3. Preform design of large sized profile ring rolling using main roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J. [PSM Inc., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J. H. [Jac coupling, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. S. [Busan Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a preform design method for a ring rolling process with an outer step. Underfilling is one of the general defects of the profile ring rolling process. It occurs when the deformation amount is small or step depth of the profiled region is large. To prevent underfilling, increasing the deformation amount or using a preform of size similar to that of the final product are required. Furthermore, the filling limit equation is suggested based on the shape factor and deformation ratio for preventing defects in the products. The filling limit equation has been derived through finite element analyses and production tests for four different cases. For verifying the suggested method, realsized profile rolling tests were performed, and test results were compared with the predictions of the equation.

  4. Transparent Conductive AGZO/Ag/AGZO Multilayers on PET Substrate by Roll-to-Roll Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; Park, Kwangwon; Kim, Jongsu

    2016-02-01

    Indium-free Al and Ga-codoped ZnO (AGZO) multilayer films with nanoscale Ag interlayer were deposited by dual target roll-to-roll RF for AGZO and DC sputtering systems for Ag at room temperature for a large scale. The thicknesses of AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer were optimized by changing the roll speed: 0.15/1.1/0.15 m/min for AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayers, respectively. The optimum thicknesses of AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer are 9.21, 8.32 and 8.04 nm, respectively. Optimized AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer films showed an excellent transparency (84% at 550 nm) and a low sheet resistance (9.2 omega/sq.) on PET substrates for opto-electronic applications. The effects of nanoscale Ag interlayer on optical and electrical properties of AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer films were discussed.

  5. SASS Applied to Optimum Work Roll Profile Selection in the Hot Rolling of Wide Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolle, Lars

    The quality of steel strip produced in a wide strip rolling mill depends heavily on the careful selection of initial ground work roll profiles for each of the mill stands in the finishing train. In the past, these profiles were determined by human experts, based on their knowledge and experience. In previous work, the profiles were successfully optimised using a self-organising migration algorithm (SOMA). In this research, SASS, a novel heuristic optimisation algorithm that has only one control parameter, has been used to find the optimum profiles for a simulated rolling mill. The resulting strip quality produced using the profiles found by SASS is compared with results from previous work and the quality produced using the original profile specifications. The best set of profiles found by SASS clearly outperformed the original set and performed equally well as SOMA without the need of finding a suitable set of control parameters.

  6. Voltage and Thermally Driven Roll-to-Roll Organic Printed Transistor Made in Ambient Air Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco

    of the organic semiconductor poly3hexylthiophene and the dielectric material polyvinylphenol before the gate was applied by screen printing. All the processing was realized in ambient air on a PET flexible substrate. We explore the footprint and the practically accessible geometry of such devices with a special......Resume: Organic thin film transistors offer great potential for use in flexible electronics. Much of this potential lies in the solution processability of the organic polymers enabling both roll coating and printing on flexible substrates and thus greatly reducing the material and fabrication costs....... We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20 m min−1) roll-to-roll flexographic printing of the drain and source electrode structures, with an interspace below 50 um, directly on polyester foil[1]. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by slotdie coating...

  7. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouillot, M. [Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear SAS (France)

    2010-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  8. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  9. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  10. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  11. An adaptive Kalman filter for ECG signal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullings, Rik; de Vries, Bert; Bergmans, Jan W M

    2011-04-01

    The ongoing trend of ECG monitoring techniques to become more ambulatory and less obtrusive generally comes at the expense of decreased signal quality. To enhance this quality, consecutive ECG complexes can be averaged triggered on the heartbeat, exploiting the quasi-periodicity of the ECG. However, this averaging constitutes a tradeoff between improvement of the SNR and loss of clinically relevant physiological signal dynamics. Using a bayesian framework, in this paper, a sequential averaging filter is developed that, in essence, adaptively varies the number of complexes included in the averaging based on the characteristics of the ECG signal. The filter has the form of an adaptive Kalman filter. The adaptive estimation of the process and measurement noise covariances is performed by maximizing the bayesian evidence function of the sequential ECG estimation and by exploiting the spatial correlation between several simultaneously recorded ECG signals, respectively. The noise covariance estimates thus obtained render the filter capable of ascribing more weight to newly arriving data when these data contain morphological variability, and of reducing this weight in cases of no morphological variability. The filter is evaluated by applying it to a variety of ECG signals. To gauge the relevance of the adaptive noise-covariance estimation, the performance of the filter is compared to that of a Kalman filter with fixed, (a posteriori) optimized noise covariance. This comparison demonstrates that, without using a priori knowledge on signal characteristics, the filter with adaptive noise estimation performs similar to the filter with optimized fixed noise covariance, favoring the adaptive filter in cases where no a priori information is available or where signal characteristics are expected to fluctuate.

  12. Noncausal spatial prediction filtering based on an ARMA model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhipeng; Chen Xiaohong; Li Jingye

    2009-01-01

    Conventional f-x prediction filtering methods are based on an autoregressive model. The error section is first computed as a source noise but is removed as additive noise to obtain the signal, which results in an assumption inconsistency before and after filtering. In this paper, an autoregressive, moving-average model is employed to avoid the model inconsistency. Based on the ARMA model, a noncasual prediction filter is computed and a self-deconvolved projection filter is used for estimating additive noise in order to suppress random noise. The 1-D ARMA model is also extended to the 2-D spatial domain, which is the basis for noncasual spatial prediction filtering for random noise attenuation on 3-D seismic data. Synthetic and field data processing indicate this method can suppress random noise more effectively and preserve the signal simultaneously and does much better than other conventional prediction filtering methods.

  13. Deconvolution Kalman filtering for force measurements of revolving wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, R.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.

    2016-09-01

    The applicability of a deconvolution Kalman filtering approach is assessed for the force measurements on a flat plate undergoing a revolving motion, as an alternative procedure to correct for test setup vibrations. The system identification process required for the correct implementation of the deconvolution Kalman filter is explained in detail. It is found that in the presence of a relatively complex forcing history, the DK filter is better suited to filter out structural test rig vibrations than conventional filtering techniques that are based on, for example, low-pass or moving-average filtering. The improvement is especially found in the characterization of the generated force peaks. Consequently, more reliable force data is obtained, which is vital to validate semi-empirical estimation models, but is also relevant to correlate identified flow phenomena to the force production.

  14. Liquid Level Estimation in Dynamic Condition using Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Kapale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate true liquid level of tank from noisy measurements due to dynamic conditions using kalman filter algorithm. We proposed kalman filter based approach to reduce noise in liquid level measurement system due to effect like sloshing. The function of kalman filter is to reduce error in liquid level measurement that produced from sensor resulting from effect like sloshing in dynamic environment. A prototype model was constructed and placed in dynamic condition, level data was acquired using ultrasonic sensor to verify the effectiveness of kalman filter. The tabulated data are shown for comparison of accuracy and error analysis between both measurements with Kalman filter and statistical averaging filter. After several test with different liquid levels and analysis of the recorded data, the technique shows the usefulness in liquid level measurement application in dynamic condition.

  15. Improving the technology of surfacing heterogeneous working layer on hot rolling bulky rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ways to increase efficiency of rolls by enhancing resistance to the formation and development of cracks due to the anisotropy of the working layer properties were explored. The destruction mechanisms of such materials were considered. The possibility of cracks deceleration, due to the layer ruptures or abrupt change of its properties has been marked. It has been shown that the optimum combination of the means braking dislocations provides for a rational metal alloying. The analysis of the rolls of rolling mills service conditions as well as the analysis of types of wear and destruction of products made it possible to formulate requirements on the surface layer of the rolls properties. However increase in strength decreases ductility and toughness of the steel. The solution of the problem of the strength and plasticity increase necessitates either methods of metal deep cleaning of contaminants development or significant grain refinement. The part played by structural formations, such as non-metallic inclusions, carbide particles, grain boundaries, etc.in the kinetics of crack propagation has been studied. Since sharp contrast of the properties at the grain boundaries is inconsistent with the requirements of welding technology, the determining factor for making up the working layer is the service conditions. The durability of the roll is determined by allowable wear out of the layer between resharpenings. The correct choice of optimum parameters for the twq adjacent layers - operating and the layer to be maintained is the reserve to improve performance of the roll. The paper has proposed welding-up compositions making it possible to extend the durability due to the optimum ratio of the mechanical and thermal properties of adjacent layers. This approach can improve the durability of the deposited products both at the stage of nucleation and at the stage of thermal fatigue cracks growth

  16. Particles size segregation and roll waves in dense granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viroulet, Sylvain; Baker, James; Kokelaar, Peter; Gray, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Geophysical granular flows, such as landslides, snow avalanches and pyroclastic flows commonly involve particles with different sizes which are prone to segregate during the flow. This particle-size segregation may lead to the formation of regions with different frictional properties which can have a feedback on the flow. This study aims to understand this effect in the context of bi-disperse roll waves in shallow granular free-surface flows. Experiments have been performed in a 3 meter long chute using several mixtures of spherical glass beads of diameter 75-150 and 400-600 microns flowing on a rough bed. These show that the waves propagate at constant speed that depends on the initial mixture composition. In addition, during their propagation, a higher concentration of large particles is localized at the front of the waves. A theoretical and numerical approach is presented using depth-averaged equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and depth-averaged small particle concentration. Results without frictional feedback are investigated and compared to those that include the enhanced frictional resistance to motion of the large grains.

  17. Air Filter Simulation by Geodict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-peng; Kitai Kim; Changhwan Lee; Jooyong Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed the relationship of filter efficiency and pressure drop with the porosity, fiber diameter and filter thickness by Geodict. We found that filter efficiency will increase when filter porosity and fiber diameter decreasing or filter thickness increasing. And the pressure drop has a linear relationship with filter thickness and non-linear relationship with filter porosity and fiber diameter. We also compared the simulation results with the real test results by TSI 3160. Although there are some differences, I think Geodict can be used to predict filter efficiency and pressure drop.

  18. Roll-to-roll gravure with nanomaterials for printing smart packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhun; Kim, Junseok; Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Subramanian, Vivek; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-02-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure is considered one of the highest throughput tools for manufacturing inexpensive and flexible ubiquitous IT devices called "smart packaging" in which NFC (near-field communication) transponder, sensors, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), simple processor and signage are all integrated on paper or plastic foils. In this review, we show R2R gravure can be employed to print smart packaging, starting from printing simple electrodes, dielectrics, capacitors, diodes and thin film transistors with appropriate nanomaterial-based inks on plastic foils.

  19. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    included water, alcohols and chlorobenzene. Open-circuit voltages close to the expected sum of sub cell voltages were achieved, while the overall efficiency of the tandem cells was found to be limited by the low yielding back cell, which was processed from water based ink. Many of the challenges associated......Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...

  20. Large-scale roll-to-roll photonic sintering of flexo printed silver nanoparticle electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    In this report we employ static and roll-to-roll (R2R) photonic sintering processes on flexo printed silver nanoparticle-based electrode structures with a heat-sensitive 60 mm thin barrier foil as a substrate. We use large area electrode structures to visualize the increased optical footprint...... energies above the threshold level have only minor impact on the conductivity but lead to cracks and substrate deformation. A second silver nanoparticle ink was printed, which was already optimized for lowtemperature drying. Here we show that photonic sintering has only a minor impact on the conductivity...

  1. Double sided roll-to-roll manufacture of flexible display panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Williamson; H.-L.Liang; Stuart; Speakman; D.Chu

    2015-01-01

    A double sided roll-to-roll(R2R) system has been developed by the authors to automate the continuous manufacturing of flexible display panels.Here we report an overview of the system operation and the fabrication process.The system framework features a timer initiated slot-die coating followed by wet lamination to form a thin,active layer in between flexible conductive substrates.A rotary screen-printing unit is installed for adhesive deposition providing an edge seal for the panel.The system enables production of 15-cm~2 laminated panels.

  2. Towards Realizing High-Throughput, Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Flexible Electronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High-rate roll-to-roll (R2R tracker systems are utilized for large volume flexible electronic device manufacturing, and the current alignment mechanism between layers is mainly achieved by relying on passive techniques. In this paper, we present a machine vision based alignment strategy that is used to achieve precise registration for stacking multilayers. Based on this strategy, we demonstrate two-layer printing with alignment accuracy better than 100 μm in web moving direction and 200 μm in lateral direction at a web rate of 5 m/min.

  3. Diamond turning of high-precision roll-to-roll imprinting molds for fabricating subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Yan, Jiwang; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-06-01

    Diamond turning of high-precision molds is a vital process for the roll-to-roll-based ultraviolet resin imprinting process in fabricating subwavelength gratings. The effects of the grating shape and grating period on diffraction efficiencies and diffraction angles were simulated. Experiments were then conducted to examine the effects of shape design, grating period, and cutting speed on machinability of the mold. According to the optical measurement results, the performance of the subwavelength gratings matched the design well at various incident angles. The results confirm that diamond turning of high-precision molds is a feasible approach for ensuring the continual mass production of subwavelength gratings.

  4. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Characterization of a Binary Aluminum Alloy Spray - Application to the Spray Rolling Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. B. Johnson; J.-P. Delplanque; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; K. M. McHugh

    2005-02-01

    A stochastic, droplet-resolved model has been developed to describe the behavior of a binary aluminum alloy spray during the spray-rolling process. In this process, a molten aluminum alloy is atomized and the resulting spray is depostied on the rolls of a twin-roll caster to produce aluminum strip. The one-way coupled spray model allows the prediction of spray characteristics such as enthalph and solid fraction, and their distribution between the nozzle and the depostion surface. This paper outlines the model development and compares the predicted spray dynamics to PDI measurements performed in a controlled configuration. Predicted and measured droplet velocity and size distributions are presented for two points along the spray centerline along with predicted spray averaged specific enthalph and solid fraction curves.

  5. Low-temperature roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition of Al₂O₃ thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-12-02

    The Al2O3 thin films deposition through conventional ALD systems is a well-established process. The process under low temperatures has been studied by few research groups. In this paper, we report on the detailed study of low-temperature Al2O3 thin films deposited via a unique in-house built system of roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-AALD) using a multiple-slit gas source head. Al2O3 thin films have been grown on polyethylene terephthalate substrates under a very low-temperature zone of room temperature to 50 °C and working pressure of 750 Torr, which is very near to atmospheric pressure (760 Torr). Al2O3 thin films with superior properties were achieved in the temperature range of the ALD window. An appreciable growth rate of 0.97 Å/cycle was observed for the films deposited at 40 °C. The films have good morphological features with a very low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 0.90 nm. The films also showed good chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. It was observed that the film characteristics improve with the increase in deposition temperature to the range of the ALD window. The fabrication of Al2O3 films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis with the appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74, 119, and 531 eV, respectively. The chemical composition was also supported by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fabricated Al2O3 films demonstrate good insulating properties and optical transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region. The results state that Al2O3 thin films can be effectively fabricated through the R2R-AALD system at temperatures as low as 40 °C.

  6. Tribological Testing of Anti-Adhesive coatings for Cold Rolling Mill Rolls—Application to TiN-Coated Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould, Choumad; Gachon, Yves; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Badiche, Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Roll life is a major issue in cold strip rolling. Roll wear may result either in too low roll roughness, bringing friction below the minimum requested for strip entrainment; or it may degrade strip surface quality. On the contrary, adhesive wear and transfer ("roll coating", "pick up") may form a thick metallic deposits on the roll which increases friction excessively and degrades strip surface again [1]. The roll surface, with the help of a materials-adapted lubricant, must therefore possess anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties. Thus, High Speed Steeel (HSS) rolls show superior properties compared with standard Cr-steel rolls due to their high carbide surface coverage. Another way to improve wear and adhesion properties of surfaces is to apply hard metallic (hard-Cr) or ceramic coatings. Chromium is renowned for its excellent anti-wear and anti-adhesive properties and may serve as a reference. Here, as a first step towards alternative, optimised coatings, a PVD TiN coating has been deposited on tool steels, as previous attempts have proved TiN to be rather successful in cold rolling experiments [2,3]. Different tribological tests are reported here, giving insight in both anti-adhesive properties and fatigue life improvement.

  7. ADVANTAGES OF RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING SCALE MASS AND DECARBURIZED LAYER OF ROLLED COIL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Parusov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the universal empirical relationships that allow for operational calculation of scale mass and decarbonized layer depth based on the parameters of the technological process for rolled coil steel production. Methodology. The research is carried out on the industrial batches of the rolled steel of SAE 1006 and SAE 1065 grades. Scale removability was determined in accordance with the procedure of «Bekaert» company by the specifi-cations: GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02, GS-06-01. The depth of decarbonized layer was identified in accordance with GOST 1763-68 (M method. Findings. Analysis of experimental data allowed us to determine the rational temperature of coil formation of the investigated steel grades, which provide the best possible removal of scale from the metal surface, a minimal amount of scale, as well as compliance of the metal surface color with the require-ments of European consumers. Originality. The work allowed establishing correlation of the basic quality indicators of the rolled coil high carbon steel (scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and inter-laminar distance in pearlite with one of the main parameters (coil formation temperature of the deformation and heat treatment mode. The re-sulting regression equations, without metallographic analysis, can be used to determine, with a minimum error, the quantitative values of the total scale mass, depth of decarbonized layer and the average inter-lamellar distance in pearlite of the rolled coil high carbon steel. Practical value. Based on the specifications of «Bekaert» company (GA-03-16, GA-03-18, GS-03-02 and GS-06-01 the method of testing descaling by mechanical means from the surface of the rolled coil steel of low- and high-carbon steel grades was developed and approved in the environment of PJSC «ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih». The work resulted in development of the rapid method for determination of total and remaining scale mass on the rolled coil steel

  8. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are......OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... that are universal to all studies of the effects of intervention effects. There is no published outline for instrument choice or development that is aimed at measuring outcome, was derived from broad consensus over its underlying philosophy, or includes a structured and documented critique. Therefore, a new proposal...

  9. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imagin...

  10. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  11. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  12. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  13. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  14. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  15. Cryogenic coaxial microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Tancredi, G; Meeson, P J

    2014-01-01

    At millikelvin temperatures the careful filtering of electromagnetic radiation, especially in the microwave regime, is critical for controlling the electromagnetic environment for experiments in fields such as solid-state quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We present a design for a filter consisting of small diameter dissipative coaxial cables that is straightforward to construct and provides a quantitatively predictable attenuation spectrum. We describe the fabrication process and demonstrate that the performance of the filters is in good agreement with theoretical modelling. We further perform an indicative test of the performance of the filters by making current-voltage measurements of small, underdamped Josephson Junctions at 15 mK and we present the results.

  16. Slow-roll approximation in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Luc, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The slow-roll approximation is an analytical approach to study dynamical properties of the inflationary universe. In this article, systematic construction of the slow-roll expansion for effective loop quantum cosmology is presented. The analysis is performed up to the fourth order in both slow-roll parameters and the parameter controlling the strength of deviation from the classical case. The expansion is performed for three types of the slow-roll parameters: Hubble slow-roll parameters, Hubble flow parameters and potential slow-roll parameters. An accuracy of the approximation is verified by comparison with the numerical phase space trajectories for the case with a massive potential term. The results obtained in this article may be helpful in the search for the subtle quantum gravitational effects with use of the cosmological data.

  17. Surface quality of cold rolling aluminum strips under lubrication condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlin Sun; Wang Lu; Yanli Ma; Qingbing Shi; Aihua Zhang; Jian Li

    2008-01-01

    The effects of oil fill on the rolled surface, including surface roughness and topography, were investigated during cold rolling of aluminum strips. Various mineral oils with viscosities from 0.10 to 1.6 Pa.s were used to obtain different oil film thick-nesses. Results from experiment and calculation show that the thicker oil film protects the initial roughening surface so that it leads to an increase in roughness of the rolled surface, in particular when the surface roughness has the character of direction. The rolled surface roughness was determined by λ, which is the ratio of oil film thickness to the combined surface roughness. When λ > 3, the rolled surface roughness increases rapidly with the increase in oil viscosity, whereas the surface roughening has already occurred when λ < 3, but the increase of the rolled surface roughness with increasing viscosity is not distinct.

  18. Plastic anisotropy of straight and cross rolled molybdenum sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, C.-G. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: oertel@physik.tu-dresden.de; Huensche, I.; Skrotzki, W. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Knabl, W.; Lorich, A.; Resch, J. [PLANSEE Metall GmbH, A-6600 Reutte, Tyrol (Austria)

    2008-06-15

    The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of molybdenum sheets produced by different rolling processes were investigated by orientation imaging in the scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. For comparable recrystallization degree of the sheets investigated, straight rolling with low reduction ratio produces {alpha}-fiber textures with a maximum at {l_brace}100{r_brace} <110>. At higher rolling degrees the maximum shifts to {l_brace}112{r_brace} <110>. Cross rolling increases the rotated cube component {l_brace}100{r_brace} <110>. The strong differences in the texture measured are reflected in the plastic anisotropy characterized by differences in the yield stress and Lankford parameter which were measured along directions in the rolling plane at angles of 0 deg., 45 deg. and 90 deg. with the rolling direction. The Taylor-Bishop-Hill theory is used successfully to qualitatively explain the plastic anisotropy.

  19. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR ROLLING PROCESS BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yanwei; Wu Tihua; Zhao Jingyi; Wang Yiqun

    2005-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the sensitivity factors of the rolling process has been obtained by differentiating the roll force model based on support vector machine. It can eliminate the algebraic loop of the analytical model of the rolling process. The simulations in the first stand of five stand cold tandem rolling mill indicate that the calculation for sensitivities by this proposed method can obtain a good accuracy, and an appropriate adjustment on the control variables determined directly by the sensitivity has an excellent compensation accuracy. Moreover, the roll gap has larger effect on the exit thickness than both front tension and back tension, and it is more efficient to select the roll gap as the controlvariable of the thickness control system in the first stand.

  20. Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2015-01-01

    Rolling processes for which the characteristic length scale reaches into the range where size effects become important are receiving increased interest. In particularly, this is owed to the roll-molding process under development for high-throughput of micron-scale surface features. The study...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...... sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...