WorldWideScience

Sample records for films direct numerical

  1. Direct numerical simulations of a thin liquid film coating an axially oscillating cylindrical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, Matthias; Rohlfs, Wilko; Kneer, Reinhold, E-mail: rohlfs@wsa.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 6, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Liquid films on cylindrical bodies like wires or fibers disintegrate into droplets if their length exceeds a critical measure (Plateau–Rayleigh instability). Stabilization of such films can be achieved by an axial oscillation of the solid core provided that a suitable combination of forcing amplitude and frequency is given. To investigate the stabilizing effect, direct numerical simulations of the axisymmetric problem are conducted in this study. Thus, a modified volume-of-fluid solver is employed based on the open source library OpenFOAM{sup ®}. The effect of film stabilization is demonstrated and the required conditions for a stable film configuration are found to be in accordance with other studies. Finally, parameter variations are conducted to investigate the influence on the long-term shape of the stabilized film surface. (paper)

  2. Direct numerical simulation of 3D particle motion in an evaporating liquid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Chan; Son, Gi Hun

    2016-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation method is developed for 3D particle motion in liquid film evaporation. The liquid-gas and fluid-solid interfaces are tracked by a sharp-interface Level-set (LS) method, which includes the effects of evaporation, contact line and solid particles. The LS method is validated through simulation of the interaction between two particles falling in a single-phase fluid. The LS based DNS method is applied to computation of the particle motion in liquid film evaporation to investigate the particle-interface and particle-particle interactions

  3. Statistical characteristics of falling-film flows: A synergistic approach at the crossroads of direct numerical simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charogiannis, Alexandros; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Markides, Christos N.

    2017-12-01

    We scrutinize the statistical characteristics of liquid films flowing over an inclined planar surface based on film height and velocity measurements that are recovered simultaneously by application of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), respectively. Our experiments are complemented by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of liquid films simulated for different conditions so as to expand the parameter space of our investigation. Our statistical analysis builds upon a Reynolds-like decomposition of the time-varying flow rate that was presented in our previous research effort on falling films in [Charogiannis et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 014002 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.014002], and which reveals that the dimensionless ratio of the unsteady term to the mean flow rate increases linearly with the product of the coefficients of variation of the film height and bulk velocity, as well as with the ratio of the Nusselt height to the mean film height, both at the same upstream PLIF/PTV measurement location. Based on relations that are derived to describe these results, a methodology for predicting the mass-transfer capability (through the mean and standard deviation of the bulk flow speed) of these flows is developed in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the film thickness and the mean flow rate, which are considerably easier to obtain experimentally than velocity profiles. The errors associated with these predictions are estimated at ≈1.5 % and 8% respectively in the experiments and at <1 % and <2 % respectively in the DNSs. Beyond the generation of these relations for the prediction of important film flow characteristics based on simple flow information, the data provided can be used to design improved heat- and mass-transfer equipment reactors or other process operation units which exploit film flows, but also to develop and validate multiphase flow models in other physical and technological settings.

  4. Can numerical simulations accurately predict hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid films?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Fabian; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Pradas, Marc; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Markides, Christos N.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows is an active field of research in fluid dynamics and non-linear science in general. Numerical simulations offer a powerful tool to study hydrodynamic instabilities in film flows and can provide deep insights into the underlying physical phenomena. However, the direct comparison of numerical results and experimental results is often hampered by several reasons. For instance, in numerical simulations the interface representation is problematic and the governing equations and boundary conditions may be oversimplified, whereas in experiments it is often difficult to extract accurate information on the fluid and its behavior, e.g. determine the fluid properties when the liquid contains particles for PIV measurements. In this contribution we present the latest results of our on-going, extensive study on hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows, which includes direct numerical simulations, low-dimensional modelling as well as experiments. The major focus is on wave regimes, wave height and wave celerity as a function of Reynolds number and forcing frequency of a falling liquid film. Specific attention is paid to the differences in numerical and experimental results and the reasons for these differences. The authors are grateful to the EPSRC for their financial support (Grant EP/K008595/1).

  5. Direct Numerical Simulation of Driven Cavity Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    Direct numerical simulations of 2D driven cavity flows have been performed. The simulations exhibit that the flow converges to a periodically oscillating state at Re=11,000, and reveal that the dynamics is chaotic at Re=22,000. The dimension of the attractor and the Kolmogorov entropy have been

  6. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  7. Interaction of Liquid Film Flow of Direct Vessel Injection Under the Cross Directional Gas Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to obtain a proper scaling law of the flow, local information of the flow was investigated experimentally and also numerically. A series of experiments were conducted in the 1/20 modified linear scaled plate type test rig to analyze a liquid film from ECC water injection through the DVI nozzle to the downcomer wall. The present study investigates liquid film flow generated in a downcomer of direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is employed as an emergency core cooling (ECC) system during a loss of coolant accident in the Korea nuclear power plant APR1400. During the late reflooding, complicated multi-phase flow phenomena including the wavy film flow, film breakup, entrainment, liquid film shift due to interfacial drag and gas jet impingement occur. A confocal chromatic sensor was used to measure the local instantaneous liquid film thickness and a hydraulic jump in the film flow and boundaries of the film flow. It was found that CFD analysis results without surface tension model showed some difference with the data in surface tension dominated flow region. For the interaction between a liquid film and gas shear flow, CFD results make a good agreement with the real liquid film dynamics in the case of low film Reynolds number or low Weber number flow. In the 1/20 scaled plate type experiment and simulation, the deformed spreading profile results seem to accord with each other at the relatively low We and Re regime.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of annular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchvarov, Assen; Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Vertical counter-current two-phase flows are investigated using direct numerical simulations. The computations are carried out using Blue, a front-tracking-based CFD solver. Preliminary results show good qualitative agreement with experimental observations in terms of interfacial phenomena; these include three-dimensional, large-amplitude wave formation, the development of long ligaments, and droplet entrainment. The flooding phenomena in these counter current systems are closely investigated. The onset of flooding in our simulations is compared to existing empirical correlations such as Kutateladze-type and Wallis-type. The effect of varying tube diameter and fluid properties on the flooding phenomena is also investigated in this work. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  9. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN CYLINDRICAL FILM SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Gromyko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method for solving the boundary value problem for a nonlinear magnetostatic equation describing the external magnetostatic field penetration through the cylindrical film coating is developed. A mathematical model of the shielding problem based on the use of the boundary conditions of the third kind on the film surface is studied. The nonlinear dependence of the film magnetic permeability on magnetic field conforms with experimental data. The distribution of the magnetic field strength in the film layer and the magnetic permeability of the film material depending on the magnitude of the external magnetic field strength are investigated numerically.

  11. Direct numerical simulation of human phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodony, Daniel; Saurabh, Shakti

    2017-11-01

    The generation and propagation of the human voice in three-dimensions is studied using direct numerical simulation. A full body domain is employed for the purpose of directly computing the sound in the region past the speaker's mouth. The air in the vocal tract is modeled as a compressible and viscous fluid interacting with the elastic vocal folds. The vocal fold tissue material properties are multi-layered, with varying stiffness, and a linear elastic transversely isotropic model is utilized and implemented in a quadratic finite element code. The fluid-solid domains are coupled through a boundary-fitted interface and utilize a Poisson equation-based mesh deformation method. A kinematic constraint based on a specified minimum gap between the vocal folds is applied to prevent collision during glottal closure. Both near VF flow dynamics and far-field acoustics have been studied. A comparison is drawn to current two-dimensional simulations as well as to data from the literature. Near field vocal fold dynamics and glottal flow results are studied and in good agreement with previous three-dimensional phonation studies. Far-field acoustic characteristics, when compared to their two-dimensional counterpart, are shown to be sensitive to the dimensionality. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award Number 1150439).

  12. Numerical studies of film formation in context of steel coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniszewski, Wojciech; Zaleski, Stephane; Popinet, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a detailed example of numerical study of film formation in the context of metal coating. Liquid metal is drawn from a reservoir onto a retracting solid sheet, forming a coating film characterized by phenomena such as longitudinal thickness variation (in 3D) or waves akin to that predicted by Kapitza and Kapitza (visible in two dimensions as well). While the industry standard configuration for Zinc coating is marked by coexistence of medium Capillary number (Ca = 0.03) and film Reynolds number above 1000, we present also parametric studies in order to establish more clearly to what degree does the numerical method influence film regimes obtained in the target configuration. The simulations have been performed using Basilisk, a grid-adapting, strongly optimized code derived from Gerris . Mesh adaptation allows for arbitrary precision in relevant regions such as the contact line or the meniscus, while a coarse grid is applied elsewhere. This adaptation strategy, as the results indicate, is the only realistic approach for numerical method to cover the wide range of necessary scales from the predicted film thickness (hundreds of microns) to the domain size (meters).

  13. Numerical Analysis of Film Cooling at High Blowing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Heidmann, James; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in the analysis of a film cooling jet in crossflow. Predictions of film effectiveness are compared with experimental results for a circular jet at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Film effectiveness is a surface quantity which alone is insufficient in understanding the source and finding a remedy for shortcomings of the numerical model. Therefore, in addition, comparisons are made to flow field measurements of temperature along the jet centerline. These comparisons show that the CFD model is accurately predicting the extent and trajectory of the film cooling jet; however, there is a lack of agreement in the near-wall region downstream of the film hole. The effects of main stream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, turbulence modeling, and numerical artificial dissipation are evaluated and found to have an insufficient impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e. cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted centerline fluid temperatures). Analyses of low and moderate blowing ratio cases are carried out and results are in good agreement with data.

  14. Numerical simulations of rarefied gas flows in thin film processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Many processes exist in which a thin film is deposited from the gas phase, e.g. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). These processes are operated at ever decreasing reactor operating pressures and with ever decreasing wafer feature dimensions, reaching into the rarefied flow regime. As numerical

  15. Film Cooling Optimization Using Numerical Computation of the Compressible Viscous Flow Equations and Simplex Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elsayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Film cooling is vital to gas turbine blades to protect them from high temperatures and hence high thermal stresses. In the current work, optimization of film cooling parameters on a flat plate is investigated numerically. The effect of film cooling parameters such as inlet velocity direction, lateral and forward diffusion angles, blowing ratio, and streamwise angle on the cooling effectiveness is studied, and optimum cooling parameters are selected. The numerical simulation of the coolant flow through flat plate hole system is carried out using the “CFDRC package” coupled with the optimization algorithm “simplex” to maximize overall film cooling effectiveness. Unstructured finite volume technique is used to solve the steady, three-dimensional and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The results are compared with the published numerical and experimental data of a cylindrically round-simple hole, and the results show good agreement. In addition, the results indicate that the average overall film cooling effectiveness is enhanced by decreasing the streamwise angle for high blowing ratio and by increasing the lateral and forward diffusion angles. Optimum geometry of the cooling hole on a flat plate is determined. In addition, numerical simulations of film cooling on actual turbine blade are performed using the flat plate optimal hole geometry.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent flow in a driven cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Cazemier, W.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 2 and 3D turbulent flows in a lid-driven cavity have been performed. DNS are numerical solutions of the unsteady (here: incompressible) Navier-Stokes equations that compute the evolution of all dynamically significant scales of motion. In view of the large

  17. Direct Numerical Simulations of Statistically Stationary Turbulent Premixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.; Arias, Paul G.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms

  18. Numerical study of wave disturbance in liquid cooling film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Shine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transient numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the liquid-gas interface characteristics associated with liquid film cooling flows. A two-dimensional axisymmetric multi-phase numerical model using finite volume formulation is developed. The model has been validated against available experimental data for liquid-film cooling flows inside tubes. The model has been used to predict the interface characteristics for a variety of imposed parameters and momentum flux ratios under cold flow conditions wherein both the coolant and mainstream are maintained at the same temperature. Disturbance waves are observed at the liquid-gas interface for coolant flows above a critical value and after a finite distance from the inlet. The distance toward the wave inception point increased with the increase of momentum flux ratio. However, at higher momentum flux ratios, the properties of the disturbance waves did not vary significantly. The parameters related to the liquid-gas interface waves, namely, wave velocity, frequency, amplitude and wave length have been analyzed in detail. Analysis indicates that the liquid entrainment is due to the shearing of the disturbance wave crest.

  19. Vortex locking in direct numerical simulations of quantum turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Karla; Koplik, Joel; Rouson, Damian W I

    2008-07-04

    Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the locking of quantized superfluid vortices and normal fluid vorticity in evolving turbulent flows. The superfluid is driven by the normal fluid, which undergoes either a decaying Taylor-Green flow or a linearly forced homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, although the back reaction of the superfluid on the normal fluid flow is omitted. Using correlation functions and wavelet transforms, we present numerical and visual evidence for vortex locking on length scales above the intervortex spacing.

  20. Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.

    1992-01-01

    As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.

  1. Application of HPCN to direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, RWCP; Veldman, AEP; van Waveren, GM; Hertzberger, B; Sloot, P

    1997-01-01

    This poster shows how HPCN can be used as a path-finding tool for turbulence research. The parallelization of direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow using the data-parallel model and Fortran 95 constructs is treated, both on a shared memory and a distributed memory computer.

  2. Direct numerical simulation of particulate flow with heat transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavassoli Estahbanati, H; Kriebitzsch, S.H.L.; Hoef, van der M.A.; Peters, E.A.J.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Immersed Boundary (IB) method proposed by Uhlmann for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of fluid flow through dense fluid-particle systems is extended to systems with interphase heat transport. A fixed Eulerian grid is employed to solve the momentum and energy equations by traditional

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow Over Complex Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, L.; Hsu, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is regarded as a powerful tool in the investigation of turbulent flow featured with a wide range of time and spatial scales. With the application of coordinate transformation in a pseudo-spectral scheme, a parallelized numerical modeling system was created aiming at simulating flow over complex bathymetry with high numerical accuracy and efficiency. The transformed governing equations were integrated in time using a third-order low-storage Runge-Kutta method. For spatial discretization, the discrete Fourier expansion was adopted in the streamwise and spanwise direction, enforcing the periodic boundary condition in both directions. The Chebyshev expansion on Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto points was used in the wall-normal direction, assuming there is no-slip on top and bottom walls. The diffusion terms were discretized with a Crank-Nicolson scheme, while the advection terms dealiased with the 2/3 rule were discretized with an Adams-Bashforth scheme. In the prediction step, the velocity was calculated in physical domain by solving the resulting linear equation directly. However, the extra terms introduced by coordinate transformation impose a strict limitation to time step and an iteration method was applied to overcome this restriction in the correction step for pressure by solving the Helmholtz equation. The numerical solver is written in object-oriented C++ programing language utilizing Armadillo linear algebra library for matrix computation. Several benchmarking cases in laminar and turbulent flow were carried out to verify/validate the numerical model and very good agreements are achieved. Ongoing work focuses on implementing sediment transport capability for multiple sediment classes and parameterizations for flocculation processes.

  4. Induction and direct resistance heating theory and numerical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Sergio; Aliferov, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This book offers broad, detailed coverage of theoretical developments in induction and direct resistance heating and presents new material on the solution of problems in the application of such heating. The physical basis of induction and conduction heating processes is explained, and electromagnetic phenomena in direct resistance and induction heating of flat workpieces and cylindrical bodies are examined in depth. The calculation of electrical and energetic characteristics of induction and conduction heating systems is then thoroughly reviewed. The final two chapters consider analytical solutions and numerical modeling of problems in the application of induction and direct resistance heating, providing industrial engineers with the knowledge needed in order to use numerical tools in the modern design of installations. Other engineers, scientists, and technologists will find the book to be an invaluable reference that will assist in the efficient utilization of electrical energy.

  5. Direct Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Subcooled Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kunugi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation of the boiling phenomena is one of the promising approaches in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics and discuss the mechanism. During these decades, many DNS procedures have been developed according to the recent high performance computers and computational technologies. In this paper, the state of the art of direct numerical simulation of the pool boiling phenomena during mostly two decades is briefly summarized at first, and then the nonempirical boiling and condensation model proposed by the authors is introduced into the MARS (MultiInterface Advection and Reconstruction Solver developed by the authors. On the other hand, in order to clarify the boiling bubble behaviors under the subcooled conditions, the subcooled pool boiling experiments are also performed by using a high speed and high spatial resolution camera with a highly magnified telescope. Resulting from the numerical simulations of the subcooled pool boiling phenomena, the numerical results obtained by the MARS are validated by being compared to the experimental ones and the existing analytical solutions. The numerical results regarding the time evolution of the boiling bubble departure process under the subcooled conditions show a very good agreement with the experimental results. In conclusion, it can be said that the proposed nonempirical boiling and condensation model combined with the MARS has been validated.

  6. Numerical Investigation on the Directionality of Nonlinear Indicial Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Kwan Jung; Hong, Sang Won; Lee, Dong Ho

    2007-01-01

    An unsteady Euler solver is modified to investigate the directionality of nonlinear indicial response to a step change in the angle of attack. An impulsive change in the angle of attack is incorporated by using the field velocity approach, which is known to decouple the step change in the angle of attack from a pitch rate. Numerical results are thoroughly compared against analytical results for two-dimensional indicial responses. The same method is applied to investigate the directionality of nonlinear indicial responses. It is found that directionality is mainly due to the asymmetry of initial shock locations. Since the directionality of the pitching moment responses is significant in the critical Mach number region, it is also shown that consideration of the directionality is crucial for accurate modeling of the nonlinear indicial functions

  7. Direct numerical methods of mathematical modeling in mechanical structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahili, Jihad; Verchery, Georges; Ghaddar, Ahmad; Zoaeter, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Full text.Structural design and numerical methods are generally interactive; requiring optimization procedures as the structure is analyzed. This analysis leads to define some mathematical terms, as the stiffness matrix, which are resulting from the modeling and then used in numerical techniques during the dimensioning procedure. These techniques and many others involve the calculation of the generalized inverse of the stiffness matrix, called also the 'compliance matrix'. The aim of this paper is to introduce first, some different existing mathematical procedures, used to calculate the compliance matrix from the stiffness matrix, then apply direct numerical methods to solve the obtained system with the lowest computational time, and to compare the obtained results. The results show a big difference of the computational time between the different procedures

  8. Direct numerical simulation of noninvasive channel healing in electrical field

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-11-25

    Noninvasive channel healing is a new idea to repair the broken pipe wall, using external electric fields to drive iron particles to the destination. The repair can be done in the normal operation of the pipe flow without any shutdown of the pipeline so that this method can be a potentially efficient and safe technology of pipe healing. However, the real application needs full knowledge of healing details. Numerical simulation is an effective method. Thus, in this research, we first established a numerical model for noninvasive channel healing technology to represent fluid–particle interaction. The iron particles can be attached to a cracking area by external electrostatic forces or can also be detached by mechanical forces from the fluid. When enough particles are permanently attached on the cracking area, the pipe wall can be healed. The numerical criterion of the permanent attachment is discussed. A fully three-dimensional finite difference framework of direct numerical simulation is established and applied to different cases to simulate the full process of channel healing. The impact of Reynolds number and particle concentration on the healing process is discussed. This numerical investigation provides valuable reference and tools for further simulation of real pipe healing in engineering.

  9. Direct numerical simulations of nucleate boiling flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier Jamet; Celia Fouillet

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Better understand the origin and characteristics of boiling crisis is still a scientific challenge despite many years of valuable studies. One of the reasons why boiling crisis is so difficult to understand is that local and coupled physical phenomena are believed to play a key role in the trigger of instabilities which lead to the dry out of large portions of the heated solid phase. Nucleate boiling of a single bubble is fairly well understood compared to boiling crisis. Therefore, the numerical simulation of a single bubble growth during nucleate boiling is a good candidate to evaluate the capabilities of a numerical method to deal with complex liquid-vapor phenomena with phase-change and eventually to tackle the boiling crisis problem. In this paper, we present results of direct numerical simulations of nucleate boiling. The numerical method used is the second gradient method, which is a diffuse interface method dedicated to liquid vapor flows with phase-change. This study is not intended to provide quantitative results, partly because all the simulations are two-dimensional. However, particular attention is paid to the influence of some parameters on the main features of nucleate boiling, i.e. the radius of departure and the frequency of detachment of bubbles. In particular, we show that, as the contact angle increases, the radius of departure increases whereas the frequency of detachment decreases. Moreover, the influence of the existence of quasi non-condensable gas is studied. Numerical results show an important decrease of the heat exchange coefficient when a small amount of a quasi non-condensable gas is added to the pure liquid-vapor water system. This result is in agreement with experimental observations. Beyond these qualitative results, this numerical study allows to get insight into some important physical phenomena and to confirm that during nucleate boiling, large scale quantities are influenced by small scale

  10. Direct numerical simulations of turbulent lean premixed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Hawkes, Evatt R; Chen, Jacqueline H; Lu Tianfeng; Law, Chung K

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, due to the advent of high-performance computers and advanced numerical algorithms, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of combustion has emerged as a valuable computational research tool, in concert with experimentation. The role of DNS in delivering new Scientific insight into turbulent combustion is illustrated using results from a recent 3D turbulent premixed flame simulation. To understand the influence of turbulence on the flame structure, a 3D fully-resolved DNS of a spatially-developing lean methane-air turbulent Bunsen flame was performed in the thin reaction zones regime. A reduced chemical model for methane-air chemistry consisting of 13 resolved species, 4 quasi-steady state species and 73 elementary reactions was developed specifically for the current simulation. The data is analyzed to study possible influences of turbulence on the flame thickness. The results show that the average flame thickness increases, in qualitative agreement with several experimental results

  11. Direct numerical simulations of gas-liquid multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Tryggvason, Grétar; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Accurately predicting the behaviour of multiphase flows is a problem of immense industrial and scientific interest. Modern computers can now study the dynamics in great detail and these simulations yield unprecedented insight. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to direct numerical simulations of multiphase flows for researchers and graduate students. After a brief overview of the context and history the authors review the governing equations. A particular emphasis is placed on the 'one-fluid' formulation where a single set of equations is used to describe the entire flow field and

  12. Efficient Parallel Algorithm For Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Stuti; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1997-01-01

    A distributed algorithm for a high-order-accurate finite-difference approach to the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of transition and turbulence in compressible flows is described. This work has two major objectives. The first objective is to demonstrate that parallel and distributed-memory machines can be successfully and efficiently used to solve computationally intensive and input/output intensive algorithms of the DNS class. The second objective is to show that the computational complexity involved in solving the tridiagonal systems inherent in the DNS algorithm can be reduced by algorithm innovations that obviate the need to use a parallelized tridiagonal solver.

  13. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  14. Direct Numerical Simulations for Combustion Science: Past, Present, and Future

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2017-12-12

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. This chapter attempts to provide a brief historical review of the progress in DNS of turbulent combustion during the past decades. Major scientific accomplishments and contributions towards fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion will be summarized and future challenges and research needs will be proposed.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of incompressible multiphase flow with phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Soo; Riaz, Amir; Aute, Vikrant

    2017-09-01

    Simulation of multiphase flow with phase change is challenging because of the potential for unphysical pressure oscillations, spurious velocity fields and mass flux errors across the interface. The resulting numerical errors may become critical when large density contrasts are present. To address these issues, we present a new approach for multiphase flow with phase change that features, (i) a smooth distribution of sharp velocity jumps and mass flux within a narrow region surrounding the interface, (ii) improved mass flux projection from the implicit interface onto the uniform Cartesian grid and (iii) post-advection velocity correction step to ensure accurate velocity divergence in interfacial cells. These new features are implemented in combination with a sharp treatment of the jumps in pressure and temperature gradient. A series of 1-D, 2-D, axisymmetric and 3-D problems are solved to verify the improvements afforded by the new approach. Axisymmetric film boiling results are also presented, which show good qualitative agreement with heat transfer correlations as well as experimental observations of bubble shapes.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulations of Statistically Stationary Turbulent Premixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.

    2016-07-15

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties of hydrocarbon fuels, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. The article attempts to provide a brief overview of the state-of-the-art DNS of turbulent premixed flames at high Re/Ka conditions, with an emphasis on homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow configurations. Some important qualitative findings from numerical studies are summarized, new analytical approaches to investigate intensely turbulent premixed flame dynamics are discussed, and topics for future research are suggested. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  17. Direct numerical simulation of bubbles with parallelized adaptive mesh refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpaert, A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of two-phase Thermal-Hydraulics is a major topic for Nuclear Engineering for both security and efficiency of nuclear facilities. In addition to experiments, numerical modeling helps to knowing precisely where bubbles appear and how they behave, in the core as well as in the steam generators. This work presents the finest scale of representation of two-phase flows, Direct Numerical Simulation of bubbles. We use the 'Di-phasic Low Mach Number' equation model. It is particularly adapted to low-Mach number flows, that is to say flows which velocity is much slower than the speed of sound; this is very typical of nuclear thermal-hydraulics conditions. Because we study bubbles, we capture the front between vapor and liquid phases thanks to a downward flux limiting numerical scheme. The specific discrete analysis technique this work introduces is well-balanced parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). With AMR, we refined the coarse grid on a batch of patches in order to locally increase precision in areas which matter more, and capture fine changes in the front location and its topology. We show that patch-based AMR is very adapted for parallel computing. We use a variety of physical examples: forced advection, heat transfer, phase changes represented by a Stefan model, as well as the combination of all those models. We will present the results of those numerical simulations, as well as the speed up compared to equivalent non-AMR simulation and to serial computation of the same problems. This document is made up of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

  18. CSR Fields: Direct Numerical Solution of the Maxwell's Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the properties of the coherent electromagnetic fields of a very short, ultra-relativistic bunch in a rectangular vacuum chamber inside a bending magnet. The analysis is based on the results of a direct numerical solution of Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations. We use a new dispersion-free time-domain algorithm which employs a more efficient use of finite element mesh techniques and hence produces self-consistent and stable solutions for very short bunches. We investigate the fine structure of the CSR fields including coherent edge radiation. This approach should be useful in the study of existing and future concepts of particle accelerators and ultrafast coherent light sources. The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) fields have a strong action on the beam dynamics of very short bunches, which are moving in the bends of all kinds of magnetic elements. They are responsible for additional energy loss and energy spread; micro bunching and beam emittance growth. These fields may bound the efficiency of damping rings, electron-positron colliders and ultrafast coherent light sources, where high peak currents and very short bunches are envisioned. This is relevant to most high-brightness beam applications. On the other hand these fields together with transition radiation fields can be used for beam diagnostics or even as a powerful resource of THz radiation. A history of the study of CSR and a good collection of references can be found in (1). Electromagnetic theory suggests several methods on how to calculate CSR fields. The most popular method is to use Lienard-Wiechert potentials. Other approach is to solve numerically the approximate equations, which are a Schrodinger type equation. These numerical methods are described in (2). We suggest that a direct solution of Maxwell's equations together with Newton's equations can describe the detailed structure of the CSR fields (3).

  19. Direct Electrospray Printing of Gradient Refractive Index Chalcogenide Glass Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Spencer; Lin, Pao Tai; Li, Cheng; Lumdee, Chatdanai; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kik, Pieter G; Deng, Weiwei; Richardson, Kathleen

    2017-08-16

    A spatially varying effective refractive index gradient using chalcogenide glass layers is printed on a silicon wafer using an optimized electrospray (ES) deposition process. Using solution-derived glass precursors, IR-transparent Ge 23 Sb 7 S 70 and As 40 S 60 glass films of programmed thickness are fabricated to yield a bilayer structure, resulting in an effective gradient refractive index (GRIN) film. Optical and compositional analysis tools confirm the optical and physical nature of the gradient in the resulting high-optical-quality films, demonstrating the power of direct printing of multimaterial structures compatible with planar photonic fabrication protocols. The potential application of such tailorable materials and structures as they relate to the enhancement of sensitivity in chalcogenide glass based planar chemical sensor device design is presented. This method, applicable to a broad cross section of glass compositions, shows promise in directly depositing GRIN films with tunable refractive index profiles for bulk and planar optical components and devices.

  20. Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Directional and Non-directional Spatial-Numerical Associations across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ninaus

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence suggesting an association of numbers with physical space. However, the origin of such spatial-numerical associations (SNAs is still debated. In the present study we investigated the development of two SNAs in a cross-sectional study involving children, young and middle-aged adults as well as the elderly: (1 the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, reflecting a directional SNA; and (2 the numerical bisection bias in a line bisection task with numerical flankers. Results revealed a consistent SNARC effect in all age groups that continuously increased with age. In contrast, a numerical bisection bias was only observed for children and elderly participants, implying an U-shaped distribution of this bias across age groups. Additionally, individual SNARC effects and numerical bisection biases did not correlate significantly. We argue that the SNARC effect seems to be influenced by longer-lasting experiences of cultural constraints such as reading and writing direction and may thus reflect embodied representations. Contrarily, the numerical bisection bias may originate from insufficient inhibition of the semantic influence of irrelevant numerical flankers, which should be more pronounced in children and elderly people due to development and decline of cognitive control, respectively. As there is an ongoing debate on the origins of SNAs in general and the SNARC effect in particular, the present results are discussed in light of these differing accounts in an integrative approach. However, taken together, the present pattern of results suggests that different cognitive mechanisms underlie the SNARC effect and the numerical bisection bias.

  1. Numerical simulation of liquid film flow on revolution surfaces with momentum integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The momentum integral method is applied in the frame of safety analysis of pressure water reactors under hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions to simulate numerically film condensation, rewetting and vaporization on the inner surface of pressure water reactor containment. From the conservation equations of mass and momentum of a liquid film arising from condensation of steam upon the inner of the containment during a LOCA in a pressure water reactor plant, an integro-differential equation is derived, referring to an arbitrary axisymmetric surface of revolution. This equation describes the velocity distribution of the liquid film along a meridian of a surface of revolution. From the integro-differential equation and ordinary differential equation of first order for the film velocity is derived and integrated numerically. From the velocity distribution the film thickness distribution is obtained. The solution of the enthalpy equation for the liquid film yields the temperature distribution on the inner surface of the containment. (authors)

  2. Numerical investigation of unsteady mixing mechanism in plate film cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale large eddy simulation in high performance personal computer clusters is carried out to present unsteady mixing mechanism of film cooling and the development of films. Simulation cases include a single-hole plate with the inclined angle of 30° and blowing ratio of 0.5, and a single-row plate with hole-spacing of 1.5D and 2D (diameters of the hole. According to the massive simulation results, some new unsteady phenomena of gas films are found. The vortex system is changed in different position with the development of film cooling with the time marching the process of a single-row plate film cooling. Due to the mutual interference effects including mutual exclusion, a certain periodic sloshing and mutual fusion, and the structures of a variety of vortices change between parallel gas films. Macroscopic flow structures and heat transfer behaviors are obtained based on 20 million grids and Reynolds number of 28600.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of fractal-generated turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H; Hasegawa, Y; Ushijima, T; Nagata, K; Sakai, Y; Hayase, T

    2013-01-01

    We simulate fractal-generated turbulence (Hurst and Vassilicos 2007 Phys. Fluids 19 035103)) by means of a direct numerical simulation and address its fundamental characteristics. We examine whether the fractal-generated turbulence in the upstream region has a nature similar to that of a wake. We propose an equation for predicting peak values of the velocity fluctuation intensity and devise a method for formulating the functional form of the quantity of interest by focusing on the time scale of decaying turbulence, and we examine those forms for the turbulent kinetic energy and rms of pressure fluctuation through this method. By using the method, both of these functional forms are found to be power-law functions in the downstream region, even though these profiles follow exponential functions around these peaks. In addition, decay exponents of these quantities are estimated. The integral length scales of velocity fluctuations for transverse as well as streamwise directions are essentially constant in the downstream direction. Decaying turbulence having both these characteristics conflicts with decaying turbulence described by the theory predicting exponential decay. We discuss a factor causing the difference by focusing on the functional form of the transfer function of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. (paper)

  4. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  5. Direct Numerical Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livescu, D; Wei, T; Petersen, M R

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer is studied using data from an extensive new set of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), performed on the 0.5 Petaflops, 150k compute cores BG/L Dawn supercomputer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This includes a suite of simulations with grid size of 1024 2 × 4608 and Atwood number ranging from 0.04 to 0.9, in order to examine small departures from the Boussinesq approximation as well as large Atwood number effects, and a high resolution simulation of grid size 4096 2 × 4032 and Atwood number of 0.75. After the layer width had developed substantially, additional branched simulations have been run under reversed and zero gravity conditions. While the bulk of the results will be published elsewhere, here we present preliminary results on: 1) the long-standing open question regarding the discrepancy between the numerically and experimentally measured mixing layer growth rates and 2) mixing characteristics.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of bluff-body-stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Arias, Paul G.

    2014-01-10

    To enable high fidelity simulation of combustion phenomena in realistic devices, an embedded boundary method is implemented into direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flows. One of the additional numerical issues associated with reacting flows is the stable treatment of the embedded boundaries in the presence of multicomponent species and reactions. The implemented method is validated in two test con gurations: a pre-mixed hydrogen/air flame stabilized in a backward-facing step configuration, and reactive flows around a square prism. The former is of interest in practical gas turbine combustor applications in which the thermo-acoustic instabilities are a strong concern, and the latter serves as a good model problem to capture the vortex shedding behind a bluff body. In addition, a reacting flow behind the square prism serves as a model for the study of flame stabilization in a micro-channel combustor. The present study utilizes fluid-cell reconstruction methods in order to capture important flame-to-solid wall interactions that are important in confined multicomponent reacting flows. Results show that the DNS with embedded boundaries can be extended to more complex geometries without loss of accuracy and the high fidelity simulation data can be used to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for the design of practical combustion devices.

  7. Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric laminar low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lendinez, Daniel; Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The stability of submerged laminar axisymmetric low-density jets has been investigated experimentally (Kyle & Sreenivasan 1993, Hallberg & Strykowski 2006) and with linear analysis (Jendoubi & Strykowski 1994, Coenen & Sevilla 2012, Coenen et al. 2017). These jets become globally unstable when the Reynolds number is larger than a certain critical value which depends on the density ratio and on the velocity profile at the injector outlet. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulations using FreeFEM + + (Hecht 2012) with P1 elements for pressure and P2 for velocity and density are performed to complement the above mentioned studies. Density and velocity fields are analyzed at long time showing the unforced space-time evolution of nonlinear disturbances propagating along the jet. Using the Stuart-Landau model to fit the numerical results for the self-excited oscillations we have computed a neutral stability curve that shows good agreement with experiments and stability theory. Thanks to Spanish MINECO under projects DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P and DPI2015-71901-REDT for financial support.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the direct numerical simulation of a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles were conducted by means of the refined MARS method, turbulent Reynolds number 150, and Bubble Reynolds number 120. As the results, large-scale wake motions were observed round the bubbles. At the bubble located region, mean velocity was degreased and turbulent intensities and Reynolds shear stress were increased by the effects of the large-scale wake motions round bubbles. On the other hands, near wall region, bubbles might effect on the flow laminarlize and drag reduction. Two types of drag coefficient of bubble were estimated from the accelerated velocity of bubble and correlation equation as a function of Particle Reynolds number. Empirical correlation equation might be overestimated the drag effects in this Particle Reynolds number range. (author)

  9. Direct numerical simulation of homogeneous stratified rotating turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, O.; Tsujimura, S.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Mech. Eng., Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    The effects of the Prandtl number on stratified rotating turbulence have been studied in homogeneous turbulence by using direct numerical simulations and a rapid distortion theory. Fluctuations under strong stable-density stratification can be theoretically divided into the WAVE and the potential vorticity (PV) modes. In low-Prandtl-number fluids, the WAVE mode deteriorates, while the PV mode remains. Imposing rotation on a low-Prandtl-number fluid makes turbulence two-dimensional as well as geostrophic; it is found from the instantaneous turbulent structure that the vortices merge to form a few vertically-elongated vortex columns. During the period toward two-dimensionalization, the vertical vortices become asymmetric in the sense of rotation. (orig.)

  10. Direct Numerical Simulations of Particle-Laden Turbulent Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebakumar, Anand Samuel; Premnath, Kannan; Abraham, John

    2017-11-01

    In a recent experimental study, Lau and Nathan (2014) reported that the distribution of particles in a turbulent pipe flow is strongly influenced by the Stokes number (St). At St lower than 1, particles migrate toward the wall and at St greater than 10 they tend to migrate toward the axis. It was suggested that this preferential migration of particles is due to two forces, the Saffman lift force and the turbophoretic force. Saffman lift force represents a force acting on the particle as a result of a velocity gradient across the particle when it leads or lags the fluid flow. Turbophoretic force is induced by turbulence which tends to move the particle in the direction of decreasing turbulent kinetic energy. In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is employed to simulate a particle-laden turbulent channel flow through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). We find that the preferential migration is a function of particle size in addition to the St. We explain the effect of the particle size and St on the Saffman lift force and turbophoresis and present how this affects particle concentration at different conditions.

  11. Direct Numerical Simulation of Fingering Instabilities in Coating Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Murat H.; Schwartz, Leonard W.

    1998-11-01

    We consider stability and finger formation in free surface flows. Gravity driven downhill drainage and temperature gradient driven climbing flows are two examples of such problems. The former situation occurs when a mound of viscous liquid on a vertical wall is allowed to flow. Constant surface shear stress due to temperature gradients (Marangoni stress) can initiate the latter problem. The evolution equations are derived using the lubrication approximation. We also include the effects of finite-contact angles in the evolution equations using a disjoining pressure model. Evolution equations for both problems are solved using an efficient alternating-direction-implicit method. For both problems a one-dimensional base state is established, that is steady in a moving reference frame. This base state is unstable to transverse perturbations. The transverse wavenumbers for the most rapidly growing modes are found through direct numerical solution of the nonlinear evolution equations, and are compared with published experimental results. For a range of finite equilibrium contact angles, the fingers can grow without limit leading to semi-finite steady fingers in a moving coordinate system. A computer generated movie of the nonlinear simulation results, for several sets of input parameters, will be shown.

  12. Numerical simulations of electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglum, Joshua Christopher

    Recently developed needleless electrospinning and electrolithography are two successful techniques that have been utilized extensively for low-cost, scalable, and continuous nano-fabrication. Rational understanding of the electrohydrodynamic principles underneath these nano-manufacturing methods is crucial to fabrication of continuous nanofibers and patterned thin films. This research project is to formulate robust, high-efficiency finite-difference Fourier spectral methods to simulate the electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films. Two thin-film models were considered and refined. The first was based on reduced lubrication theory; the second further took into account the effect of solvent drying and dewetting of the substrate. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based spectral method was integrated into the finite-difference algorithms for fast, accurately solving the governing nonlinear partial differential equations. The present methods have been used to examine the dependencies of the evolving surface features of the thin films upon the model parameters. The present study can be used for fast, controllable nanofabrication.

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation of Low Capillary Number Pore Scale Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Soulaine, C.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    The arrangement of void spaces and the granular structure of a porous medium determines multiple macroscopic properties of the rock such as porosity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. Therefore, it is important to study the microscopic structure of the reservoir pores and understand the dynamics of fluid displacements through them. One approach for doing this, is direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow that requires a robust numerical tool for prediction of fluid dynamics and a detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring at the pore-scale. In pore scale flows with a low capillary number, Eulerian multiphase methods are well-known to produce additional vorticity close to the interface. This is mainly due to discretization errors which lead to an imbalance of capillary pressure and surface tension forces that causes unphysical spurious currents. At the pore scale, these spurious currents can become significantly stronger than the average velocity in the phases, and lead to unphysical displacement of the interface. In this work, we first investigate the capability of the algebraic Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in OpenFOAM for low capillary number pore scale flow simulations. Afterward, we compare VOF results with a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method and Iso-Advector method. It has been shown that the former one reduces the VOF's unphysical spurious currents in some cases, and both are known to capture interfaces sharper than VOF. As the conclusion, we will investigate that whether the use of CLSVOF or Iso-Advector will lead to less spurious velocities and more accurate results for capillary driven pore-scale multiphase flows or not. Keywords: Pore-scale multiphase flow, Capillary driven flows, Spurious currents, OpenFOAM

  14. Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Autoigniting Hydrogen Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Rajapandiyan

    Autoignition is an important phenomenon and a tool in the design of combustion engines. To study autoignition in a canonical form a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent autoigniting hydrogen jet in vitiated coflow conditions at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 is performed. A detailed chemical mechanism for hydrogen-air combustion and non-unity Lewis numbers for species transport is used. Realistic inlet conditions are prescribed by obtaining the velocity eld from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow simulation. To perform this simulation a scalable modular density based method for direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible reacting flows is developed. The algorithm performs explicit time advancement of transport variables on structured grids. An iterative semi-implicit time advancement is developed for the chemical source terms to alleviate the chemical stiffness of detailed mechanisms. The algorithm is also extended from a Cartesian grid to a cylindrical coordinate system which introduces a singularity at the pole r = 0 where terms with a factor 1/r can be ill-defined. There are several approaches to eliminate this pole singularity and finite volume methods can bypass this issue by not storing or computing data at the pole. All methods however face a very restrictive time step when using a explicit time advancement scheme in the azimuthal direction (theta) where the cell sizes are of the order DelrDeltheta. We use a conservative finite volume based approach to remove the severe time step restriction imposed by the CFL condition by merging cells in the azimuthal direction. In addition, fluxes in the radial direction are computed with an implicit scheme to allow cells to be clustered along the jet's shear layer. This method is validated and used to perform the large scale turbulent reacting simulation. The resulting flame structure is found to be similar to a turbulent diusion flame but stabilized by autoignition at the

  15. Direct numerical simulation of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Michael S.

    Interaction of liquid droplets with turbulence is important in numerous applications ranging from rain formation to oil spills to spray combustion. The physical mechanisms of droplet-turbulence interaction are largely unknown, especially when compared to that of solid particles. Compared to solid particles, droplets can deform, break up, coalesce and have internal fluid circulation. The main goal of this work is to investigate using direct numerical simulation (DNS) the physical mechanisms of droplet-turbulence interaction, both for non-evaporating and evaporating droplets. To achieve this objective, we develop and couple a new pressure-correction method with the volume-of-fluid (VoF) method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation. This equation can then be solved directly using, e.g., the FFT-based parallel Poisson solver. For a 10243 mesh, our new pressure-correction method using a fast Poisson solver is ten to forty times faster than the standard pressure-correction method using multigrid. Using the coupled pressure-correction and VoF method, we perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 3130 finite-size, non-evaporating droplets of diameter approximately equal to the Taylor lengthscale and with 5% droplet volume fraction in decaying isotropic turbulence at initial Taylor-scale Reynolds number Relambda = 83. In the droplet-laden cases, we vary one of the following three parameters: the droplet Weber number based on the r.m.s. velocity of turbulence (0.1 ≤ Werms ≤ 5), the droplet- to carrier-fluid density ratio (1 ≤ rhod/rho c ≤ 100) or the droplet- to carrier-fluid viscosity ratio (1 ≤ mud/muc ≤ 100). We derive the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) equations for the two-fluid, carrier-fluid and droplet-fluid flow. These equations allow

  16. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Flow Over Passive Geometric Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, Alexander

    It is well understood that delaying flow separation on a bluff body allows significant drag reduction, which is attractive in many applications. With this in mind, many separation control mechanisms, both active and passive, have been developed and tested to optimize the effects of this phenomenon. Although this idea is generally accepted, the physical occurrences in the near-wall region during transition that lead to separation delay are not well understood. The current study evaluates the impact of both spherical dimples, and sandgrain style roughness on downstream flow by performing direct numerical simulations over such geometries on a zero pressure gradient flat plate. It is shown that although dimples and random roughness of similar characteristic length scales exhibit similar boundary layer characteristics, dimples are more successful in developing high momentum in the vicinity of the wall. Additionally it is shown that increasing the relative size of the rough elements does not increase the near-wall momentum, and is undesirable in controlling separation. Finally, it is shown that the impact of roughness elements on the flow is more immediate, and that, for the case of one row of dimples and an equivalent area of roughness, the roughness patch is more successful in transitioning the near-wall region to a non-laminar state. It can be concluded from variation in the span of the flowfield for a single row of dimples that the size and orientation of the disturbance region is significant to the results.

  18. Direct Numerical Simulation of heat transfer in a turbulent flume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, R.; Tiselj, I.

    2001-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) can be used for the description of turbulent heat transfer in the fluid at low Reynolds numbers. DNS means precise solving of Navier-Stoke's equations without any extra turbulent models. DNS should be able to describe all relevant length scales and time scales in observed turbulent flow. The largest length scale is actually dimension of system and the smallest length and time scale is equal to Kolmogorov scale. In the present work simulations of fully developed turbulent velocity and temperature fields were performed in a turbulent flume (open channel) with pseudo-spectral approach at Reynolds number 2670 (friction Reynolds number 171) and constant Prandtl number 5.4, considering the fluid temperature as a passive scalar. Two ideal thermal boundary conditions were taken into account on the heated wall. The first one was an ideal isothermal boundary condition and the second one an ideal isoflux boundary condition. We observed different parameters like mean temperature and velocity, fluctuations of temperature and velocity, and auto-correlation functions.(author)

  19. Direct numerical simulation of vector-controlled free jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K; Ao, K; Shakouchi, T; Ando, T

    2011-01-01

    We conduct DNS (direct numerical simulation) of vector controlled free jets. The inflow velocity of jet is periodically oscillated perpendicular to the jet axis. In order to realize the high accurate computation, a discretization in space is performed with hybrid scheme in which Fourier spectral and 6th order compact scheme are adopted. From visualized instantaneous vortex structures, it is found that the flow pattern considerably changes according to the oscillating frequency, i.e., according to the increasing the frequency, wave, bifurcating and flapping modes appear in turn. In order to quantify mixing efficiency under the vector control, as the mixing measure, statistical entropy is investigated. Compared to the uncontrolled jet, the mixing efficiency is improved in order of wavy, flapping and bifurcating modes. Thus the vector control can be expected for the improvement of mixing efficiency. Further to make clear the reason for the mixing enhancement, Snapshot POD and DMD method are applied. The primary flow structures under the vector control are demonstrated.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of Transition Due to Traveling Crossflow Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Duan, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Previous simulations of laminar breakdown mechanisms associated with stationary crossflow instability over a realistic swept-wing configuration are extended to investigate the alternate scenario of transition due to secondary instability of traveling crossflow modes. Earlier analyses based on secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations have shown that this alternate scenario is viable when the initial amplitude of the most amplified mode of the traveling crossflow instability is greater than approximately 0.03 times the initial amplitude of the most amplified stationary mode. The linear growth predictions based on the secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations agree well with the direct numerical simulation. Nonlinear effects are initially stabilizing but subsequently lead to a rapid growth followed by the onset of transition when the amplitude of the secondary disturbance exceeds a threshold value. Similar to the breakdown of stationary vortices, the transition zone is rather short and the boundary layer becomes completely turbulent across a distance of less than 15 times the boundary layer thickness at the completion of transition.

  1. DIPOLE COLLAPSE AND DYNAMO WAVES IN GLOBAL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel [MAG (ENS/IPGP), LRA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Petitdemange, Ludovic, E-mail: martin@schrinner.eu [Previously at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. (Germany)

    2012-06-20

    Magnetic fields of low-mass stars and planets are thought to originate from self-excited dynamo action in their convective interiors. Observations reveal a variety of field topologies ranging from large-scale, axial dipoles to more structured magnetic fields. In this article, we investigate more than 70 three-dimensional, self-consistent dynamo models in the Boussinesq approximation obtained by direct numerical simulations. The control parameters, the aspect ratio, and the mechanical boundary conditions have been varied to build up this sample of models. Both strongly dipolar and multipolar models have been obtained. We show that these dynamo regimes in general can be distinguished by the ratio of a typical convective length scale to the Rossby radius. Models with a predominantly dipolar magnetic field were obtained, if the convective length scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than the Rossby radius. Moreover, we highlight the role of the strong shear associated with the geostrophic zonal flow for models with stress-free boundary conditions. In this case the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. We interpret our results in terms of dynamo eigenmodes using the so-called test-field method. We can thus show that models in the dipolar regime are characterized by an isolated 'single mode'. Competing overtones become significant as the boundary to multipolar dynamos is approached. We discuss how these findings relate to previous models and to observations.

  2. Direct numerical simulations of evaporating droplets in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    This work demonstrates direct numerical simulations of evaporating two phase flows, with applications to studying combustion in aircraft engines. Inside the engine, liquid fuel is injected into the combustion chamber where it atomizes into droplets and evaporates. Combustion occurs as the fuel vapor mixes with the surrounding flow of turbulent gas. Understanding combustion, therefore, requires studying evaporation in a turbulent flow and the resulting vapor distribution. We study the problem using a finite volume framework to solve the Navier-Stokes and scalar transport equations under a low-Mach assumption [Desjardins et al., J. Comp. Phys., 2008]. The liquid-gas interface is tracked using a conservative level-set method [Desjardins et al., J. Comp. Phys., 2008] which allows for a sharp reconstruction of the discontinuity across the interface. Special care is taken in the discretization of cells near the liquid-gas interface to ensure the stability and accuracy of the solution. Results are discussed for non-reacting simulations of liquid droplets evaporating into a turbulent field of inert gas.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of stratified gas-liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, P.; De Angelis, V.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-01-01

    Interactions through an interface between two turbulent flows play an important role in many environmental and industrial problems, e.g. in determining the coupling fluxes of heat mass and momentum, between the ocean and atmosphere, and in the design of gas-liquid contractors for the chemical industry, as well as in determining interactions between phases in nuclear transients that are accompanied by system voiding e.g. LOCAs. Here, the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the interaction of two turbulent fluids through a flat interface has been simulated. The flow and the temperature fields are computed using a pseudospectral method. This study shows that shear stress at the interface correlates well with the heat flux. Extensive analysis of the near interface turbulence structure has been performed using quadrant analysis. From this it is clear that gas-side sweeps dominate over the high shear stress regions. This suggests that simple parameterizations based on sweep frequency may be adequate for predictions of scalar transport rates

  4. The Liquid Film Flow with Evaporation: Numerical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezanova Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of thin liquid layer on an inclined substrate is investigated numerically. The mathematical modelling is based on the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations and the generalized conditions on the thermocapillary boundary simplified during the parametrical analysis. In the framework of the long-wave approximation the evolution equation which determines the thickness of the liquid layer in the case of moderate Reynolds numbers is derived. The results of numerical modelling of the liquid flow with evaporation at the interface are obtained.

  5. Numerical analysis for conductance probes, for the measurement of liquid film thickness in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Mayinger, F.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical tool is developed to calculate the potential distribution, electric field, and conductance for any types of conductance probes immersed in the wavy liquid film with various shapes of its free surface. The tool is validated against various analytical solutions. It is applied to find out the characteristics of the wire-wire probe, the flush-wire probe and the flush-flush probe in terms of resolution, linearity, and sensitivity. The wire-wire probe shows high resolution and excellent linearity for various film thickness, but comparably low sensitivity for low film thickness fixed. The flush-wire probe shows good linearity and high sensitivity for varying film thickness, but resolution degrading with an increase in film thickness. In order to check the applicability of the three types of probes in the real situation, the Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) two-dimensional solitary wave is simulated. The wire-wire probe is strongly affected by the installation direction of the two wires; when the wires are installed perpendicularly to the flow direction, the wire-wire probe shows large distortion of the solitary wave. In order to measure the transverse profile of waves, the wire-wire probes and the flush-wire probes are required to be separately installed 2mm and 2mm, respectively

  6. Direct transfer of graphene films for polyurethane substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilani, C.; Romani, E.C.; Larrudé, D.G. [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barbosa, Gelza M. [Diretoria de Sistemas de Armas da Marinha, Marinha do Brasil, 20010-00 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, F.L., E-mail: lazaro@vdg.fis.puc-rio.br [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by CVD using copper foils as substrates. • Monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene were transferred to PU. • Samples were characterized by Raman and optical spectroscopies. • PU/monolayer graphene has transmittance around 80% in visible range. - Abstract: We have proposed the direct transfer of large-area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to polymeric substrate by evaporating of solvents of polyurethane/tetrahydrofurane solution. The graphene films on polyurethane substrates were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopies and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra revealed that it is possible to transfer in a controlled manner monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene films over polyurethane substrate.

  7. Direct transfer of graphene films for polyurethane substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilani, C.; Romani, E.C.; Larrudé, D.G.; Barbosa, Gelza M.; Freire, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by CVD using copper foils as substrates. • Monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene were transferred to PU. • Samples were characterized by Raman and optical spectroscopies. • PU/monolayer graphene has transmittance around 80% in visible range. - Abstract: We have proposed the direct transfer of large-area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to polymeric substrate by evaporating of solvents of polyurethane/tetrahydrofurane solution. The graphene films on polyurethane substrates were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopies and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra revealed that it is possible to transfer in a controlled manner monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene films over polyurethane substrate.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of free and forced square jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, Trushar B.; Saha, Arun K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Free square jet at Re = 500–2000 is studied using DNS. • Forced square jet at Re = 1000 subjected to varicose perturbation is also investigated at various forcing frequencies. • Vortex interactions within the jet and jet spreading are affected both for free and forced jets. • Perturbation at higher frequency shows axis-switching. - Abstract: Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible, spatially developing square jets in the Reynolds number range of 500–2000 is reported. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier–Stokes equations are solved using high order spatial and temporal discretization. The objective of the present work is to understand the evolution of free and forced square jets by examining the formation of large-scale structures. Coherent structures and related interactions of free jets suggest control strategies that can be used to achieve enhanced spreading and mixing of the jet with the surrounding fluid. The critical Reynolds number for the onset on unsteadiness in an unperturbed free square jet is found to be 875–900 while it reduces to the range 500–525 in the presence of small-scale perturbations. Disturbances applied at the flow inlet cause saturation of KH-instability and early transition to turbulence. Forced jet calculations have been carried out using varicose perturbation with amplitude of 15%, while frequency is independently varied. Simulations show that the initial development of the square jet is influenced by the four corners leading to the appearance hairpin structures along with the formation of vortex rings. Farther downstream, adjacent vortices strongly interact leading to their rapid breakup. Excitation frequencies in the range 0.4–0.6 cause axis-switching of the jet cross-section. Results show that square jets achieve greater spreading but are less controllable in comparison to the circular ones

  9. Direct numerical simulation of a NACA0012 in full stall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, I.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Borrell, R.; Oliva, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Coherent structures at transitional and supercritical wake modes are presented. • Vortex shedding is detected in both wake modes. • KH instabilities and vortex shedding frequencies are identified. • Low-frequency flapping of the shear-layer is also detected after stall. • Local pressure distribution at both AOA is coherent with experimental observations. -- Abstract: This work aims at investigating the mechanisms of separation and the transition to turbulence in the separated shear-layer of aerodynamic profiles, while at the same time to gain insight into coherent structures formed in the separated zone at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers. To do this, direct numerical simulations of the flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at Reynolds numbers Re = 50,000 (based on the free-stream velocity and the airfoil chord) and angles of attack AOA = 9.25° and AOA = 12° have been carried out. At low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, NACA0012 exhibits a combination of leading-edge/trailing-edge stall which causes the massive separation of the flow on the suction side of the airfoil. The initially laminar shear layer undergoes transition to turbulence and vortices formed are shed forming a von Kármán like vortex street in the airfoil wake. The main characteristics of this flow together with its main features, including power spectra of a set of selected monitoring probes at different positions on the suction side and in the wake of the airfoil are provided and discussed in detail

  10. Direct observation of interfacial C60 cluster formation in polystyrene-C60 nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joong Tark; Lee, Geon-Woong; Kim, Sangcheol; Lee, Hae-Jeong; Douglas, Jack F; Karim, Alamgir

    2009-01-01

    Large interfacial C 60 clusters were directly imaged at the supporting film-substrate interface in physically detached polystyrene-C 60 nanocomposite films by atomic force microscopy, confirming the stabilizing mechanism previously hypothesized for thin polymer films. Additionally, we found that the C 60 additive influences basic thermodynamic film properties such as the interfacial energy and the film thermal expansion coefficient.

  11. Numerical simulation of falling film flow boiling along a vertical wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaki Kino; Tomoaki Kunugi; Akimi Serizawa

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: When a dryout occurs in film flows with heating from the wall, the wall surface being cooled is no longer in intimate contact with the liquid film. Consequently, the heat transfer will dramatically reduce and the corresponding wall temperature will rise rapidly up to the melting temperature of the heat transfer plate or pipe. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of liquid films flowing along a heating wall and the dryout phenomena of the liquid films associated with increasing heat flux in the high heat flux component devices for chemical and mechanical devices and nuclear reactor systems. Many studies have been conducted on the dryout phenomena and it has been shown that the dryout conditions are influenced by several different flow conditions, for instance, subcooled and saturated liquid films and so on. The dryout process of boiling liquid films is different between them: in the case of subcooled liquid films, the process is caused by the local surface-tension variation along the film. On the contrary, in the case of saturated liquid films the surface temperature of boiling films is maintained at a saturation temperature and there can be no variation of surface tension along the film. The process in the case of saturated liquid films is caused by the reduction of film flow rate due to the flow imbalance. This reduction of film flow rate is promoted by the evaporation and the liquid droplets arising from the film surface due to the burst of vapor bubbles. Therefore, it is very important to predict the sputtering rate of liquid droplets and to understand the behavior of vapor bubbles in film flow boiling. In the present study, numerical simulations based on the MARS (Multi-interface Advection and Reconstruction Solver) developed by one of the authors have been performed in order to understand the dryout of film flow boiling. The film flows along a vertical wall are focused in the present study

  12. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer during evaporation of a thin liquid film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oubella M’hand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of mixed convection heat and mass transfer with film evaporation in a vertical channel is developed. The emphasis is focused on the effects of vaporization of three different liquid films having widely different properties, along the isothermal and wetted walls on the heat and mass transfer rates in the channel. The induced laminar downward flow is a mixture of blowing dry air and vapour of water, methanol or acetone, assumed as ideal gases. A two-dimensional steady state and elliptical flow model, connected with variable thermo-physical properties, is used and the phase change problem is based on thin liquid film assumptions. The governing equations of the model are solved by a finite volume method and the velocity-pressure fields are linked by SIMPLE algorithm. The numerical results, including the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles, as well as axial variations of Nusselt numbers, Sherwood number and dimensionless film evaporation rate are presented for two values of inlet temperature and Reynolds number. It was found that lower the inlet temperature and Re, the higher the induced flows cooling with respect of most volatile film. The better mass transfer rates related with film evaporation are found for a system with low mass diffusion coefficient.

  13. Numerical characterization of nanopillar photonic crystal waveguides and directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically characterize a novel type of a photonic crystal waveguide, which consists of several rows of periodically arranged dielectric cylinders. In such a nanopillar photonic crystal waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection. A nanopillar waveguide is a multimode...

  14. Direct Numerical Simulation Sediment Transport in Horizontal Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    We numerically simulate turbulent flow in a horizontal plane channel over a bed of mobile particles. All scales of fluid motion are resolved without modeling and the phase interface is accurately represented. Our results indicate a possible scenario for the onset of erosion through collective motion induced by buffer-layer streaks. (Author) 27 refs

  15. Numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The hyperbolic two-temperature model describing the temporal andspatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  16. Framing Persoalan Indonesia Melalui Film Dokumenter Model Direct Cinema (Studi Pada Film-film Dokumenter Terbaik, Program Eagle Award Competitions Di Metro TV)

    OpenAIRE

    Styo Wibowo, Novin Farid

    2013-01-01

    FRAMING PERSOALAN INDONESIA MELALUI FILM DOKUMENTER MODELDIRECT CINEMA(STUDI PADA FILM-FILM DOKUMENTER TERBAIK, PROGRAM EAGLEAWARD COMPETITIONS DI METRO TV)Frames Indonesia Issues Through Direct Cinema DocumentaryFilm On Television (Framing Analysis of the 3 Best Documentary Film, Eagle AwardCompetitions Program at Metro TV)Novin Farid Styo WibowoJurusan Ilmu Komunikasi, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu PolitikUniversitas Muhammadiyah MalangEmail : TThe research disc...

  17. Direct-current substrate bias effects on amorphous silicon sputter-deposited films for thin film transistor fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Ik; Rack, Philip D.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect that direct current (dc) substrate bias has on radio frequency-sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films has been investigated. The substrate bias produces a denser a-Si film with fewer defects compared to unbiased films. The reduced number of defects results in a higher resistivity because defect-mediated conduction paths are reduced. Thin film transistors (TFTs) that were completely sputter deposited were fabricated and characterized. The TFT with the biased a-Si film showed lower leakage (off-state) current, higher on/off current ratio, and higher transconductance (field effect mobility) than the TFT with the unbiased a-Si film

  18. Numerical Study of Wavy Film Flow on Vertical Plate Using Different Turbulent Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, June Kee; Park, Il Seouk

    2014-01-01

    Film flows applied to shell-and-tube heat exchangers in various industrial fields have been studied for a long time. One boundary of the film flow interfaces with a fixed wall, and the other boundary interfaces with a gaseous region. Thus, the flows become so unstable that wavy behaviors are generated on free surfaces as the film Reynolds number increases. First, high-amplitude solitary waves are detected in a low Reynolds number laminar region; then, the waves transit to a low-amplitude, high frequency ripple in a turbulent region. Film thickness is the most significant factor governing heat transfer. Since the wave accompanied in the film flow results in temporal and spatial variations in film thickness, it can be of importance for numerically predicting the film's wavy behavior. In this study, various turbulent models are applied for predicting low-amplitude ripple flows in turbulent regions. The results are compared with existing experimental results, and finally, the applied turbulent models are appraised in from the viewpoint of wavy behaviors

  19. Numerical Study of Wavy Film Flow on Vertical Plate Using Different Turbulent Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, June Kee [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il Seouk [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Film flows applied to shell-and-tube heat exchangers in various industrial fields have been studied for a long time. One boundary of the film flow interfaces with a fixed wall, and the other boundary interfaces with a gaseous region. Thus, the flows become so unstable that wavy behaviors are generated on free surfaces as the film Reynolds number increases. First, high-amplitude solitary waves are detected in a low Reynolds number laminar region; then, the waves transit to a low-amplitude, high frequency ripple in a turbulent region. Film thickness is the most significant factor governing heat transfer. Since the wave accompanied in the film flow results in temporal and spatial variations in film thickness, it can be of importance for numerically predicting the film's wavy behavior. In this study, various turbulent models are applied for predicting low-amplitude ripple flows in turbulent regions. The results are compared with existing experimental results, and finally, the applied turbulent models are appraised in from the viewpoint of wavy behaviors.

  20. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  1. Investigation of film boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI conditions. Results of a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Dinh, A.T.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Sehgal, B.R. [Div. of Nuclear Power Safety Royal Inst. of Tech. (RIT), Brinellvaegen 60, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Film boiling on the surface of a high-temperature melt jet or of a melt particle is one of key phenomena governing the physics of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) which may occur during the course of a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). A number of experimental and analytical studies have been performed, in the past, to address film boiling heat transfer and the accompanying hydrodynamic aspects. Most of the experiments have, however, been performed for temperature and heat flux conditions, which are significantly lower than the prototypic conditions. For ex-vessel FCIs, high liquid subcooling can significantly affect the FCI thermal hydraulics. Presently, there are large uncertainties in predicting natural-convection film boiling of subcooled liquids on high-temperature surfaces. In this paper, research conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS), Stockholm, concerning film-boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI condition is presented. Notably, the focus is placed on the effects of (1) water subcooling, (2) high-temperature steam properties, (3) the radiation heat transfer and (4) mixing zone boiling dynamics, on the vapor film characteristics. Numerical investigations are performed using a novel CFD modeling concept named as the local-homogeneous-slip model (LHSM). Results of the analytical and numerical studies are discussed with respect to boiling dynamics under FCI conditions. (author)

  2. Direct numerical simulation of solidification microstructures affected by fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juric, D.

    1997-12-01

    The effects of fluid flow on the solidification morphology of pure materials and solute microsegregation patterns of binary alloys are studied using a computational methodology based on a front tracking/finite difference method. A general single field formulation is presented for the full coupling of phase change, fluid flow, heat and solute transport. This formulation accounts for interfacial rejection/absorption of latent heat and solute, interfacial anisotropies, discontinuities in material properties between the liquid and solid phases, shrinkage/expansion upon solidification and motion and deformation of the solid. Numerical results are presented for the two dimensional dendritic solidification of pure succinonitrile and the solidification of globulitic grains of a plutonium-gallium alloy. For both problems, comparisons are made between solidification without fluid flow and solidification within a shear flow

  3. Numerical implementation of a model with directional distortional hardening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, René; Plešek, Jiří; Hrubý, Zbyněk; Parma, Slavomír; Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dafalias, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 12 (2015), 04015048-04015048 ISSN 0733-9399 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH14018; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20666S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : plasticity * directional distortional hardening * finite-element procedures Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.346, year: 2015 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EM.1943-7889.0000954

  4. Direct numerical simulations of premixed turbulent flames with flamelet-generated manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van J.A.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation is a very powerful tool to evaluate the validity of new models and theories for turbulent combustion. In this paper, direct numerical simulations of spherically expanding premixed turbulent flames in the thin reaction zone regime and in the broken reaction zone regime are

  5. Direct numerical simulation of MHD flow with electrically conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, S.; Kunugi, T.; Naito, N.; Sagara, A.

    2006-01-01

    The 2D vortex problem and 3D turbulent channel flow are treated numerically to assess the effect of electrically conducting walls on turbulent MHD flow. As a first approximation, the twin vortex pair is considered as a model of a turbulent eddy near the wall. As the eddy approaches and collides with the wall, a high value electrical potential is induced inside the wall. The Lorentz force, associated with the potential distribution, reduces the velocity gradient in the near-wall region. When considering a fully developed turbulent channel flow, a high electrical conductivity wall was chosen to emphasize the effect of electromagnetic coupling between the wall and the flow. The analysis was performed using DNS. The results are compared with a non-MHD flow and MHD flow in the insulated channel. The mean velocity within the logarithmic region in the case of the electrically conducting wall is slightly higher than that in the non-conducting wall case. Thus, the drag is smaller compared to that in the non-conducting wall case due to a reduction of the Reynolds stress in the near wall region through the Lorentz force. This mechanism is explained via reduction of the production term in the Reynolds shear stress budget

  6. Direct numerical simulation of water droplet coalescence in the oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOF computational technique has been used to simulate coalescence of two water droplets in oil. ► The model was validated with the experimental data for binary droplet coalescence. ► Based on the CFD simulation results a correlation has been proposed to predict the coalescence time. - Abstract: Coalescence of two water droplets in the oil was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The finite volume numerical method was applied to solve the Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach for interface tracking. The effects of some parameters consisting of the collision velocity, off-center collision parameter, oil viscosity and water–oil interfacial tension on the coalescence time were investigated. The simulation results were validated against the experimental data available in the literature. The results revealed that quicker coalescence could be achieved if the head-on collisions occur or the droplets approach each other with a high velocity. In addition, low oil viscosities or large water–oil interfacial tensions cause less coalescence time. Moreover, a correlation was developed to predict coalescence efficiency as a function of the mentioned parameters.

  7. Numerical estimation of aircrafts' unsteady lateral-directional stability derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for predicting steady and oscillatory aerodynamic loads on general configuration has been developed. The prediction is based on the Doublet-Lattice Method, Slender Body Theory and Method of Images. The chord and span wise loading on lifting surfaces and longitudinal bodies (in horizontal and vertical plane load distributions are determined. The configuration may be composed of an assemblage of lifting surfaces (with control surfaces and bodies (with circular cross sections and a longitudinal variation of radius. Loadings predicted by this method are used to calculate (estimate steady and unsteady (dynamic lateral-directional stability derivatives. The short outline of the used methods is given in [1], [2], [3], [4] and [5]. Applying the described methodology software DERIV is developed. The obtained results from DERIV are compared to NASTRAN examples HA21B and HA21D from [4]. In the first example (HA21B, the jet transport wing (BAH wing is steady rolling and lateral stability derivatives are determined. In the second example (HA21D, lateral-directional stability derivatives are calculated for forward- swept-wing (FSW airplane in antisymmetric quasi-steady maneuvers. Acceptable agreement is achieved comparing the results from [4] and DERIV.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jeffrey Joseph

    This dissertation: (i) develops a novel numerical method for DNS/LES of compressible, turbulent reacting flows, (ii) performs several validation simulations, (iii) studies auto-ignition of a hydrogen vortex ring in air and (iv) studies a hydrogen/air turbulent diffusion flame. The numerical method is spatially non-dissipative, implicit and applicable over a range of Mach numbers. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are rescaled so that the zero Mach number equations are discretely recovered in the limit of zero Mach number. The dependent variables are co--located in space, and thermodynamic variables are staggered from velocity in time. The algorithm discretely conserves kinetic energy in the incompressible, inviscid, non--reacting limit. The chemical source terms are implicit in time to allow for stiff chemical mechanisms. The algorithm is readily applicable to complex chemical mechanisms. Good results are obtained for validation simulations. The algorithm is used to study auto-ignition in laminar vortex rings. A nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H2/air combustion proposed by Mueller et al. [37] is used. Diluted H 2 at ambient temperature (300 K) is injected into hot air. The simulations study the effect of fuel/air ratio, oxidizer temperature, Lewis number and stroke ratio (ratio of piston stroke length to diameter). Results show that auto--ignition occurs in fuel lean, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation at a 'most reactive' mixture fraction, zeta MR (Mastorakos et al. [32]). Subsequent evolution of the flame is not predicted by zetaMR; a most reactive temperature TMR is defined and shown to predict both the initial auto-ignition as well as subsequent evolution. For stroke ratios less than the formation number, ignition in general occurs behind the vortex ring and propagates into the core. At higher oxidizer temperatures, ignition is almost instantaneous and occurs along the entire interface between fuel and oxidizer. For stroke

  9. Numerical investigations on unstable direct contact condensation of cryogenic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. N.; Arnab, Roy; Parthasarathi, Ghosh

    2017-02-01

    A typical problem of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) occurs at the liquid oxygen (LOX) booster turbopump exit of oxidiser rich staged combustion cycle based semi-cryogenic rocket engines, where the hot gas mixture (predominantly oxygen and small amounts of combustion products) that runs the turbine mixes with LOX from the pump exit. This complex multiphase phenomena leads to the formation of solid CO2 & H2O, which is undesirable for the functioning of the main LOX turbopump. As a starting point for solving this complex problem, in this study, the hot gas mixture is taken as pure oxygen and hence, DCC of pure oxygen vapour jets in subcooled liquid oxygen is simulated using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX®. A two fluid model along with the thermal phase change model is employed for capturing the heat and mass transfer effects. The study mainly focuses on the subsonic DCC bubbling regime, which is reported as unstable with bubble formation, elongation, necking and collapsing effects. The heat transfer coefficients over a period of time have been computed and the various stages of bubbling have been analysed with the help of vapour volume fraction and pressure profiles. The results obtained for DCC of oxygen vapour-liquid mixtures is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results on DCC of steam-water mixtures.

  10. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  11. CuOX thin films by direct oxidation of Cu films deposited by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Santos-Cruz

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cu2O and CuO oxides were developed by direct oxidation of physical vapor deposited copper films in an open atmosphere by varying the temperature in the range between 250 and 400 °C. In this work, the influence of oxidation temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of copper oxide films has been discussed. The characterization results revealed that at lower temperatures (<300 °C, it is feasible to obtained coper (I oxide whereas at temperatures higher than 300 °C, the copper (II oxide is formed. The band gap is found to vary in between 1.54 and 2.21 eV depending on the oxidation temperature. Both oxides present p-type electrical conductivity. The carrier concentration has been increased as a function of the oxidation temperature from 1.61 × 1012 at 250 °C to 6.8 × 1012 cm−3 at 400 °C. The mobility has attained its maximum of 34.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 at a temperature of 300 °C, and a minimum of 13.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 for 400 °C. Finally, the resistivity of copper oxide films decreases as a function of oxidation temperature from 5.4 × 106 to 2.4 × 105 Ω-cm at 250 and 400 °C, respectively. Keywords: PVD, Oxidizing annealed treatment, Non-toxic material

  12. Effect of cross-flow direction of coolant on film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchao Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of cross-flow directions of an internal coolant on film cooling performance, the discharge coefficients and film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injections were simulated. The numerical results show that two different cross-flow directions of the coolant cause the same decrease in the discharge coefficients as that in the case of supplying coolant by a plenum. The different proportion of the mass flow out of the two outlets of the film hole results in different values of the film cooling effectiveness for three different cases of coolant supplies. The film cooling effectiveness is the highest for the case of supplying coolant by the plenum. At a lower blowing ratio of 1.0, the film cooling effectiveness with coolant injection from the right entrance of the passage is higher than that from the left entrance of the passage. At a higher blowing ratio of 2.0, the opposite result is found.

  13. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer during evaporation of a turbulent binary liquid film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalal Larbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a computational study for analysing heat and mass exchanges in the evaporation of a turbulent binary liquid film (water-ethanol and water-methanol along a vertical tube. The film is in co-current with the dry air and the tube wall is subjected to a uniform heat flux. The effect of gas-liquid phase coupling, variable thermophysical properties and film vaporization are considered in the analysis. The numerical method applied solves the coupled governing equations together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. The algebraic systems of equations obtained are solved using the Thomas algorithm. The results concern the effects of the inlet liquid Reynolds number and inlet film composition on the intensity of heat and mass transfer. In this study, results obtained show that heat transferred through the latent mode is more pronounced when the concentration of volatile components is higher in the liquid mixture .The comparisons of wall temperature and accumulated mass evaporation rate with the literature results are in good agreement.

  14. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.; Arias, Paul G.; Roy, Somesh P.; Luo, Zhaoyu; Haworth, Daniel C.; Im, Hong G.; Lu, Tianfeng; Trouvé , Arnaud C.

    2014-01-01

    difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration

  15. Numerical study of a double-slope solar still coupled with capillary film condenser in south Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadj, Mohamed Mustapha; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Marif, Yacine; Zerrouki, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a numerical work on solar stills in the desert of Algeria using solar energy. • Solar stills can secure fresh water to low density remote desert agglomerations. • The yield was improved by coupling a solar still with a capillary film condenser. • The distilled water production increases with the reduction in flow feed saline water. • The yield varies conversely with the distance between the two condensing plates. - Abstract: The effect of joining a condensation cell to a single-basin double slope solar still was investigated numerically. Direct solar radiation heated the saline water then evaporated. A fraction of the resulting vapor is condensed on the inner glass cover plate and the rest on the outer metal plate. Solar radiation, ambient temperature and the temperatures at different system components were monitored. The performance of the system was evaluated and compared to that of a conventional solar still under the same meteorological conditions. The proposed prototype functioned perfectly and its daily yield reached 7.15 kg m −2 d −1 . Results show that the productivity of the present system was about 60% higher than that of the conventional and capillary film types. The contributions of the glass cover, metal plate and condenser plate are 43%, 18% and 39% of the total distillate yield respectively. It was noticed that the productivity of the capillary film solar still was sensitive to the mass flow of the feeding water. It was also found that the absorptivity coefficient and the diffusion gap have significant effect on distillate production of the system

  16. Numerical Study on the Tensile Behavior of 3D Four Directional Cylindrical Braided Composite Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoqi; Wang, Jiayi; Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Yinghua; Luo, Ying

    2017-10-01

    The tensile behavior of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed with the numerical method. The unit cell models for the 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts with various braiding angles were constructed with ABAQUS. Hashin's failure criterion was used to analyze the tensile strength and the damage evolution of the unit cells. The influence of the braiding angle on the tensile behavior of the 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed. The numerical results showed that the tensile strength along the braiding direction increased as the braiding angle decreased. These results should play an integral role in the design of braiding composites shafts.

  17. Multi-directional radiation detector using photographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junet, L K; Majid, Z A Abdul; Sapuan, A H; Sayed, I S; Pauzi, N F

    2014-01-01

    Ionising radiation has always been part of our surrounding and people are continuously exposed to it. Ionising radiation is harmful to human health, thus it is vital to monitor the radiation. To monitor radiation, there are three main points that should be observed cautiously, which are energy, quantity, and direction of the radiation sources. A three dimensional (3D) dosimeter is an example of a radiation detector that provide these three main points. This dosimeter is able to record the radiation dose distribution in 3D. Applying the concept of dose detection distribution, study has been done to design a multi-directional radiation detector of different filter thicknesses. This is obtained by designing a cylinder shaped aluminum filter with several layers of different thickness. Black and white photographic material is used as a radiation-sensitive material and a PVC material has been used as the enclosure. The device is then exposed to a radiation source with different exposure factors. For exposure factor 70 kVp, 16 mAs; the results have shown that optical density (OD) value at 135° is 1.86 higher compared with an OD value at 315° which is 0.71 as the 135° area received more radiation compare to 315° region. Furthermore, with an evidence of different angle of film give different value of OD shows that this device has a multidirectional ability. Materials used to develop this device are widely available in the market, thus reducing the cost of development and making it suitable for commercialisation

  18. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flows in Overexpanded Supersonic Nozzle with Film Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reignition phenomena occurring in a supersonic nozzle flow may present a crucial safety issue for rocket propulsion systems. These phenomena concern mainly rocket engines which use H2 gas (GH2 in the film cooling device, particularly when the nozzle operates under over expanded flow conditions at sea level or at low altitudes. Consequently, the induced wall thermal loads can lead to the nozzle geometry alteration, which in turn, leads to the appearance of strong side loads that may be detrimental to the rocket engine structural integrity. It is therefore necessary to understand both aerodynamic and chemical mechanisms that are at the origin of these processes. This paper is a numerical contribution which reports results from CFD analysis carried out for supersonic reactive flows in a planar nozzle cooled with GH2 film. Like the experimental observations, CFD simulations showed their ability to highlight these phenomena for the same nozzle flow conditions. Induced thermal load are also analyzed in terms of cooling efficiency and the results already give an idea on their magnitude. It was also shown that slightly increasing the film injection pressure can avoid the reignition phenomena by moving the separation shock towards the nozzle exit section.

  19. Laser deposition and direct-writing of thermoelectric misfit cobaltite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jikun; Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Li, Yulong; Chen, Lidong; Shi, Xun; Döbeli, Max; Stender, Dieter; Populoh, Sascha; Xie, Wenjie; Weidenkaff, Anke; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    A two-step process combining pulsed laser deposition of calcium cobaltite thin films and a subsequent laser induced forward transfer as micro-pixel is demonstrated as a direct writing approach of micro-scale thin film structures for potential applications in thermoelectric micro-devices. To achieve the desired thermo-electric properties of the cobaltite thin film, the laser induced plasma properties have been characterized utilizing plasma mass spectrometry establishing a direct correlation to the corresponding film composition and structure. The introduction of a platinum sacrificial layer when growing the oxide thin film enables a damage-free laser transfer of calcium cobaltite thereby preserving the film composition and crystallinity as well as the shape integrity of the as-transferred pixels. The demonstrated direct writing approach simplifies the fabrication of micro-devices and provides a large degree of flexibility in designing and fabricating fully functional thermoelectric micro-devices.

  20. Dependence of critical current density on crystalline direction in thin YBCO films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Peurla, M.; Raittila, J.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of critical current density (J(c)) on the angle between the current direction and the (100) direction in the ab-plane of thin YBCO films deposited on (001)-SrTiO3 from natiocrystalline and microcrystalline targets is studied using magneto-optical microscopy. In the films made from...... the nanocrystalline target it is found that J(c) does not depend on the angle whereas J(c) decreases with increasing angle in the films made from the microcrystalline target. The films were characterized by detailed X-ray diffraction measurements. The findings are explained in terms of a network of planar defects...

  1. Visualization of anomalous Ettingshausen effect in a ferromagnetic film: Direct evidence of different symmetry from spin Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, T.; Iguchi, R.; Takanashi, K.; Uchida, K.

    2018-04-01

    Spatial distribution of temperature modulation due to the anomalous Ettingshausen effect (AEE) is visualized in a ferromagnetic FePt thin film with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations using the lock-in thermography technique. Comparing the AEE of FePt with the spin Peltier effect (SPE) of a Pt/yttrium iron garnet junction provides direct evidence of different symmetries of AEE and SPE. Our experiments and numerical calculations reveal that the distribution of heat sources induced by AEE strongly depends on the direction of magnetization, leading to the remarkable different temperature profiles in the FePt thin film between the in-plane and perpendicularly magnetized configurations.

  2. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong; Knipp, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  3. A Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Effectiveness on Film Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, A. A.; Rigby, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study has been performed to predict the distribution of convective heat transfer coefficient on a simulated blade tip with cooling holes. The purpose of the examination was to assess the ability of a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver to predict the rate of tip heat transfer and the distribution of cooling effectiveness. To this end, the simulation of tip clearance flow with blowing of Kim and Metzger was used. The agreement of the computed effectiveness with the data was quite good. The agreement with the heat transfer coefficient was not as good but improved away from the cooling holes. Numerical flow visualization showed that the uniformity of wetting of the surface by the film cooling jet is helped by the reverse flow due to edge separation of the main flow.

  4. Development of sodium droplet combustion analysis methodology using direct numerical simulation in 3-dimensional coordinate (COMET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Ohira, Hiroaki

    1998-08-01

    In the early stage of sodium leak event of liquid metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, liquid sodium flows out from a piping, and ignition and combustion of liquid sodium droplet might occur under certain environmental condition. Compressible forced air flow, diffusion of chemical species, liquid sodium droplet behavior, chemical reactions and thermodynamic properties should be evaluated with considering physical dependence and numerical connection among them for analyzing combustion of sodium liquid droplet. A direct numerical simulation code was developed for numerical analysis of sodium liquid droplet in forced convection air flow. The numerical code named COMET, 'Sodium Droplet COmbustion Analysis METhodology using Direct Numerical Simulation in 3-Dimensional Coordinate'. The extended MAC method was used to calculate compressible forced air flow. Counter diffusion among chemical species is also calculated. Transport models of mass and energy between droplet and surrounding atmospheric air were developed. Equation-solving methods were used for computing multiphase equilibrium between sodium and air. Thermodynamic properties of chemical species were evaluated using dynamic theory of gases. Combustion of single sphere liquid sodium droplet in forced convection, constant velocity, uniform air flow was numerically simulated using COMET. Change of droplet diameter with time was closely agree with d 2 -law of droplet combustion theory. Spatial distributions of combustion rate and heat generation and formation, decomposition and movement of chemical species were analyzed. Quantitative calculations of heat generation and chemical species formation in spray combustion are enabled for various kinds of environmental condition by simulating liquid sodium droplet combustion using COMET. (author)

  5. Direct Calculation of Permeability by High-Accurate Finite Difference and Numerical Integration Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2016-07-21

    Velocity of fluid flow in underground porous media is 6~12 orders of magnitudes lower than that in pipelines. If numerical errors are not carefully controlled in this kind of simulations, high distortion of the final results may occur [1-4]. To fit the high accuracy demands of fluid flow simulations in porous media, traditional finite difference methods and numerical integration methods are discussed and corresponding high-accurate methods are developed. When applied to the direct calculation of full-tensor permeability for underground flow, the high-accurate finite difference method is confirmed to have numerical error as low as 10-5% while the high-accurate numerical integration method has numerical error around 0%. Thus, the approach combining the high-accurate finite difference and numerical integration methods is a reliable way to efficiently determine the characteristics of general full-tensor permeability such as maximum and minimum permeability components, principal direction and anisotropic ratio. Copyright © Global-Science Press 2016.

  6. Numerical investigation of natural gas direct injection properties and mixture formation in a spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollahi Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical model has been developed in AVL FIRE software to perform investigation of Direct Natural Gas Injection into the cylinder of Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. In this regard two main parts have been taken into consideration, aiming to convert an MPFI gasoline engine to direct injection NG engine. In the first part of study multi-dimensional numerical simulation of transient injection process, mixing and flow field have been performed via three different validation cases in order to assure the numerical model validity of results. Adaption of such a modeling was found to be a challenging task because of required computational effort and numerical instabilities. In all cases present results were found to have excellent agreement with experimental and numerical results from literature. In the second part, using the moving mesh capability the validated model has been applied to methane Injection into the cylinder of a Direct Injection engine. Five different piston head shapes along with two injector types have been taken into consideration in investigations. A centrally mounted injector location has been adapted to all cases. The effects of injection parameters, combustion chamber geometry, injector type and engine RPM have been studied on mixing of air-fuel inside cylinder. Based on the results, suitable geometrical configuration for a NG DI Engine has been discussed.

  7. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, A., E-mail: kamitani@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Takayama, T. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Saitoh, A. [University of Hyogo, 2167, Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position. • The defect parameter shows a remarkable change only near a crack. • A crack detection method is proposed on the basis of the permanent-magnet method. • The high-speed rough detection can be achieved by means of the proposed method. - Abstract: The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed.

  8. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Saitoh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position. • The defect parameter shows a remarkable change only near a crack. • A crack detection method is proposed on the basis of the permanent-magnet method. • The high-speed rough detection can be achieved by means of the proposed method. - Abstract: The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed

  9. Direct Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Currents in Thin Films from Magnetic-Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Alexander Y.; Levin, Eitan; Zeldov, Eli

    2017-12-01

    An accurate determination of microscopic transport and magnetization currents is of central importance for the study of the electric properties of low-dimensional materials and interfaces, of superconducting thin films, and of electronic devices. Current distribution is usually derived from the measurement of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field above the surface of the sample, followed by numerical inversion of the Biot-Savart law. The inversion is commonly obtained by deriving the current stream function g , which is then differentiated in order to obtain the current distribution. However, this two-step procedure requires filtering at each step and, as a result, oversmooths the solution. To avoid this oversmoothing, we develop a direct procedure for inversion of the magnetic field that avoids use of the stream function. This approach provides enhanced accuracy of current reconstruction over a wide range of noise levels. We further introduce a reflection procedure that allows for the reconstruction of currents that cross the boundaries of the measurement window. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by several numerical examples.

  10. Single-phase multi-dimensional thermohydraulics direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3. Input data description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-08-01

    This report explains the numerical methods and the set-up method of input data for a single-phase multi-dimensional thermohydraulics direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3 (Direct Numerical Simulation using a 3rd-order upwind scheme). The code was developed to simulate non-stationary temperature fluctuation phenomena related to thermal striping phenomena, developed at Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The DINUS-3 code was characterized by the use of a third-order upwind scheme for convection terms in instantaneous Navier-Stokes and energy equations, and an adaptive control system based on the Fuzzy theory to control time step sizes. Author expect this report is very useful to utilize the DINUS-3 code for the evaluation of various non-stationary thermohydraulic phenomena in reactor applications. (author)

  11. Direct numerical solution of Poisson's equation in cylindrical (r, z) coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, E.H.; Paul, S.F.; Davidson, R.C.; Fine, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    A direct solver method is developed for solving Poisson's equation numerically for the electrostatic potential φ(r,z) in a cylindrical region (r wall , 0 wall , z) are specified, and ∂φ/∂z = 0 at the axial boundaries (z = 0, L)

  12. Comparison of direct numerical simulation databases of turbulent channel flow at $Re_{\\tau}$ = 180

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman, A.W.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases are compared to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of standard and non-standard turbulence statistics of incompressible plane channel flow at $Re_{\\tau}$ = 180. Two fundamentally different DNS codes are shown to produce maximum relative deviations

  13. Comparison of direct numerical simulation databases of turbulent channel flow at Re = 180

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman, A.W.; Kuerten, J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases are compared to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of standard and non-standard turbulence statistics of incompressible plane channel flow at Re t = 180. Two fundamentally different DNS codes are shown to produce maximum relative deviations below 0.2%

  14. A three–step discretization scheme for direct numerical solution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a three-step discretization (numerical) formula is developed for direct integration of second-order initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. The development of the method and analysis of its basic properties adopt Taylor series expansion and Dahlquist stability test methods. The results show that ...

  15. Direct numerical simulation of non-isothermal flow through dense bidisperse random arrays of spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavassoli Estahbanati, H.; Peters, E.A.J.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive direct numerical simulations were performed to obtain the heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of bidisperse random arrays of spheres. We have calculated the HTC for a range of compositions and solids volume fractions for mixtures of spheres with a size ratio of 1:2. The Reynolds numbers are

  16. Direct design of LPV feedback controllers: technical details and numerical examples

    OpenAIRE

    Novara, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains technical details of recent results developed by the author, regarding the design of LPV controllers directly from experimental data. Two numerical examples are also presented, about control of the Duffing oscillator and control of a two-degree-of-freedom manipulator.

  17. Direct numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer over a circular cylinder at Re = 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidya, Mahening Citra; Beishuizen, N.A.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2016-01-01

    Unsteady direct numerical simulations of the flow around a circular cylinder have been performed at Re = 2000. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations were validated with laminar cold flow simulations and experiments. Heat transfer simulations were carried out and the time-averaged

  18. Experiments and numerical modeling of fast flowing liquid metal thin films under spatially varying magnetic field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Manmeet Singh

    Innovative concepts using fast flowing thin films of liquid metals (like lithium) have been proposed for the protection of the divertor surface in magnetic fusion devices. However, concerns exist about the possibility of establishing the required flow of liquid metal thin films because of the presence of strong magnetic fields which can cause flow disrupting MHD effects. A plan is underway to design liquid lithium based divertor protection concepts for NSTX, a small spherical torus experiment at Princeton. Of these, a promising concept is the use of modularized fast flowing liquid lithium film zones, as the divertor (called the NSTX liquid surface module concept or NSTX LSM). The dynamic response of the liquid metal film flow in a spatially varying magnetic field configuration is still unknown and it is suspected that some unpredicted effects might be lurking. The primary goal of the research work being reported in this dissertation is to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the liquid metal film flow dynamics under spatially varying magnetic field conditions, typical of the divertor region of a magnetic fusion device. The liquid metal film flow dynamics have been studied through a synergic experimental and numerical modeling effort. The Magneto Thermofluid Omnibus Research (MTOR) facility at UCLA has been used to design several experiments to study the MHD interaction of liquid gallium films under a scaled NSTX outboard divertor magnetic field environment. A 3D multi-material, free surface MHD modeling capability is under development in collaboration with HyPerComp Inc., an SBIR vendor. This numerical code called HIMAG provides a unique capability to model the equations of incompressible MHD with a free surface. Some parts of this modeling capability have been developed in this research work, in the form of subroutines for HIMAG. Extensive code debugging and benchmarking exercise has also been carried out. Finally, HIMAG has been used to study the

  19. L1{sub 0} phase transition in FePt thin films via direct interface reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Wang Fengqing; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); Liu Baoting; Guo Jianxin [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China)], E-mail: xyzh66@ysu.edu.cn

    2008-12-07

    Lowering the L1{sub 0} ordering temperature of FePt films is of great significance for their application as an ultrahigh density magnetic recording medium. In this study, the L1{sub 0} ordering process of FePt thin films deposited directly on Si substrates has been significantly accelerated by the interface reaction between the thin film and the Si substrate, and thus the thin films show a low L1{sub 0} ordering temperature of T = 310 deg. C as compared with those deposited on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates. The accelerated L1{sub 0} ordering transition is predominantly dependent on the rapid growth of the ordered domains during the interface reaction. The film thickness has an important effect on the interface reaction and thus can be used to tune the L1{sub 0} ordering process of the FePt films.

  20. L10 phase transition in FePt thin films via direct interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Wang Fengqing; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi; Liu Baoting; Guo Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    Lowering the L1 0 ordering temperature of FePt films is of great significance for their application as an ultrahigh density magnetic recording medium. In this study, the L1 0 ordering process of FePt thin films deposited directly on Si substrates has been significantly accelerated by the interface reaction between the thin film and the Si substrate, and thus the thin films show a low L1 0 ordering temperature of T = 310 deg. C as compared with those deposited on Si/SiO 2 substrates. The accelerated L1 0 ordering transition is predominantly dependent on the rapid growth of the ordered domains during the interface reaction. The film thickness has an important effect on the interface reaction and thus can be used to tune the L1 0 ordering process of the FePt films.

  1. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xingmin; Hao Yanqing; Zhang Dongping; Fan Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  2. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase based on halloysite nanotubes/chitosan nanocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xiumei; Zhang Yao; Shen Hebai [Department of Chemistry, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Jia Nengqin, E-mail: nqjia@shnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2010-12-30

    The novel halloysite nanotubes/chitosan (HNTs/Chi) composite films were firstly explored to utilize for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and their bioelectrochemical properties were studied, in which the biopolymer chitosan was used as a binder to increase film adherence on glassy carbon (GC) electrode. UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that HRP in the composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of HRP was obtained at the HRP/HNTs/Chi composite film-modified electrode, exhibiting its fast direct electron transfer (DET). Furthermore, the immobilized HRP displayed its good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results demonstrate that the HNTs/Chi composite film may improve the enzyme loading with the retention of bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its unique tubular structure, high specific surface area, and good biocompatibility.

  3. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-Nanofluidics Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Shizhi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving elect

  4. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of electromagnetically driven multiscale shallow layer flows: Numerical modeling and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeau, Sylvain; Ferrari, Simone; Rossi, Lionel

    2008-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations of a flow driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing are performed in order to reproduce with maximum accuracy the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) flow generated by the same multiscale forcing in the laboratory. The method presented is based on a 3D description of the flow and the electromagnetic forcing. Very good agreements between our simulations and the experiments are found both on velocity and acceleration field, this last comparison being, to our knowledge, done for the first time. Such agreement requires that both experiments and simulations are carefully performed and, more importantly, that the underlying simplification to model the experiments and the multiscale electromagnetic forcing do not introduce significant errors. The results presented in this paper differ significantly from previous 2D direct numerical simulation in which a classical linear Rayleigh friction modeling term was used to mimic the effect of the wall-normal friction. Indeed, purely 2D simulations are found to underestimate the Reynolds number and, due to the dominance of nonhomogeneous bottom friction, lead to the wrong physical mechanism. For the range of conditions presented in this paper, the Reynolds number, defined by the ratio between acceleration and viscous terms, remains the order of unity, and the Hartmann number, defined by the ratio between electromagnetic force terms and viscous terms, is about 2. The main conclusion is that 3D simulations are required to model the (3D) electromagnetic forces and the wall-normal shear. Indeed, even if the flow is quasi-2D in terms of energy, a full 3D approach is required to simulate these shallow layer flows driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing. In the range of forcing intensity investigated in this paper, these multiscale flows remain quasi-2D, with negligible energy in the wall-normal velocity component. It is also shown that the driving terms are the electromagnetic forcing and

  5. Direct numerical simulation of granular flows with fluid; Simulation numerique directe d'ecoulements granulaires en presence de fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiwes, V.

    1999-09-01

    Numerical models applied to simulation of granular flow with fluid are developed. The physical model selected to describe particles flow is a discrete approach. Particle trajectories are calculated by the Newton law and collision is describe by a soft-sphere approach. The fluid flow is modelled by Navier-Stokes equations. The modelling of the momentum transfer depends on the resolution scale: for a scale of the order of the particle diameter, it is modelled by a drag-law and for a scale smaller than the particle diameter, it is directly calculated by stress tensor computation around particles. The direct model is used to find representative elementary volume and prove the local character of the Ergun's law. This application shows the numerical (mesh size), physical (Reynolds number) and computational (CPU time and memory consumptions) limitations. The drag law model and the direct model are validated with analytical and empirical solutions and compared. For the two models, the CPU time and the memory consumptions are discussed. The drag law model is applied to the simulation of gas-solid dense fluidized-beds. In the case of uniform gas distribution, the fluidized-bed simulation heights are compared to experimental data for particle of group A and B of the Geldart classification. (author)

  6. Numerical Investigation of T-joints with 3D Four Directional Braided Composite Fillers Under Tensile Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-kang; Liu, Zhen-guo; Hu, Long; Wang, Yi-bo; Lei, Bing; Huang, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Numerical studied on T-joints with three-dimensional four directional (3D4D) braided composite fillers was presented in this article. Compared with conventional unidirectional prepreg fillers, the 3D braided composite fillers have excellent ability to prevent crack from penetrating trigone fillers, which constantly occurred in the conventional fillers. Meanwhile, the 3D braided composite fillers had higher fiber volume fraction and eliminated the fiber folding problem in unidirectional prepreg fillers. The braiding technology and mechanical performance of 3D4D braided fillers were studied. The numerical model of carbon fiber T-joints with 3D4D braided composite fillers was built by finite element analysis software. The damage formation, extension and failing process of T-joints with 3D4D braided fillers under tensile load were investigated. Further investigation was extended to the effect of 3D4D braided fillers with different braiding angles on mechanical behavior of the T-joints. The study results revealed that the filling area was the weakest part of the T-joints where the damage first appeared and the crack then rapidly spread to the glue film around the filling area and the interface between over-laminate and soleplate. The 3D4D braided fillers were undamaged and the braiding angle change induced a little effect on the bearing capacity of T-joints.

  7. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  8. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K 1 values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.m, E-mail: urrio332@hotmail.co, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.co, E-mail: eamerchan@gmail.co, E-mail: ricname@hotmail.co, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Unidad profesional, AZCAPOTZALCO, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K{sub 1} values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  10. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjemadi, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

  11. Parallel spatial direct numerical simulations on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1993-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube is documented. The direct numerical simulation approach is used to compute spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows. The feasibility of using the PSDNS on the hypercube to perform transition studies is examined. The results indicate that the direct numerical simulation approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine. By increasing the number of processors nearly ideal linear speedups are achieved with nonoptimized routines; slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routine dominates the computational cost and because the routine indicates less than ideal speedups. However with the machine-dependent routines the total computational cost decreases by a factor of 4 to 5 compared with standard FORTRAN routines. The computational cost increases linearly with spanwise wall-normal and streamwise grid refinements. The hypercube with 32 processors was estimated to require approximately twice the amount of Cray supercomputer single processor time to complete a comparable simulation; however it is estimated that a subgrid-scale model which reduces the required number of grid points and becomes a large-eddy simulation (PSLES) would reduce the computational cost and memory requirements by a factor of 10 over the PSDNS. This PSLES implementation would enable transition simulations on the hypercube at a reasonable computational cost.

  12. Computational Enhancements for Direct Numerical Simulations of Statistically Stationary Turbulent Premixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhadiyev, Nurzhan

    2017-05-01

    Combustion at extreme conditions, such as a turbulent flame at high Karlovitz and Reynolds numbers, is still a vast and an uncertain field for researchers. Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent flame is a superior tool to unravel detailed information that is not accessible to most sophisticated state-of-the-art experiments. However, the computational cost of such simulations remains a challenge even for modern supercomputers, as the physical size, the level of turbulence intensity, and chemical complexities of the problems continue to increase. As a result, there is a strong demand for computational cost reduction methods as well as in acceleration of existing methods. The main scope of this work was the development of computational and numerical tools for high-fidelity direct numerical simulations of premixed planar flames interacting with turbulence. The first part of this work was KAUST Adaptive Reacting Flow Solver (KARFS) development. KARFS is a high order compressible reacting flow solver using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism; it is capable to run on various types of heterogeneous computational architectures. In this work, it was shown that KARFS is capable of running efficiently on both CPU and GPU. The second part of this work was numerical tools for direct numerical simulations of planar premixed flames: such as linear turbulence forcing and dynamic inlet control. DNS of premixed turbulent flames conducted previously injected velocity fluctuations at an inlet. Turbulence injected at the inlet decayed significantly while reaching the flame, which created a necessity to inject higher than needed fluctuations. A solution for this issue was to maintain turbulence strength on the way to the flame using turbulence forcing. Therefore, a linear turbulence forcing was implemented into KARFS to enhance turbulence intensity. Linear turbulence forcing developed previously by other groups was corrected with net added momentum removal mechanism to prevent mean

  13. Numerical analysis of micro-/nanoscale gas-film lubrication of sliding surface with complicated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoe, Yoshiaki; Isono, Susumu; Takeno, Takanori; Yonemura, Shigeru; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Miki, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the friction between a partially polished diamond-coated surface and a metal surface was drastically reduced to zero when they are slid at a few m/s. Since the sliding was noiseless, it seems that the diamond-coated surface was levitated over the counter surface and the sliding mechanism was the gas film lubrication. Recently, the mechanism of levitation of a slider with a micro/nanoscale surface structure on a rotating disk was theoretically clarified [S. Yonemura et al., Tribol. Lett., (2014), doi:10.1007/s11249-014-0368-2]. Probably, the partially polished diamond-coated surface may be levitated by high gas pressure generated by the micro/nanoscale surface structure on it. In this study, in order to verify our deduction, we performed numerical simulations of sliding of partially polished diamond-coated surface by reproducing its complicated surface structure using the data measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). As a result, we obtained the lift force which is large enough to levitate the slider used in the experiment

  14. Numerical analysis of micro-/nanoscale gas-film lubrication of sliding surface with complicated structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Yoshiaki; Isono, Susumu; Takeno, Takanori [Department of Nanomechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yonemura, Shigeru; Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Miki, Hiroyuki [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-12-09

    It has been reported that the friction between a partially polished diamond-coated surface and a metal surface was drastically reduced to zero when they are slid at a few m/s. Since the sliding was noiseless, it seems that the diamond-coated surface was levitated over the counter surface and the sliding mechanism was the gas film lubrication. Recently, the mechanism of levitation of a slider with a micro/nanoscale surface structure on a rotating disk was theoretically clarified [S. Yonemura et al., Tribol. Lett., (2014), doi:10.1007/s11249-014-0368-2]. Probably, the partially polished diamond-coated surface may be levitated by high gas pressure generated by the micro/nanoscale surface structure on it. In this study, in order to verify our deduction, we performed numerical simulations of sliding of partially polished diamond-coated surface by reproducing its complicated surface structure using the data measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). As a result, we obtained the lift force which is large enough to levitate the slider used in the experiment.

  15. Numerical study of on-fiber metal film geometry on behavior of dual parameter SFBG sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzy, Behnam; Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Alemohammad, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model for simulating a dual parameter super-structure FBG (SFBG) with on-fiber deposited thin films is developed. A periodic on-fiber thin coating of silver on FBG sensors provides the ability of measuring two parameters of strain and temperature simultaneously. The model consists of a mechanical model to determine the strain of the sensor caused by different loading conditions, coupled with an optical model to calculate the reflected spectrum of the SFBG sensor. A guideline is introduced for designing a SFBG by studying the effect of coating period, coating duty cycle, and coating thickness. The results show that the sideband spacing in such SFBGs is only affected by the coating period while the Bragg peak sensitivity does not depend on coating period. Also the coating duty cycle and the coating thickness can affect both sensitivity of the Bragg peak and the measuring range of a sensor. The validity of the results was studied by comparing with previously reported data. (paper)

  16. Direct optical imaging of nanoscale internal organization of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suran, Swathi; Varma, Manoj

    2018-02-01

    Owing to its sensitivity and precise control at the nanoscale, polyelectrolytes have been immensely used to modify surfaces. Polyelectrolyte multilayers are generally water made and are easy to fabricate on any surface by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly process due to electrostatic interactions. Polyelectrolyte multilayers or PEMs can be assembled to form ultrathin membranes which can have potential applications in water filtration and desalination [1-3]. Hydration in PEMs is a consequence of both the bulk and surface phenomenon [4-7]. Bulk behavior of polymer membranes are well understood. Several techniques including reflectivity and contact angle measurements were used to measure the hydration in the bulk of polymer membranes [4, 8]. On the other hand their internal organization at the molecular level which can have a profound contribution in the transport mechanism, are not understood well. Previously, we engineered a technique, which we refer to as Bright-field Nanoscopy, which allows nanoscale optical imaging using local heterogeneities in a water-soluble germanium (Ge) thin film ( 25 nm thick) deposited on gold [8]. We use this technique to study the water transport in PEMs. It is understood that the surface charge and outer layers of the PEMs play a significant role in water transport through polymers [9-11]. This well-known `odd-even' effect arising on having different surface termination of the PEMs was optically observed with a spatial resolution unlike any other reported previously [12]. In this communication, we report that on increasing the etchant's concentration, one can control the lateral etching of the Ge film. This allowed the visualization of the nanoscale internal organization in the PEMs. Knowledge of the internal structure would allow one to engineer polymer membranes specific to applications such as drug delivering capsules, ion transport membranes and barriers etc. We also demonstrate a mathematical model involving a surface

  17. Aligned carbon nanotube, graphene and graphite oxide thin films via substrate-directed rapid interfacial deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Julio M.; Tran, Henry D.; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2012-05-01

    A procedure for depositing thin films of carbon nanostructures is described that overcomes the limitations typically associated with solution based methods. Transparent and conductively continuous carbon coatings can be grown on virtually any type of substrate within seconds. Interfacial surface tension gradients result in directional fluid flow and film spreading at the water/oil interface. Transparent films of carbon nanostructures are produced including aligned ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes and assemblies of single sheets of chemically converted graphene and graphite oxide. Process scale-up, layer-by-layer deposition, and a simple method for coating non-activated hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.A procedure for depositing thin films of carbon nanostructures is described that overcomes the limitations typically associated with solution based methods. Transparent and conductively continuous carbon coatings can be grown on virtually any type of substrate within seconds. Interfacial surface tension gradients result in directional fluid flow and film spreading at the water/oil interface. Transparent films of carbon nanostructures are produced including aligned ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes and assemblies of single sheets of chemically converted graphene and graphite oxide. Process scale-up, layer-by-layer deposition, and a simple method for coating non-activated hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Droplet coalescence, catenoid formation, mechanism of film growth, scanning electron micrographs showing carbon nanotube alignment, flexible transparent films of SWCNTs, AFM images of a chemically converted graphene film, and SEM images of SWCNT free-standing thin films. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr00010e

  18. Spectral and directional radiation characteristics of thin-film coated isothermal semitransparent plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R P; Viskanta, R

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for predicting the effective spectral directional radiation characteristics of an isothermal, semitransparent sheet surrounded on both sides by massive dielectrics. The sheet can be coated with an optically thin film and used as selective cover plates for solar collectors. Directional and polarization effects and the spectral transmittance and reflectance are considered. Sample results for candidate materials are presented.

  19. Numerical simulation of multi-directional random wave transformation in a yacht port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiaoling; Dong, Sheng; Zhao, Xizeng; Zhang, Guowei

    2012-09-01

    This paper extends a prediction model for multi-directional random wave transformation based on an energy balance equation by Mase with the consideration of wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection and breaking. This numerical model is improved by 1) introducing Wen's frequency spectrum and Mitsuyasu's directional function, which are more suitable to the coastal area of China; 2) considering energy dissipation caused by bottom friction, which ensures more accurate results for large-scale and shallow water areas; 3) taking into account a non-linear dispersion relation. Predictions using the extended wave model are carried out to study the feasibility of constructing the Ai Hua yacht port in Qingdao, China, with a comparison between two port layouts in design. Wave fields inside the port for different incident wave directions, water levels and return periods are simulated, and then two kinds of parameters are calculated to evaluate the wave conditions for the two layouts. Analyses show that Layout I is better than Layout II. Calculation results also show that the harbor will be calm for different wave directions under the design water level. On the contrary, the wave conditions do not wholly meet the requirements of a yacht port for ship berthing under the extreme water level. For safety consideration, the elevation of the breakwater might need to be properly increased to prevent wave overtopping under such water level. The extended numerical simulation model may provide an effective approach to computing wave heights in a harbor.

  20. Radiolytic preparation of thin Au film directly on resin substrate using high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@upst.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueno, Koji [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Ltd., 5-3 Ozushima, Izumiohtsu, Osaka 595-0074 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    A novel method for preparing thin Au films directly on resin substrates using an electron beam was developed. The thin Au films were prepared on a resin substrate by the reduction of Au ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam (4.8 MeV). This reduction method required 7 s of the irradiation time of the electron beam. Furthermore, no reductant or catalyst was needed. As the concentration of Au ions in the precursor solution was increased, the amount of Au deposited on the resin substrate increased, too, and the structure of the prepared Au film changed. As a result, the film color changed as well. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of the thus-prepared Au film indicated that the Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. There was strong adhesion between the Au films and the underlying resin substrates. This was confirmed by the tape-peeling test and through ultrasonic cleaning. After both processes, Au remained on the resin substrates, while most of the particle-like moieties were removed. This indicated that the thin Au films prepared via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam adhered strongly to the resin substrates. - Highlights: • A thin gold (Au) film was formed by EBIRM for the first time. • The irradiation time of the electron beam was less than 10 s. • Thin Au films were obtained without reductant or catalyst. • Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. • There was strong adhesion between the bottom bulk layer and the underlying resin substrates.

  1. Direct synthesis of highly textured Ge on flexible polyimide films by metal-induced crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, N.; Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N. [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2014-06-30

    The highly (111)-textured Ge thin film (50-nm thickness) is demonstrated on a flexible polyimide film via the low-temperature crystallization (325 °C) of amorphous Ge using Al as a catalyst. Covering the polyimide with insulators significantly improved the crystal quality of the resulting Ge layer. In particular, SiN covering led to 97% (111)-oriented Ge with grains 200 μm in size, two orders larger than the grain size of polycrystalline Ge directly formed on the polyimide film. This achievement will give a way to realize advanced electronic and optical devices simultaneously allowing for high performance, inexpensiveness, and flexibility.

  2. Two-Functional Direct Current Sputtered Silver-Containing Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditta IB

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article reports on structure, mechanical, optical, photocatalytic and biocidal properties of Ti–Ag–O films. The Ti–Ag–O films were reactively sputter-deposited from a composed Ti/Ag target at different partial pressures of oxygen on unheated glass substrate held on floating potentialU fl. It was found that addition of ~2 at.% of Ag into TiO2film has no negative influence on UV-induced hydrophilicity of TiO2film. Thick (~1,500 nm TiO2/Ag films containing (200 anatase phase exhibit the best hydrophilicity with water droplet contact angle (WDCA lower than 10° after UV irradiation for 20 min. Thick (~1,500 nm TiO2/Ag films exhibited a better UV-induced hydrophilicity compared to that of thinner (~700 nm TiO2/Ag films. Further it was found that hydrophilic TiO2/Ag films exhibit a strong biocidal effect under both the visible light and the UV irradiation with 100% killing efficiency ofEscherichia coliATCC 10536 after UV irradiation for 20 min. Reported results show that single layer of TiO2with Ag distributed in its whole volume exhibits, after UV irradiation, simultaneously two functions: (1 excellent hydrophilicity with WDCA < 10° and (2 strong power to killE. colieven under visible light due to direct toxicity of Ag.

  3. Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Zheng, Cheng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; In, Jung Bin; Sakellari, Ioanna; Raman, Rajesh N; Matthews, Manyalibo J; Elhadj, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of a thin film with a beam-shaped laser is proposed to achieve site-selectively controlled dewetting of the film into nanoscale structures. As a proof of concept, the laser-directed dewetting of an amorphous silicon thin film on a glass substrate is demonstrated using a donut-shaped laser beam. Upon irradiation of a single laser pulse, the silicon film melts and dewets on the substrate surface. The irradiation with the donut beam induces an unconventional lateral temperature profile in the film, leading to thermocapillary-induced transport of the molten silicon to the center of the beam spot. Upon solidification, the ultrathin amorphous silicon film is transformed to a crystalline silicon nanodome of increased height. This morphological change enables further dimensional reduction of the nanodome as well as removal of the surrounding film material by isotropic silicon etching. These results suggest that laser-based dewetting of thin films can be an effective way for scalable manufacturing of patterned nanostructures. (paper)

  4. Directed dewetting of amorphous silicon film by a donut-shaped laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; In, Jung Bin; Zheng, Cheng; Sakellari, Ioanna; Raman, Rajesh N; Matthews, Manyalibo J; Elhadj, Selim; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2015-04-24

    Irradiation of a thin film with a beam-shaped laser is proposed to achieve site-selectively controlled dewetting of the film into nanoscale structures. As a proof of concept, the laser-directed dewetting of an amorphous silicon thin film on a glass substrate is demonstrated using a donut-shaped laser beam. Upon irradiation of a single laser pulse, the silicon film melts and dewets on the substrate surface. The irradiation with the donut beam induces an unconventional lateral temperature profile in the film, leading to thermocapillary-induced transport of the molten silicon to the center of the beam spot. Upon solidification, the ultrathin amorphous silicon film is transformed to a crystalline silicon nanodome of increased height. This morphological change enables further dimensional reduction of the nanodome as well as removal of the surrounding film material by isotropic silicon etching. These results suggest that laser-based dewetting of thin films can be an effective way for scalable manufacturing of patterned nanostructures.

  5. Direct Observation of the BCC (100) Plane in Thin Films of Sphere-forming Diblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shengxiang; Nagpal, Umang; Liao, Wen; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2010-03-01

    In sphere-forming diblock copolymers, periodic arrays of spheres are arranged in a body-centred cubic (BCC) lattice structure in bulk. However, in thin films different surface morphologies were observed as a function of the film thickness, and the transition from the hexagonal array to the BCC (110) arrangement of spheres on film surfaces was located with respect to the increase of the film thickness. Here we report the first direct observation of the BCC (100) plane in thin films of poly (styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers on homogeneous substrates. By balancing the surface energies of both blocks, the lower energy BCC (100) plane corresponding to a square arrangement of half spheres, formed on film surfaces when the film thickness was commensurate with the spacing, L100, between (100) planes or greater than 2 L100. A hexagonal arrangement of spheres was only observed when the thickness was less than 2 L100 and incommensurate with 1 L100. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation confirmed our experimental observation and was used to investigate the transition of the arrangement of spheres as a function of the film thickness.

  6. Numerical Prediction of a Bi-Directional Micro Thermal Flow Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Amayrah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal flow sensors such as hot-wire anemometer (HWA can be used to measure the flow velocity with certain accuracy. However, HWA can measure the flow velocity without determining the flow direction. Pulsed-Wire Anemometer (PWA with 3 wires can be used to measure flow velocity and flow directions. The present study aims to develop a numerical analysis of unsteady flow around a pulsed hot-wire anemometer using three parallel wires. The pulsed wire which is called the heated wire is located in the middle and the two sensor wires are installed upstream and downstream of the pulsed wire. 2-D numerical models were built and simulated using different wires arrangements. The ratio of the separation distance between the heated wire and sensor wire (x to the diameter of the heated wire (D ratios (x/D was varied between 3.33 and 183.33. The output results are plotted as a function of Peclet number (convection time / diffusion time. It was found that as the ratio of x/D increases, the sensitivity of PWA device to the time of flight decreases. But at the same the reading of the time of flight becomes more accurate, because the effects of the diffusion and wake after the heated wire decrease. Also, a very good agreement has been obtained between the present numerical simulation and the previous experimental data.

  7. An evaluation of directional analysis techniques for multidirectional, partially reflected waves .1. numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, C; Chadwick, A; Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    , non-phased locked methods are more appropriate. In this paper, the accuracy of two non-phased locked methods of directional analysis, the maximum likelihood method (MLM) and the Bayesian directional method (BDM) have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical simulations for the case...... of multidirectional waves with partial reflections. It is shown that the results are influenced by the ratio of distance from the reflector (L) to the length of the time series (S) used in the spectral analysis. Both methods are found to be capable of determining the incident and reflective wave fields when US > 0......Recent studies of advanced directional analysis techniques have mainly centred on incident wave fields. In the study of coastal structures, however, partially reflective wave fields are commonly present. In the near structure field, phase locked methods can be successfully applied. In the far field...

  8. Direct growth of superconducting NdFeAs(O,F) thin films by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihara, Masashi, E-mail: chihara@iku.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Sumiya, Naoki; Arai, Kenta [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 240-0101 (Japan); Hatano, Takafumi; Iida, Kazumasa; Ikuta, Hiroshi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Highly textured NdFeAs(O,F) thin films were obtained by a direct growth method. • Enhancing the migration was crucial to realize the direct growth. • The critical current density exceeded 3 MA/cm{sup 2} at self-field and 1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 9 T. • A two-dimensional growth was confirmed by the observation of surface morphology. - Abstract: We report on the growth of NdFeAs(O,F) superconducting thin films by molecular beam epitaxy without having a NdOF secondary layer that was necessary for fluorine doping in our previous studies. The key to realizing the direct growth of a superconducting film was the enhancement of migration of the raw materials on the substrate, which was accomplished by two steps. Firstly, we increased the growth temperature that improved the crystalline quality of parent NdFeAsO thin films. Secondly, the atmosphere in the chamber during the growth was improved by changing the crucible material of the Fe source cell. Highly textured NdFeAs(O,F) thin films with critical temperatures up to 50 K were obtained, and terraces were observed by atomic force microscope, indicating a two-dimensional growth. However, precipitates were also found on the surface, which suggests that enhancing further the migration is necessary for obtaining a NdFeAs(O,F) thin film with a better quality.

  9. Dewetting of thin films on flexible substrates via direct-write laser exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Anthony Jesus

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled a wide variety of technologies both in the consumer space and in industrial/research areas. At the market level, such devices advance by the invention and innovation of production techniques. Additionally, there has been increased demand for flexible versions of such MEMS devices. Thin film patterning, represents a key technology for the realization of such flexible electronics. Patterns and methods that can be directly written into the thin film allow for design modification on the fly with the need for harsh chemicals and long etching steps. Laser-induced dewetting has the potential to create patterns in thin films at both the microscopic and nanoscopic level without wasting deposited material. This thesis presents the first demonstration of high-speed direct-write patterning of metallic thin films that uses a laser-induced dewetting phenomenon to prevent material loss. The ability to build film material with this technique is explored using various scanning geometries. Finally, demonstrations of direct-write dewetting of a variety of thin films will be presented with special consideration for high melting point metals deposited upon polymer substrates.

  10. Three-dimensional transition in the wake of a circular cylinder by direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. J.; Mo, J. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Tanahashi, M.; Miyauchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional time-dependent flow past a circular cylinder is numerically investigated using direct numerical simulation for Reynolds number 280 and 300. The higher-order finite difference scheme is employed for the spatial distributions along with the second order Adams-Bashforth and the first order backward-Euler time integration. In x-y plane, the convection term is applied by the 5th order upwind scheme and the pressure and viscosity terms are applied by the 4th order central difference. And in spanwise, Navier-Stokes equation is distributed using of spectral method. At Reynolds number 259 the two-dimensional wake becomes linearly unstable to a second branch of modes with wavelength about 1.0 diameters at onset (B-mode). Present results of three-dimensional effects of in wake of a circular cylinder is represented with spanwise and streamwise vorticity contours as Reynolds numbers

  11. Direct Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Noise Generation from the Nozzle Wall of a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan; Missouri Univ of Sci; Tech Team; NASA Langley Research Center Team

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the acoustic noise generation from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall of a Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube. The emphasis is on characterizing the freestream acoustic pressure disturbances radiated from the nozzle-wall turbulent boundary layer and comparing it with acoustic noise generated from a single, flat wall in an unconfined setting at a similar freestream Mach number to assess the effects of noise reverberation. In particular, the numerical database is used to provide insights into the pressure disturbance spectrum and amplitude scaling with respect to the boundary-layer parameters as well as to understand the acoustic source mechanisms. Such information is important for characterizing the freestream disturbance environment in conventional (i.e., noisy) hypersonic wind tunnels. Air Force Office of Scientific Research Award No. FA9550-14-1-0170.

  12. Magnetic shield effect simulation of superconducting film shield covering directly coupled HTS dc-SQUID magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, N.; Noguchi, S.; Igarashi, H.

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting film shield over a SQUID ring improves the robustness of the SQUID with respect to magnetic noise. Supercurrent in the SQUID magnetometer and the superconducting film shield were simulated. The superconducting film shield reduces the influence of the external magnetic field on the SQUID ring. An HTS SQUID is a high sensitive magnetic sensor. In recent years, the HTS SQUID is widely used in various applications. In some applications, high robustness with respect to magnetic noise is required to realize stable operation at outside of a magnetic shielding room. The target of this paper is a directly coupled HTS dc-SQUID magnetometer. To enhance the robustness of the SQUID magnetometer, use of a superconducting thin film shield has been proposed. The magnetic field directly penetrating the SQUID ring causes the change of the critical current of Josephson junction, and then the SQUID magnetometer transitions into inoperative state. In order to confirm the magnetic shield effect of the superconducting film shield, electromagnetic field simulation with 3D edge finite element method was performed. To simulate the high temperature superconductor, E-J characteristics and c-axis anisotropy are considered. To evaluate the effect of the superconducting film shield, an external magnetic field which is supposed to be a magnetic noise is applied. From the simulation results, the time transition of the magnetic flux penetrating the SQUID ring is investigated and the effect of the superconducting film shield is confirmed. The amplitude of the magnetic flux penetrating the SQUID ring can be reduced to about one-sixth since the superconducting film shield prevents the magnetic noise from directly penetrating the SQUID ring.

  13. A Numerical Implementation of a Nonlinear Mild Slope Model for Shoaling Directional Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Davis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates the coupled, nonlinear hyperbolic evolution equations that describe the transformation of the complex Fourier amplitudes of the deep-water directional wave field. Because typical directional wave spectra (observed or produced by deep-water forecasting models such as WAVEWATCH III™ do not contain phase information, individual realizations are generated by associating a random phase to each Fourier mode. The approach provides a natural extension to the deep-water spectral wave models, and has the advantage of fully describing the shoaling wave stochastic process, i.e., the evolution of both the variance and higher order statistics (phase correlations, the latter related to the evolution of the wave shape. The numerical implementation (a Fortran 95/2003 code includes unidirectional (shore-perpendicular propagation as a special case. Interoperability, both with post-processing programs (e.g., MATLAB/Tecplot 360 and future model coupling (e.g., offshore wave conditions from WAVEWATCH III™, is promoted by using NetCDF-4/HD5 formatted output files. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated using a JONSWAP spectrum with a cos2s directional distribution, for shore-perpendicular and oblique propagation. The simulated wave transformation under combined shoaling, refraction and nonlinear interactions shows the expected generation of directional harmonics of the spectral peak and of infragravity (frequency <0.05 Hz waves. Current development efforts focus on analytic testing, development of additional physics modules essential for applications and validation with laboratory and field observations.

  14. Quasi-direct numerical simulation of a pebble bed configuration, Part-II: Temperature field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, A.; Roelofs, F.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNSs) of a pebble bed configuration have been performed. ► This q-DNS database may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. ► A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data throughout the computational domain has been generated. ► Results for mean, RMS of temperature and respective turbulent heat fluxes are extensively reported in this paper. -- Abstract: Good prediction of the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the pebble bed core of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is a challenge for available turbulence models, which still require to be validated. While experimental data are generally desirable in this validation process, due to the complex geometric configuration and measurement difficulties, a very limited amount of data is currently available. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is considered an accurate simulation technique, which may serve as an alternative for validating turbulence models. In the framework of the present study, quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a single face cubic centered pebble bed is performed, which will serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches in order to perform calculations for a randomly arranged pebble bed. These simulations were performed at a Reynolds number of 3088, based on pebble diameter, with a porosity level of 0.42. Results related to flow field (mean, RMS and covariance of velocity) have been presented in Part-I, whereas, in the present article, we focus our attention to the analysis of the temperature field. A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data for the thermal field (mean, RMS and turbulent heat flux) has been generated

  15. Direct numerical simulations of fluid flow, heat transfer and phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, D.; Tryggvason, G.; Han, J.

    1997-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fluid flow, heat transfer, and phase changes are presented. The simulations are made possible by a recently developed finite difference/front tracking method based on the one-field formulation of the governing equations where a single set of conservation equations is written for all the phases involved. The conservation equations are solved on a fixed rectangular grid, but the phase boundaries are kept sharp by tracking them explicitly by a moving grid of lower dimension. The method is discussed and applications to boiling heat transfer and the solidification of drops colliding with a wall are shown.

  16. From neutron Compton profiles to momentum distribution: Assessment of direct numerical determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R.; Flammini, D.; Romanelli, G.; Andreani, C.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers, in the neutron Compton scattering regime, provides an access to the neutron Compton profiles, the analogous of Compton profiles in X-ray scattering. The line shape analysis of the neutron Compton profiles is usually carried out making use of multiparametric nonlinear fitting, garnering detailed information about the momentum distribution of the target atoms. This paper presents the proposal to directly determine numerically the momentum distribution from the profiles, thus eliminating the possible instabilities present in multiparametric fitting. A comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and with previous measurements on polycrystalline ice provides quantitative assessments of the proposed method

  17. Direct transfer of subwavelength plasmonic nanostructures on bioactive silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dianmin; Tao, Hu; Trevino, Jacob; Mondia, Jessica P; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-11-27

    By a reusable transfer fabrication technique, we demonstrate high-fidelity fabrication of metal nanoparticles, optical nanoantennas, and nanohole arrays directly on a functional silk biopolymer. The ability to reproducibly pattern silk biopolymers with arbitrarily complex plasmonic arrays is of importance for a variety of applications in optical biosensing, tissue engineering, cell biology, and the development of novel bio-optoelectronic medical devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughnan, B.W.; Hanak, J.J.

    Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.

  19. Turning Wood Autohydrolysate Directly into Food Packing Composite Films with Good Toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJie Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based composite films were produced by incorporating wood autohydrolysate (WH, chitosan (CS, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC. In this work, WH was directly utilized without further purification, and CNC was introduced as the reinforced material to prepare WH-CS-CNC composite films with excellent properties. The effects of CNC on the properties of WH-CS-CNC composite films were investigated by characterizing their structures, mechanical properties, oxygen barrier, and thermal stability properties. The results suggested that CNC could improve tensile strength of the composite films, and the tensile strain at break could be up to 4.7%. Besides, the oxygen permeability of the prepared composite films could be as low as 3.57 cm3/day·m2·kPa, making them suitable for the food packaging materials. These above results showed that the addition of CNC is an effective method to enhance the toughness of composite films. In addition, WH-CS-CNC composite films have great potential in the field of sustainable food packing materials.

  20. Numerical study on modeling of liquid film flow under countercurrent flow limitation in volume of fluid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Taro, E-mail: watanabe_t@qe.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-7895 (Japan); Takata, Takashi, E-mail: takata.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-chou, Oarai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 331-1393 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: yamaguchi@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film flow under CCFL was modeled and coupled with the VOF method. • The difference of the liquid flow rate in experiments of CCFL was evaluated. • The proposed VOF method can quantitatively predict CCFL with low computational cost. - Abstract: Countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) in a heat transfer tube at a steam generator (SG) of pressurized water reactor (PWR) is one of the important issues on the core cooling under a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to improve the prediction accuracy of the CCFL characteristics in numerical simulations using the volume of fluid (VOF) method with less computational cost, a thin liquid film flow in a countercurrent flow is modeled independently and is coupled with the VOF method. The CCFL characteristics is evaluated analytically in condition of a maximizing down-flow rate as a function of a void fraction or a liquid film thickness considering a critical thickness. Then, we have carried out numerical simulations of a countercurrent flow in a vertical tube so as to investigate the CCFL characteristics and compare them with the previous experimental results. As a result, it has been concluded that the effect of liquid film entrainment by upward gas flux will cause the difference in the experiments.

  1. Numerical simulation of the effect of dissipation and phase fluctuation in a direct communication scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zhang, Jun-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state. (paper)

  2. Numerical simulation of the effect of dissipation and phase fluctuation in a direct communication scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of the passive scalar field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, N.; Tomita, Y.; Kuroda, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fully developed thermal field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow of air that was carried out. The iso-flux condition is imposed on the walls so that the local mean temperature linearly increases in the streamwise direction. The computation was executed on 1,589,248 grid points by using a spectral method. The statistics obtained include rms velocity and temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stresses, turbulent heat fluxes and other higher order correlations. They are compared mainly with the DNS data obtained by Kim and Moin (1987) and Kim (1987) in a higher Reynolds number flow with isothermal walls. Agreement between these two results is generally good. Each term in the budget equations of temperature variance, its dissipation rate and turbulent heat fluxes is also calculated in order to establish a data base of convective heat transfer for thermal turbulence modeling

  4. A method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical solar building transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.Y. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical room transfer functions with any derived parameters as output, such as operative temperature or thermal load. Complex conductive, convective and radiant heat transfer processes, or any derived thermal parameters in buildings can be explicitly and precisely described by a generalized thermal network. This allows the s-transfer and z-transfer functions to be directly generated, using semi-symbolic analysis techniques, Cayley's expansion of determinant and Heaviside's expansion theorem. A simple algorithm is developed for finding the roots of the denominator in the inverse transform of the s-transfer functions, which ensures that no single root is missing. The techniques have been applied to generating the transfer functions of a passive solar room with floor heating. The example calculation demonstrates the high efficiency of the computational method. (author)

  5. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a vertical thin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Yin; He, Xiao-Zhou; Yik, Hiu-Fai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Schumacher, Jorg; Tong, Penger

    2017-11-01

    We report a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a thin vertical disk with a high-order spectral element method code NEK5000. An unstructured mesh is used to adapt the turbulent flow in the thin disk and to ensure that the mesh sizes satisfy the refined Groetzbach criterion and a new criterion for thin boundary layers proposed by Shishkina et al. The DNS results for the mean and variance temperature profiles in the thermal boundary layer region are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the new boundary layer models proposed by Shishkina et al. and Wang et al.. Furthermore, we numerically calculate the five budget terms in the boundary layer equation, which are difficult to measure in experiment. The DNS results agree well with the theoretical predictions by Wang et al. Our numerical work thus provides a strong support for the development of a common framework for understanding the effect of boundary layer fluctuations. This work was supported in part by Hong Kong Research Grants Council.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of waste heat recovery characteristics of direct contact thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Negash, Assmelash; Cho, Gyubaek

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy harvesting performance of direct contact thermoelectric generator was studied. • Power-current and voltage-current curves were given for various operating conditions. • Output power prediction using numerical results and empirical correlation was verified. • A 1.0–2.0% conversion efficiency and 5.7–11.1% heat recovery efficiency were obtained. • A 0.25% increase in efficiency was found with a 10 K decrease in coolant temperature. - Abstract: In this study, waste heat recovery performance of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) is experimentally investigated on a diesel engine. In order to conduct an insightful analysis of the DCTEG characteristics, three experimental parameters—engine load, rotation speed, and coolant temperature—are chosen to vary over ranges during the experiments. Experimental results show that higher temperature differences across thermoelectric modules (TEM), larger engine loads, and rotation speeds lead to an improved energy conversion efficiency of the DCTEG, which lies in the range of approximately 1.0–2.0%, while the output power ranges approximately 12–45 W. The increase in the conversion efficiency for an increased engine load becomes more noticeable with a higher engine rotation speed. A 10 K decrease in the coolant temperature yields an approximately 0.25% increase in the conversion efficiency for the engine operating conditions tested. In addition, 3D numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the heat transfer and pressure characteristics of the DCTEG. Numerically obtained exhaust gas temperatures exiting the DCTEG were in good agreement with experimental results. It is also revealed that incorporation of the temperature fields from the numerical simulation and an empirical correlation for a temperature-power relationship provides a good predictor for output power from the DCTEG, especially at low engine load conditions, which deviates from experimental results as the

  7. Growth directions of C8-BTBT thin films during drop-casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Naoki; Zanka, Tomohiko; Onishi, Yosuke; Fujieda, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Because charge transport in a single crystal is anisotropic, control of its orientation is important for enhancing electrical characteristics and reducing variations among devices. For growing an organic thin film, a solution process such as inkjet printing offers advantages in throughput. We have proposed to apply an external temperature gradient during drop-casting and to control the direction of solvent evaporation. In experiment, a temperature gradient was generated in a bare Si substrate by placing it on a Si plate bridging two heat stages. When a solution containing 2,7-dioctyl [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) was dropped on the substrate, evaporation started at the hotter side of the droplet and proceeded toward the colder side. The front line of the liquid was not pinned and the solution extended toward the colder region. As a result, a thin film was formed in a 7mm-long region. The peripheral region of the film was significantly thicker due to the coffee ring effect. The surface of the rest of the film was mostly smooth and terrace structures with 2.6nm steps were observed. The step roughly corresponds to the length of the C8-BTBT molecule. The film thickness varied from 20nm to 50nm over the distance of 3mm. Another film was grown on a glass substrate under a similar condition. Observation of the film with a polarizing microscope revealed that fan-shaped domains were formed in the film and that their optical axes were mostly along the directions of the solvent evaporation.

  8. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film

  9. Direct Numerical Simulation of an Airfoil with Sand Grain Roughness on the Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andre F. P.; Casalino, Damiano; Fares, Ehab; Choudhari, Meelan

    2016-01-01

    As part of a computational study of acoustic radiation due to the passage of turbulent boundary layer eddies over the trailing edge of an airfoil, the Lattice-Boltzmann method is used to perform direct numerical simulations of compressible, low Mach number flow past an NACA 0012 airfoil at zero degrees angle of attack. The chord Reynolds number of approximately 0.657 million models one of the test conditions from a previous experiment by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini at NASA Langley Research Center. A unique feature of these simulations involves direct modeling of the sand grain roughness on the leading edge, which was used in the abovementioned experiment to trip the boundary layer to fully turbulent flow. This report documents the findings of preliminary, proof-of-concept simulations based on a narrow spanwise domain and a limited time interval. The inclusion of fully-resolved leading edge roughness in this simulation leads to significantly earlier transition than that in the absence of any roughness. The simulation data is used in conjunction with both the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy and a semi-analytical model by Roger and Moreau to predict the farfield noise. The encouraging agreement between the computed noise spectrum and that measured in the experiment indicates the potential payoff from a full-fledged numerical investigation based on the current approach. Analysis of the computed data is used to identify the required improvements to the preliminary simulations described herein.

  10. An analytical–numerical model of laser direct metal deposition track and microstructure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M Naveed; Pinkerton, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Multiple analytical and numerical models of the laser metal deposition process have been presented, but most rely on sequential solution of the energy and mass balance equations or discretization of the problem domain. Laser direct metal deposition is a complex process involving multiple interdependent processes which can be best simulated using a fully coupled mass-energy balance solution. In this work a coupled analytical–numerical solution is presented. Sub-models of the powder stream, quasi-stationary conduction in the substrate and powder assimilation into the area of the substrate above the liquidus temperature are combined. An iterative feedback loop is used to ensure mass and energy balances are maintained at the melt pool. The model is verified using Ti–6Al–4V single track deposition, produced with a coaxial nozzle and a diode laser. The model predictions of local temperature history, the track profile and microstructure scale show good agreement with the experimental results. The model is a useful industrial aid and alternative to finite element methods for selecting the parameters to use for laser direct metal deposition when separate geometric and microstructural outcomes are required

  11. Direct Numerical Simulation of Oscillatory Flow Over a Wavy, Rough, and Permeable Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuoli, Marco; Blondeaux, Paolo; Simeonov, Julian; Calantoni, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    The results of a direct numerical simulation of oscillatory flow over a wavy bottom composed of different layers of spherical particles are described. The amplitude of wavy bottom is much smaller in scale than typical bed forms such as sand ripples. The spherical particles are packed in such a way to reproduce a bottom profile observed during an experiment conducted in a laboratory flow tunnel with well-sorted coarse sand. The amplitude and period of the external forcing flow as well as the size of the particles are set equal to the experimental values and the computed velocity field is compared with the measured velocity profiles. The direct numerical simulation allows for the evaluation of quantities, which are difficult to measure in a laboratory experiment (e.g., vorticity, seepage flow velocity, and hydrodynamic force acting on sediment particles). In particular, attention is focused on the coherent vortex structures generated by the vorticity shed by both the spherical particles and the bottom waviness. Results show that the wavy bottom triggers transition to turbulence. Moreover, the forces acting on the spherical particles are computed to investigate the mechanisms through which they are possibly mobilized by the oscillatory flow. It was found that forces capable of mobilizing surface particles are strongly correlated with the particle position above the mean bed elevation and the passage of coherent vortices above them.

  12. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  13. Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Performance of Thin-Film-Based Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: A Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Nikita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    Solar cells/photovoltaic, a renewable energy source, is appraised to be the most effective alternative to the conventional electrical energy generator. A cost-effective alternative of crystalline wafer-based solar cell is thin-film polycrystalline-based solar cell. This paper reports the numerical analysis of dependency of the solar cell parameters (i.e., efficiency, fill factor, open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density) on grain size for thin-film-based polycrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. A minority carrier lifetime model is proposed to do a correlation between the grains, grain boundaries and lifetime for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells in MATLAB environment. As observed, the increment in the grain size diameter results in increase in minority carrier lifetime in polycrystalline Si thin film. A non-equivalent series resistance double-diode model is used to find the dark as well as light (AM1.5) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells. To optimize the effectiveness of the proposed model, a successive approximation method is used and the corresponding fitting parameters are obtained. The model is validated with the experimentally obtained results reported elsewhere. The experimentally reported solar cell parameters can be found using the proposed model described here.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Geneva, Nicholas; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a first direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent pipe flow using the mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) on both a D3Q19 lattice grid and a D3Q27 lattice grid. DNS of turbulent pipe flows using LBM has never been reported previously, perhaps due to inaccuracy and numerical stability associated with the previous implementations of LBM in the presence of a curved solid surface. In fact, it was even speculated that the D3Q19 lattice might be inappropriate as a DNS tool for turbulent pipe flows. In this paper, we show, through careful implementation, accurate turbulent statistics can be obtained using both D3Q19 and D3Q27 lattice grids. In the simulation with D3Q19 lattice, a few problems related to the numerical stability of the simulation are exposed. Discussions and solutions for those problems are provided. The simulation with D3Q27 lattice, on the other hand, is found to be more stable than its D3Q19 counterpart. The resulting turbulent flow statistics at a friction Reynolds number of Reτ = 180 are compared systematically with both published experimental and other DNS results based on solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The comparisons cover the mean-flow profile, the r.m.s. velocity and vorticity profiles, the mean and r.m.s. pressure profiles, the velocity skewness and flatness, and spatial correlations and energy spectra of velocity and vorticity. Overall, we conclude that both D3Q19 and D3Q27 simulations yield accurate turbulent flow statistics. The use of the D3Q27 lattice is shown to suppress the weak secondary flow pattern in the mean flow due to numerical artifacts.

  15. Directional solidification of C8-BTBT films induced by temperature gradients and its application for transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Iizuka, Naoki; Onishi, Yosuke

    2015-03-01

    Because charge transport in a single crystal is anisotropic in nature, directional growth of single crystals would enhance device performance and reduce its variation among devices. For an organic thin film, a method based on a temperature gradient would offer advantages in throughput and cleanliness. In experiments, a temperature gradient was established in a spin-coated film of 2,7-dioctyl [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) by two methods. First, a sample was placed on a metal plate bridging two heat stages. When one of the heat stages was cooled, the material started to solidify from the colder region. The melt-solid interface proceeded along the temperature gradient. Cracks were formed perpendicular to the solidification direction. Second, a line-shaped region on the film was continuously exposed to the light from a halogen lamp. After the heat stage was cooled, cracks similar to the first experiment were observed, indicating that the melt-solid interface moved laterally. We fabricated top-contact, bottom-gate transistors with these films. Despite the cracks, field-effect mobility of the transistors fabricated with these films was close to 6 cm2 /Vs and 4 cm2 /Vs in the first and second experiment, respectively. Elimination of cracks would improve charge transport and reduce performance variation among devices. It should be noted that the intense light from the halogen lamp did not damage the C8-BTBT films. The vast knowledge on laser annealing is now available for directional growth of this type of materials. The associated cost would be much smaller because an organic thin film melts at a low temperature.

  16. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

  17. Direct imaging of turbid media using long-time back-scattered photons, a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Joan; Liu, Fengshan; El Akel, Azad; Charette, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Direct imaging is a convenient way to obtain information on the interior of a semi-transparent turbid material by non-invasive probing using laser beams. The major difficulty is linked to scattering which scrambles the directional information coming from the laser beam. It is found in this paper that the long-term multiple-scattered reflected photons may provide structural information on the inside of a material, which offers an interesting alternative to using information only from un-scattered or least-scattered photons as obtained from current direct imaging set-ups for thin media. Based on some observations on a non-homogeneous three layered 1-D slab irradiated by a laser pulse, a direct probing methodology making use of the long-term back-scattered photons is illustrated to recover inclusions positions in a turbid 2-D medium. First, the numerical model is presented. Second, an extended parametrical study is conducted on 1-D homogeneous and non-homogeneous slabs with different laser pulse durations. It is found that the reflected asymptotic logarithmic slope carries information about the presence of the inclusion and that short laser pulses are not necessary since only the decaying parts of the remanent optical signature is important. Longer laser pulses allow a higher level of energy injection and signal to noise ratio. Third, those observations are used for the probing of a 2-D non-homogeneous phantom. (author)

  18. Direct Observation of Sub-100 fs Mobile Charge Generation in a Polymer-Fullerene Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The formation of mobile charges in a roll-to-roll processed poly-3-hexylthiophene-fullerene bulk heterojunction film is observed directly by using transient terahertz spectroscopy with sub-100 fs temporal resolution. The transient terahertz ac conductivity reveals that 20% of the incident pump...

  19. Type II textured molybdenum disulphide films produced by direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlken, S.F.; Lemon, K.D.; Jakovidis, G.; Taheri, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) is one of the few naturally occurring Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and is the primary source for elemental molybdenum. It displays exceptional lubrication performance in both vacuum and atmospheric conditions over a wide temperature range. An important emerging application of MoS 2 and related materials is photovoltaics. Films of MoS 2 exhibit several morphologies described by the orientation of platelets with respect to the substrate. Films with platelets perpendicular or parallel to the substrate are referred to by their morphology, which is type-I or type-II respectively. Production of exclusive type-II films is highly desirable in applications involving lubrication and photovoltaics. For example, type-II morphology reduces friction and minority carrier recombination centres, thus improving tribological and photovoltaic performance. We have successfully produced type-II films using both direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering Continuous polycrystalline films (∼ 10 μm thick) grown in our laboratory using vapour transport have typical areas 1000 mm 2 . A novel ejecta filtration technique was applied to rf-magnetron sputtering. Films produced using this approach retain exclusive type-II morphology at thicknesses where type-I would normally be observed (∼ 200nm)

  20. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

  1. Directed self-assembly of nanoporous metallic- and bimetallic nanoparticle thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Torsten [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz (Germany); Gindy, Nabil; Fahmi, Amir [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Nanoporous thin films attracted considerable interest due to potential applications in optical coatings, catalysis, sensors as well as electronic devices. Recently, such films were prepared by post deposition treatments. The present study is focused on the fabrication of nanoporous thin films via directed self-assembly of hybrid materials. Due to the nature of this process no additional treatments are necessary to develop the pores. Hierarchical nanoporous structures are fabricated directly via deposition of polymer templated Au-nanoparticles onto hydrophilic substrates. These films exhibit two different pore diameters and a total pore density of more than 10{sup 10} holes per cm{sup 2}. Control over the pore size is achieved by changing the molecular weight of the PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer. Moreover, the porous morphology is used as a template to fabricate bimetallic nanostructured thin films. Such well-defined nanostructures, not only exhibit unique physical properties but also provide control over the hydrophobicity of the coated surfaces.

  2. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with spanwise alternatively distributed strips control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weidan; Lu, Lipeng; Fang, Jian; Moulinec, Charles; Yao, Yufeng

    2018-05-01

    The effect of spanwise alternatively distributed strips (SADS) control on turbulent flow in a plane channel has been studied by direct numerical simulations to investigate the characteristics of large-scale streamwise vortices (LSSVs) induced by small-scale active wall actuation, and their potential in suppressing flow separation. SADS control is realized by alternatively arranging out-of-phase control (OPC) and in-phase control (IPC) wall actuations on the lower channel wall surface, in the spanwise direction. It is found that the coherent structures are suppressed or enhanced alternatively by OPC or IPC, respectively, leading to the formation of a vertical shear layer, which is responsible for the LSSVs’ presence. Large-scale low-speed region can also be observed above the OPC strips, which resemble large-scale low-speed streaks. LSSVs are found to be in a statistically-converged steady state and their cores are located between two neighboring OPC and IPC strips. Their motions contribute significantly to the momentum transport in the wall-normal and spanwise directions, demonstrating their potential ability to suppress flow separation.

  3. Numerical simulation of amplification of space charge waves in n-InP films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Barrientos, Abel; Palankovski, Vassil

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear interaction of space charge waves including the amplification in microwave and millimeter wave range in n-InP films, possessing the negative differential conductance phenomenon, is investigated theoretically. Both the amplified signal and the generation of harmonics of the input signal are demonstrated, which are due to non-linear effect of the negative differential resistance. It is possible to observe an amplification of the space charge waves in n-InP films of submicron thicknesses at essentially higher frequencies f <70 GHz, when compared with n-GaAs films f < 44 GHz. The increment observed in the gain is due to the larger dynamic range in n-InP than in n-GaAs films.

  4. High speed direct imaging of thin metal film ablation by movie-mode dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar; Santala, Melissa K.; Cen, Xi; Campbell, Geoffrey; van Benthem, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Obliteration of matter by pulsed laser beams is not only prevalent in science fiction movies, but finds numerous technological applications ranging from additive manufacturing over machining of micro- and nanostructured features to health care. Pulse lengths ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds are utilized at varying laser beam energies and pulse lengths, and enable the removal of nanometric volumes of material. While the mechanisms for removal of material by laser irradiation, i.e., laser ablation, are well understood on the micrometer length scale, it was previously impossible to directly observe obliteration processes on smaller scales due to experimental limitations for the combination of nanometer spatial and nanosecond temporal resolution. Here, we report the direct observation of metal thin film ablation from a solid substrate through dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Quantitative analysis reveals liquid-phase dewetting of the thin-film, followed by hydrodynamic sputtering of nano- to submicron sized metal droplets. We discovered unexpected fracturing of the substrate due to evolving thermal stresses. This study confirms that hydrodynamic sputtering remains a valid mechanism for droplet expulsion on the nanoscale, while irradiation induced stress fields represent limit laser processing of nanostructured materials. Our results allow for improved safety during laser ablation in manufacturing and medical applications.

  5. Investigation of the Dynamic Contact Angle Using a Direct Numerical Simulation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangpu; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai; Li, Aifen; Shams, Bilal

    2016-11-15

    A large amount of residual oil, which exists as isolated oil slugs, remains trapped in reservoirs after water flooding. Numerous numerical studies are performed to investigate the fundamental flow mechanism of oil slugs to improve flooding efficiency. Dynamic contact angle models are usually introduced to simulate an accurate contact angle and meniscus displacement of oil slugs under a high capillary number. Nevertheless, in the oil slug flow simulation process, it is unnecessary to introduce the dynamic contact angle model because of a negligible change in the meniscus displacement after using the dynamic contact angle model when the capillary number is small. Therefore, a critical capillary number should be introduced to judge whether the dynamic contact model should be incorporated into simulations. In this study, a direct numerical simulation method is employed to simulate the oil slug flow in a capillary tube at the pore scale. The position of the interface between water and the oil slug is determined using the phase-field method. The capacity and accuracy of the model are validated using a classical benchmark: a dynamic capillary filling process. Then, different dynamic contact angle models and the factors that affect the dynamic contact angle are analyzed. The meniscus displacements of oil slugs with a dynamic contact angle and a static contact angle (SCA) are obtained during simulations, and the relative error between them is calculated automatically. The relative error limit has been defined to be 5%, beyond which the dynamic contact angle model needs to be incorporated into the simulation to approach the realistic displacement. Thus, the desired critical capillary number can be determined. A three-dimensional universal chart of critical capillary number, which functions as static contact angle and viscosity ratio, is given to provide a guideline for oil slug simulation. Also, a fitting formula is presented for ease of use.

  6. Numerical study on film cooling and convective heat transfer characteristics in the cutback region of turbine blade trailing edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine blade trailing edge is easy to burn out under the exposure of high-temperature gas due to its thin shape. The cooling of this area is an important task in gas turbine blade design. The structure design and analysis of trailing edge is critical because of the complexity of geometry, arrangement of cooling channels, design requirement of strength, and the working condition of high heat flux. In the present paper, a 3-D model of the trailing edge cooling channel is constructed and both structures with and without land are numerically investigated at different blowing ratio. The distributions of film cooling effectiveness and convective heat transfer coefficient on cutback and land surface are analyzed, respectively. According to the results, it is obtained that the distributions of film cooling effectiveness and convective heat transfer coefficient both show the symmetrical characteristics as a result of the periodic structure of the trailing edge. The increase of blowing ratio significantly improves the film cooling effectiveness and convective heat transfer coefficient on the cutback surface, which is beneficial to the cooling of trailing edge. It is also found that the land structure is advantageous for enhancing the streamwise film cooling effectiveness of the trailing edge surface while the film cooling effectiveness on the land surface remains at a low level. Convective heat transfer coefficient exhibits a strong dependency with the blowing ratio, which suggests that film cooling effectiveness and convective heat transfer coefficient must be both considered and analyzed in the design of trailing edge cooling structure.

  7. Effects of non-adiabatic walls on shock/boundary-layer interaction using direct numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpiani, Pedro S.; Bernardini, Matteo; Larsson, Johan

    2017-11-01

    The influence of wall thermal conditions on the properties of an impinging shock wave interacting with a turbulent supersonic boundary layer is a research topic that still remains underexplored. In the present study, direct numerical simulations (DNS) are employed to investigate the flow properties of a shock wave interacting with a turbulent boundary layer at free-stream Mach number M∞ = 2.28 with distinct wall thermal conditions and shock strengths. Instantaneous and mean flow fields, wall quantities and the low-frequency unsteadiness are analyzed. While heating contributes to increase the extent of the interaction zone, wall cooling turns out to be a good candidate for flow control. The distribution of the Stanton number shows a good agreement with prior experimental studies and confirms the strong heat transfer and complex pattern within the interaction region. Numerical results indicate that the changes in the interaction length are mainly linked to the incoming boundary layer as suggested in previous studies (Souverein et al., 2013 and Jaunet et al., 2014). This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant FA95501610385.

  8. Direct Numerical Simulation of Passive Scalar Mixing in Shock Turbulence Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangyu; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Larsson, Johan

    2017-11-01

    Passive scalar mixing in the canonical shock-turbulence interaction configuration is investigated through shock-capturing Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Scalar fields with different Schmidt numbers are transported by an initially isotropic turbulent flow field passing across a nominally planar shock wave. A solution-adaptive hybrid numerical scheme on Cartesian structured grids is used, that combines a fifth-order WENO scheme near shocks and a sixth-order central-difference scheme away from shocks. The simulations target variations in the shock Mach number, M (from 1.5 to 3), turbulent Mach number, Mt (from 0.1 to 0.4, including wrinkled- and broken-shock regimes), and scalar Schmidt numbers, Sc (from 0.5 to 2), while keeping the Taylor microscale Reynolds number constant (Reλ 40). The effects on passive scalar statistics are investigated, including the streamwise evolution of scalar variance budgets, pdfs and spectra, in comparison with their temporal evolution in decaying isotropic turbulence.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Kouji; Suzuki, Hiroki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kouji; Suzuki, Hiroki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayase, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: nagata@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hsuzuki@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: ysakai@mech.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: t-kubo@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hayase@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.

  11. Influence of lubrication forces in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitri, Rohit; Peters, Frank; Padding, Johan; Kuipers, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Accurate numerical representation of particle-laden flows is important for fundamental understanding and optimizing the complex processes such as proppant transport in fracking. Liquid-solid flows are fundamentally different from gas-solid flows because of lower density ratios (solid to fluid) and non-negligible lubrication forces. In this interface resolved model, fluid-solid coupling is achieved by incorporating the no-slip boundary condition implicitly at particle's surfaces by means of an efficient second order ghost-cell immersed boundary method. A fixed Eulerian grid is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle-particle interactions are implemented using the soft sphere collision and sub-grid scale lubrication model. Due to the range of influence of lubrication force on a smaller scale than the grid size, it is important to implement the lubrication model accurately. In this work, different implementations of the lubrication model on particle dynamics are studied for various flow conditions. The effect of a particle surface roughness on lubrication force and the particle transport is also investigated. This study is aimed at developing a validated methodology to incorporate lubrication models in direct numerical simulation of particle laden flows. This research is supported from Grant 13CSER014 of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  12. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent concentric annular pipe flow Part 2: Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2003-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation is performed for turbulent heat transfer in a concentric annulus at Re D h =8900 and Pr=0.71 for two radius ratios (R 1 /R 2 =0.1 and 0.5) and wall heat flux ratio q * =1.0. Main emphasis is placed on the transverse curvature effect on near-wall turbulent thermal structures. Near-wall turbulent thermal structures close to the inner and outer walls are scrutinized by computing the lower-order statistics. The fluctuating temperature variance and turbulent heat flux budgets are illustrated to confirm the results of the lower-order statistics. Probability density functions of the splat/anti-splat process are investigated to analyze the transverse curvature effect on the strong relationship between sweep and splat events. The present numerical results show that the turbulent thermal structures near the outer wall are more activated than those near the inner wall, which may be attributed to the different vortex regeneration processes between the inner and outer walls

  13. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow with nonuniform surface heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1998-01-01

    Turbulent transport computations of a scalar quantity for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow were carried out by means of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure. In this paper, three wall-heating boundary conditions were considered as follows: Case-1) a uniform heat-flux condition along the wall, Case-2) a nonuniform wall-heating condition, that is, a cosine heat-flux distribution along the wall and Case-3) a nonuniform wall-heating condition with a constant temperature over a half of the pipe wall. The number of computational grids used in this paper is 256 x 128 x 128. Prandtl number of the working fluid is 0.71. The Nusselt number in case of Case-1 is in good agreement with the empirical correlation. In case of Case-3, the distributions of the turbulent quantity and the Nusselt number seem to be reasonable. However, as for Case-2, the distributions of the turbulent quantity and the Nusselt number seem to be unrealistic. Two numerical treatments of thermal boundary condition on the wall were applied and their results were discussed from the viewpoint of the turbulent transport feature. (author)

  14. Direct numerical simulation of vacillation in convection induced by centrifugal buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Diogo B.; Marxen, Olaf; Chew, John W.

    2017-11-01

    Flows induced by centrifugal buoyancy occur in industrial systems, such as in the compressor cavities of gas turbines, as well as in flows of geophysical interest. In this numerical study we use direct numerical simulation (DNS) to investigate the transition between the steady waves regime, which is characterized by great regularity, to the vacillation regime, which is critical to understand transition to the fully turbulent regime. From previous work it is known that the onset of convection occurs in the form of pairs of nearly-circular rolls which span the entire axial length of the cavity, with small deviations near the parallel, no-slip end walls. When non-linearity sets in triadic interactions occur and, depending on the value of the centrifugal Rayleigh number, the flow is dominated by either a single mode and its harmonics or by broadband effects if turbulence develops. In this study we increase the centrifugal Rayleigh number progressively and investigate mode interactions during the vacillation regime which eventually lead to chaotic motion. Diogo B. Pitz acknowledges the financial support from the Capes foundation through the Science without Borders program.

  15. Computational Flame Diagnostics for Direct Numerical Simulations with Detailed Chemistry of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianfeng [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The goal of the proposed research is to create computational flame diagnostics (CFLD) that are rigorous numerical algorithms for systematic detection of critical flame features, such as ignition, extinction, and premixed and non-premixed flamelets, and to understand the underlying physicochemical processes controlling limit flame phenomena, flame stabilization, turbulence-chemistry interactions and pollutant emissions etc. The goal has been accomplished through an integrated effort on mechanism reduction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flames at engine conditions and a variety of turbulent flames with transport fuels, computational diagnostics, turbulence modeling, and DNS data mining and data reduction. The computational diagnostics are primarily based on the chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and a recently developed bifurcation analysis using datasets from first-principle simulations of 0-D reactors, 1-D laminar flames, and 2-D and 3-D DNS (collaboration with J.H. Chen and S. Som at Argonne, and C.S. Yoo at UNIST). Non-stiff reduced mechanisms for transportation fuels amenable for 3-D DNS are developed through graph-based methods and timescale analysis. The flame structures, stabilization mechanisms, local ignition and extinction etc., and the rate controlling chemical processes are unambiguously identified through CFLD. CEMA is further employed to segment complex turbulent flames based on the critical flame features, such as premixed reaction fronts, and to enable zone-adaptive turbulent combustion modeling.

  16. Flow topologies in different regimes of premixed turbulent combustion: A direct numerical simulation analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Wacks, Daniel H.

    2016-12-02

    The distributions of flow topologies within the flames representing the corrugated flamelets, thin reaction zones, and broken reaction zone regimes of premixed turbulent combustion are investigated using direct numerical simulation data of statistically planar turbulent H-2-air flames with an equivalence ratio phi = 0.7. It was found that the diminishing influence of dilatation rate with increasing Karlovitz number has significant influences on the statistical behaviors of the first, second, and third invariants (i.e., P, Q, and R) of the velocity gradient tensor. These differences are reflected in the distributions of the flow topologies within the flames considered in this analysis. This has important consequences for those topologies that make dominant contributions to the scalar-turbulence interaction and vortex-stretching terms in the scalar dissipation rate and enstrophy transport equations, respectively. Detailed physical explanations are provided for the observed regime dependences of the flow topologies and their implications on the scalar dissipation rate and enstrophy transport.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Noise Generation from the Nozzle Wall of a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2017-01-01

    The acoustic radiation from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall of a Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube is simulated using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), with the flow conditions falling within the operational range of the Mach 6 Hypersonic Ludwieg Tube, Braunschweig (HLB). The mean and turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer show good agreement with those predicted by Pate's correlation and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The rms pressure fluctuation P'(rms)/T(w) plateaus in the freestream core of the nozzle. The intensity of the freestream noise within the nozzle is approximately 20% higher than that radiated from a single at pate with a similar freestream Mach number, potentially because of the contributions to the acoustic radiation from multiple azimuthal segments of the nozzle wall.

  18. Wavelet Analysis on Turbulent Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow Based on Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation has been performed to study a polymer drag-reducing channel flow by using a discrete-element model. And then, wavelet analyses are employed to investigate the multiresolution characteristics of velocity components based on DNS data. Wavelet decomposition is applied to decompose velocity fluctuation time series into ten different frequency components including approximate component and detailed components, which show more regular intermittency and burst events in drag-reducing flow. The energy contribution, intermittent factor, and intermittent energy are calculated to investigate characteristics of different frequency components. The results indicate that energy contributions of different frequency components are redistributed by polymer additives. The energy contribution of streamwise approximate component in drag-reducing flow is up to 82%, much more than 25% in the Newtonian flow. Feature of turbulent multiscale structures is shown intuitively by continuous wavelet transform, verifying that turbulent structures become much more regular in drag-reducing flow.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of laminar-turbulent flow over a flat plate at hypersonic flow speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, I. V.; Novikov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    A method for direct numerical simulation of a laminar-turbulent flow around bodies at hypersonic flow speeds is proposed. The simulation is performed by solving the full three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The method of calculation is oriented to application of supercomputers and is based on implicit monotonic approximation schemes and a modified Newton-Raphson method for solving nonlinear difference equations. By this method, the development of three-dimensional perturbations in the boundary layer over a flat plate and in a near-wall flow in a compression corner is studied at the Mach numbers of the free-stream of M = 5.37. In addition to pulsation characteristic, distributions of the mean coefficients of the viscous flow in the transient section of the streamlined surface are obtained, which enables one to determine the beginning of the laminar-turbulent transition and estimate the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the boundary layer.

  20. Numerical simulation of direct-drive ICF ignition in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaojin

    2006-01-01

    The basic condition required for achieving central ignition is producing a hot spot with 10 keV temperature and 0.3 g/cm 2 surface density. Growth of hydrodynamic instability during deceleration phase will destroy the symmetric-drive, reduce the volume of central hot spot and make a harmful effect on ignition. Based on the LARED-S code, considering the thermonuclear reaction and α-particle heating, a numerical study of direct-drive ICF in spherical geometry is made. One-dimensional results agree well with the NIF ignition target designs, and show that the α-particle heating plays an important role in marginal ignition. Two-dimensional results show that the growth of hydrodynamic instability during deceleration phase makes a harmful effect on ignition. (authors)

  1. Direct numerical simulations of reacting flows with detailed chemistry using many-core/GPU acceleration

    KAUST Repository

    Herná ndez Pé rez, Francisco E.; Mukhadiyev, Nurzhan; Xu, Xiao; Sow, Aliou; Lee, Bok Jik; Sankaran, Ramanan; Im, Hong G.

    2018-01-01

    A new direct numerical simulation (DNS) code for multi-component gaseous reacting flows has been developed at KAUST, with the state-of-the-art programming model for next generation high performance computing platforms. The code, named KAUST Adaptive Reacting Flows Solver (KARFS), employs the MPI+X programming, and relies on Kokkos for “X” for performance portability to multi-core, many-core and GPUs, providing innovative software development while maintaining backward compatibility with established parallel models and legacy code. The capability and potential of KARFS to perform DNS of reacting flows with large, detailed reaction mechanisms is demonstrated with various model problems involving ignition and turbulent flame propagations with varying degrees of chemical complexities.

  2. Anisotropic Characteristics of Turbulence Dissipation in Swirling Flow: A Direct Numerical Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the anisotropic characteristics of turbulent energy dissipation rate in a rotating jet flow via direct numerical simulation. The turbulent energy dissipation tensor, including its eigenvalues in the swirling flows with different rotating velocities, is analyzed to investigate the anisotropic characteristics of turbulence and dissipation. In addition, the probability density function of the eigenvalues of turbulence dissipation tensor is presented. The isotropic subrange of PDF always exists in swirling flows relevant to small-scale vortex structure. Thus, with remarkable large-scale vortex breakdown, the isotropic subrange of PDF is reduced in strongly swirling flows, and anisotropic energy dissipation is proven to exist in the core region of the vortex breakdown. More specifically, strong anisotropic turbulence dissipation occurs concentratively in the vortex breakdown region, whereas nearly isotropic turbulence dissipation occurs dispersively in the peripheral region of the strong swirling flows.

  3. Direct numerical simulations of mack-mode damping on porous coated cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdeke, H.; Wartemann, V.

    2013-06-01

    The flow field over a 3 degree blunt cone is investigated with respect to a hypersonic stability analysis of the boundary-layer flow at Mach 6 with porous as well as smooth walls by comparing local direct numerical simulations (DNS) and linear stability theory (LST) data. The original boundary-layer profile is generated by a finite volume solver, using shock capturing techniques to generate an axisymmetric flow field. Local boundary-layer profiles are extracted from this flow field and hypersonic Mack-modes are superimposed for cone-walls with and without a porous surface used as a passive transition-reduction device. Special care is taken of curvature effects of the wall on the mode development over smooth and porous walls.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation and Theories of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    A new Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Couette-Poiseuille flow at a higher Reynolds number is presented and compared with DNS of other wall-bounded flows. It is analyzed in terms of testing semi-theoretical proposals for universal behavior of the velocity, mixing length, or eddy viscosity in pressure gradients, and in terms of assessing the accuracy of two turbulence models. These models are used in two modes, the traditional one with only a dependence on the wall-normal coordinate y, and a newer one in which a lateral dependence on z is added. For pure Couette flow and the Couette-Poiseuille case considered here, this z-dependence allows some models to generate steady streamwise vortices, which generally improves the agreement with DNS and experiment. On the other hand, it complicates the comparison between DNS and models.

  5. Flow topologies in different regimes of premixed turbulent combustion: A direct numerical simulation analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Wacks, Daniel H.; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Klein, Markus; Arias, Paul G.; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of flow topologies within the flames representing the corrugated flamelets, thin reaction zones, and broken reaction zone regimes of premixed turbulent combustion are investigated using direct numerical simulation data of statistically planar turbulent H-2-air flames with an equivalence ratio phi = 0.7. It was found that the diminishing influence of dilatation rate with increasing Karlovitz number has significant influences on the statistical behaviors of the first, second, and third invariants (i.e., P, Q, and R) of the velocity gradient tensor. These differences are reflected in the distributions of the flow topologies within the flames considered in this analysis. This has important consequences for those topologies that make dominant contributions to the scalar-turbulence interaction and vortex-stretching terms in the scalar dissipation rate and enstrophy transport equations, respectively. Detailed physical explanations are provided for the observed regime dependences of the flow topologies and their implications on the scalar dissipation rate and enstrophy transport.

  6. Direct numerical simulations of reacting flows with detailed chemistry using many-core/GPU acceleration

    KAUST Repository

    Hernández Pérez, Francisco E.

    2018-03-29

    A new direct numerical simulation (DNS) code for multi-component gaseous reacting flows has been developed at KAUST, with the state-of-the-art programming model for next generation high performance computing platforms. The code, named KAUST Adaptive Reacting Flows Solver (KARFS), employs the MPI+X programming, and relies on Kokkos for “X” for performance portability to multi-core, many-core and GPUs, providing innovative software development while maintaining backward compatibility with established parallel models and legacy code. The capability and potential of KARFS to perform DNS of reacting flows with large, detailed reaction mechanisms is demonstrated with various model problems involving ignition and turbulent flame propagations with varying degrees of chemical complexities.

  7. Direct numerical simulation of heat transfer to CO2 at supercritical pressure in a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joong-Hun; Yoo, Jung-Yul; Choi, Hae-Cheon

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the turbulent heat transfer to CO 2 at supercritical pressure in a vertical tube is investigated using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), where no turbulence model is adopted. Heat transfer to the supercritical pressure fluids is characterized by rapid variation of thermodynamic/ thermo-physical properties in the fluids. This change in properties occurs within a very narrow range of temperature across the so-called pseudo-critical temperature, causing a peculiar behavior of heat transfer characteristics. The buoyancy effects associated with very large changes in density proved to play a major role in turbulent heat transfer to supercritical pressure fluids. Depending on the degree of buoyancy effects, turbulent heat transfer may increase or significantly decrease, resulting in a local hot spot along the wall. Based on the results of the present DNS study combined with theoretical considerations for turbulent mixed convection heat transfer, the basic mechanism of this local heat transfer deterioration is explained

  8. Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Multi-Stage Autoignition Relevant to Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline

    2017-11-01

    Due to the unrivaled energy density of liquid hydrocarbon fuels combustion will continue to provide over 80% of the world's energy for at least the next fifty years. Hence, combustion needs to be understood and controlled to optimize combustion systems for efficiency to prevent further climate change, to reduce emissions and to ensure U.S. energy security. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion focused on providing fundamental insights into key `turbulence-chemistry' interactions that underpin the development of next generation fuel efficient, fuel flexible engines for transportation and power generation. Petascale direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multi-stage mixed-mode turbulent combustion in canonical configurations have elucidated key physics that govern autoignition and flame stabilization in engines and provide benchmark data for combustion model development under the conditions of advanced engines which operate near combustion limits to maximize efficiency and minimize emissions. Mixed-mode combustion refers to premixed or partially-premixed flames propagating into stratified autoignitive mixtures. Multi-stage ignition refers to hydrocarbon fuels with negative temperature coefficient behavior that undergo sequential low- and high-temperature autoignition. Key issues that will be discussed include: 1) the role of mixing in shear driven turbulence on the dynamics of multi-stage autoignition and cool flame propagation in diesel environments, 2) the role of thermal and composition stratification on the evolution of the balance of mixed combustion modes - flame propagation versus spontaneous ignition - which determines the overall combustion rate in autoignition processes, and 3) the role of cool flames on lifted flame stabilization. Finally prospects for DNS of turbulent combustion at the exascale will be discussed in the context of anticipated heterogeneous machine architectures. sponsored by DOE

  9. Calculation of radiation effects in solids by direct numerical solution of the adjoint transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The 'adjoint transport equation in its integro-differential form' is derived for the radiation damage produced by atoms injected into solids. We reduce it to the one-dimensional form and prepare it for a numerical solution by: --discretizing the continuous variables energy, space and direction, --replacing the partial differential quotients by finite differences and --evaluating the collision integral by a double sum. By a proper manipulation of this double sum the adjoint transport equation turns into a (very large) set of linear equations with tridiagonal matrix which can be solved by a special (simple and fast) algorithm. The solution of this set of linear equations contains complete information on a specified damage type (e.g. the energy deposited in a volume V) in terms of the function D(i,E,c,x) which gives the damage produced by all particles generated in a cascade initiated by a particle of type i starting at x with energy E in direction c. It is essential to remark that one calculation gives the damage function D for the complete ranges of the variables {i,E,c and x} (for numerical reasons of course on grid-points in the {E,c,x}-space). This is most useful to applications where a general source-distribution S(i,E,c,x) of particles is given by the experimental setup (e.g. beam-window and and target in proton accelerator work. The beam-protons along their path through the window--or target material generate recoil atoms by elastic collisions or nuclear reactions. These recoil atoms form the particle source S). The total damage produced then is eventually given by: D = (Σ)i ∫ ∫ ∫ S(i, E, c, x)*D(i, E, c, x)*dE*dc*dx A Fortran-77 program running on a PC-486 was written for the overall procedure and applied to some problems

  10. Quasi-direct numerical simulation of a pebble bed configuration. Part I: Flow (velocity) field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, A.; Roelofs, F.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNS) of a pebble bed configuration has been performed. ► This q-DNS database may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. ► A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data throughout the computational domain has been generated. ► Results for mean, RMS and covariance of velocity field are extensively reported in this paper. -- Abstract: High temperature reactors (HTR) are being considered for deployment around the world because of their excellent safety features. The fuel is embedded in a graphite moderator and can sustain very high temperatures. However, the appearance of hot spots in the pebble bed cores of HTR's may affect the integrity of the pebbles. A good prediction of the flow and heat transport in such a pebble bed core is a challenge for available turbulence models and such models need to be validated. In the present article, quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNS) of a pebble bed configuration are reported, which may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. Such approaches can be used in order to perform calculations for a randomly arranged pebble bed. Simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of 3088, based on pebble diameter, with a porosity level of 0.42. Detailed flow analyses have shown complex physics flow behavior and make this case challenging for turbulence model validation. Hence, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative data for velocity and temperature field have been extracted for this benchmark. In the present article (part I), results related to the flow field (mean, RMS and covariance of velocity) are documented and discussed in detail. Moreover, the discussion regarding the temperature field will be published in a separate article

  11. Direct numerical simulation of moderate-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method are used to investigate the effects of particle rotation on flows past random arrays of mono-disperse spheres at moderate particle Reynolds numbers. This study is an extension of a previous study of the authors [Q. Zhou and L.-S. Fan, "Direct numerical simulation of low-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres," J. Fluid Mech. 765, 396-423 (2015)] that explored the effects of particle rotation at low particle Reynolds numbers. The results of this study indicate that as the particle Reynolds number increases, the normalized Magnus lift force decreases rapidly when the particle Reynolds number is in the range lower than 50. For the particle Reynolds number greater than 50, the normalized Magnus lift force approaches a constant value that is invariant with solid volume fractions. The proportional dependence of the Magnus lift force on the rotational Reynolds number (based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres) observed at low particle Reynolds numbers does not change in the present study, making the Magnus lift force another possible factor that can significantly affect the overall dynamics of fluid-particle flows other than the drag force. Moreover, it is found that both the normalized drag force and the normalized torque increase with the increase of the particle Reynolds number and the solid volume fraction. Finally, correlations for the drag force, the Magnus lift force, and the torque in random arrays of rotating spheres at arbitrary solids volume fractions, rotational Reynolds numbers, and particle Reynolds numbers are formulated.

  12. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.

    2014-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Characteristics of thin-film transistors based on silicon nitride passivation by excimer laser direct patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chao-Nan; Huang, Jung-Jie

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the removal of silicon nitride using KrF laser ablation technology with a high threshold fluence of 990 mJ/cm 2 . This technology was used for contact hole patterning to fabricate SiN x -passivation-based amorphous-silicon thin films in a transistor device. Compared to the photolithography process, laser direct patterning using KrF laser ablation technology can reduce the number of process steps by at least three. Experimental results showed that the mobility and threshold voltages of thin film transistors patterned using the laser process were 0.16 cm 2 /V-sec and 0.2 V, respectively. The device performance and the test results of gate voltage stress reliability demonstrated that laser direct patterning is a promising alternative to photolithography in the panel manufacturing of thin-film transistors for liquid crystal displays. - Highlights: ► KrF laser ablation technology is used to remove silicon nitride. ► A simple method for direct patterning contact-hole in thin-film-transistor device. ► Laser technology reduced processing by at least three steps

  14. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui; Huang, Jingyun

    2013-11-01

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm-2 mM-1 and a wide linear range of 0.2-5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  15. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Ye, Zhizhen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University (China); Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Huang, Jingyun, E-mail: huangjy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and a wide linear range of 0.2–5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  16. A Numerical Study of Anti-Vortex Film Cooling Designs at High Blowing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, James D.

    2008-01-01

    A concept for mitigating the adverse effects of jet vorticity and liftoff at high blowing ratios for turbine film cooling flows has been developed and studied at NASA Glenn Research Center. This "anti-vortex" film cooling concept proposes the addition of two branched holes from each primary hole in order to produce a vorticity counter to the detrimental kidney vortices from the main jet. These vortices typically entrain hot freestream gas and are associated with jet separation from the turbine blade surface. The anti-vortex design is unique in that it requires only easily machinable round holes, unlike shaped film cooling holes and other advanced concepts. The anti-vortex film cooling hole concept has been modeled computationally for a single row of 30deg angled holes on a flat surface using the 3D Navier-Stokes solver Glenn-HT. A modification of the anti-vortex concept whereby the branched holes exit adjacent to the main hole has been studied computationally for blowing ratios of 1.0 and 2.0 and at density ratios of 1.0 and 2.0. This modified concept was selected because it has shown the most promise in recent experimental studies. The computational results show that the modified design improves the film cooling effectiveness relative to the round hole baseline and previous anti-vortex cases, in confirmation of the experimental studies.

  17. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin protein entrapped in graphene and chitosan composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifeng; Dai, Hong; Chen, Guonan

    2010-04-15

    A novel, biocompatible sensing strategy based on graphene and chitosan composite film for immobilizing the hemoglobin protein was firstly adopted. The direct electron transfer and bioelectrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin after incorporation into the composite film were investigated. A pair of reversible redox waves of hemoglobin was appeared, and hemoglobin could exhibit its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward H(2)O(2) in a long term. Such results indicated that graphene and chitosan composite could be a friendly biocompatible interface for immobilizing biomolecules and keeping their native structure. Furthermore, the appearance of graphene in the composite film could facilitate the electron transfer between matrix and the electroactive center of hemoglobin. Hence, this graphene and chitosan based protocol would be a promising platform for protein immobilization and biosensor preparation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High Performance Computation of a Jet in Crossflow by Lattice Boltzmann Based Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a round jet in crossflow based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is carried out on multi-GPU cluster. Data parallel SIMT (single instruction multiple thread characteristic of GPU matches the parallelism of LBM well, which leads to the high efficiency of GPU on the LBM solver. With present GPU settings (6 Nvidia Tesla K20M, the present DNS simulation can be completed in several hours. A grid system of 1.5 × 108 is adopted and largest jet Reynolds number reaches 3000. The jet-to-free-stream velocity ratio is set as 3.3. The jet is orthogonal to the mainstream flow direction. The validated code shows good agreement with experiments. Vortical structures of CRVP, shear-layer vortices and horseshoe vortices, are presented and analyzed based on velocity fields and vorticity distributions. Turbulent statistical quantities of Reynolds stress are also displayed. Coherent structures are revealed in a very fine resolution based on the second invariant of the velocity gradients.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Vapor Bubble Growth and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Jia, Tao; Xiu-Lan, Huai; Zhi-Gang, Li

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubble growth in a thin liquid film, movement of the interface between two fluids and the surface heat transfer characteristics. The model takes into account the effects of phase change between the vapor and liquid, gravity, surface tension and viscosity. The details of the multiphase now and heat transfer are discussed for two cases: (1) when a water micro-droplet impacts a thin liquid film with a vapor bubble growing and (2) when the vapor bubble grows and merges with the vapor layer above the liquid film without the droplet impacting. The development trend of the interface between the vapor and liquid is coincident qualitatively with the available literature, mostly at the first stage. We also provide an important method to better understand the mechanism of nucleate spray cooling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. Multiscale numerical study on ferroelectric nonlinear response of PZT thin films (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    PZT thin films have excellent performance in deformation precision and response speed, so it is used widely for actuators and sensors of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). Although PZT thin films outputs large piezoelectricity at morphotropic phase bounfary (MPB), it shows a complicated hysteresis behavior caused by domain switching and structural phase transition between tetragonal and rhombohedral. In general, PZT thin films have some characteristic crystal morphologies. Additionally mechanical strains occur by lattice mismatch with substrate. Therefore it is important for fabrication and performance improvement of PZT thin films to understand the relation between macroscopic hysteresis response and microstructural changes. In this study, a multiscale nonlinear finite element simulation was proposed for PZT thin films at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) on the substrate. The homogenization theory was employed for scale-bridging between macrostructure and microstructure. Figure 1 shows the proposed multiscale nonlinear simulation [1-3] based on the homogenization theory. Macrostructure is a homogeneous structure to catch the whole behaviors of actuators and sensors. And microstructure is a periodic inhomogeneous structure consisting of domains and grains. Macrostructure and microstructure are connected perfectly by homogenization theory and are analyzed by finite element method. We utilized an incremental form of fundamental constitutive law in consideration with physical property change caused by domain switching and structural phase transition. The developed multiscale finite element method was applied to PZT thin films with lattice mismatch strain on the substrate, and the relation between the macroscopic hysteresis response and microscopic domain switching and structural phase transition were investigated. Especially, we discuss about the effect of crystal morphologies and lattice mismatch strain on hysteresis response.

  2. Development of a Vsible-Light-Active Film for Direct Solar Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Audrey

    We conceived of a two-compartment photocatalytic assembly for direct storage of solar energy as chemical potential. Our approach was to maintain reductant and oxidant in separate compartments and develop a visible light (wavelength >400nm) photo-active film to effect an uphill photoreaction between compartments. A proton exchange membrane was included in the assembly to complete the electrical circuit. Towards obtaining a working prototype of the assembly, we developed a freeze-drying method to adhere visible-light photoactive nanoparticles to a self- standing, non-porous and conductive indium tin oxide-polyvinylidene difluoride (ITO-PVDF) support film, developed in-house. We explored the possibility of employing an iron-rich metal oxide as the photocatalytic component of the film and several were explored utilizing the sodium tartrate-assisted photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Although the Fe2O3-coated TiO2 nanoparticles were active for photoreduction, the initial reaction rate was modest and was slowed by substantial deactivation, making it unsuitable as a photo-active material for the composite film. A complete, two-compartment assembly was prepared using cadmium sulfide (CdS) and preliminarily examined for the Cr(VI) probe reaction, however, no catalytic activity was observed. To identify the reason(s) for this observation, further testing of the apparatus and the composite film is required.

  3. Direct fabrication of rigid microstructures on a metallic roller using a dry film resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liang-Ting; Huang, Tzu-Chien; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Ciou, Jian-Ren; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Huang, Po-Hsun

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate a metallic roller mold with microstructures on its surface using a dry film resist (DFR). The DFR is laminated uniformly onto the curvy surface of a copper roller. After that, the micro-scale photoresist on the surface of the roller can be patterned by non-planar lithography using a flexible film photomask, followed by ferric chloride wet etching to obtain the desired microstructures. This method overcomes the uniformity issue of photoresist coating on rollers, and solves the molds sliding problem during the embossing process because the microstructures are fabricated directly on the roller surface. Furthermore, the rigid metallic roller mold has excellent strength durability and temperature endurance, which can be used in roller hot embossing with a high embossing pressure. The fabricated microstructure roller mold is used as a mold in the hybrid extrusion roller embossing process and successfully fabricates uniform micro-scale prominent line arrays on PC films. This result proves that the roller fabricated by this method can be successfully used in roller embossing for microstructure mass production. The excellent flatness of dry film resist laminating is the key in this fabrication process. The flexible film photomask can be easily designed using CAD software; this roller fabrication method enhances the design flexibility and reduces the cost and time

  4. Thickness-controlled direct growth of nanographene and nanographite film on non-catalytic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Liu; Hu, Zhiting; Zhang, Jiazhen; Huang, Chunlai; Sun, Liaoxin; Wang, Lin; Wei, Dacheng; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been broadly employed for large-scale production of high-quality graphene. However, a following transfer process to targeted substrates is needed, which is incompatible with current silicon technology. We here report a new CVD approach to form nanographene and nanographite films with accurate thickness control directly on non-catalytic substrates such as silicon dioxide and quartz at 800 °C. The growth time is as short as a few seconds. The approach includes using 9-bis(diethylamino)silylanthracene as the carbon source and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) controlling system. The structure of the formed nanographene and nanographite films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The nanographite film exhibits a transmittance higher than 80% at 550 nm and a sheet electrical resistance of 2000 ohms per square at room temperature. A negative temperature-dependence of the resistance of the nanographite film is also observed. Moreover, the thickness of the films can be precisely controlled via the deposition cycles using an ALD system, which promotes great application potential for optoelectronic and thermoelectronic-devices.

  5. Introduction of gold nanoparticles into myoglobin-Nafion film for direct electrochemistry application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenting; Kong, Linlin; Kan, Meixiu; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Xueji; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2010-10-01

    An effective myoglobin-Nafion film is prepared by introducing gold nanoparticles in through a simple procedure by ion-exchange combined with electrochemical reduction. Gold nanoparticles are highly dispersed in myoglobin-Nafion film with an average size of 2.3 +/- 0.2 nm. The electrochemical behavior of myoglobin entrapped in the film has been carefully investigated with cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the introduction of gold nanoparticles into myoglobin-Nafion film makes the direct electron transfer of myoglobin efficient. A pair of well-defined redox peaks for myoglobin heme Fe(II)/Fe(III) is observed with a formal potential of -0.150 V in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The electrochemical parameters of myoglobin in the composite film are further calculated with the results of the electron-transfer rate constant (k(s)) as 0.93 s(-1) and the charge transfer coefficient (alpha) as 0.69. The experimental results also demonstrate that the immobilized myoglobin retains its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and the catalytic reduction peak of myoglobin appear in a linear relationship with H2O2 concentration in the range of 10.0-235.0 microM with correlation coefficient of 0.9970. Thus fabricated Au/Mb/Nafion electrode should give a new approach for developing redox protein or enzyme-based biosensors.

  6. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  7. High electrical conductivity in out of plane direction of electrodeposited Bi2Te3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The out of plane electrical conductivity of highly anisotropic Bi2Te3 films grown via electro-deposition process was determined using four probe current-voltage measurements performed on 4.6 - 7.2 μm thickness Bi2Te3 mesa structures with 80 - 120 μm diameters sandwiched between metallic film electrodes. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to predict the electric field distribution in the measured structures and take into account the non-uniform distribution of the current in the electrodes in the vicinity of the probes. The finite-element modeling shows that significant errors could arise in the measured film electrical conductivity if simpler one-dimensional models are employed. A high electrical conductivity of (3.2 ± 0.4 ⋅ 105 S/m is reported along the out of plane direction for Bi2Te3 films highly oriented in the [1 1 0] direction.

  8. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, Andreas, E-mail: A.Markwitz@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Gupta, Prasanth [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, Berit [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hübner, René [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, αγ){sup 12}C (E{sub res} = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0–10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp{sup 2} hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  9. Parameter estimation method that directly compares gravitational wave observations to numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Boyle, M.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, J. A.; Demos, N.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D. A.; Hinder, I.; Jani, K.; Khamesra, B.; Kidder, L. E.; Kumar, P.; Laguna, P.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pfeiffer, H.; Scheel, M. A.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.

    2017-11-01

    We present and assess a Bayesian method to interpret gravitational wave signals from binary black holes. Our method directly compares gravitational wave data to numerical relativity (NR) simulations. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the systematic and statistical parameter estimation errors of this method. This procedure bypasses approximations used in semianalytical models for compact binary coalescence. In this work, we use the full posterior parameter distribution for only generic nonprecessing binaries, drawing inferences away from the set of NR simulations used, via interpolation of a single scalar quantity (the marginalized log likelihood, ln L ) evaluated by comparing data to nonprecessing binary black hole simulations. We also compare the data to generic simulations, and discuss the effectiveness of this procedure for generic sources. We specifically assess the impact of higher order modes, repeating our interpretation with both l ≤2 as well as l ≤3 harmonic modes. Using the l ≤3 higher modes, we gain more information from the signal and can better constrain the parameters of the gravitational wave signal. We assess and quantify several sources of systematic error that our procedure could introduce, including simulation resolution and duration; most are negligible. We show through examples that our method can recover the parameters for equal mass, zero spin, GW150914-like, and unequal mass, precessing spin sources. Our study of this new parameter estimation method demonstrates that we can quantify and understand the systematic and statistical error. This method allows us to use higher order modes from numerical relativity simulations to better constrain the black hole binary parameters.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of particle laden flow in a human airway bifurcation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou, Fotos S.; Sznitman, Josué; Kassinos, Stavros C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An anatomically realistic model of a human airway bifurcation is constructed. • Direct numerical simulations are used to study laminar and turbulent airflow. • Aerosol deposition in the bifurcation is studied with lagrangian particle tracking. • Carinal vortices forming during steady expiration are reported for the first time. • Stokes number determines deposition differences between inspiration and expiration. - Abstract: During the delivery of inhaled medicines, and depending on the size distribution of the particles in the formulation, airway bifurcations are areas of preferential deposition. Previous studies of laminar flow through airway bifurcations point to an interplay of inertial and centrifugal forces that leads to rich flow phenomena and controls particle deposition patterns. However, recent computational studies have shown that the airflow in the upper human airways is turbulent during much of the respiratory cycle. The question of how the presence of turbulence modifies these effects remains open. In this study, we perform for the first time Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulent flow through a single human airway bifurcation model, emulating steady prolonged inspiration and expiration. We use the rich information obtained from the DNS in order to identify key structures in the flow field and scrutinize their role in determining deposition patterns in the bifurcation. We find that the vortical structures present in the bifurcation during expiration differ from those identified during inspiration. While Dean vortices are present in both cases, a set of three dimensional “carinal vortices” are identified only during expiration. A set of laminar simulations in the same geometries, but at lower Reynolds numbers, allow us to identify key differences in aerosol deposition patterns between laminar and turbulent respiration. We also report deposition fractions for representative Stokes numbers for both

  11. Numerical Investigation of the Liquid Film Flows with Evaporation at Thermocapillary Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezanova Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flows of the thin liquid layers on an inclined non-uniformly heated substrate are investigated numerically. The evaporation at the thermocapillary interface is taking into account. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations and the generalized kinematic, dynamic and energy conditions on a thermocapillary boundary are used for governing equations. The evolution equation, which determines the position of the interface, is obtained on the basis of the long-wave approximation of the equations for moderate Reynolds numbers. The numerical algorithm for solving of this evolution equation is presented. Comparison of the numerical results of flows of various liquids is presented.

  12. Preliminary experiment of fast neutron imaging with direct-film method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Yuyang; Tang Guoyou; Guo Zhiyu; Zhang Guohui

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary experiment is conducted with direct-film method under the condition that fast neutron is generated by the reaction of 9 Be(d, n) on the Beijing University 4.5 MV Van de Graaff, whose energy is lower than 7 MeV. Basic characteristics of direct-film neutron radiography system are investigated with the help of samples in different materials, different thickness and holes of different diameter. The fast neutron converter, which is vital for fast neutron imaging, is produced with the materials made in China. The result indicates that fast neutron converter can meet the requirement of fast neutron imaging; further research of fast neutron imaging can be conducted on the accelerator and neutron-generator in China. (authors)

  13. Neutron methods for the direct determination of the magnetic induction in thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, S.V., E-mail: kozhevn@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ott, F. [CEA, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); CNRS, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Radu, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We review different neutron methods which allow extracting directly the value of the magnetic induction in thick films: Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial beam-splitting and neutron spin resonance. Resulting parameters obtained by the neutron methods and standard magnetometry technique are presented and compared. The possibilities and specificities of the neutron methods are discussed. - Highlights: • We present neutron methods for investigations of the thick magnetic films. • It is the methods for the direct determination of the magnetic induction. • Magnetic induction in bulk, at single interface and in a single domain. • It is Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial beam-splitting and neutron spin resonance. • These methods are complementary to polarized neutron reflectometry.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layer subjected to adverse pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Kono, Amane; Houra, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of DNS. • The detailed turbulent statistics and structures in various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having APG are discussed. • It is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification. • In the case of strong stable stratification with or without APG, the flow separation is observed in the downstream region. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate and observe turbulent heat transfer structures and statistics in thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers subjected to a non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). DNSs are carried out under conditions of neutral, stable and unstable thermal stratifications with a non-equilibrium APG, in which DNS results reveal heat transfer characteristics of thermally-stratified non-equilibrium APG turbulent boundary layers. In cases of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers affected by APG, heat transfer performances increase in comparison with a turbulent boundary layer with neutral thermal stratification and zero pressure gradient (ZPG). Especially, it is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification (WSBL). Thus, the analysis for both the friction coefficient and Stanton number in the case of WSBL with/without APG is conducted using the FIK identity in order to investigate contributions from the transport equations, in which it is found that both Reynolds-shear-stress and the mean convection terms

  15. An Enzyme Switch Employing Direct Electrochemical Communication between Horseradish Peroxidase and a Poly(aniline) Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P N; Birkin, P R; Wang, J H; Palmisano, F; De Benedetto, G

    1998-09-01

    An enzyme switch, or microelectrochemical enzyme transistor, responsive to hydrogen peroxide was made by connecting two carbon band electrodes (∼10 μm wide, 4.5 mm long separated by a 20-μm gap) with an anodically grown film of poly(aniline). Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was either adsorbed onto the poly(aniline) film or immobilized in an insulating poly(1,2-diaminobenzene) polymer grown electrochemically on top of the poly(aniline) film to complete the device. In the completed device, the conductivity of the poly(aniline) film changes from conducting (between - 0.05 and + 0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) to insulating (>+0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) on addition of hydrogen peroxide. The change in conductivity is brought about by oxidation of the poly(aniline) film by direct electrochemical communication between the enzyme and the conducting polymer. This was confirmed by measuring the potential of the poly(aniline) film during switching of the conductivity in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The devices can be reused by rereducing the poly(aniline) electrochemically to a potential below +0.3 V vs SCE. A blind test showed that the device can be used to determine unknown concentrations of H(2)O(2) in solution and that, when used with hydrogen peroxide concentrations below 0.5 mmol dm(-)(3), the same device maybe reused several times. The possible development of devices of this type for use in applications requiring the measurement of low levels of hydrogen peroxide or horseradish peroxidase is discussed.

  16. Studies on surface modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film by remote and direct Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Jierong; Li Ru

    2008-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces are modified with remote and direct Ar plasma, and the effects of the modification on the hydrophilicity of PTFE are investigated. The surface microstructures and compositions of the PTFE film were characterized with the goniometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the remote and direct plasma treatments modify the PTFE surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PTFE films, in the forming of some polar functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. When the remote and direct Ar plasma treats PTFE film, the contact angles decrease from the untreated 108-58 o and 65.2 o , respectively. The effect of the remote Ar plasma is more noticeable. The role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. This shows that remote Ar plasma can restrain the ion and electron etching reaction and enhance radical reaction

  17. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: direct numerical simulation from laminar to fully-developed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, R. J.; Wu, X.; Moin, P.; Baltzer, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Osborne Reynolds' pipe experiment marked the onset of modern viscous flow research, yet the detailed mechanism carrying the laminar state to fully-developed turbulence has been quite elusive, despite notable progress related to dynamic edge-state theory. Here, we continue our direct numerical simulation study on this problem using a 250R long, spatially-developing pipe configuration with various Reynolds numbers, inflow disturbances, and inlet base flow states. For the inlet base flow, both fully-developed laminar profile and the uniform plug profile are considered. Inlet disturbances consist of rings of turbulence of different width and radial location. In all the six cases examined so far, energy norms show exponential growth with axial distance until transition after an initial decay near the inlet. Skin-friction overshoots the Moody's correlation in most, but not all, the cases. Another common theme is that lambda vortices amplified out of susceptible elements in the inlet disturbances trigger rapidly growing hairpin packets at random locations and times, after which infant turbulent spots appear. Mature turbulent spots in the pipe transition are actually tight concentrations of hairpin packets looking like a hairpin forest. The plug flow inlet profile requires much stronger disturbances to transition than the parabolic profile.

  18. Direct numerical simulations of an arc-powered heater for used in a hypersonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilbum; Panesi, Marco; Freund, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    We study a model arc-heater using direct numerical simulations, in a configuration motivated by its used to generated inflow of a high-speed wind tunnel for hypersonics research. The flow is assumed to be in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and is modeled with with 11 species (N2, O2, NO, N, O, N2+,O2+,NO+, N+, O+, e-). The flow equations are solved in conjunction with an electrostatic field solver and the gas electric conductivity in LTE. The flow rate and the mean arc power are set to be 50.42 g/s and 84.7 kW with 214.0 V of the mean arc voltage , respectively. We study the flow details, the heading and thrust mechanisms, and make general comparisons with a corresponding, though geometrically more complex, experimental configuration. We particularly interested in the radical species it produces and will potentially be present in the wind-tunnel test section. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, under Award Number DE-NA0002374.

  19. Direct numerical simulations of premixed autoignition in compressible uniformly-sheared turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towery, Colin; Darragh, Ryan; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter

    2017-11-01

    High-speed combustion systems, such as scramjet engines, operate at high temperatures and pressures, extremely short combustor residence times, very high rates of shear stress, and intense turbulent mixing. As a result, the reacting flow can be premixed and have highly-compressible turbulence fluctuations. We investigate the effects of compressible turbulence on the ignition delay time, heat-release-rate (HRR) intermittency, and mode of autoignition of premixed Hydrogen-air fuel in uniformly-sheared turbulence using new three-dimensional direct numerical simulations with a multi-step chemistry mechanism. We analyze autoignition in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames at eight different turbulence Mach numbers, Mat , spanning the quasi-isentropic, linear thermodynamic, and nonlinear compressibility regimes, with eddy shocklets appearing in the nonlinear regime. Results are compared to our previous study of premixed autoignition in isotropic turbulence at the same Mat and with a single-step reaction mechanism. This previous study found large decreases in delay times and large increases in HRR intermittency between the linear and nonlinear compressibility regimes and that detonation waves could form in both regimes.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer flow on a flared cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruett, C.D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Math. and Comput. Sci.; Chang Chau-Lyan [High Technology Corporation, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The forced transition of the boundary layer on an axisymmetric flared cone in Mach 6 flow is simulated by the method of spatial direct numerical simulation (DNS). The full effects of the flared afterbody are incorporated into the governing equations and boundary conditions; these effects include nonzero streamwise surface curvature, adverse streamwise pressure gradient, and decreasing boundary-layer edge Mach number. Transition is precipitated by periodic forcing at the computational inflow boundary with perturbations derived from parabolized stability equation (PSE) methodology and based, in part, on frequency spectra available from physical experiments. Significant qualitative differences are shown to exist between the present results and those obtained previously for a cone without afterbody flare. In both cases, the primary instability is of second-mode type; however, frequencies are much higher for the flared cone because of the decrease in boundary-layer thickness in the flared region. Moreover, Goertler modes, which are linearly stable for the straight cone, are unstable in regions of concave body flare. Reynolds stresses, which peak near the critical layer for the straight cone, exhibit peaks close to the wall for the flared cone. The cumulative effect appears to be that transition onset is shifted upstream for the flared cone. However, the length of the transition zone may possibly be greater because of the seemingly more gradual nature of the transition process on the flared cone. (orig.) With 20 figs., 28 refs.

  1. Large scale Direct Numerical Simulation of premixed turbulent jet flames at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attili, Antonio; Luca, Stefano; Lo Schiavo, Ermanno; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Creta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed jet flames at different Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers is presented. The simulations feature finite rate chemistry with 16 species and 73 reactions and up to 22 Billion grid points. The jet consists of a methane/air mixture with equivalence ratio ϕ = 0 . 7 and temperature varying between 500 and 800 K. The temperature and species concentrations in the coflow correspond to the equilibrium state of the burnt mixture. All the simulations are performed at 4 atm. The flame length, normalized by the jet width, decreases significantly as the Reynolds number increases. This is consistent with an increase of the turbulent flame speed due to the increased integral scale of turbulence. This behavior is typical of flames in the thin-reaction zone regime, which are affected by turbulent transport in the preheat layer. Fractal dimension and topology of the flame surface, statistics of temperature gradients, and flame structure are investigated and the dependence of these quantities on the Reynolds number is assessed.

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer inside an Axisymmetric Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2017-01-01

    As a first step toward a study of acoustic disturbance field within a conventional, hypersonic wind tunnel, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer on the inner wall of a straight axisymmetric nozzle are conducted and the results are compared with those for a flat plate. The DNS results for a nozzle radius to boundary-layer thickness ratio of 5:5 show that the turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer are nearly unaffected by the transverse curvature of the nozzle wall. Before the acoustic waves emanating from different parts of the nozzle surface can interfere with each other and undergo reflections from adjacent portions of the nozzle surface, the rms pressure fluctuation beyond the boundary layer edge increases toward the nozzle axis, apparently due to a focusing effect inside the axisymmetric configuration. Spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations at both the wall and the freestream indicates a similar distribution of energy content for both the nozzle and the flat plate, with the peak of the premultiplied frequency spectrum at a frequency of [(omega)(delta)]/U(sub infinity) approximately 6.0 inside the free stream and at [(omega)(delta)]/U(sub infinity) approximately 2.0 along the wall. The present results provide the basis for follow-on simulations involving reverberation effects inside the nozzle.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of steady state, three dimensional, laminar flow around a wall mounted cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Anastasios; Malamataris, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    The topology and evolution of flow around a surface mounted cubical object in three dimensional channel flow is examined for low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Direct numerical simulations were performed via a home made parallel finite element code. The computational domain has been designed according to actual laboratory experimental conditions. Analysis of the results is performed using the three dimensional theory of separation. Our findings indicate that a tornado-like vortex by the side of the cube is present for all Reynolds numbers for which flow was simulated. A horse-shoe vortex upstream from the cube was formed at Reynolds number approximately 1266. Pressure distributions are shown along with three dimensional images of the tornado-like vortex and the horseshoe vortex at selected Reynolds numbers. Finally, and in accordance to previous work, our results indicate that the upper limit for the Reynolds number for which steady state results are physically realizable is roughly 2000. Financial support of author NM from the Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG-VSP, N62909-13-1-V016) is acknowledged.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation of Flows over an NACA-0012 Airfoil at Low and Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over an NACA-0012 airfoil are performed at a low and a moderate Reynolds numbers of Re(sub c)=50 times10(exp 3) and 1times 10(exp 6). The angles of attack are 5 and 15 degrees at the low and the moderate Reynolds number cases respectively. The three-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using higher order compact schemes. The flow field in the low Reynolds number case consists of a long separation bubble near the leading-edge region and an attached boundary layer on the aft part of the airfoil. The shear layer that formed in the separated region persisted up to the end of the airfoil. The roles of the turbulent diffusion, advection, and dissipation terms in the turbulent kinetic-energy balance equation change as the boundary layer evolves over the airfoil. In the higher Reynolds number case, the leading-edge separation bubble is very small in length and in height. A fully developed turbulent boundary layer is observed in a short distance downstream of the reattachment point. The boundary layer velocity near the wall gradually decreases along the airfoil. Eventually, the boundary layer separates near the trailing edge. The Reynolds stresses peak in the outer part of the boundary layer and the maximum amplitude also gradually increases along the chord.

  5. Multiphase turbulence mechanisms identification from consistent analysis of direct numerical simulation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Magolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS serves as an irreplaceable tool to probe the complexities of multiphase flow and identify turbulent mechanisms that elude conventional experimental measurement techniques. The insights unlocked via its careful analysis can be used to guide the formulation and development of turbulence models used in multiphase computational fluid dynamics simulations of nuclear reactor applications. Here, we perform statistical analyses of DNS bubbly flow data generated by Bolotnov (Reτ = 400 and Lu–Tryggvason (Reτ = 150, examining single-point statistics of mean and turbulent liquid properties, turbulent kinetic energy budgets, and two-point correlations in space and time. Deformability of the bubble interface is shown to have a dramatic impact on the liquid turbulent stresses and energy budgets. A reduction in temporal and spatial correlations for the streamwise turbulent stress (uu is also observed at wall-normal distances of y+ = 15, y/δ = 0.5, and y/δ = 1.0. These observations motivate the need for adaptation of length and time scales for bubble-induced turbulence models and serve as guidelines for future analyses of DNS bubbly flow data.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of a low momentum round jet in channel crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao, E-mail: zhao.wu@manchester.ac.uk; Laurence, Dominique; Afgan, Imran

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Detailed flow physics of jet in crossflow with low velocity ratio, R, is analysed. • The horseshoe vortex comes from the reversed jet fluid, different from high R JICF. • CVP comes from the stretching and reorientation of the injection-flow vorticity. • Recirculation is seen at the downstream low-pressure region. • The shear layer vortices are from shed crossflow boundary layer vortices. - Abstract: Results of a direct numerical simulation of a jet in crossflow with passive scalar mixing are presented. The laminar jet issues from a circular exit into the channel crossflow with a low jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 1/6. The governing equations are solved by Incompact3d, an open-source code combining the high-order compact scheme and Poisson spectral solver. An internal recycling approach is used to generate the fully turbulent channel flow profile. Four main flow structures are identified: 1) a large recirculation seen immediately downstream of the jet-exit; 2) a contour-rotating vortex pair formed from the stretching and reorientation of the injection-flow vorticity; 3) a horseshoe vortex generated as a result of the stretching of the vorticity at the jet-exit windward side; 4) shear layer vortices coming from the lifted and shed crossflow boundary layer vorticity. Passive scalar profiles show the mixing are strong in the shear layer where the crossflow fluid encounters the jet fluid. The database is made available online for public access.

  7. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-07-14

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

  8. Analysis of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in rotating jets: A direct numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation study of the characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in swirling jets confined in a rectangular flow domain is carried out. The different structures of vortex cores for different swirl levels are illustrated. It is found that the vortex cores of low swirl flows are of regular cylindrical-helix patterns, whereas those of the high swirl flows are characterized by the formation of the bubble-type vortex breakdown followed by the radiant processing vortex cores. The results of mean velocity fields show the general procedures of vortex origination. Moreover, the effects of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions with respect to the mean and fluctuation fields of the swirling flows are evaluated. The microscopic rotating effects, especially the effects with respect to the turbulent fluctuation motion, are increasingly intermittent with the increase in the swirl levels. In contrast, the maximum value of the probability density functions with respect to the macroscopic rotating effects of the fluctuation motion occurs at moderate swirl levels since the macroscopic rotating effects are attenuated by the formation of the bubble vortex breakdown with a region of stagnant fluids at supercritical swirl levels.

  9. GPU accelerated flow solver for direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadore, Francesco [CASPUR – via dei Tizii 6/b, 00185 Rome (Italy); Bernardini, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bernardini@uniroma1.it [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’ – via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Botti, Michela [CASPUR – via dei Tizii 6/b, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical processing units (GPUs), characterized by significant computing performance, are nowadays very appealing for the solution of computationally demanding tasks in a wide variety of scientific applications. However, to run on GPUs, existing codes need to be ported and optimized, a procedure which is not yet standardized and may require non trivial efforts, even to high-performance computing specialists. In the present paper we accurately describe the porting to CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) of a finite-difference compressible Navier–Stokes solver, suitable for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent flows. Porting and validation processes are illustrated in detail, with emphasis on computational strategies and techniques that can be applied to overcome typical bottlenecks arising from the porting of common computational fluid dynamics solvers. We demonstrate that a careful optimization work is crucial to get the highest performance from GPU accelerators. The results show that the overall speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla S2070 GPU is approximately 22 compared with one AMD Opteron 2352 Barcelona chip and 11 compared with one Intel Xeon X5650 Westmere core. The potential of GPU devices in the simulation of unsteady three-dimensional turbulent flows is proved by performing a DNS of a spatially evolving compressible mixing layer.

  10. Soot and smoke emissions numerical evaluation for a direct injection (DI diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of Diesel internal combustion engines emissions is one of the major concerns of the engines manufacturers. Despite the fact that the efficiency of the gas post-treatment systems has been significantly improved, decreasing the smoke and the soot from the cylinder inside remains a main research goal. This work is proposing a theoretical study on these pollutants formation for different kinds of direct injection methods. By dividing the in-cylinder injection the heat release characteristic could be modified, leading to different temperature and pressure levels. Using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR the reduction of the gas temperatures might also be decreased, limiting NOx formation. To evaluate the level of the cylinder gas emissions formation a two-step procedure could be followed. First, by using a numerical calculation system the heat release characteristic can be highlighted concerning a Diesel engine with stratified injection; then, using an experimental relationship applying a large data base, the amount of the gas emissions can be subsequently provided. The authors propose some combinations between injection characteristics and EGR used fractions which could generate successfully results speaking in terms of NOx, soot and smoke formation.

  11. Reduced-Order Direct Numerical Simulation of Solute Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, Yashar; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2017-11-01

    Pore-scale models are an important tool for analyzing fluid dynamics in porous materials (e.g., rocks, soils, fuel cells). Current direct numerical simulation (DNS) techniques, while very accurate, are computationally prohibitive for sample sizes that are statistically representative of the porous structure. Reduced-order approaches such as pore-network models (PNM) aim to approximate the pore-space geometry and physics to remedy this problem. Predictions from current techniques, however, have not always been successful. This work focuses on single-phase transport of a passive solute under advection-dominated regimes and delineates the minimum set of approximations that consistently produce accurate PNM predictions. Novel network extraction (discretization) and particle simulation techniques are developed and compared to high-fidelity DNS simulations for a wide range of micromodel heterogeneities and a single sphere pack. Moreover, common modeling assumptions in the literature are analyzed and shown that they can lead to first-order errors under advection-dominated regimes. This work has implications for optimizing material design and operations in manufactured (electrodes) and natural (rocks) porous media pertaining to energy systems. This work was supported by the Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute for Reservoir Simulation (SUPRI-B).

  12. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent combustion: fundamental insights towards predictive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, Evatt R; Sankaran, Ramanan; Sutherland, James C; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2005-01-01

    The advancement of our basic understanding of turbulent combustion processes and the development of physics-based predictive tools for design and optimization of the next generation of combustion devices are strategic areas of research for the development of a secure, environmentally sound energy infrastructure. In direct numerical simulation (DNS) approaches, all scales of the reacting flow problem are resolved. However, because of the magnitude of this task, DNS of practical high Reynolds number turbulent hydrocarbon flames is out of reach of even terascale computing. For the foreseeable future, the approach to this complex multi-scale problem is to employ distinct but synergistic approaches to tackle smaller sub-ranges of the complete problem, which then require models for the small scale interactions. With full access to the spatially and temporally resolved fields, DNS can play a major role in the development of these models and in the development of fundamental understanding of the micro-physics of turbulence-chemistry interactions. Two examples, from simulations performed at terascale Office of Science computing facilities, are presented to illustrate the role of DNS in delivering new insights to advance the predictive capability of models. Results are presented from new three-dimensional DNS with detailed chemistry of turbulent non-premixed jet flames, revealing the differences between mixing of passive and reacting scalars, and determining an optimal lower dimensional representation of the full thermochemical state space

  13. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a liquid-infused micro-grooved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaehee; Jung, Taeyong; Choi, Haecheon; Kim, John

    2016-11-01

    Recently a superhydrophobic surface has drawn much attention as a passive device to achieve high drag reduction. Despite the high performance promised at ideal conditions, maintaining the interface in real flow conditions is an intractable problem. A non-wetting surface, known as the slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) or the lubricant-impregnated surface (LIS), has shown a potential for drag reduction, as the working fluid slips at the interface but cannot penetrate into the lubricant layer. In the present study, we perform direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a liquid-infused micro-grooved surface to investigate the effects of this surface on the interfacial slip and drag reduction. The flow rate of water is maintained constant corresponding to Reτ 180 in a fully developed turbulent channel flow, and the lubricant layer is shear-driven by the turbulent water flow. The lubricant layer is also simulated with the assumption that the interface is flat (i.e. the surface tension effect is neglected). The solid substrate in which the lubricant is infused is modelled as straight ridges using an immersed boundary method. DNS results show that drag reduction by the liquid-infused surface is highly dependent on the viscosity of the lubricant.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Houra, Tomoya; Nagano, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents direct numerical simulations (DNS) of stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. Since a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is often encountered in an urban environmental space where stable and unstable stratifications exist, exploring a buoyancy-affected boundary layer is very important to know the transport phenomena of the flow in an urban space. Although actual observation may qualitatively provide the characteristics of these flows, the relevant quantitative turbulent quantities are very difficult to measure. Thus, in order to quantitatively investigate a buoyancy-affected boundary layer in detail, we have here carried out for the first time time- and space-developing DNS of slightly stable and unstable turbulent thermal boundary layers. The DNS results show the quantitative turbulent statistics and structures of stable and unstable thermal boundary layers, in which the characteristic transport phenomena of thermally stratified boundary layers are demonstrated by indicating the budgets of turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux. Even though the input of buoyant force is not large, the influence of buoyancy is clearly revealed in both stable and unstable turbulent boundary layers. In particular, it is found that both stable and unstable thermal stratifications caused by the weak buoyant force remarkably alter the structure of near-wall turbulence

  15. Direct numerical simulation of cellular-scale blood flow in microvascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation method is developed to study cellular-scale blood flow in physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are constructed in silico following published in vivo images and data, and are comprised of bifurcating, merging, and winding vessels. The model resolves large deformation of individual red blood cells (RBC) flowing in such complex networks. The vascular walls and deformable interfaces of the RBCs are modeled using the immersed-boundary methods. Time-averaged hemodynamic quantities obtained from the simulations agree quite well with published in vivo data. Our simulations reveal that in several vessels the flow rates and pressure drops could be negatively correlated. The flow resistance and hematocrit are also found to be negatively correlated in some vessels. These observations suggest a deviation from the classical Poiseuille's law in such vessels. The cells are observed to frequently jam at vascular bifurcations resulting in reductions in hematocrit and flow rate in the daughter and mother vessels. We find that RBC jamming results in several orders of magnitude increase in hemodynamic resistance, and thus provides an additional mechanism of increased in vivo blood viscosity as compared to that determined in vitro. Funded by NSF CBET 1604308.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulations of a Full Stationary Wind-Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Adnan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of flow past a full stationary wind-turbine blade is carried out at Reynolds number, Re = 10,000 placed at 0 and 5 (degree) angle of attack. The study is targeted to create a DNS database for verification of solvers and turbulent models that are utilized in wind-turbine modeling applications. The full blade comprises of a circular cylinder base that is attached to a spanwise varying airfoil cross-section profile (without twist). An overlapping composite grid technique is utilized to perform these DNS computations, which permits block structure in the mapped computational space. Different flow shedding regimes are observed along the blade length. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the cylinder shaft region of the turbine blade. Along the airfoil cross-section of the blade, near body shear layer breakdown is observed. A long tip vortex originates from the blade tip region, which exits the computational plane without being perturbed. Laminar to turbulent flow transition is observed along the blade length. The turbulent fluctuations amplitude decreases along the blade length and the flow remains laminar regime in the vicinity of the blade tip. The Strouhal number is found to decrease monotonously along the blade length. Average lift and drag coefficients are also reported for the cases investigated. Supported by funding under a KAUST OCRF-CRG grant.

  17. Direct numerical simulation and statistical analysis of turbulent convection in lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otic, I.; Grotzbach, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kern-und Energietechnik (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Improved turbulent heat flux models are required to develop and analyze the reactor concept of an lead-bismuth cooled Accelerator-Driven-System. Because of specific properties of many liquid metals we have still no sensors for accurate measurements of the high frequency velocity fluctuations. So, the development of the turbulent heat transfer models which are required in our CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools needs also data from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows. We use new simulation results for the model problem of Rayleigh-Benard convection to show some peculiarities of the turbulent natural convection in lead-bismuth (Pr = 0.025). Simulations for this flow at sufficiently large turbulence levels became only recently feasible because this flow requires the resolution of very small velocity scales with the need for recording long-wave structures for the slow changes in the convective temperature field. The results are analyzed regarding the principle convection and heat transfer features. They are also used to perform statistical analysis to show that the currently available modeling is indeed not adequate for these fluids. Basing on the knowledge of the details of the statistical features of turbulence in this convection type and using the two-point correlation technique, a proposal for an improved statistical turbulence model is developed which is expected to account better for the peculiarities of the heat transfer in the turbulent convection in low Prandtl number fluids. (authors)

  18. Direct Numerical Simulations of High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers over Riblets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets with a broad range of riblet spacings are conducted to investigate the effects of riblets on skin friction at high speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers under two flow conditions (Mach 2:5 with T(sub w)/T(sub r) = 1 and Mach 7:2 with T(sub w)/T(sub r) = 0:5) are considered. The DNS results show that the drag-reduction curve (delta C(sub f)/C(sub f) vs l(sup +)(sub g )) at both supersonic speeds follows the trend of low-speed data and consists of a `viscous' regime for small riblet size, a `breakdown' regime with optimal drag reduction, and a `drag-increasing' regime for larger riblet sizes. At l l(sup +)(sub g) approx. 10 (corresponding to s+ approx 20 for the current triangular riblets), drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved at both Mach numbers, and con rms the observations of the few existing experiments under supersonic conditions. The Mach- number dependence of the drag-reduction curve occurs for riblet sizes that are larger than the optimal size, with smaller slopes of (delta C(sub f)/C(sub f) for larger freestream Mach numbers. The Reynolds analogy holds with 2(C(sub h)=C(sub f) approximately equal to that of at plates for both drag-reducing and drag-increasing configurations.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulations of NOx formation in spatially developing turbulent premixed Bunsen flames with mixture inhomogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Luca, Stefano

    2017-01-05

    Direct Numerical Simulation of three-dimensional spatially developing turbulent methane/air flames are performed. Four flames are simulated; they differ for the level of premixing of the fuel inlet: one has a fully premixed inlet, the other three have a partially premixed inlet that mimic a common injection strategy in stationary gas turbines. The jet consist of a methane/air mixture with global equivalence ratio ɸ = 0.7 and temperature of 800 K. The simulations are performed at 4 atm. The inlet velocity field and the fuel/air fields were extracted from a fully developed turbulent channel simulation. Chemistry is treated with a new skeletal chemical mechanism consisting of 33 species developed specifically for the DNS. The data are analyzed to study possible influences of partial premixing on the flame structure and the combustion efficiency. The results show that increasing the level of partial premixing, the fluctuations of heat release rate increase, due to the richer and leaner pockets of mixture in the flame, while the conditional mean decreases. Increasing the level of partial premixing, the peak of NO and the range of NO values for a given temperature increase. An analysis of NO production is performed categorizing the different initiation steps in the Ndecomposition through four pathways: thermal, prompt, NNH and NO. Different behaviour with respect to laminar flames is found for the NNH pathway suggesting that turbulence influences this pathway of formation of NO.

  20. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with gas pockets using linearized boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongmin; Bose, Sanjeeb; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Mani, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to be effective for surface drag reduction under laminar regime by both experiments and simulations (see for example, Ou and Rothstein, Phys. Fluids 17:103606, 2005). However, such drag reduction for fully developed turbulent flow maintaining the Cassie-Baxter state remains an open problem due to high shear rates and flow unsteadiness of turbulent boundary layer. Our work aims to develop an understanding of mechanisms leading to interface breaking and loss of gas pockets due to interactions with turbulent boundary layers. We take advantage of direct numerical simulation of turbulence with slip and no-slip patterned boundary conditions mimicking the superhydrophobic surface. In addition, we capture the dynamics of gas-water interface, by deriving a proper linearized boundary condition taking into account the surface tension of the interface and kinematic matching of interface deformation and normal velocity conditions on the wall. We will show results from our simulations predicting the dynamical behavior of gas pocket interfaces over a wide range of dimensionless surface tensions. Supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Kwanjeong Educational Scholarship Foundation.

  2. Slow transition of the Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: A direct numerical simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.

    2015-11-01

    Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition experiment marked the onset of fundamental turbulence research, yet the precise dynamics carrying the laminar state to fully-developed turbulence has been quite elusive. Our spatially-developing direct numerical simulation of this problem reveals interesting connections with theory and experiments. In particular, during transition the energy norms of localized, weakly finite inlet perturbations grow exponentially, rather than algebraically, with axial distance, in agreement with the edge-state based temporal results of Schneider et al. (PRL, 034502, 2007). When inlet disturbance is the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow produces small-scale hairpin packets. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, optimally positioned quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, which grows into a turbulent spot of concentrated small-scale hairpin vortices. Waves of hairpin-like structures were observed by Mullin (Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., Vol.43, 2011) in their experiment with very weak blowing and suction. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition. Further details of our simulation are reported in Wu et al. (PNAS, 1509451112, 2015).

  3. Numerical Analysis of Solitary Wave Influence on the Film-wise Condensation in Presence of Non-Condensable Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzysztof Karkoszka; Henryk Anglart

    2006-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the analysis of condensation in presence of non-condensable gas on a laminar liquid film falling down on a vertical smooth surface. Particular interest is focused on the influence of solitary waves on the condensation process. Solutions to the pressure, velocity, temperature and additional scalar variable fields are obtained numerically by solving two -- dimensional Navier - Stokes equations formulated in a general coordinate system and applying the artificial compressibility method. The whole system of equations together with adequate boundary conditions is implemented using the finite difference method and solved in the Matlab R code. Both implicit Crank - Nicolson and Euler schemes for the time derivatives are initially used and the latter one is chosen as a more stable. All computations are carried out with prescribed geometry for a film and gas domains and a special attention is focused mainly on the modelling of the influence of the interfacial boundary conditions on the heat transfer process between gaseous mixture and liquid phases. Description of the physical, mathematical and numerical models and several examples of the solutions are presented. Conclusions on the wave hydrodynamics influence on the heat transfer during phase change process are drawn. (authors)

  4. Multi-directional self-ion irradiation of thin gold films: A new strategy for achieving full texture control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seita, Matteo; Muff, Daniel; Spolenak, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Multi-directional self-ion bombardment of Au films. → Extensive selective grain growth leads to single crystal-like films. → Texture rotation is prevented by the multi-directional irradiation process. → Texture rotation rate depends on the film initial defect density. - Abstract: Post-deposition ion bombardment can be employed to convert polycrystalline films into single crystals through a process of selective grain growth. Here we report a new technique that enables selective grain growth in self-ion bombarded gold films - a system in which the formation of large single crystal domains was prevented by the occurrence of ion-induced texture rotation. Our findings suggest that the extent of the texture rotation is a function of the ion fluence and the film initial microstructure.

  5. Direct growth of nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride films on dielectric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Roland Yingjie [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories@NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tsang, Siu Hon [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Loeblein, Manuela; Chow, Wai Leong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CNRS-International NTU Thales Research Alliance CINTRA UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Loh, Guan Chee [Institue of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Toh, Joo Wah; Ang, Soon Loong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Teo, Edwin Hang Tong, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-03-09

    Atomically thin hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) films are primarily synthesized through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various catalytic transition metal substrates. In this work, a single-step metal-catalyst-free approach to obtain few- to multi-layer nanocrystalline h-BN (NCBN) directly on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si and quartz substrates is demonstrated. The as-grown thin films are continuous and smooth with no observable pinholes or wrinkles across the entire deposited substrate as inspected using optical and atomic force microscopy. The starting layers of NCBN orient itself parallel to the substrate, initiating the growth of the textured thin film. Formation of NCBN is due to the random and uncontrolled nucleation of h-BN on the dielectric substrate surface with no epitaxial relation, unlike on metal surfaces. The crystallite size is ∼25 nm as determined by Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the NCBN formed sheets of multi-stacked layers with controllable thickness from ∼2 to 25 nm. The absence of transfer process in this technique avoids any additional degradation, such as wrinkles, tears or folding and residues on the film which are detrimental to device performance. This work provides a wider perspective of CVD-grown h-BN and presents a viable route towards large-scale manufacturing of h-BN substrates and for coating applications.

  6. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  7. Direct observation of atomic-level nucleation and growth processes from an ultrathin metallic glass films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K. Q.; Cao, C. R.; Sun, Y. T.; Li, J.; Bai, H. Y.; Zheng, D. N., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, W. H., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Gu, L., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Till date, there have been no direct atomic-level experimental observations of the earliest stages of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals formed by thermally induced crystallization in ultrathin metallic glasses (MGs). Here, we present a study of the crystallization process in atomically thin and highly stable MG films using double spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-TEM). Taking advantage of the stability of MG films with a slow crystallization process and the atomic-level high resolution of Cs-TEM, we observe the formation of the nucleus precursor of nanocrystals formed by atom aggregation followed by concomitant coalescence and stepwise evolution of the shape of the nanocrystals with a monodispersed and separated bimodal size distribution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the atomic motion in the glass film on a rigid amorphous substrate confirms the stepwise evolution processes of atom aggregation, cluster formation, cluster movement on the substrate, and cluster coalescence into larger crystalline particles. Our results might provide a better fundamental understanding of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals in thin MG films.

  8. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  9. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  10. Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals—study of structural, optical, and transport characteristics of Cu2O thin films from malachite mineral and synthetic CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, K.R.; Kao, V.M.; Ravichandran, J.; Rossen, P.B.; Siemons, W.; Ager, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of using an abundantly occurring natural ore, malachite (Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ) to directly yield the semiconductor Cu 2 O to be used as an active component of a functional thin film based device. Cu 2 O is an archetype hole-conducting semiconductor that possesses several interesting characteristics particularly useful for solar cell applications, including low cost, non-toxicity, good hole mobility, large minority carrier diffusion length, and a direct energy gap ideal for efficient absorption. In this article, we compare the structural, optical, and electrical transport characteristics of Cu 2 O thin films grown from the natural mineral malachite and synthetic CuO targets. Growth from either source material results in single-phase, fully epitaxial cuprous oxide thin films as determined by x-ray diffraction. The films grown from malachite have strong absorption coefficients ( 10 4 cm −1 ), a direct allowed optical bandgap ( 2.4 eV), and majority carrier hole mobilities ( 35 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature) that compare well with films grown from the synthetic target as well as with previously reported values. Our work demonstrates that minerals could be useful to directly yield the active components in functional devices and suggests a route for the exploration of low cost energy conversion and storage technologies. - Highlights: ► Semiconductor thin films directly from minerals ► Chemistry and structure evolution of the films obtained from mineral target is very similar to that films obtained from high-purity synthetic targets. ► Quite interestingly, transport and optical characteristics are also found to be similar.

  11. Cloud-edge mixing: Direct numerical simulation and observations in Indian Monsoon clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bipin; Bera, Sudarsan; Prabha, Thara V.; Grabowski, Wojceich W.

    2017-03-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) with the decaying turbulence setup has been carried out to study cloud-edge mixing and its impact on the droplet size distribution (DSD) applying thermodynamic conditions observed in monsoon convective clouds over Indian subcontinent during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX). Evaporation at the cloud-edges initiates mixing at small scale and gradually introduces larger-scale fluctuations of the temperature, moisture, and vertical velocity due to droplet evaporation. Our focus is on early evolution of simulated fields that show intriguing similarities to the CAIPEEX cloud observations. A strong dilution at the cloud edge, accompanied by significant spatial variations of the droplet concentration, mean radius, and spectral width, are found in both the DNS and in observations. In DNS, fluctuations of the mean radius and spectral width come from the impact of small-scale turbulence on the motion and evaporation of inertial droplets. These fluctuations decrease with the increase of the volume over which DNS data are averaged, as one might expect. In cloud observations, these fluctuations also come from other processes, such as entrainment/mixing below the observation level, secondary CCN activation, or variations of CCN activation at the cloud base. Despite large differences in the spatial and temporal scales, the mixing diagram often used in entrainment/mixing studies with aircraft data is remarkably similar for both DNS and cloud observations. We argue that the similarity questions applicability of heuristic ideas based on mixing between two air parcels (that the mixing diagram is designed to properly represent) to the evolution of microphysical properties during turbulent mixing between a cloud and its environment.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of numerical weather prediction radiative schemes to forecast direct solar radiation over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkavilli, S. K.; Kay, M. J.; Taylor, R.; Prasad, A. A.; Troccoli, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Solar Energy Forecasting System (ASEFS) project requires forecasting timeframes which range from nowcasting to long-term forecasts (minutes to two years). As concentrating solar power (CSP) plant operators are one of the key stakeholders in the national energy market, research and development enhancements for direct normal irradiance (DNI) forecasts is a major subtask. This project involves comparing different radiative scheme codes to improve day ahead DNI forecasts on the national supercomputing infrastructure running mesoscale simulations on NOAA's Weather Research & Forecast (WRF) model. ASEFS also requires aerosol data fusion for improving accurate representation of spatio-temporally variable atmospheric aerosols to reduce DNI bias error in clear sky conditions over southern Queensland & New South Wales where solar power is vulnerable to uncertainities from frequent aerosol radiative events such as bush fires and desert dust. Initial results from thirteen years of Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) deseasonalised DNI and MODIS NASA-Terra aerosol optical depth (AOD) anomalies demonstrated strong negative correlations in north and southeast Australia along with strong variability in AOD (~0.03-0.05). Radiative transfer schemes, DNI and AOD anomaly correlations will be discussed for the population and transmission grid centric regions where current and planned CSP plants dispatch electricity to capture peak prices in the market. Aerosol and solar irradiance datasets include satellite and ground based assimilations from the national BOM, regional aerosol researchers and agencies. The presentation will provide an overview of this ASEFS project task on WRF and results to date. The overall goal of this ASEFS subtask is to develop a hybrid numerical weather prediction (NWP) and statistical/machine learning multi-model ensemble strategy that meets future operational requirements of CSP plant operators.

  13. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing at very low Schmidt number with a uniform mean gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent direct numerical simulation (DNS) study [P. K. Yeung and K. R. Sreenivasan, "Spectrum of passive scalars of high molecular diffusivity in turbulent mixing," J. Fluid Mech. 716, R14 (2013)] with Schmidt number as low as 1/2048, we verified the essential physical content of the theory of Batchelor, Howells, and Townsend ["Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. 2. The case of large conductivity," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 134 (1959)] for turbulent passive scalar fields with very strong diffusivity, decaying in the absence of any production mechanism. In particular, we confirmed the existence of the -17/3 power of the scalar spectral density in the so-called inertial-diffusive range. In the present paper, we consider the DNS of the same problem, but in the presence of a uniform mean gradient, which leads to the production of scalar fluctuations at (primarily) the large scales. For the parameters of the simulations, the presence of the mean gradient alters the physics of mixing fundamentally at low Peclet numbers. While the spectrum still follows a -17/3 power law in the inertial-diffusive range, the pre-factor is non-universal and depends on the magnitude of the mean scalar gradient. Spectral transfer is greatly reduced in comparison with those for moderately and weakly diffusive scalars, leading to several distinctive features such as the absence of dissipative anomaly and a new balance of terms in the spectral transfer equation for the scalar variance, differing from the case of zero gradient. We use the DNS results to present an alternative explanation for the observed scaling behavior, and discuss a few spectral characteristics in detail.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of an isothermal reacting turbulent wall-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouransari, Zeinab; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.

    2011-08-01

    In the present investigation, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study a binary irreversible and isothermal reaction in a plane turbulent wall-jet. The flow is compressible and a single-step global reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel species is solved. The inlet based Reynolds, Schmidt, and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000, Sc = 0.72, and M = 0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow velocity is applied above the jet. At the inlet, fuel and oxidizer enter the domain separately in a non-premixed manner. The turbulent structures of the velocity field show the common streaky patterns near the wall, while a somewhat patchy or spotty pattern is observed for the scalars and the reaction rate fluctuations in the near-wall region. The reaction mainly occurs in the upper shear layer in thin highly convoluted reaction zones, but it also takes place close to the wall. Analysis of turbulence and reaction statistics confirms the observations in the instantaneous snapshots, regarding the intermittent character of the reaction rate near the wall. A detailed study of the probability density functions of the reacting scalars and comparison to that of the passive scalar throughout the domain reveals the significance of the reaction influence as well as the wall effects on the scalar distributions. The higher order moments of both the velocities and the scalar concentrations are analyzed and show a satisfactory agreement with experiments. The simulations show that the reaction can both enhance and reduce the dissipation of fuel scalar, since there are two competing effects; on the one hand, the reaction causes sharper scalar gradients and thus a higher dissipation rate, on the other hand, the reaction consumes the fuel scalar thereby reducing the scalar dissipation.

  16. Direct numerical simulation of bubble dynamics in subcooled and near-saturated convective nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Sreeyuth; Sato, Yohei; Niceno, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate convective nucleate pool boiling with a novel phase-change model. • We simulate four cases at different sub-cooling and wall superheat levels. • We investigate the flow structures around the growing bubble and analyze the accompanying physics. • We accurately simulate bubble shape elongation and enhanced wall cooling due to the sliding and slanting motions of bubbles. • Bubble cycle durations show good agreement with experimental observations. - Abstract: With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, bubble dynamics in convective nucleate boiling flows has been studied using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). A sharp-interface phase change model which was originally developed for pool boiling flows is extended to convective boiling flows. For physical scales smaller than the smallest flow scales (smaller than the grid size), a micro-scale model was used. After a grid dependency study and a parametric study for the contact angle, four cases of simulation were carried out with different wall superheat and degree of subcooling. The flow structures around the growing bubble were investigated together with the accompanying physics. The relation between the heat flux evolution and the bubble growth was studied, along with investigations of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter evolutions across the four cases. As a validation, the evolutions of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter were compared to experimental observations. The bubble departure period and the bubble shapes show good agreement between the experiment and the simulation, although the Reynolds number of the simulation cases is relatively low

  17. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden density currents with adaptive, discontinuous finite elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Parkinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier–Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.

  19. Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.

    The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the

  20. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigany, Zs.; Twesten, R.D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (E ion ) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (J ion /J C ). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at E ion ∼85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ε), and elastic recovery (R) increased with E ion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ε=250 GPa, and R=68% at E ion =85 eV and J ion /J C =4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp 2 /sp 3 content of the films does not change with E ion or J ion /J C . The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp 2 /sp 3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV ≤E ion ≤85 eV and 1.1 ≤J ion /J C ≤6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films

  1. Direct Observation of High-Temperature Superconductivity in One-Unit-Cell FeSe Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Hao; Zhang Jin-Song; Li Fang-Sen; Guo Ming-Hua; Ding Hao; Tang Chen-Jia; Wang Qing-Yan; He Ke; Ji Shuai-Hua; Chen Xi; Sun Yi; Zhao Yan-Fei; Xing Ying; Wang Hui-Chao; Zhang Hui-Min; Peng Jun-Ping; Li Zhi; Wang Meng; Fujita Takeshi; Hirata Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We prepared one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick FeSe films on insulating SrTiO 3 substrates with non-superconducting FeTe protection layers by molecular beam epitaxy for ex situ studies. By direct transport and magnetic measurements, we provide definitive evidence for high temperature superconductivity in the 1-UC FeSe films with an onset T C above 40 K and an extremely large critical current density J C ∼1.7×10 6 A/cm 2 at 2 K, which are much higher than T C ∼8 K and J C ∼10 4 A/cm 2 for bulk FeSe, respectively. Our work may pave the way to enhancing and tailoring superconductivity by interface engineering. (express letter)

  2. CO2 laser direct writing of silver lines on epoxy resin from solid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.G.; Chen, C.H.; Zheng, J.S.; Huang, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    A technique of CO 2 laser direct writing from solid film was proposed in this paper. Patterns of silver lines were locally deposited on the non-conductive substrate using a preset layer of silver compound solid film, which was irradiated by focused CO 2 laser beam. The deposits were analyzed by XPS and EPMA. Results showed that metallic silver was dominant with an even distribution on the surface of the substrate, and part of the deposited silver had diffused into the substrate interior. The deposits had catalytic activity for the further electroless copper plating and had strong adhesion to the substrate. At last, the deposition mechanism and the dependence of the width of silver lines on the laser power and scan speed were roughly explored

  3. Numerical modeling on air quality in an urban environment with changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F

    2013-06-01

    Due to heavy traffic emissions within an urban environment, air quality during the last decade becomes worse year by year and hazard to public health. In the present work, numerical modeling of flow and dispersion of gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust in a street canyon were investigated under changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction. The three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which was numerically solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer within the street canyon was studied for different aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4, and 1) and wind directions (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°). The numerical models were validated against wind tunnel results to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical results agreed well with the wind tunnel results. The simulation demonstrated that the minimum concentration at the human respiration height within the street canyon was on the windward side for aspect ratios W/H=1/2 and 1 and wind directions θ=112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°. The pollutant concentration level decreases as the wind direction and aspect ratio increase. The wind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as the aspect ratio and wind direction increase.

  4. Low-temperature metal-oxide thin-film transistors formed by directly photopatternable and combustible solution synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Lim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the formation of ultraviolet (UV)-assisted directly patternable solution-processed oxide semiconductor films and successfully fabricated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on these films. An InGaZnO (IGZO) solution that was modified chemically with benzoylacetone (BzAc), whose chelate rings decomposed via a π-π* transition as result of UV irradiation, was used for the direct patterning. A TFT was fabricated using the directly patterned IGZO film, and it had better electrical characteristics than those of conventional photoresist (PR)-patterned TFTs. In addition, the nitric acid (HNO3) and acetylacetone (AcAc) modified In2O3 (NAc-In2O3) solution exhibited both strong UV absorption and high exothermic reaction. This method not only resulted in the formation of a low-energy path because of the combustion of the chemically modified metal-oxide solution but also allowed for photoreaction-induced direct patterning at low temperatures.

  5. Laser Direct Writing of Tree-Shaped Hierarchical Cones on a Superhydrophobic Film for High-Efficiency Water Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Haoran; Wang, Chuang; Wang, Lei; Xiang, Bingxi; Fan, Yongtao; Guo, Chuan Fei; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2017-08-30

    Directional water collection has stimulated a great deal of interest because of its potential applications in the field of microfluidics, liquid transportation, fog harvesting, and so forth. There have been some bio or bioinspired structures for directional water collection, from one-dimensional spider silk to two-dimensional star-like patterns to three-dimensional Nepenthes alata. Here we present a simple way for the accurate design and highly controllable driving of tiny droplets: by laser direct writing of hierarchical patterns with modified wettability and desired geometry on a superhydrophobic film, the patterned film can precisely and directionally drive tiny water droplets and dramatically improve the efficiency of water collection with a factor of ∼36 compared with the original superhydrophobic film. Such a patterned film might be an ideal platform for water collection from humid air and for planar microfluidics without tunnels.

  6. A direct method to measure the fracture toughness of indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Rwei-Ching; Tsai, Fa-Ta; Tu, Chin-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a straightforward method to measure the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates. A 200 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is deposited on a 188 μm thick terephthalate (PET) substrate by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering machine. Using nanoindentation to induce brittle fracture on the ITO thin films, the energy release is calculated from integrating the resulting load–depth curve. An approach that directly measures the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates is proposed. A comparison shows that the results of the proposed method agree well with those of other reports. Furthermore, in order to improve the toughness of the ITO thin films, a copper interlayer is added between the ITO thin film and PET substrate. It shows that the fracture toughness of the ITO thin film deposited on the copper interlayer is higher than that of the one without the interlayer, which agrees well with the critical load tested by micro scratch. Further observations on optical and electric performances are also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • A straightforward method to measure the film's toughness • Directly using the load-depth curve of nanoindentation • The toughness is consistent with the critical load tested by micro scratch. • Interlayers can improve the film's toughness. • Optical and electric performances are also discussed

  7. Numerical dataset for analyzing the performance of a highly efficient ultrathin film CdTe solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucksana Safa Sultana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article comprises numerical data of distinct semiconductor materials applied in the sketch of a CdTe absorber based ultrathin film solar cell. Additionally, the contact layer parametric values of the cell have been described also. Therefore, the simulation has been conducted with data related to the hetero-structured (n-ZnO/n-CdS/p-CdTe/p-ZnTe semiconductor device and a J–V characteristics curve was obtained. The operating conditions have also been recorded. Afterward, the solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current density (Jsc, fill factor (FF, and efficiency (η have been investigated and compared with reference cell.

  8. Scalar Dissipation Modeling for Passive and Active Scalars: a priori Study Using Direct Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, L. C.; Bellan, Josette

    2006-01-01

    Transitional databases from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of three-dimensional mixing layers for single-phase flows and two-phase flows with evaporation are analyzed and used to examine the typical hypothesis that the scalar dissipation Probability Distribution Function (PDF) may be modeled as a Gaussian. The databases encompass a single-component fuel and four multicomponent fuels, two initial Reynolds numbers (Re), two mass loadings for two-phase flows and two free-stream gas temperatures. Using the DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF, it is shown, consistent with existing experimental information on single-phase flows, that the Gaussian is a modest approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly poor in the range of the high scalar-dissipation values, which are significant for turbulent reaction rate modeling in non-premixed flows using flamelet models. With the same DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF and making a change of variables, a model of this PDF is proposed in the form of the (beta)-PDF which is shown to approximate much better the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly in the regime of the high scalar-dissipation values. Several types of statistical measures are calculated over the ensemble of the fourteen databases. For each statistical measure, the proposed (beta)-PDF model is shown to be much superior to the Gaussian in approximating the DNS-extracted PDF. Additionally, the agreement between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF even improves when the comparison is performed for higher initial Re layers, whereas the comparison with the Gaussian is independent of the initial Re values. For two-phase flows, the comparison between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF also improves with increasing free-stream gas temperature and mass loading. The higher fidelity approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF by the (beta)-PDF with increasing Re, gas temperature and mass loading bodes well for turbulent reaction rate

  9. The development of an erosive burning model for solid rocket motors using direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian A.

    A method for developing an erosive burning model for use in solid propellant design-and-analysis interior ballistics codes is described and evaluated. Using Direct Numerical Simulation, the primary mechanisms controlling erosive burning (turbulent heat transfer, and finite rate reactions) have been studied independently through the development of models using finite rate chemistry, and infinite rate chemistry. Both approaches are calibrated to strand burn rate data by modeling the propellant burning in an environment with no cross-flow, and adjusting thermophysical properties until the predicted regression rate matches test data. Subsequent runs are conducted where the cross-flow is increased from M = 0.0 up to M = 0.8. The resulting relationship of burn rate increase versus Mach Number is used in an interior ballistics analysis to compute the chamber pressure of an existing solid rocket motor. The resulting predictions are compared to static test data. Both the infinite rate model and the finite rate model show good agreement when compared to test data. The propellant considered is an AP/HTPB with an average AP particle size of 37 microns. The finite rate model shows that as the cross-flow increases, near wall vorticity increases due to the lifting of the boundary caused by the side injection of gases from the burning propellant surface. The point of maximum vorticity corresponds to the outer edge of the APd-binder flame. As the cross-flow increases, the APd-binder flame thickness becomes thinner; however, the point of highest reaction rate moves only slightly closer to the propellant surface. As such, the net increase of heat transfer to the propellant surface due to finite rate chemistry affects is small. This leads to the conclusion that augmentation of thermal transport properties and the resulting heat transfer increase due to turbulence dominates over combustion chemistry in the erosive burning problem. This conclusion is advantageous in the development of

  10. Directed Self-Assembly of Diblock Copolymer Thin Films on Prepatterned Metal Nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tongxin; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2016-01-01

    The sequential layer by layer self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) nanopatterns is an effective approach to construct 3D nanostructures. Here large-scale highly ordered metal nano-arrays prepared from solvent annealed thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer are used to direct the assembly of the same BCP. The influence of initial loading concentration of metal precursor, the type of metal nanoparticle (gold, platinum, and silver), and the nanoparticle-substrate interaction on the directed assembly behavior of the upper BCP layer have been focused. It is found that the upper BCP film can be completely directed by the gold nanoarray with P2VP domain exclusively located between two adjacent gold nanowires or nanodots, which behaves the same way as on the platinum nanoarray. While the silver nanoarray can be destroyed during the upper BCP self-assembly with the silver nanoparticles assembled into the P2VP domain. Based on the discussions of the surface energy of nanoparticles and the interplay between nanoparticle-substrate interaction and nanoparticle-polymer interaction, it is concluded that the effect of immobilization of nanoparticles on the substrate, together with entropy effect to minimize the energetically unfavorable chain stretching contributes to the most effective alignment between each layer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Educational Films: Writing, Directing, and Producing for Classroom, Television, and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Lewis

    Intended for beginning and nonprofessional film makers interested in making the educational film, this book explains the technical aspects of film making, the roles of the specialists responsible for it, the types of film treatments (expository, narrative, and dramatic), and the various types of educational films. Some of the technical aspects…

  12. Direct numerical simulation of complex multi-fluid flows using a combined front tracking and immersed boundary method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a simulation model is presented for the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of complex multi-fluid flows in which simultaneously (moving) deformable (drops or bubbles) and non-deformable (moving) elements (particles) are present, possibly with the additional presence of free surfaces.

  13. Direct numerical simulation of fluid-particle heat transfer in fixed random arrays of non-spherical particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavassoli Estahbanati, H.; Peters, E.A.J.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are conducted to characterize the fluid-particle heat transfer coefficient in fixed random arrays of non-spherical particles. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of well-known heat transfer correlations, that are proposed for spherical particles,

  14. Direct Fourier imaging of distortions in LaAlO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Christoph; Zegenhagen, Joerg [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Lee, Tien-Lin [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot (United Kingdom); Aruta, Carmela [CNR-SPIN, Naples (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    The formation of a quasi-2dimensional electron gas at interface of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) and LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) attracted considerable attention in the recent years. The polar LAO layer was expected to cause the build-up of an electric potential. Distortions in the overlayer are discussed as one possible response of the system. The highly sensitive X-ray standing wave (XSW) imaging technique is well suited to study theses films because of its chemical and spacial resolution. LAO thin films below and above the critical thickness for conductivity were studied at the hard X-ray photo electron spectroscopy end station of ID32 at the ESRF. The XSW modulated core level photo electron yield was recorded for the five elements present in film and substrate for seven different Bragg reflections. Subsequent analysis provided for each reflection and element the amplitude and phase of one Fourier coefficient of the elemental atomic distribution function. The three dimensional real space image of the atomic distribution for each of the elements is reconstructed by direct Fourier inversion. The reconstructed 3D images obtained by this model free approach reveal significant atomic displacements.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Limiting Oxygen Index Apparatus for Film Type Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed three-dimensional numerical model is used to compute the flow pattern and the flame behavior of thin solid fuels in a rectangular column that resembles a standard Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI device. The model includes full Navier-Stokes equations for mixed buoyant-forced flow and finite rate combustion and pyrolysis reactions so that the sample LOI can be computed to study the effect of feeding flow rate, sample width and gravity levels. In addition to the above parameters, the sample location in the column and the column cross-sectional area are also investigated on their effect on the ambient air entrainment from the top.

  16. Numerical analysis of light extraction enhancement of GaN-based thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes with high-refractive-index buckling nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qing-Yang; Yang, Yang; Cheng, Zhen-Jia; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high-refractive-index (TiO2) buckling nanostructures was studied using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method. Compared with 2-D photonic crystals, the buckling structures have the advantages of a random directionality and a broad distribution in periodicity, which can effectively extract the guided light propagating in all azimuthal directions over a wide spectrum. Numerical studies revealed that the light extraction efficiency of buckling-structured LEDs reaches 1.1 times that of triangular lattice photonic crystals. The effects of the buckling structure feature sizes and the thickness of the N-GaN layer on the light extraction efficiency for TFFC LEDs were also investigated systematically. With optimized structural parameters, a significant light extraction enhancement of about 2.6 times was achieved for TiO2 buckling-structured TFFC LEDs compared with planar LEDs.

  17. Square and Rectangular Arrays from Directed Assembly of Sphere-forming Diblock Copolymers in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shengxiang; Nagpal, Umang; Liao, Wen; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of square and rectangular arrays with nanoscale dimensions are scientifically and technologically important. Fabrication of square array patterns in thin films has been demonstrated by directed assembly of cylinder-forming diblock copolymers on chemically patterned substrates, supramolecular assembly of diblock copolymers, and self-assembly of triblock terpolymers. However, a macroscopic area of square array patterns with long-range order has not been achieved, and the fabrication of rectangular arrays has not been reported so far. Here we report a facile approach for fabricating patterns of square and rectangular arrays by directing the assembly of sphere-forming diblock copolymers on chemically patterned substrates. On stripe patterns, a square arrangement of half spheres, corresponding to the (100) plane of the body-centred cubic (BCC) lattice, formed on film surfaces. When the underlying pattern periods mismatched with the copolymer period, the square pattern could be stretched (up to ˜60%) or compressed (˜15%) to form rectangular arrays. Monte Carlo simulations have been further used to verify the experimental results and the 3-dimensional arrangements of spheres.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of the thermal dehydration reaction in a TGA experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.; Gaeini, M.; Zondag, H.A.; van Steenhoven, A.A.; Rindt, C.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a detailed mathematical model of the coupled mass and heat transfer processes in salt hydrate grains in a TGA experiment. The purpose of developing this numerical model is to get a more fundamental understanding of the influence of parameters like particle size, nucleation rate

  19. A Direct Numerical Reconstruction Algorithm for the 3D Calderón Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delbary, Fabrice; Hansen, Per Christian; Knudsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In three dimensions Calderón's problem was addressed and solved in theory in the 1980s in a series of papers, but only recently the numerical implementation of the algorithm was initiated. The main ingredients in the solution of the problem are complex geometrical optics solutions to the conducti...

  20. Direct numerical simulation of rotating fluid flow in a closed cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Christensen, Erik Adler

    1995-01-01

    , is validated against experimental visualizations of both transient and stable periodic flows. The complexity of the flow problem is illuminated numerically by injecting flow tracers into the flow domain and following their evolution in time. The vortex dynamics appears as stretching, folding and squeezing...

  1. British Standard method for determination of ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/process combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Under the direction of the Cinematography and Photography Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/film-process combinations. The method determines the speed and gradient, i.e. contrast, of the X-ray films processed according to their manufacturer's recommendations. (U.K.)

  2. Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Katsarakis, N.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering from pure metallic Zn and ceramic ZnO targets, as well as from Al-doped metallic ZnAl2at.% and ceramic ZnAl2at.%O targets at room temperature (RT). The effects of target composition on the film's surface topology, crystallinity, and optical transmission have been investigated for various oxygen partial pressures in the sputtering atmosphere. It has been shown that Al-doped ZnO films sputtered from either metallic or ceramic targets exhibit different surface morphology than the undoped ZnO films, while their preferential crystalline growth orientation revealed by X-ray diffraction remains always the (002). More significantly, Al-doping leads to a larger increase of the optical transmission and energy gap (E g ) of the metallic than of the ceramic target prepared films

  3. Unified Numerical Solver for Device Metastabilities in CdTe Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileska, Dragica [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction more challenging. Manufacturers de-vote significant empirical efforts to study these phenomena and to improve semiconduc-tor device stability. Still, understanding the underlying reasons of these instabilities re-mains clouded due to the lack of ability to characterize materials at atomistic levels and the lack of interpretation from the most fundamental material science. The most com-monly alleged causes of metastability in CdTe device, such as “migration of Cu,” have been investigated rigorously over the past fifteen years. Still, the discussion often ended prematurely with stating observed correlations between stress conditions and changes in atomic profiles of impurities or CV doping concentration. Multiple hypotheses sug-gesting degradation of CdTe solar cell devices due to interaction and evolution of point defects and complexes were proposed, and none of them received strong theoretical or experimental confirmation. It should be noted that atomic impurity profiles in CdTe pro-vide very little intelligence on active doping concentrations. The same elements could form different energy states, which could be either donors or acceptors, depending on their position in crystalline lattice. Defects interact with other extrinsic and intrinsic de-fects; for example, changing the state of an impurity from an interstitial donor to a sub-stitutional acceptor often is accompanied by generation of a compensating intrinsic in-terstitial donor defect. Moreover, all defects, intrinsic and extrinsic, interact with the elec-trical potential and free carriers so that charged defects may drift in the electric field and the local electrical potential affects the formation energy of the point defects. Such complexity of interactions in CdTe makes understanding of

  4. Nucleation of wetting films on cylindrical and spherical substrates: A numerical study by the string method

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Chunyin

    2009-09-25

    Using the mean-field diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor system and employing the numerical string method, we study the critical nuclei involved in the prewetting transitions on curved substrates. We first introduce three distinct kinds of critical nuclei, namely, the disklike, bandlike, and layerlike ones, which respectively correspond to three possible growth modes of wettingfilms. We show the disklike growth mode to be the only mode for infinite planar substrates. We then turn to cylindrical and spherical substrates, the two simplest but most important geometries in the real world. We focus on the critical nuclei of finite size, through which the wettingfilms may be formed with finite thermodynamic probabilities. It is shown that the disklike growth mode is always the most probable for wettingfilmnucleation and growth as long as a disklike critical nucleus exists. It is also shown that on a cylindrical substrate, the disklike critical nucleus can no longer exist if the substrate radius is smaller than some critical value, comparable to the radius of the disklike critical nucleus on planar substrate. We find that on a cylindrical substrate whose radius is below the critical value, the nucleation and growth of a wettingfilm can only occur through the bandlike critical nucleus. It is worth emphasizing that the results concerning the bandlike and layerlike growth modes can only be obtained from the diffuse-interface model, beyond the macroscopic description based on the line and surface tensions.

  5. Nucleation of wetting films on cylindrical and spherical substrates: A numerical study by the string method

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Chunyin; Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-01-01

    Using the mean-field diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor system and employing the numerical string method, we study the critical nuclei involved in the prewetting transitions on curved substrates. We first introduce three distinct kinds of critical nuclei, namely, the disklike, bandlike, and layerlike ones, which respectively correspond to three possible growth modes of wettingfilms. We show the disklike growth mode to be the only mode for infinite planar substrates. We then turn to cylindrical and spherical substrates, the two simplest but most important geometries in the real world. We focus on the critical nuclei of finite size, through which the wettingfilms may be formed with finite thermodynamic probabilities. It is shown that the disklike growth mode is always the most probable for wettingfilmnucleation and growth as long as a disklike critical nucleus exists. It is also shown that on a cylindrical substrate, the disklike critical nucleus can no longer exist if the substrate radius is smaller than some critical value, comparable to the radius of the disklike critical nucleus on planar substrate. We find that on a cylindrical substrate whose radius is below the critical value, the nucleation and growth of a wettingfilm can only occur through the bandlike critical nucleus. It is worth emphasizing that the results concerning the bandlike and layerlike growth modes can only be obtained from the diffuse-interface model, beyond the macroscopic description based on the line and surface tensions.

  6. Correction to the crack extension direction in numerical modelling of mixed mode crack paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucht, Tore; Aliabadi, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid introduction of an error when a local crack-growth criterion is used in an incremental crack growth formulation, each straight crack extension would have to be infinitesimal or have its direction corrected. In this paper a new procedure to correct the crack extension direction...

  7. Generalisation to binary mixtures of the second gradient method and application to direct numerical simulation of nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouillet, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we simulate a nucleate boiling problem using direct numerical simulation. The numerical method used is the second gradient method based on a diffuse interface model which represents interfaces as volumetric regions of finite thickness across which the physical properties of the fluid vary continuously. First, this method is successfully applied to nucleate boiling of a pure fluid. Then, the model is extended to dilute binary mixtures. After studying its validity and its limits in simple configurations, it is then applied to nucleate boiling of a dilute mixture. These simulations show a strong decrease of the heat transfer coefficient as the concentration increases, in agreement with the numerous experimental studies published in this domain. (author) [fr

  8. Direct numerical simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the spectral element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Tan Duowang

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities using a specially-developed unsteady three-dimensional high-order spectral element method code. The numerical model used consists of Navier-Stokes equations and a transport-diffusive equation. The code is first validated with the results of linear stability perturbation theory. Then several characteristics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are studied using this three-dimensional unsteady code, including instantaneous turbulent structures and statistical turbulent mixing heights under different initial wave numbers. These results indicate that turbulent structures of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are strongly dependent on the initial conditions. The results also suggest that a high-order numerical method should provide the capability of simulating small scale fluctuations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities of turbulent flows. (authors)

  9. Two-dimensional direct numerical simulation of bubble cloud cavitation by front-tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, G; Shimizu, S; Tryggvason, G

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady bubble cloud cavitation phenomenon caused by negative pressure pulse has been treated numerically by applying a front tracking method. The behaviour of bubble cloud expanding and contracting is evaluated by tracking the motion of all bubble interfaces. Numerical investigation demonstrates that: (1) In the collapsing of bubble cloud micro liquid jets toward the inner bubbles are formed while the outer layer bubbles contract extremely, and then a high impact pressure is released when the inner central bubble contacts to its minimum. (2) The oscillation of bubble cloud depends upon the void fraction greatly. In the case of high void fraction, the frequency of cloud oscillation is lower than that of individual bubble and the decay of the oscillation becomes much slowly also

  10. Direct Numerical Simulation of the Rayleigh−Taylor Instability with the Spectral Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhang; Duo-Wang, Tan

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to simulate Rayleigh−Taylor instabilities using a specially-developed unsteady three-dimensional high-order spectral element method code. The numerical model used consists of Navier–Stokes equations and a transport-diffusive equation. The code is first validated with the results of linear stability perturbation theory. Then several characteristics of the Rayleigh−Taylor instabilities are studied using this three-dimensional unsteady code, including instantaneous turbulent structures and statistical turbulent mixing heights under different initial wave numbers. These results indicate that turbulent structures of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities are strongly dependent on the initial conditions. The results also suggest that a high-order numerical method should provide the capability of simulating small scale fluctuations of Rayleigh−Taylor instabilities of turbulent flows. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  11. A dual-directional light-control film with a high-sag and high-asymmetrical-shape microlens array fabricated by a UV imprinting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ta-Wei; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan; Chen, Chi-Feng; Yang, Jauh-Jung

    2008-01-01

    A dual-directional light-control film with a high-sag and high-asymmetric-shape long gapless hexagonal microlens array fabricated by an ultra-violent (UV) imprinting process is presented. Such a lens array is designed by ray-tracing simulation and fabricated by a micro-replication process including gray-scale lithography, electroplating process and UV curing. The shape of the designed lens array is similar to that of a near half-cylindrical lens array with a periodical ripple. The measurement results of a prototype show that the incident lights using a collimated LED with the FWHM of dispersion angle, 12°, are diversified differently in short and long axes. The numerical and experimental results show that the FWHMs of the view angle for angular brightness in long and short axis directions through the long hexagonal lens are about 34.3° and 18.1° and 31° and 13°, respectively. Compared with the simulation result, the errors in long and short axes are about 5% and 16%, respectively. Obviously, the asymmetric gapless microlens array can realize the aim of the controlled asymmetric angular brightness. Such a light-control film can be used as a power saving screen compared with convention diffusing film for the application of a rear projection display

  12. Numerical investigations of subglacial hydrology as a direct and indirect driver of glacial erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Beaud, Flavien

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers shape high altitude and latitude landscapes in numerous ways. Erosion associated with glacial processes can limit the average height of mountain ranges, while creating the greatest relief on Earth and shaping the highest mountain peaks, but glaciers can also shield pre-existing topography. Glacial erosion processes, though still enigmatic, are central to the evolution of landscapes, particularly since the onset of the Pleistocene. Glacial erosion comprises three fundamental processes...

  13. Direct numerical simulation of electrokinetic instability and transition to chaotic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demekhin, E. A.; Nikitin, N. V.; Shelistov, V. S.

    2013-12-01

    A new type of instability—electrokinetic instability—and an unusual transition to chaotic motion near a charge-selective surface (semiselective electric membrane, electrode, or system of micro-/nanochannels) was studied by the numerical integration of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes system and a weakly nonlinear analysis near the threshold of instability. A special finite-difference method was used for the space discretization along with a semi-implicit 31/3-step Runge-Kutta scheme for the integration in time. Two kinds of initial conditions were considered: (a) white-noise initial conditions to mimic "room disturbances" and subsequent natural evolution of the solution, and (b) an artificial monochromatic ion distribution with a fixed wave number to simulate regular wave patterns. The results were studied from the viewpoint of hydrodynamic stability and bifurcation theory. The threshold of electroconvective movement was found by the linear spectral stability theory, the results of which were confirmed by numerical simulation of the entire system. Our weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical integration of the entire system predict possibility of both kinds of bifurcations at the critical point, supercritical and subcritical, depending on the system parameters. The following regimes, which replace each other as the potential drop between the selective surfaces increases, were obtained: one-dimensional steady solution, two-dimensional steady electroconvective vortices (stationary point in a proper phase space), unsteady vortices aperiodically changing their parameters (homoclinic contour), periodic motion (limit cycle), and chaotic motion. The transition to chaotic motion does not include Hopf bifurcation. The numerical resolution of the thin concentration polarization layer showed spike-like charge profiles along the surface, which could be, depending on the regime, either steady or aperiodically coalescent. The numerical investigation confirmed the

  14. Direct numerical simulation of electrokinetic instability and transition to chaotic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhin, E. A.; Nikitin, N. V.; Shelistov, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    A new type of instability—electrokinetic instability—and an unusual transition to chaotic motion near a charge-selective surface (semiselective electric membrane, electrode, or system of micro-/nanochannels) was studied by the numerical integration of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes system and a weakly nonlinear analysis near the threshold of instability. A special finite-difference method was used for the space discretization along with a semi-implicit 31/3 -step Runge-Kutta scheme for the integration in time. Two kinds of initial conditions were considered: (a) white-noise initial conditions to mimic “room disturbances” and subsequent natural evolution of the solution, and (b) an artificial monochromatic ion distribution with a fixed wave number to simulate regular wave patterns. The results were studied from the viewpoint of hydrodynamic stability and bifurcation theory. The threshold of electroconvective movement was found by the linear spectral stability theory, the results of which were confirmed by numerical simulation of the entire system. Our weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical integration of the entire system predict possibility of both kinds of bifurcations at the critical point, supercritical and subcritical, depending on the system parameters. The following regimes, which replace each other as the potential drop between the selective surfaces increases, were obtained: one-dimensional steady solution, two-dimensional steady electroconvective vortices (stationary point in a proper phase space), unsteady vortices aperiodically changing their parameters (homoclinic contour), periodic motion (limit cycle), and chaotic motion. The transition to chaotic motion does not include Hopf bifurcation. The numerical resolution of the thin concentration polarization layer showed spike-like charge profiles along the surface, which could be, depending on the regime, either steady or aperiodically coalescent. The numerical investigation confirmed the

  15. Direct numerical simulation of electrokinetic instability and transition to chaotic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demekhin, E. A., E-mail: edemekhi@gmail.com [Laboratory of Micro- and Nanofluidics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Department of Computation Mathematics and Computer Science, Kuban State University, Krasnodar 350040 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State University, Moscow 117192 (Russian Federation); Nikitin, N. V. [Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State University, Moscow 117192 (Russian Federation); Shelistov, V. S. [Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State University, Moscow 117192 (Russian Federation); Scientific Research Department, Kuban State University, Krasnodar 350040 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    A new type of instability—electrokinetic instability—and an unusual transition to chaotic motion near a charge-selective surface (semiselective electric membrane, electrode, or system of micro-/nanochannels) was studied by the numerical integration of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson-Stokes system and a weakly nonlinear analysis near the threshold of instability. A special finite-difference method was used for the space discretization along with a semi-implicit 31/3 -step Runge-Kutta scheme for the integration in time. Two kinds of initial conditions were considered: (a) white-noise initial conditions to mimic “room disturbances” and subsequent natural evolution of the solution, and (b) an artificial monochromatic ion distribution with a fixed wave number to simulate regular wave patterns. The results were studied from the viewpoint of hydrodynamic stability and bifurcation theory. The threshold of electroconvective movement was found by the linear spectral stability theory, the results of which were confirmed by numerical simulation of the entire system. Our weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical integration of the entire system predict possibility of both kinds of bifurcations at the critical point, supercritical and subcritical, depending on the system parameters. The following regimes, which replace each other as the potential drop between the selective surfaces increases, were obtained: one-dimensional steady solution, two-dimensional steady electroconvective vortices (stationary point in a proper phase space), unsteady vortices aperiodically changing their parameters (homoclinic contour), periodic motion (limit cycle), and chaotic motion. The transition to chaotic motion does not include Hopf bifurcation. The numerical resolution of the thin concentration polarization layer showed spike-like charge profiles along the surface, which could be, depending on the regime, either steady or aperiodically coalescent. The numerical investigation confirmed the

  16. New strain measurement method at axial tensile test of thin films through direct imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Eun [Department of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National Uinversity of Technolgy, 172 Gongneung-2 Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Hyub [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, 535, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong-Joong [School of Mechanical Eng., Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhyubpark@korea.com

    2008-09-07

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring strain during a tensile test of the specimen with micrometre size through direct imaging. A specimen was newly designed for adoption of direct imaging which was the main contribution of the proposed system. The structure of the specimen has eight indicators that make it possible to adopt direct imaging and it is fabricated using the same process of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices to guarantee the feasibility of the tensile test. We implemented a system for non-contact in situ measurement of strain with the specimen, the image-based displacement measurement system. Extension of the gauge length in the specimen could be found robustly by computing the positions of the eight rectangular-shape indicators on the image. Also, for an easy setup procedure, the region of interest was found automatically through the analysis of the edge projection profile along the horizontal direction. To gain confidence in the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the Al-3%Ti thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in MEMS devices. Tensile tests were performed and displacements were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can be effectively used in the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  17. Direct growth of transparent conducting Nb-doped anatase TiO2 polycrystalline films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoomi; Kasai, Junpei; Hitosugi, Taro; Hoang, Ngoc Lam Huong; Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel sputter-based method for the direct growth of transparent conducting Ti 1-x Nb x O 2 (TNO) polycrystalline films on glass, without the need for any postdeposition treatments, by the use of an initial seed-layer. Anatase TNO epitaxial films grown on LaAlO 3 (100) substrates under a reducing atmosphere exhibited a low resistivity (ρ) of (3-6)x10 -4 Ω cm. On glass, however, highly resistive rutile phase polycrystalline films (ρ∼100 Ω cm) formed preferentially under the same conditions. These results suggest that epitaxial stabilization of the oxygen-deficient anatase phase occurs on lattice-matched substrates. To produce a similar effect on a glass surface, we deposited a seed-layer of anatase TNO with excellent crystallinity under an increased oxygen atmosphere. As a result, anatase phase TNO polycrystalline films could be grown even under heavily reducing atmospheres. An optimized film exhibited ρ=1.1x10 -3 Ω cm and optical absorption lower than 10% in the visible region. This ρ value is more than one order of magnitude lower than values reported for directly deposited TNO polycrystalline films. This indicates that the seed-layer method has considerable potential for producing transparent conducting TNO polycrystalline films on glass.

  18. Direct numerical reconstruction of conductivities in three dimensions using scattering transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikowski, Jutta; Knudsen, Kim; Mueller, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    A direct three-dimensional EIT reconstruction algorithm based on complex geometrical optics solutions and a nonlinear scattering transform is presented and implemented for spherically symmetric conductivity distributions. The scattering transform is computed both with a Born approximation and from...

  19. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on electrografted 4-ethynylphenyl film via click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Qin; Peng Ru; Liang Cong; Ye Siqiu; Xian Yuezhong; Zhang Wenjing; Jin Litong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and click chemistry. Highlights: → A simple, versatile two-step approach, which is based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has been developed for covalent redox proteins immobilization and biosensing for the first time. In this work, azido group modified HRP was covalently grafted on 4-ethylnylphenyl diazonium compound via CuAAC reaction and a novel electrochemical hydrogen peroxide biosensor was successfully fabricated. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple two-step approach for redox protein immobilization was introduced. Firstly, alkynyl-terminated film was formed on electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-ethylnylphenyl (4-EP) diazonium compound. Then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with azido group was covalently immobilized onto the electrografted film via click reaction. Reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the modification process. The results indicate that HRP retains its native structure and shows fast direct electron transfer. Moreover, the immobilized HRP shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward H 2 O 2 with a linear range of 5.0 x 10 -6 to 9.3 x 10 -4 mol L -1 .

  20. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on electrografted 4-ethynylphenyl film via click chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran Qin; Peng Ru; Liang Cong; Ye Siqiu [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xian Yuezhong, E-mail: yzxian@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Wenjing; Jin Litong [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and click chemistry. Highlights: > A simple, versatile two-step approach, which is based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has been developed for covalent redox proteins immobilization and biosensing for the first time. In this work, azido group modified HRP was covalently grafted on 4-ethylnylphenyl diazonium compound via CuAAC reaction and a novel electrochemical hydrogen peroxide biosensor was successfully fabricated. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple two-step approach for redox protein immobilization was introduced. Firstly, alkynyl-terminated film was formed on electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-ethylnylphenyl (4-EP) diazonium compound. Then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with azido group was covalently immobilized onto the electrografted film via click reaction. Reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the modification process. The results indicate that HRP retains its native structure and shows fast direct electron transfer. Moreover, the immobilized HRP shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with a linear range of 5.0 x 10{sup -6} to 9.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}.

  1. Immobilization, direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin on colloidal silver nanoparticles-chitosan film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Chunmei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China); Zhou Xiaohui [Institute of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China); Gu Haiying, E-mail: hygu@ntu.edu.c [Institute of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China)

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of hemoglobin (Hb)-colloidal silver nanoparticles (CSNs)-chitosan film on the glassy carbon electrode and its application on electrochemical biosensing. CSNs could greatly enhance the electron transfer reactivity of Hb as a bridge. In the phosphate buffer solution with pH value of 7.0, Hb showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks with the formal potential (E{sup 0'}) of -0.325 V (vs. SCE). The immobilized Hb in the film maintained its biological activity, showing a surface-controlled process with the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) of 1.83 s{sup -1} and displayed the same features of a peroxidase in the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The linear range for the determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was from 0.75 {mu}M to 0.216 mM with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M (S/N = 3). Such a simple assemble method could offer a promising platform for further study on the direct electrochemistry of other redox proteins and the development of the third-generation electrochemical biosensors.

  2. Direct numerical control of machine tools in a nuclear research center by the CAMAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwoll, K.; Mueller, K.D.; Becks, B.; Erven, W.; Sauer, M.

    1977-01-01

    The production of mechanical parts in research centers can be improved by connecting several numerically controlled machine tools to a central process computer via a data link. The CAMAC Serial Highway with its expandable structure yields an economic and flexible system for this purpose. The CAMAC System also facilitates the development of modular components controlling the machine tools itself. A CAMAC installation controlling three different machine tools connected to a central computer (PDP11) via the CAMAC Serial Highway is described. Besides this application, part of the CAMAC hardware and software can also be used for a great variety of scientific experiments

  3. Numerical simulation of vapor film collapse behavior on high-temperature droplet surface with three-dimensional lattice gas cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Daisuke; Abe, Yutaka; Matsukuma, Yosuke

    2008-01-01

    It is pointed out that a vapor film on a premixed high-temperature droplet surface is needed to be collapsed to trigger vapor explosion. Thus, it is important to clarify the micromechanism of vapor film collapse behavior for the occurrence of vapor explosion. In a previous study, it is suggested experimentally that vapor film collapse behavior is dominated by phase change phenomena rather than by the surrounding fluid motion. In the present study, vapor film collapse behavior is investigated to clarify the dominant factor of vapor film collapse behavior with lattice gas automata of three-dimensional immiscible lattice gas model (3-D ILG model). First, in order to represent the boiling and phase change phenomena, the thermal model of a heat wall model and a phase change model is newly constructed. Next, the numerical simulation of vapor film collapse behavior is performed with and without the phase change effect. As a result, the computational result with the phase change effect is observed to be almost same as the experimental result. It can be considered that vapor film collapse behavior is dominated by phase change phenomena. (author)

  4. Multigrid direct numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Liu, Zhining

    1993-01-01

    A new technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition at relatively low CPU cost. Most other spatial numerical simulations require high CPU cost and blow up at the stage of flow breakdown. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all used for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The cost for a typical case with 162 x 34 x 34 grid is around 2 CRAY-YMP CPU hours for 10 T-S periods.

  5. Amperometric biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin in poly-allylamine (PAA) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized in poly-allylamine (PAA) film onto the gold electrode by layer by layer (LBL) method. The modified electrode exhibited a pair of well-defined peaks during cyclic voltammetry, which was attributed from the direct electron transfer of heme proteins. The immobilized Hb showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The sensor exhibited a fast response and high sensitivity. Through the use of optimized conditions, the linear range for H 2 O 2 detection was from 2.5 x 10 -6 M to 5 x 10 -4 M with detection limit of 0.2 μM. The proposed biosensor showed long-lasting stability and excellent reproducibility

  6. Directly comparing GW150914 with numerical solutions of Einstein's equations for binary black hole coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, I.W.T.; Clark, M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Husa, S.; Kalaghati, C.; Khan., S.; Kidder, L. E.; Kinsey, M.; Laguna, P.; London, L. T.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pannarale, F.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Scheel, M.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vinuales, A. Vano; Zlochower, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We compare GW150914 directly to simulations of coalescing binary black holes in full general relativity, including several performed specifically to reproduce this event. Our calculations go beyond existing semianalytic models, because for all simulations—including sources with two independent,

  7. ESTIMATION OF TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY WITH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF STELLAR CONVECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, H.; Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T., E-mail: hotta.h@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-05-20

    We investigate the value of horizontal turbulent diffusivity {eta} by numerical calculation of thermal convection. In this study, we introduce a new method whereby the turbulent diffusivity is estimated by monitoring the time development of the passive scalar, which is initially distributed in a given Gaussian function with a spatial scale d{sub 0}. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) assuming the relation {eta} = L{sub c} v{sub rms}/3, where v{sub rms} is the root-mean-square (rms) velocity, the characteristic length L{sub c} is restricted by the shortest one among the pressure (density) scale height and the region depth. (2) The value of turbulent diffusivity becomes greater with the larger initial distribution scale d{sub 0}. (3) The approximation of turbulent diffusion holds better when the ratio of the initial distribution scale d{sub 0} to the characteristic length L{sub c} is larger.

  8. Numerical simulation and experimental results of horizontal tube falling film generator working in a NH3-LiNO3 absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.V.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Gomez, V.H.; Best, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the work made at the Centro de Investigacion en Energia in the development of an absorption refrigeration system for cooling and refrigeration applications with a capacity of 10 kW. The single effect unit utilizes ammonia-lithium nitrate as working pair and it is air cooled. The generator is a falling film type with horizontal tubes where the heating oil flows inside the tube bank and the ammonia-lithium nitrate solution flows as a falling film on the tube outside, where it is heated and ammonia vapor is generated. The generator consists of tree columns and four rows per column of horizontal tubes. The system was tested at controlled conditions with heating oil obtained from an electric resistance heating loop. A numerical model of the horizontal falling film generator was developed that divided the system into three different thermal elements: the flow inside the tube, the heat conduction in the tube wall and the falling film solution flow. The mathematical model was tested and validated with experimental data and a study of the influence of the heat transfer coefficient for ammonia-lithium nitrate solution in the numerical model was carried out. A comparison between experimental and numerical data for the heat flux in the system and the temperature profiles in the oil and solution flows shown a good degree of correlation.

  9. Enhancing performance in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic using transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias U. Hauser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately process numerical magnitudes and solve mental arithmetic is of highest importance for schooling and professional career. Although impairments in these domains in disorders such as developmental dyscalculia (DD are highly detrimental, remediation is still sparse. In recent years, transcranial brain stimulation methods such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS have been suggested as a treatment for various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC is known to be crucially involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. In this study, we evaluated whether tDCS has a beneficial effect on numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Due to the unclear lateralization, we stimulated the left, right as well as both hemispheres simultaneously in two experiments. We found that left anodal tDCS significantly enhanced performance in a number comparison and a subtraction task, while bilateral and right anodal tDCS did not induce any improvements compared to sham. Our findings demonstrate that the left PPC is causally involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Furthermore, we show that these cognitive functions can be enhanced by means of tDCS. These findings encourage to further investigate the beneficial effect of tDCS in the domain of mathematics in healthy and impaired humans.

  10. Optical properties of aluminum nitride thin films grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering close to epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, A. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Abdallah, B. [Department of Materials Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Charrier, J. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l' informatiON (FOTON), UMR CNRS 6082, 6, rue de Kerampont CS 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Deresmes, D. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jouan, P.-Y.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel – IMN, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinère BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dogheche, E.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-05-01

    Low-temperature Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited by Direct-Current magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate. They present optical properties similar to those of epitaxially grown films. Different characterization methods such as X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to determine the structural properties of the films such as its roughness and crystallinity. Newton interferometer was used for stress measurement of the films. Non-destructive prism-coupling technique was used to determine refractive index and thickness homogeneity by a mapping on the whole sample area. Results show that AlN films grown on AlGaN layer have a high crystallinity close to epitaxial films, associated to a low intrinsic stress for low thickness. These results highlight that it is possible to grow thick sample with microstructure and optical properties close to epitaxy, even on a large surface. - Highlights: ► Aluminum Nitride sputtering technique with a low temperature growth process ► Epitaxial quality of two microns sputtered Aluminum Nitride film ► Optics as a non-destructive accurate tool for acoustic wave investigation.

  11. Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vunnam, S; Ankireddy, K; Kellar, J; Cross, W

    2014-01-01

    Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 Ω cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10 −2 Ω cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate. (papers)

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations on the direct contact condensation phenomenon in horizontal flow channels and its implications in nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin Cristian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Laurinavicius, Darius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2016-11-15

    The complex direct contact condensation phenomenon is investigated in horizontal flow channels both experimentally and numerically with special emphasis on its implications on safety assessment studies. Under certain conditions direct contact condensation can act as the driving force for the water hammer phenomenon with potentially local devastating results, thus posing a threat to the integrity of the affected NPP components. New experimental results of in-depth analysis of the direct contact condensation phenomena obtained in Kaunas at the Lithuanian Energy Institute will be presented. The German system code ATHLET employing for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient a mechanistic model accounting for two different eddy length scales, combined with the interfacial area transport equation will be assessed against condensation induced water hammer experimental data from the integral thermal-hydraulic experimental facility PMK-2, located at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest Hungary.

  13. Nonlinear mechanics of thin-walled structures asymptotics, direct approach and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vetyukov, Yury

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a hybrid approach to the mechanics of thin bodies. Classical theories of rods, plates and shells with constrained shear are based on asymptotic splitting of the equations and boundary conditions of three-dimensional elasticity. The asymptotic solutions become accurate as the thickness decreases, and the three-dimensional fields of stresses and displacements can be determined. The analysis includes practically important effects of electromechanical coupling and material inhomogeneity. The extension to the geometrically nonlinear range uses the direct approach based on the principle of virtual work. Vibrations and buckling of pre-stressed structures are studied with the help of linearized incremental formulations, and direct tensor calculus rounds out the list of analytical techniques used throughout the book. A novel theory of thin-walled rods of open profile is subsequently developed from the models of rods and shells, and traditionally applied equations are proven to be asymptotically exa...

  14. Numerical study of unsteady flows past oscillating airfoils using direct zonal coupling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Khalid, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct zonal coupling method was proposed for solving the flows past oscillating airfoils in this study. The entire computational domain was divided into inner and outer zones. The grid in the inner zone is moving with the oscillation of the airfoil, whereas the grid in the outer zone is artificially adjusted to the position consistent with the inner zone grid. The governing equations in the moving frame (the rotation potential energy is included) and those under the stationary frame were applied to inner and outer zones, respectively. By using this kind of treatment, the grid on the zonal interface is 1-to-1 matched. The coupling between the two zones is direct. Both the geometric and flow conservations are entirely satisfied. The NACA0012 and NLR7301 airfoils with oscillations were used as the test cases. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated by the computational results compared with the experimental data.(author)

  15. Numerical convergence in simulations of multiaxial ratcheting with directional distortional hardening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Welling, CH.A.; Marek, René; Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dafalias, Y.F.; Plešek, Jiří; Hrubý, Zbyněk; Parma, Slavomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, November (2017), s. 105-121 ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493; GA MŠk LH14018 Keywords : plastic ity * yield * ratcheting * yield surface distortion * directional distortional hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020768317303499

  16. Ultrasoft and High Magnetic Moment CoFe Films Directly Electrodeposited from a B-Reducer Contained Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyu Zong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology to fabricate ultrasoft CoFe nano-/microfilms directly via electrodeposition from a semineutral iron sulfate solution is demonstrated. Using boron-reducer as the additive, the CoFe films become very soft with high magnetic moment. Typically, the film coercivity in the easy and hard axes is 6.5 and 2.5 Oersted, respectively, with a saturation polarization up to an average of 2.45 Tesla. Despite the softness, these shining and smooth films still display a high-anisotropic field of ~45 Oersted with permeability up to 104. This kind of films can potentially be used in current and future magnetic recording systems as well as microelectronic and biotechnological devices.

  17. Stress and piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films deposited onto metal electrodes by pulsed direct current reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Marc-Alexandre; Muralt, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited onto platinum, aluminum, and titanium electrodes by reactive magnetron sputtering in the pulsed direct current mode. The films exhibited all a columnar microstructure and a c-axis texture. The built-in stress and the piezoelectric properties of these films were studied as a function of both the processing conditions and the electrode material. Stress was found to be very much dependent on the growth conditions, and values ranging from strong compression to high tension were observed. The piezoelectric d 33,f coefficient was shown to rely on substrate quality and ionic bombardment: The nucleation surface must be stable with regard to the nitrogen plasma and present a hexagonal symmetry and, on the other hand, enough energy must be delivered to the growing film through ionic bombardment. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  18. Direct numerical simulation of interfacial instabilities: A consistent, conservative, all-speed, sharp-interface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Deng, Xiaolong; Theofanous, Theo G.

    2013-06-01

    We present a conservative and consistent numerical method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in flow domains that may be separated by any number of material interfaces, at arbitrarily-high density/viscosity ratios and acoustic-impedance mismatches, subjected to strong shock waves and flow speeds that can range from highly supersonic to near-zero Mach numbers. A principal aim is prediction of interfacial instabilities under superposition of multiple potentially-active modes (Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Richtmyer-Meshkov) as found for example with shock-driven, immersed fluid bodies (locally oblique shocks)—accordingly we emphasize fidelity supported by physics-based validation, including experiments. Consistency is achieved by satisfying the jump discontinuities at the interface within a conservative 2nd-order scheme that is coupled, in a conservative manner, to the bulk-fluid motions. The jump conditions are embedded into a Riemann problem, solved exactly to provide the pressures and velocities along the interface, which is tracked by a level set function to accuracy of O(Δx5, Δt4). Subgrid representation of the interface is achieved by allowing curvature of its constituent interfacial elements to obtain O(Δx3) accuracy in cut-cell volume, with attendant benefits in calculating cell- geometric features and interface curvature (O(Δx3)). Overall the computation converges at near-theoretical O(Δx2). Spurious-currents are down to machine error and there is no time-step restriction due to surface tension. Our method is built upon a quadtree-like adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure. When necessary, this is supplemented by body-fitted grids to enhance resolution of the gas dynamics, including flow separation, shear layers, slip lines, and critical layers. Comprehensive comparisons with exact solutions for the linearized Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz problems demonstrate excellent performance. Sample simulations of liquid drops subjected to

  19. A theoretical and numerical study of polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical and numerical results of the polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum are presented for the remote sensing of ocean and soil surfaces. The polarimetric scattered field for rough dielectric surfaces is derived to the second order by the small perturbation method (SPM). It is found that the second-order scattered field is coherent in nature, and its coefficients for different polarizations present the lowest-order corrections to the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surfaces. In addition, the cross-polarized (HV and VH) components of the coherent fields are reciprocal and not zero for surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum when the azimuth angle of the incident direction is not aligned with the symmetry directions of surfaces. In order to verify the energy conservation condition of the theoretical results, which is important if the theory is to be applied to the passive polarimetry of rough surfaces, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to numerically calculate the polarimetric reflectivities of one-dimensional random rough surfaces which are generated with a prescribed power-law spectrum in the spectral domain and transformed to the spatial domain by the FFT. The surfaces simulated by this approach are periodic with the period corresponding to the low-wavenumber cutoff. To calculate the scattering from periodic dielectric surfaces, the authors present a new numerical technique which applies the Floquet theorem to reduce the problem to one period and does not require the evaluation of one-dimensional periodic Green's function used in the conventional method of moment formulation. Once the scattering coefficients are obtained, the polarimetric Stokes vectors for the emission from the random surfaces are then calculated according to the Kirchhoff's law and are illustrated as functions of relative azimuth observation and row directions. The second-order SPM is also

  20. Direct numerical simulation of combustion at high Reynolds numbers; Direkte Numerische Simulation der Verbrennung bei hoeheren Reynoldszahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouzakis, C. E.; Boulouchos, K.

    2005-12-15

    This comprehensive illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the work done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich on the numerical simulation of combustion processes at high Reynolds numbers. The authors note that with appropriate extensive calculation effort, results can be obtained that demonstrate a high degree of accuracy. It is noted that a large part of the project work was devoted to the development of algorithms for the simulation of the combustion processes. Application work is also discussed with research on combustion stability being carried on. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods used are described and co-operation with other institutes is noted. The results of experimental work are compared with those provided by simulation and are discussed in detail. Conclusions and an outlook round off the report.

  1. Investigation on convective mixing of triple-jet. Evaluation of turbulent quantities using particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Igarashi, Minoru; Kamide, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    We performed a water experiment on parallel triple-jet and a calculation using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a quantification of thermal striping. The local temperatures and velocities were measured by using thermocouples and the particle image velocimetry (PIV), respectively. The calculation was carried out using the quasi-DNS code, DINUS-3, which was based on the finite difference method. The oscillation of the jets obtained from the flow visualization was related to the movements of the twin vortices between the jets by using the PIV. The experimental temperatures/velocities results were close to the numerical results. The heat transportation among the jets was evaluated by using the turbulent heat fluxes obtained from the quasi-DNS. (author)

  2. Numerical study of the direct pressure effect of acoustic waves in planar premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H. [BTU Cottbus, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Jimenez, C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Avenida Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Recently the unsteady response of 1-D premixed flames to acoustic pressure waves for the range of frequencies below and above the inverse of the flame transit time was investigated experimentally using OH chemiluminescence Wangher (2008). They compared the frequency dependence of the measured response to the prediction of an analytical model proposed by Clavin et al. (1990), derived from the standard flame model (one-step Arrhenius kinetics) and to a similar model proposed by McIntosh (1991). Discrepancies between the experimental results and the model led to the conclusion that the standard model does not provide an adequate description of the unsteady response of real flames and that it is necessary to investigate more realistic chemical models. Here we follow exactly this suggestion and perform numerical studies of the response of lean methane flames using different reaction mechanisms. We find that the global flame response obtained with both detailed chemistry (GRI3.0) and a reduced multi-step model by Peters (1996) lies slightly above the predictions of the analytical model, but is close to experimental results. We additionally used an irreversible one-step Arrhenius reaction model and show the effect of the pressure dependence of the global reaction rate in the flame response. Our results suggest first that the current models have to be extended to capture the amplitude and phase results of the detailed mechanisms, and second that the correlation between the heat release and the measured OH* chemiluminescence should be studied deeper. (author)

  3. Cellular Spacing Selection During the Directional Solidification of Binary Alloys. A Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, S.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of cellular solid/liquid interfaces from an initially unstable planar front was studied by means of a two-dimensional computer simulation. The developed numerical model makes use of an interface tracking procedure and has the capability to describe the dynamics of the interface morphology based on local changes of the thermodynamic conditions. The fundamental physics of this formulation was validated against experimental microgravity results and the predictions of the analytical linear stability theory. The performed simulations revealed that in certain conditions, based on a competitive growth mechanism, an interface could become unstable to random perturbations of infinitesimal amplitude even at wavelengths smaller than the neutral wavelength, lambda(sub c), predicted by the linear stability theory. Furthermore, two main stages of spacing selection have been identified. In the first stage, at low perturbations amplitude, the selection mechanism is driven by the maximum growth rate of instabilities while in the second stage the selection is influenced by nonlinear phenomena caused by the interactions between the neighboring cells. Comparison of these predictions with other existing theories of pattern formation and experimental results will be discussed.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Molten Flow in Directed Energy Deposition Using an Iterative Geometry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Timothy J.; Rumpfkeil, Markus P.; Chaudhary, Anil

    2018-06-01

    The complex, multi-faceted physics of laser-based additive metals processing tends to demand high-fidelity models and costly simulation tools to provide predictions accurate enough to aid in selecting process parameters. Of particular difficulty is the accurate determination of melt pool shape and size, which are useful for predicting lack-of-fusion, as this typically requires an adequate treatment of thermal and fluid flow. In this article we describe a novel numerical simulation tool which aims to achieve a balance between accuracy and cost. This is accomplished by making simplifying assumptions regarding the behavior of the gas-liquid interface for processes with a moderate energy density, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). The details of the implementation, which is based on the solver simpleFoam of the well-known software suite OpenFOAM, are given here and the tool is verified and validated for a LENS process involving Ti-6Al-4V. The results indicate that the new tool predicts width and height of a deposited track to engineering accuracy levels.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Molten Flow in Directed Energy Deposition Using an Iterative Geometry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Timothy J.; Rumpfkeil, Markus P.; Chaudhary, Anil

    2018-03-01

    The complex, multi-faceted physics of laser-based additive metals processing tends to demand high-fidelity models and costly simulation tools to provide predictions accurate enough to aid in selecting process parameters. Of particular difficulty is the accurate determination of melt pool shape and size, which are useful for predicting lack-of-fusion, as this typically requires an adequate treatment of thermal and fluid flow. In this article we describe a novel numerical simulation tool which aims to achieve a balance between accuracy and cost. This is accomplished by making simplifying assumptions regarding the behavior of the gas-liquid interface for processes with a moderate energy density, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). The details of the implementation, which is based on the solver simpleFoam of the well-known software suite OpenFOAM, are given here and the tool is verified and validated for a LENS process involving Ti-6Al-4V. The results indicate that the new tool predicts width and height of a deposited track to engineering accuracy levels.

  6. Numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating disk related to development of a spacecraft absorption cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating and a stationary disk related to the development of an absorber unit for a high capacity spacecraft absorption cooling system, is described. The creation of artificial gravity by the use of a centrifugal field was focused upon in this report. Areas covered include: (1) One-dimensional computation of thin liquid film flows; (2) Experimental measurement of film height and visualization of flow; (3) Two-dimensional computation of the free surface flow of a thin liquid film using a pressure optimization method; (4) Computation of heat transfer in two-dimensional thin film flow; (5) Development of a new computational methodology for the free surface flows using a permeable wall; (6) Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin film in the presence and absence of gravity; and (7) Comparison of theoretical prediction and experimental data. The basic phenomena related to fluid flow and heat transfer on rotating systems reported here can also be applied to other areas of space systems.

  7. Numerical simulation of freckle formation in directional solidification of binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicelli, Sergio D.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Poirier, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification is presented which simulates the formation of segregation models known as 'freckles' during directional solidification of binary alloys. The growth of the two-phase or dendritic zone is calculated by solving the coupled equations of momentum, energy, and solute transport, as well as maintaining the thermodynamic constraints dictated by the phase diagram of the alloy. Calculations for lead-tin alloys show that the thermosolutal convection in the dendritic zone during solidification can produce heavily localized inhomogeneities in the composition of the final alloy.

  8. A method for the direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer instability with finite-rate chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marxen, Olaf; Magin, Thierry E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S.G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    A new numerical method is presented here that allows to consider chemically reacting gases during the direct numerical simulation of a hypersonic fluid flow. The method comprises the direct coupling of a solver for the fluid mechanical model and a library providing the physio-chemical model. The numerical method for the fluid mechanical model integrates the compressible Navier–Stokes equations using an explicit time advancement scheme and high-order finite differences. This Navier–Stokes code can be applied to the investigation of laminar-turbulent transition and boundary-layer instability. The numerical method for the physio-chemical model provides thermodynamic and transport properties for different gases as well as chemical production rates, while here we exclusively consider a five species air mixture. The new method is verified for a number of test cases at Mach 10, including the one-dimensional high-temperature flow downstream of a normal shock, a hypersonic chemical reacting boundary layer in local thermodynamic equilibrium and a hypersonic reacting boundary layer with finite-rate chemistry. We are able to confirm that the diffusion flux plays an important role for a high-temperature boundary layer in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, we demonstrate that the flow for a case previously considered as a benchmark for the investigation of non-equilibrium chemistry can be regarded as frozen. Finally, the new method is applied to investigate the effect of finite-rate chemistry on boundary layer instability by considering the downstream evolution of a small-amplitude wave and comparing results with those obtained for a frozen gas as well as a gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium

  9. Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jianke; Gong, Li; Xie, Lei; Zhang, Shengdong

    2013-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency (RF) sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films are compared. It is found that the RF sputtered a-IGZO films have better stoichiometry (In:Ga:Zn:O = 1:1:1:2.5–3.0), lower electrical conductivity (σ < 8 S/cm), higher refractive index (n = 1.9–2.0) and larger band gap (E g = 3.02–3.29 eV), and show less shift of Fermi level (△ E F ∼ 0.26 eV) and increased concentration of electrons (△ N e ∼ 10 4 ) in the conduction band with the reduction concentration of oxygen vacancy (V O ). Although a-IGZO has intensively been studied for a semiconductor channel material of thin film transistors in next-generation flat panel displays, its fundamental material parameters have not been thoroughly reported. In this work, the work function (φ) of a-IGZO films is tested with the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that the φ of a-IGZO films is in the range of 4.0–5.0 eV depending on the V O . - Highlights: ► Amorphous InGaZnO 4 (a-IGZO) films were prepared with different sputtering modes. ► Electrical and optical properties of the different films were compared. ► Fermi level (△E F ) shift in a-IGZO films were tested by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ► The relation of △E F with the properties of a-IGZO films were discussed. ► Work function was tested by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

  10. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Compressible Reacting Boundary Layer using a Temporal Slow Growth Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalian, Victor; Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A DNS of a compressible, reacting boundary layer flow at Reθ ~ 430 was performed using a temporal slow-growth homogenization, for a multispecies flow model of air at supersonic regime. The overall scenario parameters are related to those of the flow over an ablating surface of a space capsule upon Earth's atmospheric re-entry. The simulation algorithm features Fourier spatial discretization in the streamwise and spanwise directions, B-splines in the wall normal direction, and is marched semi-implicitly in time using the SMR91 scheme. Flow statistics will be presented for relevant flow quantities, in particular those related with RANS modeling. Since analogous slow growth computations can be performed using RANS to predict the flow mean profiles, the use of data gathered from this type of simulation as a vehicle for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of RANS models will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  11. Numerical simulation of boundary heat flow effects on directional solidification microstructure of a binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The boundary heat flow has important significance for the microstructures of directional solidified binary alloy. Interface evolution of the directional solidified microstructure with different boundary heat flow was discussed. In this study, only one interface was allowed to have heat flow, and Neumann boundary conditions were imposed at the other three interfaces. From the calculated results, it was found that different boundary heat flows will result in different microstructures. When the boundary heat flow equals to 20 W·cm-2, the growth of longitudinal side branches is accelerated and the growth of transverse side branches is restrained, and meanwhile, there is dendritic remelting in the calculation domain. When the boundary heat flow equals to 40 W·cm-2, the growths of the transverse and longitudinal side branches compete with each other, and when the boundary heat flow equals to 100-200 W·cm-2, the growth of transverse side branches dominates absolutely. The temperature field of dendritic growth was analyzed and the relation between boundary heat flow and temperature field was also investigated.

  12. Merging LIDAR digital terrain model with direct observed elevation points for urban flood numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Campo, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    In last years, the concern about the economical and lives loss due to urban floods has grown hand in hand with the numerical skills in simulating such events. The large amount of computational power needed in order to address the problem (simulating a flood in a complex terrain such as a medium-large city) is only one of the issues. Among them it is possible to consider the general lack of exhaustive observations during the event (exact extension, dynamic, water level reached in different parts of the involved area), needed for calibration and validation of the model, the need of considering the sewers effects, and the availability of a correct and precise description of the geometry of the problem. In large cities the topographic surveys are in general available with a number of points, but a complete hydraulic simulation needs a detailed description of the terrain on the whole computational domain. LIDAR surveys can achieve this goal, providing a comprehensive description of the terrain, although they often lack precision. In this work an optimal merging of these two sources of geometrical information, measured elevation points and LIDAR survey, is proposed, by taking into account the error variance of both. The procedure is applied to a flood-prone city over an area of 35 square km approximately starting with a DTM from LIDAR with a spatial resolution of 1 m, and 13000 measured points. The spatial pattern of the error (LIDAR vs points) is analysed, and the merging method is tested with a series of Jackknife procedures that take into account different densities of the available points. A discussion of the results is provided.

  13. Statistics for long irregular wave run-up on a plane beach from direct numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Senichev, Dmitry; Dutykh, Denys

    2017-04-01

    Very often for global and transoceanic events, due to the initial wave transformation, refraction, diffraction and multiple reflections from coastal topography and underwater bathymetry, the tsunami approaches the beach as a very long wave train, which can be considered as an irregular wave field. The prediction of possible flooding and properties of the water flow on the coast in this case should be done statistically taking into account the formation of extreme (rogue) tsunami wave on a beach. When it comes to tsunami run-up on a beach, the most used mathematical model is the nonlinear shallow water model. For a beach of constant slope, the nonlinear shallow water equations have rigorous analytical solution, which substantially simplifies the mathematical formulation. In (Didenkulova et al. 2011) we used this solution to study statistical characteristics of the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline and its horizontal velocity. The influence of the wave nonlinearity was approached by considering modifications of probability distribution of the moving shoreline and its horizontal velocity for waves of different amplitudes. It was shown that wave nonlinearity did not affect the probability distribution of the velocity of the moving shoreline, while the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline was affected substantially demonstrating the longer duration of coastal floods with an increase in the wave nonlinearity. However, this analysis did not take into account the actual transformation of irregular wave field offshore to oscillations of the moving shoreline on a slopping beach. In this study we would like to cover this gap by means of extensive numerical simulations. The modeling is performed in the framework of nonlinear shallow water equations, which are solved using a modern shock-capturing finite volume method. Although the shallow water model does not pursue the wave breaking and bore formation in a general sense (including the water surface

  14. Effect of higher order nonlinearity, directionality and finite water depth on wave statistics: Comparison of field data and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leandro; Monbaliu, Jaak; Onorato, Miguel; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    This research is focused on the study of nonlinear evolution of irregular wave fields in water of arbitrary depth by comparing field measurements and numerical simulations.It is now well accepted that modulational instability, known as one of the main mechanisms for the formation of rogue waves, induces strong departures from Gaussian statistics. However, whereas non-Gaussian properties are remarkable when wave fields follow one direction of propagation over an infinite water depth, wave statistics only weakly deviate from Gaussianity when waves spread over a range of different directions. Over finite water depth, furthermore, wave instability attenuates overall and eventually vanishes for relative water depths as low as kh=1.36 (where k is the wavenumber of the dominant waves and h the water depth). Recent experimental results, nonetheless, seem to indicate that oblique perturbations are capable of triggering and sustaining modulational instability even if khthe aim of this research is to understand whether the combined effect of directionality and finite water depth has a significant effect on wave statistics and particularly on the occurrence of extremes. For this purpose, numerical experiments have been performed solving the Euler equation of motion with the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and compared with data of short crested wave fields for different sea states observed at the Lake George (Australia). A comparative analysis of the statistical properties (i.e. density function of the surface elevation and its statistical moments skewness and kurtosis) between simulations and in-situ data provides a confrontation between the numerical developments and real observations in field conditions.

  15. Direct nanofabrication and transmission electron microscopy on a suite of easy-to-prepare ultrathin film substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, Daniel B.; Zin, Melvin T.; Ma, Hong; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Baneyx, Francois; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    A high-yield, easy to master method for preparing electron transparent metal, oxide, and carbon ultrathin film substrates suitable for direct nano/micro-fabrication and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented. To demonstrate the versatility of these substrates for fabrication processes, we use e-beam lithography, self-assembled colloidal and protein templates, and microcontact printing to create patterned masks for subsequent electrodeposition of two dimensional and three dimensional structures. The electrodeposited structures range in scale from a few nanometers to a few micrometers in characteristic dimensions. Because fabrication occurs directly on ultrathin films, TEM analysis of the resulting materials and buried interfaces is straightforward without any destructive sample preparation. We show that all the normal TEM analytical methods (imaging, diffraction, electron and X-ray spectroscopies) are compatible with the fabricated structures and the thin film substrates. These electron transparent substrates have largely rendered the need for TEM sample preparation on fabricated structures obsolete in our lab

  16. Numerical simulation of direct methanol fuel cells using lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavar, Mojtaba Aghajani; Farhadi, Mousa; Sedighi, Kurosh [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, P.O. Box 484 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    In this study Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) as an alternative of conventional computational fluid dynamics method is used to simulate Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). A two dimensional lattice Boltzmann model with 9 velocities, D2Q9, is used to solve the problem. The computational domain includes all seven parts of DMFC: anode channel, catalyst and diffusion layers, membrane and cathode channel, catalyst and diffusion layers. The model has been used to predict the flow pattern and concentration fields of different species in both clear and porous channels to investigate cell performance. The results have been compared well with results in literature for flow in porous and clear channels and cell polarization curves of the DMFC at different flow speeds and feed methanol concentrations. (author)

  17. Design and numerical investigation of Savonius wind turbine with discharge flow directing capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahani, Mojtaba; Rabbani, Ali; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Savonius vertical axis wind turbines due to their capabilities and positive properties have gained a significant attention. The objective of this study is to design and model a Savonius-style vertical axis wind turbine with direct discharge flow capability in order to ventilate buildings...... to improve the discharge flow rate. Results indicate that the twist on Savonius wind rotor reduces the negative torque and improves its performance. According to the results, a twisted Savonius wind turbine with conical shaft is associated with 18% increase in power coefficient and 31% increase in discharge...... flowrate compared to simple Savonius wind turbine. Also, wind turbine with variable cut plane has a 12% decrease in power coefficient and 5% increase in discharge flow rate compared to simple Savonius wind turbine. Therefore, it can be inferred that twisted wind turbine with conical shaft indicated...

  18. Numerical and experimental investigation of direct solar crop dryer for farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, M. W.; Habib, Khairul; Sulaiman, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents a theoretical and experimental investigation on effects of weather on direct solar crop drying technique. The SIMULINK tool was employed to analyze the energy balance equations of the transient system model. A prototype of the drying system was made and data were collected between the months of June and July in Perak, Malaysia. The contribution of intense sunny days was encouraging despite the wet season, and the wind velocity was dynamic during the period of investigation. However, high percentage of relative humidity was observed. This constitutes a hindrance to efficient drying process. The reported studies were silent on the effect of thick atmospheric moisture content on drying rate of agricultural products in tropic climate. This finding has revealed the mean values of insolation, wind speed, moisturized air, system performance efficiency and chili microscopy image morphology. The predicted and measured results were compared with good agreement.

  19. Numerical Modeling of a Jet Ignition Direct Injection (JI DI LPG Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents indirectly validated simulations of the operation of a LPG engine fitted with Direct Injection (DI and Jet Ignition (JI. It is demonstrated that the engine may have diesel like efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected.  As the liquid propane quickly evaporates after injection in the main chamber, the main chamber mixture may be much closer to stoichiometry than a diesel for a better specific power at low engine speeds. This design also works at the high engine speeds impossible for the diesel, as combustion within the main chamber is controlled by the turbulent mixing rather than the vaporization and diffusion processes of the injected fuel of the diesel. 

  20. Alternating-direction implicit numerical solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional, single fluid, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finan, C.H. III

    1980-12-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are solved simultaneously to avoid syncronization errors.

  1. Applications of Operator-Splitting Methods to the Direct Numerical Simulation of Particulate and Free-Surface Flows and to the Numerical Solution of the Two-Dimensional Elliptic Monge--Ampère Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Glowinski, R.; Dean, E.J.; Guidoboni, G.; Juárez, L.H.; Pan, T.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to review some recent applications of operator-splitting methods. We will show that these methods are well-suited to the numerical solution of outstanding problems from various areas in Mechanics, Physics and Differential Geometry, such as the direct numerical simulation of particulate flow, free boundary problems with surface tension for incompressible viscous fluids, and the elliptic real Monge--Ampère equation. The results of numerical ...

  2. Directly comparing GW150914 with numerical solutions of Einstein's equations for binary black hole coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magaña; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, M.; Fauchon-Jones, E.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Husa, S.; Kalaghati, C.; Khan, S.; Kidder, L. E.; Kinsey, M.; Laguna, P.; London, L. T.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pannarale, F.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Scheel, M.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vinuales, A. Vano; Zlochower, Y.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We compare GW150914 directly to simulations of coalescing binary black holes in full general relativity, including several performed specifically to reproduce this event. Our calculations go beyond existing semianalytic models, because for all simulations—including sources with two independent, precessing spins—we perform comparisons which account for all the spin-weighted quadrupolar modes, and separately which account for all the quadrupolar and octopolar modes. Consistent with the posterior distributions reported by Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016)] (at the 90% credible level), we find the data are compatible with a wide range of nonprecessing and precessing simulations. Follow-up simulations performed using previously estimated binary parameters most resemble the data, even when all quadrupolar and octopolar modes are included. Comparisons including only the quadrupolar modes constrain the total redshifted mass Mz∈[64 M⊙-82 M⊙] , mass ratio 1 /q =m2/m1∈[0.6 ,1 ], and effective aligned spin χeff∈[-0.3 ,0.2 ], where χeff=(S1/m1+S2/m2).L ^/M . Including both quadrupolar and octopolar modes, we find the mass ratio is even more tightly constrained. Even accounting for precession, simulations with extreme mass ratios and effective spins are highly inconsistent with the data, at any mass. Several nonprecessing and precessing simulations with similar mass ratio and χeff are consistent with the data. Though correlated, the components' spins (both in magnitude and directions) are not significantly constrained by the data: the data is consistent with simulations with component spin magnitudes a1 ,2 up to at least 0.8, with random orientations. Further detailed follow-up calculations are needed to determine if the data contain a weak imprint from transverse (precessing) spins. For nonprecessing binaries, interpolating between simulations, we reconstruct a posterior distribution consistent with previous results. The final black hole

  3. Numerical investigation of a double-junction a:SiGe thin-film solar cell including the multi-trench region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacha, K.; Djeffal, F.; Ferhati, H.; Arar, D.; Meguellati, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach based on the multi-trench technique to improve the electrical performances, which are the fill factor and the electrical efficiency. The key idea behind this approach is to introduce a new multi-trench region in the intrinsic layer, in order to modulate the total resistance of the solar cell. Based on 2-D numerical investigation and optimization of amorphous SiGe double-junction (a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H) thin film solar cells, in the present paper numerical models of electrical and optical parameters are developed to explain the impact of the multi-trench technique on the improvement of the double-junction solar cell electrical behavior for high performance photovoltaic applications. In this context, electrical characteristics of the proposed design are analyzed and compared with conventional amorphous silicon double-junction thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  4. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Neil B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along {rvec B}. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization.

  5. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along rvec B. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization

  6. On numerical modeling of low-head direct chill ingot caster for magnesium alloy AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive 3D turbulent CFD study has been carried out to simulate a Low-Head (LH vertical Direct Chill (DC rolling ingot caster for the common magnesium alloy AZ31. The model used in this study takes into account the coupled laminar/turbulent melt flow and solidification aspects of the process and is based on the control-volume finite-difference approach. Following the aluminum/magnesium DC casting industrial practices, the LH mold is taken as 30 mm with a hot top of 60 mm. The previously verified in-house code has been modified to model the present casting process. Important quantitative results are obtained for four casting speeds, for three inlet melt pouring temperatures (superheats and for three metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficients for the steady state operational phase of the caster. The variable cooling water temperatures reported by the industry are considered for the primary and secondary cooling zones during the simulations. Specifically, the temperature and velocity fields, sump depth and sump profiles, mushy region thickness, solid shell thickness at the exit of the mold and axial temperature profiles at the center and at three strategic locations at the surface of the slab are presented and discussed.

  7. Numerical studies of spray breakup in a gasoline direct injection (GDI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarmadar Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate Spray Breakup process of sprays injected from single and two-hole nozzles for gasoline direct Injection (GDI engines by using three dimensional CFD code. Spray characteristics were examined for spray tip penetration and other characteristics including: the vapor phase concentration distribution and droplet spatial distribution, which were acquired using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. Results showed that as the hole-axis-angle (γ of the two-hole nozzle decreased, the droplet coalescence increased and vapor mass decreased. The spray with cone angle (θ0 5 deg for single hole nozzle has the longest spray tip penetration and the spray with the γ of 30 deg and spray cone angle θ0=30 deg for two hole nozzles had the shortest one. Also, when the spray cone angle (θ0 and hole-axis-angle (γ increased from 5 to 30 deg, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD decreased for both single-hole and two-hole nozzles used in this study. For a single-hole nozzle, when spray cone angle increased from 5 to 30 deg, the vaporization rate very much because of low level of coalescence. The result of model for tip penetration is good agreement with the corresponding experimental data in the literatures.

  8. Direct-injection strategies for a hydrogen-fueled engine : an optical and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, S.; Salazar, V. [Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scarcelli, R.; Wallner, T. [Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Vehicles with hydrogen-fueled engines are competitive with systems based on fuel cells. There is a lack of fundamental knowledge about in-cylinder processes in hydrogen direct injection engines. This presentation discussed a study that used a variety of injector configurations to establish a broad database. A light-load conditions that can profit from stratification was investigated. Several results were presented, including the 5-hole nozzle produced an asymmetric jet pattern which may be good for late injection. Very lean regions in the wake of the transient jets were found to be similar to those found in diesel injection. The 13-hole nozzle demonstrated complete jet collapse, consistent with Schlieren imaging by Petersen. Stratification made efficiency sensitive to the targeting of the single-hole injector. Computational fluid dynamics with a commercially available code aimed to improve the process of design optimization. The simulation predicted less fuel dispersion than was experimentally measured. Details of the fuel penetration were captured. It was concluded that for the single-hole nozzle, the pre-spark fuel distribution is consistent with results from the fired engine. tabs., figs.

  9. Numerical Methods Application for Reinforced Concrete Elements-Theoretical Approach for Direct Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ciprian Catinas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.

  10. Temporal direct numerical simulation of transitional natural-convection boundary layer under conditions of considerable external turbulence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, Alexey G; Smirnov, Evgueni M; Goryachev, Valery D

    2014-01-01

    Results of direct numerical simulations for time-developing air natural-convection boundary layer are presented. Computations have been performed assuming periodicity conditions in both the directions parallel to the vertical isothermal hot plate. The contribution is mainly focused on understanding of laminar–turbulent transition peculiarities in the case of perturbation action of external turbulence that is modeled by isotropic disturbances initially introduced into the computational domain. Special attention is paid to identification and analysis of evolving three-dimensional vortices that clearly manifest themselves through the whole stages of laminar–turbulent transition in the boundary layer. A comparison of computed profiles of mean velocity, mean temperature and fluctuation characteristics for turbulent regimes of convection with experimental data is performed as well. (paper)

  11. Numerical simulation of a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator used as direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, N.; Sauceda, D.; Beltran, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez y Calle de la Normal s/n, Mexicali, Baja California 21280 (Mexico); Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    In this work a methodological analysis to design and evaluate the technical feasibility of use a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator (LFRC) as generator in an advanced absorption refrigeration system (Solar-GAX cycle) has been carried out. For this purpose, a detailed one-dimensional numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behavior of a LFRC that solves, in a segregated manner, four subroutines: (a) fluid flow inside the receptor tube, (b) heat transfer in the receptor tube wall, (c) heat transfer in cover tube wall, and (d) solar thermal analysis in the solar concentrator has been developed. The LFRC numerical model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the technical literature; after that, a parametric study for different configurations of design has been carried out in order to obtain the highest solar concentration with the lowest thermal losses, keeping in mind both specific weather conditions and construction restrictions. The numerical result obtained demonstrates that using a LFRC as a direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle satisfy not only the quantity and quality of the energy demanded by the advanced cooling system, it also allows to obtain higher global efficiencies of the system due to it can be operated in conditions where the maximum performance of the Solar-GAX cycle is obtained without affecting in any significant way the solar collector efficiency. (author)

  12. Numerical simulation of a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator used as direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, N.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Sauceda, D.; Beltran, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a methodological analysis to design and evaluate the technical feasibility of use a Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator (LFRC) as generator in an advanced absorption refrigeration system (Solar-GAX cycle) has been carried out. For this purpose, a detailed one-dimensional numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behavior of a LFRC that solves, in a segregated manner, four subroutines: (a) fluid flow inside the receptor tube, (b) heat transfer in the receptor tube wall, (c) heat transfer in cover tube wall, and (d) solar thermal analysis in the solar concentrator has been developed. The LFRC numerical model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the technical literature; after that, a parametric study for different configurations of design has been carried out in order to obtain the highest solar concentration with the lowest thermal losses, keeping in mind both specific weather conditions and construction restrictions. The numerical result obtained demonstrates that using a LFRC as a direct generator in a Solar-GAX cycle satisfy not only the quantity and quality of the energy demanded by the advanced cooling system, it also allows to obtain higher global efficiencies of the system due to it can be operated in conditions where the maximum performance of the Solar-GAX cycle is obtained without affecting in any significant way the solar collector efficiency.

  13. Direct numerical solution of the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation and spatial distribution of water around hydrophobic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Doi, Junta

    1995-09-01

    The Ornstein-Zernike integral equation (OZ equation) has been used to evaluate the distribution function of solvents around solutes, but its numerical solution is difficult for molecules with a complicated shape. This paper proposes a numerical method to directly solve the OZ equation by introducing the 3D lattice. The method employs no approximation the reference interaction site model (RISM) equation employed. The method enables one to obtain the spatial distribution of spherical solvents around solutes with an arbitrary shape. Numerical accuracy is sufficient when the grid-spacing is less than 0.5 Å for solvent water. The spatial water distribution around a propane molecule is demonstrated as an example of a nonspherical hydrophobic molecule using iso-value surfaces. The water model proposed by Pratt and Chandler is used. The distribution agrees with the molecular dynamics simulation. The distribution increases offshore molecular concavities. The spatial distribution of water around 5α-cholest-2-ene (C27H46) is visualized using computer graphics techniques and a similar trend is observed.

  14. Sub-10-nm patterning via directed self-assembly of block copolymer films with a vapour-phase deposited topcoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; Kim, Do Han; Moni, Priya; Xiong, Shisheng; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Gleason, Karen K.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2017-07-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of the domain structure in block copolymer (BCP) thin films is a promising approach for sub-10-nm surface patterning. DSA requires the control of interfacial properties on both interfaces of a BCP film to induce the formation of domains that traverse the entire film with a perpendicular orientation. Here we show a methodology to control the interfacial properties of BCP films that uses a polymer topcoat deposited by initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD). The iCVD topcoat forms a crosslinked network that grafts to and immobilizes BCP chains to create an interface that is equally attractive to both blocks of the underlying copolymer. The topcoat, in conjunction with a chemically patterned substrate, directs the assembly of the grating structures in BCP films with a half-pitch dimension of 9.3 nm. As the iCVD topcoat can be as thin as 7 nm, it is amenable to pattern transfer without removal. The ease of vapour-phase deposition, applicability to high-resolution BCP systems and integration with pattern-transfer schemes are attractive properties of iCVD topcoats for industrial applications.

  15. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection

  16. Interaction of a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer with a fluttering panel using direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodony, Daniel; Ostoich, Christopher; Geubelle, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer is investigated using a direct numerical simulation approach for coupled fluid-structure problems. The solid solution uses a finite-strain, finite-deformation formulation, while the direct numerical simulation of the boundary layer uses a finite-difference compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The initially laminar boundary layer contains low amplitude unstable eigenmodes that grow in time and excite traveling bending waves in the panel. As the boundary layer transitions to a fully turbulent state, with Reθ ~ 1200 , the panel's bending waves coalesce into a standing wave pattern exhibiting flutter with a final amplitude approximately 20 times the panel thickness. The corresponding panel deflection is roughly 25 wall units and reaches across the sonic line in the boundary layer profile. Once it reaches a limit cycle state, the panel/boundary layer system is examined in detail where it is found that turbulence statistics, especially the main Reynolds stress - , appear to be modified by the presence of the compliant panel, the effect of which is forgotten within one integral length downstream of the panel. Supported by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate under contract number FA8650-06-2-3620.

  17. Tokamak electron heat transport by direct numerical simulation of small scale turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labit, B.

    2002-10-01

    electron normalized Larmor has been emphasized: the confinement time is inverse proportional to this parameter. Finally, the low dependence of turbulent transport with the magnetic shear and the inverse aspect ratio is also reported. Although the transport level observed in the simulations is low compared to the experiments, we have tried a direct confrontation with Tore Supra results. This tokamak is well designed to study the electron heat transport. Keeping most of the parameters from a well referenced Tore Supra shot, the nonlinear simulation gives a threshold quite close to the experimental one. The observed turbulent conductivity is a factor fifty lower than the experimental one. An important parameter can not be matched: the normalized Larmor radius, ρ * . This limitation has to be overcome in order to confirm this results. Finally, a rigorous confrontation between this result and gyrokinetic simulations has to conclude that the ETG instability cannot describe electron heat loses in tokamaks. (author)

  18. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase immobilized in graphene oxide–Nafion nanocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lili; Cheng Huhu; Zhang Huimin; Qu Liangti

    2012-01-01

    Direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized in graphene oxide (GO)–Nafion nanocomposite film and its application as a new biosensor was investigated with electrochemical methods. Immobilized HRP shows a pair of well-defined redox waves and retains its bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 and O 2 . As a new sensor with excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H 2 O 2 and O 2 , calibrations with good linear relationships were obtained from 1.0 μmol L −1 to 1.0 mmol L −1 for H 2 O 2 and from 0.5 μmol L −1 to 18.6 μmol L −1 for O 2 with the detection limits of 4.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 for H 2 O 2 and 1.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 for O 2 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Additionally, the responses showed Michaelis–Menten behavior with K m app values of 0.684 mmol L −1 for H 2 O 2 and 0.0160 mmol L −1 for O 2 . Moreover, the cathodic peak current of an HRP/GO/Nafion/GCE biosensor decreases by less than 5% after 4 weeks. These results reveal that GO can be conveniently incorporated into a polymer nanocomposite for fabrication of new GO-based biosensors.

  19. Direct observation of phase transition of GeSbTe thin films by Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Fei [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Rui; Geng Lei; Tong Liang; Xu Jun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Weining; Yu Yao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma Zhongyuan; Chen Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized marks on GST thin film were fabricated using Conductive-AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). The AFM morphology images show that the marks are ablated at the center and a raised ring surrounding it. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure of GeSbTe thin films was characterized by XRD and AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing and applying electrical field can induce crystallization on thin film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive-AFM was used to modify the surface of GeSbTe thin film. - Abstract: GeSbTe (GST) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using electron beam evaporation system and then annealed in nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures, ranging from 20 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force microscope (AFM) measurements were used to characterize the as-deposited and post-annealed thin films. Annealing treatment was found to induce changes on microstructure, surface roughness and grain size, indicating that with the increase of annealing temperature, the amorphous GST films first changed to face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase and then the stable hexagonal (hex) phase. Meanwhile, conductive-AFM (C-AFM) was used to produce crystallized GST dots on thin films. I-V spectroscopy results show that GST films can switch from amorphous state to crystalline state at threshold voltage. After switching, I-V curve exhibits ohmic characteristic, which is usually observed in crystallized GST films. By applying repeated I-V spectroscopies on the thin films, crystallized nuclei were observed. As the times of I-V spectroscopies increases, the area of written dots increases, and the center of the mark begin to ablate. The AFM images show that the shape of marks is an ablated center with a raised ring surrounding it.

  20. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C., E-mail: jconde@uvigo.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Stefanov, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H{sub 2} desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25

  1. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.C.; Martín, E.; Stefanov, S.; Alpuim, P.; Chiussi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. ► UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H 2 desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. ► Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. ► These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO 2 . ► To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. ► The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25 ns pulse length and energy densities ranging from 50 mJ/cm 2 to 400 mJ/cm 2 have been calculated. Numerical results allowed us to estimate the dehydrogenation

  2. Directed Energy Transfer in Films of CdSe Quantum Dots: Beyond the Point Dipole Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kaibo; Zídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size of ...

  3. Direct synthesis of RGO/Cu{sub 2}O composite films on Cu foil for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiangmao; Wang, Kun [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Chongjun, E-mail: chongjunzhao@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500 (Australia); Qian, Xiuzhen [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Shi [School of Information Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Zhen, E-mail: zhenl@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500 (Australia); Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Graphical abstract: RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites were synthesized by simple hydrothermal treatment of copper foils with graphene oxide, in which the reduction of graphene oxide and the formation of Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles simultaneously happened in one-pot reaction. These composites can be directly used as electrodes of supercapacitors with the highest specific capacitance of 98.5 F/g at 1 A g{sup −1}, which is much better than that of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O electrodes. -- Highlights: • The RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites were obtained by a friendly method in one step. • Improved capacitance performance is realized by the hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxides with Cu foils. • RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu-200 composites exhibit the largest specific capacitance of 98.5 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/cuprous oxide (RGO/Cu{sub 2}O) composite films were directly synthesized on the surface of copper foil substrates through a straight redox reaction between GO and Cu foil via a hydrothermal approach. Characterization of the resultant composites with X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) confirms the formation of Cu{sub 2}O and reduction of GO, in which Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles were well covered by RGO. The resultant composites (referred to as RGO/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu) were directly used as electrodes for supercapacitors, and their electrochemical performance was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution. A specific capacitance of 98.5 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} was obtained, which is much higher than that of pure Cu{sub 2}O prepared under the same conditions, due to the presence of RGO.

  4. Analytical and numerical construction of vertical periodic orbits about triangular libration points based on polynomial expansion relations among directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Zhai, Guan-Qiao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Innovated by the nonlinear modes concept in the vibrational dynamics, the vertical periodic orbits around the triangular libration points are revisited for the Circular Restricted Three-body Problem. The ζ -component motion is treated as the dominant motion and the ξ and η -component motions are treated as the slave motions. The slave motions are in nature related to the dominant motion through the approximate nonlinear polynomial expansions with respect to the ζ -position and ζ -velocity during the one of the periodic orbital motions. By employing the relations among the three directions, the three-dimensional system can be transferred into one-dimensional problem. Then the approximate three-dimensional vertical periodic solution can be analytically obtained by solving the dominant motion only on ζ -direction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an accuracy study was carried out to validate the polynomial expansion (PE) method. As one of the applications, the invariant nonlinear relations in polynomial expansion form are used as constraints to obtain numerical solutions by differential correction. The nonlinear relations among the directions provide an alternative point of view to explore the overall dynamics of periodic orbits around libration points with general rules.

  5. The role of ultra-fast solvent evaporation on the directed self-assembly of block polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapes, Chloe; Nelson, G.; Grant, M.; Wong, J.; Baruth, A.

    The directed self-assembly of nano-structures in block polymer thin films viasolvent vapor annealing is complicated by several factors, including evaporation rate. Solvent vapor annealing exposes a disordered film to solvent(s) in the vapor phase, increasing mobility and tuning surface energy, with the intention of producing an ordered structure. Recent theoretical predictions reveal the solvent evaporation affects the resultant nano-structuring. In a competition between phase separation and kinetic trapping during drying, faster solvent removal can enhance the propagation of a given morphology into the bulk of the thin film down to the substrate. Recent construction of a purpose-built, computer controlled solvent vapor annealing chamber provides control over forced solvent evaporation down to 15 ms. This is accomplished using pneumatically actuated nitrogen flow into and out of the chamber. Furthermore, in situ spectral reflectance, with 10 ms temporal resolution, monitors the swelling and evaporation. Presently, cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polylactide thin films were swollen with 40% (by volume) tetrahydrofuran, followed by immediate evaporation under a variety of designed conditions. This includes various evaporation times, ranging from 15 ms to several seconds, and four unique rate trajectories, including linear, exponential, and combinations. Atomic force microscopy reveals specific surface, free and substrate, morphologies of the resultant films, dependent on specific evaporation conditions. Funded by the Clare Boothe Luce Foundation and Nebraska EPSCoR.

  6. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; De Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO 2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO 3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba–Ti–Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO 2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO 2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale. (paper)

  7. COMETS2: An advanced MATLAB toolbox for the numerical analysis of electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chany; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang Jun; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Since there is no way to measure electric current generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) inside the human head through in vivo experiments, numerical analysis based on the finite element method has been widely used to estimate the electric field inside the head. In 2013, we released a MATLAB toolbox named COMETS, which has been used by a number of groups and has helped researchers to gain insight into the electric field distribution during stimulation. The aim of this study was to develop an advanced MATLAB toolbox, named COMETS2, for the numerical analysis of the electric field generated by tDCS. COMETS2 can generate any sizes of rectangular pad electrodes on any positions on the scalp surface. To reduce the large computational burden when repeatedly testing multiple electrode locations and sizes, a new technique to decompose the global stiffness matrix was proposed. As examples of potential applications, we observed the effects of sizes and displacements of electrodes on the results of electric field analysis. The proposed mesh decomposition method significantly enhanced the overall computational efficiency. We implemented an automatic electrode modeler for the first time, and proposed a new technique to enhance the computational efficiency. In this paper, an efficient toolbox for tDCS analysis is introduced (freely available at http://www.cometstool.com). It is expected that COMETS2 will be a useful toolbox for researchers who want to benefit from the numerical analysis of electric fields generated by tDCS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Direct measurements of liquid film roughness for the prediction of annular flow pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, Andrea C.; Schubring, DuWayne; Shedd, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    A vertical two-phase (air-water) test section has been constructed to allow for detailed visualization of flow phenomena in the annular regime. The total internal reflection (TIR) technique for film thickness estimation, originally developed by Shedd and Newell (1998), has been adapted for use in this test section. This technique uses the pattern of diffuse light reflected from the gas-liquid interface to estimate the base film thickness, i.e., the thickness between large liquid waves. Measurement of base film thickness separately from the average film thickness, which couples base film and wave behavior, allows for consideration of separate effects from each of the two zones. A modified Hurlburt-Newell (2000) correlation that separates the flow into these two zones has been generated. Data regarding the relationship between average base film thickness and wave height, along with verification of the base film thickness measured from the TIR technique, were provided by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). For the present vertical air-water up flows with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 4 to 34 cm s -1 and gas superficial velocities from 35 to 85 m s -1 , the modified Hurlburt-Newell correlation predicts pressure loss to within 10%. (author)

  9. Direct measurements of liquid film roughness for the prediction of annular flow pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, Andrea C; Schubring, DuWayne; Shedd, Timothy A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)], e-mail: cashwood@wisc.edu, e-mail: dlschubring@wisc.edu, e-mail: shedd@engr.wisc.edu

    2009-07-01

    A vertical two-phase (air-water) test section has been constructed to allow for detailed visualization of flow phenomena in the annular regime. The total internal reflection (TIR) technique for film thickness estimation, originally developed by Shedd and Newell (1998), has been adapted for use in this test section. This technique uses the pattern of diffuse light reflected from the gas-liquid interface to estimate the base film thickness, i.e., the thickness between large liquid waves. Measurement of base film thickness separately from the average film thickness, which couples base film and wave behavior, allows for consideration of separate effects from each of the two zones. A modified Hurlburt-Newell (2000) correlation that separates the flow into these two zones has been generated. Data regarding the relationship between average base film thickness and wave height, along with verification of the base film thickness measured from the TIR technique, were provided by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). For the present vertical air-water up flows with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 4 to 34 cm s{sup -1} and gas superficial velocities from 35 to 85 m s{sup -1}, the modified Hurlburt-Newell correlation predicts pressure loss to within 10%. (author)

  10. Direct numerical simulation of ignition front propagation in a constant volume with temperature inhomogeneities. I. Fundamental analysis and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Sankaran, Ramanan [Reacting Flow Research Department, Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969 MS 9051, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Mason, Scott D. [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Im, Hong G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding and modeling of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression-ignition engines. Numerical diagnostics are developed to analyze the mode of combustion and the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions. The roles of dissipation of heat and mass are divided conceptually into transport within ignition fronts and passive scalar dissipation, which modifies the statistics of the preignition temperature field. Transport within ignition fronts is analyzed by monitoring the propagation speed of ignition fronts using the displacement speed of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release rate. The prevalence of deflagrative versus spontaneous ignition front propagation is found to depend on the local temperature gradient, and may be identified by the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the laminar deflagration speed. The significance of passive scalar mixing is examined using a mixing timescale based on enthalpy fluctuations. Finally, the predictions of the multizone modeling strategy are compared with the DNS, and the results are explained using the diagnostics developed. (author)

  11. Convection methodology for fission track annealing: direct and inverse numerical simulations in the multi-exponential case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miellou, J.C.; Igli, H.; Grivet, M.; Rebetez, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    1994-01-01

    In minerals, the uranium fission tracks are sensitive to temperature and time. The consequence is that the etchable lengths are reduced. To simulate the phenomenon, at the last International Conference on Nuclear Tracks in solids at Beijing in 1992, we proposed a convection model for fission track annealing based on a reaction situation associated with only one activation energy. Moreover a simple inverse method based on the resolution of an ordinary differential equation was described, making it possible to retrace the thermal history in this mono-exponential situation. The aim of this paper is to consider a more involved class of models including multi-exponentials associated with several activation energies. We shall describe in this framework the modelling of the direct phenomenon and the resolution of the inverse problem. Results of numerical simulations and comparison with the mono-exponential case will be presented. 5 refs. (author)

  12. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities relevant to HCCI and SCCI combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau; Yu, Gwang Hyeon; Lu, Tianfeng; Chung, Suk-Ho; Yoo, Chun Sang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of temperature and composition stratifications on the ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture at three initial mean temperatures under elevated pressure are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 58-species

  14. Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, István; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Szabó, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems.

  15. Numerical simulation of spray coalescence in an Eulerian framework: Direct quadrature method of moments and multi-fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.O.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of the present study is Eulerian modeling and simulation of polydisperse liquid sprays undergoing droplet coalescence and evaporation. The fundamental mathematical description is the Williams spray equation governing the joint number density function f(v,u;x,t) of droplet volume and velocity. Eulerian multi-fluid models have already been rigorously derived from this equation in Laurent et al. [F. Laurent, M. Massot, P. Villedieu, Eulerian multi-fluid modeling for the numerical simulation of coalescence in polydisperse dense liquid sprays, J. Comput. Phys. 194 (2004) 505-543]. The first key feature of the paper is the application of direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) introduced by Marchisio and Fox [D.L. Marchisio, R.O. Fox, Solution of population balance equations using the direct quadrature method of moments, J. Aerosol Sci. 36 (2005) 43-73] to the Williams spray equation. Both the multi-fluid method and DQMOM yield systems of Eulerian conservation equations with complicated interaction terms representing coalescence. In order to focus on the difficulties associated with treating size-dependent coalescence and to avoid numerical uncertainty issues associated with two-way coupling, only one-way coupling between the droplets and a given gas velocity field is considered. In order to validate and compare these approaches, the chosen configuration is a self-similar 2D axisymmetrical decelerating nozzle with sprays having various size distributions, ranging from smooth ones up to Dirac delta functions. The second key feature of the paper is a thorough comparison of the two approaches for various test-cases to a reference solution obtained through a classical stochastic Lagrangian solver. Both Eulerian models prove to describe adequately spray coalescence and yield a very interesting alternative to the Lagrangian solver. The third key point of the study is a detailed description of the limitations associated with each method, thus giving criteria for

  16. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  17. Comparative study of experimental and numerical behaviors of microwave absorbers based on ultrathin Al and Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.S., E-mail: daniel_eng_aero@hotmail.com [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/UNIFESP, Rua Talim, 330, CEP 12.231-280, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Nohara, E.L. [Universidade de Taubaté, Rua Daniel Danelli, s/n, CEP 12060-440, Taubaté, SP (Brazil); Rezende, M.C. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/UNIFESP, Rua Talim, 330, CEP 12.231-280, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    The study of radar absorbing materials increasingly thin, lightweight and flexible has gained growing importance in recent years. In military area these characteristics allow the reduction of weight and volume of platforms, and in civilian sector these materials stimulate innovative projects of electronic and microwave devices. The present work was devoted to studying ultrathin films of Al (20–80 nm) and Cu (10–100 nm) deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by magnetron sputtering technique. The electrical conductivity values of the films were determined by 4 probes method, the S parameters (S{sub 11} and S{sub 12}) were obtained by transmission line using a X-band waveguide and the skin depth calculated. The results show the dependence of the electrical conductivity with the thickness for both films. The experimental values of microwave attenuation were compared with calculated values based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. This comparison shows a good adjustment and confirms the use of electrical conductivity measurements to predict the microwave absorption behavior of ultrathin films. - Highlights: • This article focuses on recent progresses in ultrathin films aiming microwave absorption. • Nanometric films of Al and Cu deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate were produced. • Electrical conductivity (4-probes) and S-parameters (S{sub 11} and S{sub 12}) of nanofilms were measured. • Calculated microwave attenuations were obtained based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. • A good fit between experimental and predictions data of microwave absorption was observed.

  18. Comparative study of experimental and numerical behaviors of microwave absorbers based on ultrathin Al and Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.S.; Nohara, E.L.; Rezende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The study of radar absorbing materials increasingly thin, lightweight and flexible has gained growing importance in recent years. In military area these characteristics allow the reduction of weight and volume of platforms, and in civilian sector these materials stimulate innovative projects of electronic and microwave devices. The present work was devoted to studying ultrathin films of Al (20–80 nm) and Cu (10–100 nm) deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by magnetron sputtering technique. The electrical conductivity values of the films were determined by 4 probes method, the S parameters (S_1_1 and S_1_2) were obtained by transmission line using a X-band waveguide and the skin depth calculated. The results show the dependence of the electrical conductivity with the thickness for both films. The experimental values of microwave attenuation were compared with calculated values based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. This comparison shows a good adjustment and confirms the use of electrical conductivity measurements to predict the microwave absorption behavior of ultrathin films. - Highlights: • This article focuses on recent progresses in ultrathin films aiming microwave absorption. • Nanometric films of Al and Cu deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate were produced. • Electrical conductivity (4-probes) and S-parameters (S_1_1 and S_1_2) of nanofilms were measured. • Calculated microwave attenuations were obtained based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. • A good fit between experimental and predictions data of microwave absorption was observed.

  19. Direct investigation of the vectorization properties of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in phospholipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, Isabelle; Nedyalkov, Mickael; Petkova, Vera; Benattar, Jean Jacques; Weisse, Sandrine; Auzély-Velty, Rachel; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Perly, Bruno

    2002-10-01

    Recently, new cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesized and shown to exhibit strong amphiphilic properties. In this paper, we study the action of these new amphiphilic cyclodextrins on phospholipids. Mixed phospholipid/cyclodextrin derivative films were prepared and studied using X-ray reflectivity for various phospholipid/cyclodextrin ratios. A molar ratio of 3 provides a highly stable film the molecular structure of which has been investigated in detail. The cholesterol tail of the cyclodextrin molecule was found to be anchored into the phospholipid film. The cyclodextrin moieties exposed to the aqueous medium are prone to the addition of the guest molecule Dosulepin, making them of high interest for drug delivery. For this purpose and as an example of a potential application, this cyclodextrin molecular carrier property is also addressed to this complex film architecture.

  20. Macroporous 'bubble' graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Chun-Hsien; Zhao, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Bing-Sen; Kong, Qing-Qiang; Wang, Mao-Zhang; Yang, Yong-Gang; Cai, Rong; Sheng Su, Dang

    2012-07-21

    A three-dimensional bubble graphene film, with controllable and uniform macropores and tailorable microstructure, was fabricated by a facile hard templating strategy and exhibit extraordinary electrochemical capacitance with high rate capability (1.0 V s(-1)).

  1. Direct imaging of dopant distribution in polycrystalline ZnO films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenzo, F.; Aebersold, A.B.; Morales-Masis, M.; Ledinský, Martin; Escrig, S.; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Alexander, D.T.L.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Fejfar, Antonín; Hébert, C.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2017), s. 7241-7248 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC16-10429J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dopant distribution * film polarity * grain boundaries * NanoSIMS * polycrystalline film * zinc oxide Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  2. Multi-Directional Growth of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Over Catalyst Film Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structure of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs severely depends on the properties of pre-prepared catalyst films. Aiming for the preparation of precisely controlled catalyst film, atomic layer deposition (ALD was employed to deposit uniform Fe2O3 film for the growth of CNT arrays on planar substrate surfaces as well as the curved ones. Iron acetylacetonate and ozone were introduced into the reactor alternately as precursors to realize the formation of catalyst films. By varying the deposition cycles, uniform and smooth Fe2O3 catalyst films with different thicknesses were obtained on Si/SiO2 substrate, which supported the growth of highly oriented few-walled CNT arrays. Utilizing the advantage of ALD process in coating non-planar surfaces, uniform catalyst films can also be successfully deposited onto quartz fibers. Aligned few-walled CNTs can be grafted on the quartz fibers, and they self-organized into a leaf-shaped structure due to the curved surface morphology. The growth of aligned CNTs on non-planar surfaces holds promise in constructing hierarchical CNT architectures in future.

  3. Direct Fabrication of Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Film for Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Cheng-Lin; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Chang, Li-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Hu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inkjet-printed dielectric film that used a polymer-based SU-8 ink was fabricated for use in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor. Thermal treatment of the inkjet-printed SU-8 polymer film affected its surface morphology, chemical structure, and surface wettability. A 20-min soft-bake at 60°C was applied to eliminate inkjet-printed bubbles and ripples. The ultraviolet-exposed SU-8 polymer film was crosslinked at temperatures between 120°C and 220°C and became disordered at 270°C, demonstrated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A maximum SU-8 polymer film hard-bake temperature of 120°C was identified, and a printing process was subsequently employed because the appropriate water contact angle of the printed film was 79°. Under the appropriate inkjet printing conditions, the two-transmission-line method was used to extract the dielectric and electrical properties of the SU-8 polymer film, and the electrical behavior of the fabricated MIM capacitor was also characterized.

  4. Direct Silver Micro Circuit Patterning on Transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate Film Using Laser-Induced Photothermochemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jui Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new and improved approach to the rapid and green fabrication of highly conductive microscale silver structures on low-cost transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate. In this new laser direct synthesis and pattering (LDSP process, silver microstructures are simultaneously synthesized and laid down in a predetermined pattern using a low power continuous wave (CW laser. The silver ion processing solution, which is transparent and reactive, contains a red azo dye as the absorbing material. The silver pattern is formed by photothermochemical reduction of the silver ions induced by the focused CW laser beam. In this improved LDSP process, the non-toxic additive in the transparent ionic solution absorbs energy from a low cost CW visible laser without the need for the introduction of any hazardous chemical process. Tests were carried out to determine the durability of the conductive patterns, and numerical analyses of the thermal and fluid transport were performed to investigate the morphology of the deposited patterns. This technology is an advanced method for preparing micro-scale circuitry on an inexpensive, flexible, and transparent polymer substrate that is fast, environmentally benign, and shows potential for Roll-to-Roll manufacture.

  5. A method of simultaneous no-screen X-ray film taking with direct twofold magnification of hands and feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajgner, J.; Szymanska-Prach, H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose an original method of X-ray examination of hands and feet which makes possible simultaneous radiography without screen and direct twofold magnified film taking. The method is not connected with the necessity of exposing the patient to an additional dose of X-rays. It has been tried in 20 patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis. It requires an X-ray tube with 0.3 x 0.3 mm microfocus. (author)

  6. From the direct numerical simulation to system codes-perspective for the multi-scale analysis of LWR thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale analysis of water-cooled reactor thermal hydraulics can be used to take advantage of increased computer power and improved simulation tools, including Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) (in both open and porous mediums), and system thermalhydraulic codes. This paper presents a general strategy for this procedure for various thermalhydraulic scales. A short state of the art is given for each scale, and the role of the scale in the overall multi-scale analysis process is defined. System thermalhydraulic codes will remain a privileged tool for many investigations related to safety. CFD in porous medium is already being frequently used for core thermal hydraulics, either in 3D modules of system codes or in component codes. CFD in open medium allows zooming on some reactor components in specific situations, and may be coupled to the system and component scales. Various modeling approaches exist in the domain from DNS to CFD which may be used to improve the understanding of flow processes, and as a basis for developing more physically based models for macroscopic tools. A few examples are given to illustrate the multi-scale approach. Perspectives for the future are drawn from the present state of the art and directions for future research and development are given

  7. Numerical simulation of the direct reduction of pellets in a rotary hearth furnace for zinc-containing metallurgical dust treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-liang; Jiang, Ze-yi; Zhang, Xin-xin; Wang, Peng; She, Xue-feng

    2013-07-01

    A mathematical model was established to describe the direct reduction of pellets in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF). In the model, heat transfer, mass transfer, and gas-solid chemical reactions were taken into account. The behaviors of iron metallization and dezincification were analyzed by the numerical method, which was validated by experimental data of the direct reduction of pellets in a Si-Mo furnace. The simulation results show that if the production targets of iron metallization and dezincification are up to 80% and 90%, respectively, the furnace temperature for high-temperature sections must be set higher than 1300°C. Moreover, an undersupply of secondary air by 20% will lead to a decline in iron metallization rate of discharged pellets by 10% and a decrease in dezincing rate by 13%. In addition, if the residence time of pellets in the furnace is over 20 min, its further extension will hardly lead to an obvious increase in production indexes under the same furnace temperature curve.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of MHD heat transfer in high Reynolds number turbulent channel flows for Prandtl number of 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study

  9. Direct numerical simulation of MHD heat transfer in high Reynolds number turbulent channel flows for Prandtl number of 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Yoshida, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study.

  10. Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin in a CdS nanorods and Nafion composite film on carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Wang Dandan; Li Guicun; Zhai Ziqin; Zhao Ruijun; Jiao Kui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) was carefully investigated by using a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF 6 ) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) as the basal working electrode. Hb was immobilized on the surface of CILE with the nanocomposite film composed of Nafion and CdS nanorods by a step-by-step method. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra showed that Hb in the composite film remained its native structure. The direct electrochemical behaviors of Hb in the composite film were further studied in a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks of Hb was obtained with the formal potential (E 0 ') at -0.295 V (vs. SCE), which was the characteristic of heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. The direct electrochemistry of Hb was achieved on the modified electrode and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) was calculated to be 0.291 s -1 . The formal potentials of Hb Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple shifted negatively with the increase of buffer pH and a slope value of -45.1 mV/pH was got, which indicated that one electron transfer accompanied with one proton transportation. The fabricated Hb sensor showed good electrocatalytic manner to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)

  11. Hierarchical micro- and nanofabrication by pattern-directed contact instabilities of thin viscoelastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abir; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sarkar, Jayati; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2017-12-01

    A surface of a thin viscoelastic film forms spinodal patterns when brought in contact proximity of another surface due to the dominance of destabilizing intermolecular interaction over the stabilizing elastic and surface tension forces. In this study, we theoretically explore such contact instabilities of a thin viscoelastic film, wherein the patterns generated on the surface of the film is developed with the help of a contactor decorated with periodic physical, chemical, and physicochemical features on the surface. The nonlinear analysis shown here considers the movement of the patterned contactor during the adhesion and debonding processes, which is unlike most of the previous works where the contactor is considered to be stationary. The simulations reveal that the amplitude and periodicity of the patterns decorated on the contactor together with the contactor speed can be the key parameters to stimulate pattern formation on the film surface alongside causing changeover of the various modes of debonding of the surfaces. In particular, the ratio of the elastic to viscous compliances of the film is found to play a critical role to stimulate the changeover of the modes from catastrophic to peeling or coalescence. The study uncovers that a higher wettability contrast across the patterned contactor leads to the catastrophic collapse of the patterns decorated on the film surface when the contactor debonds at a moderate speed. In comparison, a moderately high wettability contrast alongside a faster withdrawal speed of the contactor results in the gradual peeling of columns during the debonding cycle. Remarkably, a higher withdrawal speed of the contactor from the film-proximity can increase the aspect ratio of the patterns fabricated on the film surface to about fourfold during the peeling mode of debonding. The results show the importance of the usage of patterned contactors, their controlled movement, and extent of elastic to viscous compliance ratio of the film for

  12. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanostructured gold thin films and its application to bioelectrochemical glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Cuicui; Wang Xia; Liu Xueying; Hou Shifeng; Ma Houyi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au thin films are formed by electrodeposition and galvanic replacement technology. ► Glucose oxidase is stably immobilized via a simple physical adsorption method. ► The direct electrochemical behavior is obtained on the immobilized glucose oxidase. ► An amperometric sensor of glucose with an excellent sensing capability is achieved. - Abstract: Glucose oxidase (GOx) was stably immobilized via a simple physical adsorption method onto the nanostructured Au thin films fabricated by using electrodeposition and galvanic replacement technology, which provides a facile method to prepare morphology-controllable Au films and also facilitates the preparation and application of enzyme modified electrodes. An obvious advantage of the as-prepared enzyme electrode (denoted as GOx/Au/GCE) is that the nano-Au films provide a favorable microenvironment for GOx and facilitate the electron transfer between the active center of GOx and electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicate that the immobilized GOx displayed a direct, reversible and surface-confined redox reaction in the phosphate buffer solution. Furthermore, the enzyme modified electrode was used as a glucose bioelectrochemical sensor, exhibiting a linear relationship in the concentration ranges of 2.5–32.5 μmol L −1 and 60–130 μmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.32 μmol L −1 (S/N = 3) at an applied potential of −0.55 V. Due to the excellent stability, sensitivity and anti-interference ability, the Au thin films are hopeful in the construction of glucose biosensors.

  13. A numerical study of scalar dispersion downstream of a wall-mounted cube using direct simulations and algebraic flux models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R., E-mail: riccardo.rossi12@unibo.i [Laboratorio di Termofluidodinamica Computazionale Seconda Facolta di Ingegneria di Forli, Universita di Bologna Via Fontanelle 40, 47100 Forli (Italy); Center for Turbulence Research Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Philips, D.A.; Iaccarino, G. [Center for Turbulence Research Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The computed DNS statistics indicate that a gradient-transport scheme can be applied to the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. {yields} The streamwise scalar flux is characterized by a counter-gradient transport mechanism in the wake region close to the obstacle. {yields} The wake profiles of scalar fluctuations and the shape of probability density functions do not suggest a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. {yields} The evaluation of scalar dispersion models must include a careful assessment of the computed mean velocity field and Reynolds stress tensor. {yields} Algebraic models provide an improved prediction of the mean concentration field as compared to the standard eddy-diffusivity model. -- Abstract: The dispersion of a passive scalar downstream of a wall-mounted cube is examined using direct numerical simulations and turbulence models applied to the Reynolds equations. The scalar is released from a circular source located on top of the obstacle, which is immersed in a developing boundary-layer flow. Direct simulations are performed to give insight into the mixing process and to provide a reference database for turbulence closures. Algebraic flux models are evaluated against the standard eddy-diffusivity representation. Coherent structures periodically released from the cube top are responsible for a counter-diffusion mechanism appearing in the streamwise scalar flux. Alternating vortex pairs form from the lateral edges of the cube, but the intensity profiles and probability density functions of scalar fluctuations suggest that they do not cause a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. The gradient-transport scheme is consistent with the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. From the comparative study with our direct simulations, we further stress that Reynolds stress predictions must be carefully evaluated along with scalar flux closures in order to establish the reliability of

  14. A numerical study of scalar dispersion downstream of a wall-mounted cube using direct simulations and algebraic flux models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.; Philips, D.A.; Iaccarino, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The computed DNS statistics indicate that a gradient-transport scheme can be applied to the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. → The streamwise scalar flux is characterized by a counter-gradient transport mechanism in the wake region close to the obstacle. → The wake profiles of scalar fluctuations and the shape of probability density functions do not suggest a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. → The evaluation of scalar dispersion models must include a careful assessment of the computed mean velocity field and Reynolds stress tensor. → Algebraic models provide an improved prediction of the mean concentration field as compared to the standard eddy-diffusivity model. -- Abstract: The dispersion of a passive scalar downstream of a wall-mounted cube is examined using direct numerical simulations and turbulence models applied to the Reynolds equations. The scalar is released from a circular source located on top of the obstacle, which is immersed in a developing boundary-layer flow. Direct simulations are performed to give insight into the mixing process and to provide a reference database for turbulence closures. Algebraic flux models are evaluated against the standard eddy-diffusivity representation. Coherent structures periodically released from the cube top are responsible for a counter-diffusion mechanism appearing in the streamwise scalar flux. Alternating vortex pairs form from the lateral edges of the cube, but the intensity profiles and probability density functions of scalar fluctuations suggest that they do not cause a significant flapping movement of the scalar plume. The gradient-transport scheme is consistent with the vertical and spanwise scalar flux components. From the comparative study with our direct simulations, we further stress that Reynolds stress predictions must be carefully evaluated along with scalar flux closures in order to establish the reliability of Reynolds

  15. Direct writing of conductive silver micropatterns on flexible polyimide film by laser-induced pyrolysis of silver nanoparticle-dispersed film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminuzzaman, Mohammod; Watanabe, Akira; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2010-01-01

    This article describes fabrication of Ag micropatterns on a flexible polyimide (PI) film by laser direct writing using an Ag nanoparticle-dispersed film as a precursor. Ag micropatterns are characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), surface profilometry, and resistivity measurements. The line width of Ag micropatterns can be effectively controlled by altering the experimental parameters of laser direct writing especially laser intensity, objective lens, and laser beam scanning speed etc. Using an objective lens of 100x and laser intensity of 170.50 kW/cm 2 , Ag micropatterns with a line width of about 6 μm have been achieved. The Ag micropatterns show strong adhesion to polyimide surface as evaluated by Scotch-tape test. The resistivity of the Ag micropatterns is determined to be 4.1 x 10 -6 Ω cm using two-point probe method. This value is comparable with the resistivity of bulk Ag (1.6 x 10 -6 Ω cm).

  16. Crystallinity, etchability, electrical and mechanical properties of Ga doped amorphous indium tin oxide thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Song, Pung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) and Ga-doped ITO (ITO:Ga) films were deposited on glass and polyimide (PI) substrates by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering using different ITO:Ga targets (doped-Ga: 0, 0.1 and 2.9 wt.%). The films were deposited with a thickness of 50 nm and then post-annealed at various temperatures (room temperature-250 °C) in a vacuum chamber for 30 min. The amorphous ITO:Ga (0.1 wt.% Ga) films post-annealed at 220 °C exhibited relatively low resistivity (4.622x10 −4 Ω cm), indicating that the crystallinity of the ITO:Ga films decreased with increasing Ga content. In addition, the amorphous ITO:Ga films showed a better surface morphology, etchability and mechanical properties than the ITO films. - Highlights: • The Ga doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films crystallized at higher temperatures than the ITO films. • The amorphisation of ITO films increases with increasing Ga content. • Similar resistivity was observed between crystalline ITO and amorphous Ga doped ITO films. • Etching property of ITO film was improved with increasing Ga content

  17. Direct detection of cysteine using functionalized BaTiO3 nanoparticles film based self-powered biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sophia; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-05-15

    Simple, novel, and direct detection of clinically important biomolecules have continuous demand among scientific community as well as in market. Here, we report the first direct detection and facile fabrication of a cysteine-responsive, film-based, self-powered device. NH 2 functionalized BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT-NH 2 NPs) suspended in a three-dimensional matrix of an agarose (Ag) film, were used for cysteine detection. BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT NPs) semiconducting as well as piezoelectric properties were harnessed in this study. The changes in surface charge properties of the film with respect to cysteine concentrations were determined using a current-voltage (I-V) technique. The current response increased with cysteine concentration (linear concentration range=10µM-1mM). Based on the properties of the composite (BT/Ag), we created a self-powered cysteine sensor in which the output voltage from a piezoelectric nanogenerator was used to drive the sensor. The potential drop across the sensor was measured as a function of cysteine concentrations. Real-time analysis of sensor performance was carried out on urine samples by non-invasive method. This novel sensor demonstrated good selectivity, linear concentration range and detection limit of 10µM; acceptable for routine analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct Time Domain Numerical Analysis of Transient Behavior of a VLFS during Unsteady External Loads in Wave Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of the VLFS subjected to arbitrary external load is systematically investigated by a direct time domain modal expansion method, in which the BEM solutions based on time domain Kelvin sources are used for hydrodynamic forces. In the analysis, the time domain free-surface Green functions with sufficient accuracy are rapidly evaluated in finite water depth by the interpolation-tabulation method, and the boundary integral equation with a quarter VLFS model is established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The validity of the present method is verified by comparing with the time histories of vertical displacements of the VLFS during a mass drop and airplane landing and takeoff in still water conditions, respectively. Then the developed numerical scheme is used in wave conditions to study the combined action taking into account the mass drop/airplane landing/takeoff loads as well as incident wave action. It is found that the elevation of structural waves due to mass drop load can be significantly changed near the impact region, while the vertical motion of runway in wave conditions is dominant as compared with that only generated by airplane.

  19. Influence of polymer additives on turbulent energy cascading in forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence studied by direct numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Feng-Chen; Cai Wei-Hua; Zhang Hong-Na; Wang Yue

    2012-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) were performed for the forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with/without polymer additives in order to elaborate the characteristics of the turbulent energy cascading influenced by drag-reducing effects. The finite elastic non-linear extensibility-Peterlin model (FENE-P) was used as the conformation tensor equation for the viscoelastic polymer solution. Detailed analyses of DNS data were carried out in this paper for the turbulence scaling law and the topological dynamics of FHIT as well as the important turbulent parameters, including turbulent kinetic energy spectra, enstrophy and strain, velocity structure function, small-scale intermittency, etc. A natural and straightforward definition for the drag reduction rate was also proposed for the drag-reducing FHIT based on the decrease degree of the turbulent kinetic energy. It was found that the turbulent energy cascading in the FHIT was greatly modified by the drag-reducing polymer additives. The enstrophy and the strain fields in the FHIT of the polymer solution were remarkably weakened as compared with their Newtonian counterparts. The small-scale vortices and the small-scale intermittency were all inhibited by the viscoelastic effects in the FHIT of the polymer solution. However, the scaling law in a fashion of extended self-similarity for the FHIT of the polymer solution, within the presently simulated range of Weissenberg numbers, had no distinct differences compared with that of the Newtonian fluid case

  20. Comparison of one-dimensional probabilistic finite element method with direct numerical simulation of dynamically loaded heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure such as grain topology, porosity, inclusions, and defects; however, many models rely on assumptions of homogeneity. We use the probabilistic finite element method (WK Liu, IJNME, 1986) to introduce local uncertainty to account for material heterogeneity. The PFEM uses statistical information about the local material response (i.e., its expectation, coefficient of variation, and autocorrelation) drawn from knowledge of the microstructure, single crystal behavior, and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to determine the expectation and covariance of the system response (velocity, strain, stress, etc). This approach is compared to resolved grain-scale simulations of the equivalent system. The microstructures used for the DNS are produced using Monte Carlo simulations of grain growth, and a sufficient number of realizations are computed to ensure a meaningful comparison. Finally, comments are made regarding the suitability of one-dimensional PFEM for modeling material heterogeneity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of open channel flow over smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth step changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Amirreza; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are reported for open channel flow over streamwise-alternating patches of smooth and fully rough walls. Owing to the streamwise periodicity, the flow configuration is composed of a step change from smooth to rough, and a step change from rough to smooth. The friction Reynolds number varies from 443 over the smooth patch to 715 over the rough patch. The flow is thoroughly studied by mean and fluctuation profiles, and spectrograms. The detailed flow from DNS reveals discrepancies of up to 50% among the various definitions of the internal-layer thickness, with apparent power-law exponents differing by up to 60%. The definition based on the logarithmic slope of the velocity profile, as proposed by Chamorro et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol., vol. 130, 2009, pp. 29-41), is most consistent with the physical notion of the internal layer; this is supported by the defect similarity based on this internal-layer thickness, and the streamwise homogeneity of the dissipation length-scale within this internal layer. The statistics inside this internal-layer, and the growth of the internal layer itself, are minimally affected by the streamwise periodicity when the patch length is at least six times the channel height.

  2. Model reduction for the dynamics and control of large structural systems via neutral network processing direct numerical optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becus, Georges A.; Chan, Alistair K.

    1993-01-01

    Three neural network processing approaches in a direct numerical optimization model reduction scheme are proposed and investigated. Large structural systems, such as large space structures, offer new challenges to both structural dynamicists and control engineers. One such challenge is that of dimensionality. Indeed these distributed parameter systems can be modeled either by infinite dimensional mathematical models (typically partial differential equations) or by high dimensional discrete models (typically finite element models) often exhibiting thousands of vibrational modes usually closely spaced and with little, if any, damping. Clearly, some form of model reduction is in order, especially for the control engineer who can actively control but a few of the modes using system identification based on a limited number of sensors. Inasmuch as the amount of 'control spillover' (in which the control inputs excite the neglected dynamics) and/or 'observation spillover' (where neglected dynamics affect system identification) is to a large extent determined by the choice of particular reduced model (RM), the way in which this model reduction is carried out is often critical.

  3. A direct current potential drop method for evaluating oxide film thickness formed in high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Saka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    To establish an evaluation technique for oxide film thickness in-situ, the applicability of a four-point-probe direct current potential drop method is discussed in this study. Several samples of JIS SUS316L stainless steel with different oxide film thickness were prepared after immersing them in oxygenated pure water at 288°C for different periods. The oxide film thickness was measured by cross sectional observation using a transmission electron microscope. Potential drop on the oxide surface was measured every second during an acquisition period of about 20 s while a constant current was being injected into the sample simultaneously. This kind of measurement was repeatedly carried out at several arbitrary contact positions on the surface of the same sample. The measurement results showed that the potential drop slightly changed during the acquisition period and the tendency varied at the different contact positions. Multiple measurements at different contact positions revealed that the tendency could be categorized into two general types: the decreasing potential drop and the increasing potential drop, defined by the overall trend of the potential drop during the acquisition time. It was found that the ratio of contact positions with a decreasing potential drop tendency to all the contact positions of measurement tended to increase as applied current increased. This tendency depended on the oxide film thickness. The threshold value of applied current was found to correlate well with the oxide film thickness when the occurrence rate of decreasing potential drop ranged from 70 to 90% showing the best correlation at 70%. (author)

  4. Direct observations of grain boundary phenomena during indentation of Al and Al-Mg thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, WA; De Hosson, JTM; Minor, AM; Stach, EA; Morris, Joan K.; Corcoran, SG; Joo, YC; Moody, NR; Suo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of Al and Al-Mg thin films has been studied with the unique experimental approach of in-situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope. This paper concentrates on the role of solute Mg additions in the transfer of plasticity across grain boundaries. The

  5. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Kalpataru, E-mail: panda@afm.eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, I-Nan, E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.08 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0 V/μm. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  6. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Kalpataru; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17 V/μm with high EFE current density of 5.08 mA/cm 2 at an applied field of 7.0 V/μm. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  7. In vivo comparison of Kodak E-speed film and direct digital imaging system for assessment of interproximal bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellekatte C Neetha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography as compared to a conventional radiographic film for the assessment of interproximal bone loss with intrasurgical measurements as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients, with untreated moderate-to-advanced periodontal disease, were included in the study. The presurgical radiographs were made using a Kodak E-speed film and a Dexis digital sensor simultaneously, for sites with interproximal bone loss. At the time of surgery, the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the bone defect (CEJ-BD was measured for 331 interproximal defects. The radiographs were randomized and then linear measurements were taken for the same sites in both conventional and digital radiographs. Stastistical Analysis: Comparison between the conventional, digital, and intrasurgical measurements was done statistically using the Student′s t-test. The agreement and correlation among the methods was assessed using the weighted Kappa measure of agreement and Pearson′s correlation, respectively. Results: The results showed that the conventional (5.15 ± 2.19 mm and digital analyzing techniques (5.13 ± 2.19 mm underestimated the interproximal bone loss, as compared to the intrasurgical measurements (6.07 ± 2.05 mm (p < 0.001. The difference between conventional and digital radiographic methods was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.92. Conclusion: Under normal clinical use, the alveolar bone levels revealed on intraoral direct digital radiographs and Kodak E speed film were almost same. Therefore, the digital radiographic system can be routinely used in clinical practice as an alternative to conventional film.

  8. Heat treatment of whole milk by the direct joule effect--experimental and numerical approaches to fouling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaudeau, L; Winterton, P; Leuliet, J C; Tissier, J P; Maury, V; Semet, F; Debreyne, P; Berthou, M; Chopard, F

    2006-12-01

    The development of alternative technologies such as the direct Joule effect to pasteurize and sterilize food products is of great scientific and industrial interest. Our objective was 1) to gain insight into the ability to ensure ultra-high-temperature treatment of milk and 2) to investigate the links among thermal, hydraulic, and electrical phenomena in relation to fouling in a direct Joule effect heater. The ohmic heater [OH; E perpendicular to v (where E is the electrical field and v is the velocity); P (power) = 15 kW] was composed of 5 flat rectangular cells [e (space between the plate and electrode) = 15 mm, w (wall) = 76 mm, and L (length of the plate in plate heat exchanger or electrode) = 246 mm]--3 active cells to ensure heating and 2 (at the extremities) for electrical insulation and the recovery of leakage currents. In the first step, the thermal performance of the OH was investigated vs. the flow regimen [50 conductivity of fluids (0.1 thermal approach (thermal and electrical balance, modeling of the temperature profile of a fluid) and local analysis of the wall temperature of the electrode. An empirical correlation was established to estimate the temperature gradient, T(w)-T(b) (where T(w) is the wall temperature and T(b) is the product temperature) under clean conditions (without fouling) and was used to define operating conditions for pure-volume and direct-resistance heating. In the second step, the ability of OH to ensure the ultra-high-temperature treatment of whole milk was investigated and compared with a plate heat exchanger. Special care was taken to investigate the heat transfer phenomena occurring over a range of temperatures from 105 to 138 degrees C. This temperature range corresponds to the part of the process made critical by protein and mineral fouling. The objectives were 1) to demonstrate the ability of an OH to ensure heat treatment of milk, 2) to study the thermal and hydraulic performance with an increasing power and temperature

  9. The study of the effects of sea-spray drops on the marine atmospheric boundary layer by direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, O.; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2018-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of turbulent exchange processes occurring in the atmospheric marine boundary layer are of primary importance for their correct parameterization in large-scale prognostic models. These processes are complicated, especially at sufficiently strong wind forcing conditions, by the presence of sea-spray drops which are torn off the crests of sufficiently steep surface waves by the wind gusts. Natural observations indicate that mass fraction of sea-spray drops increases with wind speed and their impact on the dynamics of the air in the vicinity of the sea surface can become quite significant. Field experiments, however, are limited by insufficient accuracy of the acquired data and are in general costly and difficult. Laboratory modeling presents another route to investigate the spray-mediated exchange processes in much more detail as compared to the natural experiments. However, laboratory measurements, contact as well as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) methods, also suffer from inability to resolve the dynamics of the near-surface air-flow, especially in the surface wave troughs. In this report, we present a first attempt to use Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as tool for investigation of the drops-mediated momentum, heat and moisture transfer in a turbulent, droplet-laden air flow over a wavy water surface. DNS is capable of resolving the details of the transfer processes and do not involve any closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (LES and RANS) simulations. Thus DNS provides a basis for improving parameterizations in LES and RANS closure models and further development of large-scale prognostic models. In particular, we discuss numerical results showing the details of the modification of the air flow velocity, temperature and relative humidity fields by multidisperse, evaporating drops. We use Eulerian-Lagrangian approach where the equations for the air-flow fields are solved in a Eulerian frame whereas

  10. Detuned resonances of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an airfoil boundary layer: Experiment, theory, and direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würz, W.; Sartorius, D.; Kloker, M.; Borodulin, V. I.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Smorodsky, B. V.

    2012-09-01

    Transition prediction in two-dimensional laminar boundary layers developing on airfoil sections at subsonic speeds and very low turbulence levels is still a challenge. The commonly used semi-empirical prediction tools are mainly based on linear stability theory and do not account for nonlinear effects present unavoidably starting with certain stages of transition. One reason is the lack of systematic investigations of the weakly nonlinear stages of transition, especially of the strongest interactions of the instability modes predominant in non-self-similar boundary layers. The present paper is devoted to the detailed experimental, numerical, and theoretical study of weakly nonlinear subharmonic resonances of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an airfoil boundary layer, representing main candidates for the strongest mechanism of these initial nonlinear stages. The experimental approach is based on phase-locked hot-wire measurements under controlled disturbance conditions using a new disturbance source being capable to produce well-defined, complex wave compositions in a wide range of streamwise and spanwise wave numbers. The tests were performed in a low-turbulence wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of Re = 0.7 × 106. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) were utilized to provide a detailed comparison for the test cases. The results of weakly nonlinear theory (WNT) enabled a profound understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms observed in the experiments and DNS. The data obtained in experiment, DNS and WNT agree basically and provide a high degree of reliability of the results. Interactions occurring between components of various initial frequency-wavenumber spectra of instability waves are investigated by systematic variation of parameters. It is shown that frequency-detuned and spanwise-wavenumber-detuned subharmonic-type resonant interactions have an extremely large spectral width. Similar to results obtained for self-similar base flows it is found that the

  11. Electronic structure of thin films by the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals method: Ni(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    We present the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) discrete variational method for treating the electronic structure of thin films. As in the case of bulk solids, this method provides for thin films accurate solutions of the one-particle local density equations with a non-muffin-tin potential. Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements are evaluated accurately by means of a three-dimensional numerical Diophantine integration scheme. Application of this method is made to the self-consistent solution of one-, three-, and five-layer Ni(001) unsupported films. The LCAO Bloch basis set consists of valence orbitals (3d, 4s, and 4p states for transition metals) orthogonalized to the frozen-core wave functions. The self-consistent potential is obtained iteratively within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model with the atomic configurations treated as adjustable parameters. Thus the crystal Coulomb potential is constructed as a superposition of overlapping spherically symmetric atomic potentials and, correspondingly, the local density Kohn-Sham (α = 2/3) potential is determined from a superposition of atomic charge densities. At each iteration in the self-consistency procedure, the crystal charge density is evaluated using a sampling of 15 independent k points in (1/8)th of the irreducible two-dimensional Brillouin zone. The total density of states (DOS) and projected local DOS (by layer plane) are calculated using an analytic linear energy triangle method (presented as an Appendix) generalized from the tetrahedron scheme for bulk systems. Distinct differences are obtained between the surface and central plane local DOS. The central plane DOS is found to converge rapidly to the DOS of bulk paramagnetic Ni obtained by Wang and Callaway. Only a very small surplus charge (0.03 electron/atom) is found on the surface planes, in agreement with jellium model calculations

  12. Modelling soot formation from wall films in a gasoline direct injection engine using a detailed population balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Mosbach, Sebastian; Schmutzhard, Sebastian; Shuai, Shijin; Huang, Yaqing; Kraft, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Soot formation from a wall film in a GDI engine is simulated. • Spray impingement and wall film evaporation models are added to SRM Engine Suite. • Soot is modelled using a highly detailed population balance model. • Particle size distributions are measured experimentally. • Evolution of wall region is shown in equivalence ratio-temperature diagrams. - Abstract: In this study, soot formation in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is simulated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM Engine Suite) which contains a detailed population balance soot model capable of describing particle morphology and chemical composition. In order to describe the soot formation originating from the wall film, the SRM Engine Suite is extended to include spray impingement and wall film evaporation models. The cylinder is divided into a wall and a bulk zone to resolve the equivalence ratio and temperature distributions of the mixture near the wall. The combustion chamber wall is assumed to exchange heat directly only with the wall zone. The turbulent mixing within each zone and between the two zones are simulated with different mixing models. The effects of key parameters on the temperature and equivalence ratio in the two zones are investigated. The mixing rate between the wall and bulk zone has a significant effect on the wall zone, whilst the mixing rate in the wall zone only has a negligible impact on the temperature and equivalence ratio below a certain threshold. Experimental data are obtained from a four-cylinder, gasoline-fuelled direct injection spark ignition engine operated stoichiometrically. An injection timing sweep, ranging from 120 CAD BTDC to 330 CAD BTDC, is conducted in order to investigate the effect of spray impingement on soot formation. The earliest injection case (330 CAD BTDC), which produces significantly higher levels of particle emissions than any other case, is simulated by the current model. It is found that the in-cylinder pressure

  13. Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin liquid film over a stationary and rotating disk and comparison with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1990-01-01

    In the first section, improvements in the theoretical model and computational procedure for the prediction of film height and heat-transfer coefficient of the free surface flow of a radially-spreading thin liquid film adjacent to a flat horizontal surface of finite extent are presented. Flows in the presence and absence of gravity are considered. Theoretical results are compared to available experimental data with good agreement. In the presence of gravity, a hydraulic jump is present, isolating the flow into two regimes: supercritical upstream from the jump and subcritical downstream of it. In this situation, the effects of surface tension are important near the outer edge of the disk where the fluid experiences a free fall. A region of flow separation is present just downstream of the jump. In the absence of gravity, no hydraulic jump or separated flow region is present. The variation of the heat-transfer coefficient for flows in the presence and absence of gravity are also presented. In the second section, the results of a numerical simulation of the flow field and associated heat transfer coefficients are presented for the free surface flow of a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The computation was performed for different flow rates and rotational velocities using a 3-D boundary-fitted coordinate system. Since the geometry of the free surface is unknown and dependent on flow rate, rate of rotation, and other parameters, an iterative procedure had to be used to ascertain its location. The computed film height agreed well with existing experimental measurements. The flow is found to be dominated by inertia near the entrance and close to the free surface and dominated by centrifugal force at larger radii and adjacent to the disk. The rotation enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a significant amount.

  14. Aerothermal and aeroelastic response prediction of aerospace structures in high-speed flows using direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Christopher Mark

    due to a dome-induced horseshoe vortex scouring the panel's surface. Comparisons with reduced-order models of heat transfer indicate that they perform with varying levels of accuracy around some portions of the geometry while completely failing to predict significant heat loads in re- gions where the dome-influenced flow impacts the ceramic panel. Cumulative effects of flow-thermal coupling at later simulation times on the reduction of panel drag and surface heat transfer are quantified. The second fluid-structure study investigates the interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer with an ini- tial momentum thickness Reynolds number of 1200. A transient, non-linear, large deformation, 3D finite element solver is developed to compute the dynamic response of the panel. The solver is coupled at the fluid-structure interface with the compressible Navier-Stokes solver, the latter of which is used for a direct numerical simulation of the turbulent boundary layer. In this approach, no simplifying assumptions regarding the structural solution or turbulence modeling are made in order to get detailed solution data. It is found that the thin panel state evolves into a flutter type response char- acterized by high-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations into the flow. The oscillating panel disturbs the supersonic flow by introducing compression waves, modifying the turbulence, and generating fluctuations in the power exiting the top of the flow domain. The work in this thesis serves as a step forward in structural response prediction in high-speed flows. The results demonstrate the ability of high- fidelity numerical approaches to serve as a guide for reduced-order model improvement and as well as provide accurate and detailed solution data in scenarios where experimental approaches are difficult or impossible.

  15. Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Singh, Neelam; Song, Li; Liu, Zheng; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Zhang, Qing; Wei, Bingqing; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2011-08-01

    Microscale supercapacitors provide an important complement to batteries in a variety of applications, including portable electronics. Although they can be manufactured using a number of printing and lithography techniques, continued improvements in cost, scalability and form factor are required to realize their full potential. Here, we demonstrate the scalable fabrication of a new type of all-carbon, monolithic supercapacitor by laser reduction and patterning of graphite oxide films. We pattern both in-plane and conventional electrodes consisting of reduced graphite oxide with micrometre resolution, between which graphite oxide serves as a solid electrolyte. The substantial amounts of trapped water in the graphite oxide makes it simultaneously a good ionic conductor and an electrical insulator, allowing it to serve as both an electrolyte and an electrode separator with ion transport characteristics similar to that observed for Nafion membranes. The resulting micro-supercapacitor devices show good cyclic stability, and energy storage capacities comparable to existing thin-film supercapacitors.

  16. GAYA DIRECT CINEMA PADA PENYUTRADARAAN FILM DOKUMENTER DI BALIK DONGENG KANCIL

    OpenAIRE

    Satriyo Bagus Prasojo; Cito Yasuki R.

    2016-01-01

    The documentary film entitled Di Balik Dongeng Si Kancil tells about high dedication and awareness of an artist named Ki Ledjar Subroto in the development of pewayangan (shadow puppet) at once as an environmental conservationist. Wayang Kancilwas used to develop and find out strategies to educate young generation especially children in the way of how to understand the wayang. Wayang Kancil is a kind of wayang which can also be used as education medium in understanding and conserving environme...

  17. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Steefel, Carl I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Shen, Chaopeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2012-03-30

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO2. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. In this study we investigate the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is composed of high-performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1-D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high-resolution model is used to demonstrate that nonuniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. In conclusion, the effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  18. Direct numerical simulations of the ignition of lean primary reference fuel/air mixtures with temperature inhomogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minhbau

    2013-10-01

    The effects of fuel composition, thermal stratification, and turbulence on the ignition of lean homogeneous primary reference fuel (PRF)/air mixtures under the conditions of constant volume and elevated pressure are investigated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a new 116-species reduced kinetic mechanism. Two-dimensional DNSs were performed in a fixed volume with a two-dimensional isotropic velocity spectrum and temperature fluctuations superimposed on the initial scalar fields with different fuel compositions to elucidate the influence of variations in the initial temperature fluctuation and turbulence intensity on the ignition of three different lean PRF/air mixtures. In general, it was found that the mean heat release rate increases slowly and the overall combustion occurs fast with increasing thermal stratification regardless of the fuel composition under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. In addition, the effect of the fuel composition on the ignition characteristics of PRF/air mixtures was found to vanish with increasing thermal stratification. Chemical explosive mode (CEM), displacement speed, and Damköhler number analyses revealed that the high degree of thermal stratification induces deflagration rather than spontaneous ignition at the reaction fronts, rendering the mean heat release rate more distributed over time subsequent to thermal runaway occurring at the highest temperature regions in the domain. These analyses also revealed that the vanishing of the fuel effect under the high degree of thermal stratification is caused by the nearly identical propagation characteristics of deflagrations of different PRF/air mixtures. It was also found that high intensity and short-timescale turbulence can effectively homogenize mixtures such that the overall ignition is apt to occur by spontaneous ignition. These results suggest that large thermal stratification leads to smooth operation of homogeneous charge compression-ignition (HCCI

  19. Heat release effects on mixing scales of non-premixed turbulent wall-jets: A direct numerical simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouransari, Zeinab; Vervisch, Luc; Johansson, Arne V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A non-premixed turbulent flame close to a solid surface is studied using DNS. ► Heat release effects delay transition and enlarge fluctuation of density and pressure. ► The fine-scale structures damped and surface wrinkling diminished due to heat-release. ► Using semilocal scaling improves the collapse of turbulence statistic in inner region. ► There are regions of the flame where considerable (up to 10%) premixed burning occurs. -- Abstract: The present study concerns the role of heat release effects on characteristics mixing scales of turbulence in reacting wall-jet flows. Direct numerical simulations of exothermic reacting turbulent wall-jets are performed and compared to the isothermal reacting case. An evaluation of the heat-release effects on the structure of turbulence is given by examining the mixture fraction surface characteristics, diagnosing vortices and exploring the dissipation rate of the fuel and passive scalar concentrations, and moreover by illustration of probability density functions of reacting species and scatter plots of the local temperature against the mixture fraction. Primarily, heat release effects delay the transition, enlarge the fluctuation intensities of density and pressure and also enhance the fluctuation level of the species concentrations. However, it has a damping effect on all velocity fluctuation intensities and the Reynolds shear stress. A key result is that the fine-scale structures of turbulence are damped, the surface wrinkling is diminished and the vortices become larger due to heat-release effects. Taking into account the varying density by using semi-local scaling improves the collapse of the turbulence statistics in the inner region, but does not eliminate heat release induced differences in the outer region. Examining the two-dimensional premultiplied spanwise spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations indicates a shifting in the positions of the outer peaks, associated with large

  20. Turbulence Generation Using Localized Sources of Energy: Direct Numerical Simulations and the Effects of Thermal Non-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin Francisco

    Turbulence in high-speed flows is an important problem in aerospace applications, yet extremely difficult from a theoretical, computational and experimental perspective. A main reason for the lack of complete understanding is the difficulty of generating turbulence in the lab at a range of speeds which can also include hypersonic effects such as thermal non-equilibrium. This work studies the feasibility of a new approach to generate turbulence based on laser-induced photo-excitation/dissociation of seeded molecules. A large database of incompressible and compressible direct numerical simulations (DNS) has been generated to systematically study the development and evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Governing parameters and the conditions necessary for the establishment of turbulence, as well as the length and time scales associated with such process, are identified. For both the compressible and incompressible experiments a minimum Reynolds number is found to be needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. Additionally, for incompressible cases a minimum time scale is required, while for compressible cases a minimum distance from the grid and limit on the maximum temperature introduced are required. Through an extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics, the primary mechanisms leading to turbulence are shown. As commonly done in compressible turbulence, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Finally, a large database of forced isotropic turbulence has been generated to study the effect of internal degrees of freedom on the evolution of turbulence.

  1. Study of coherent structures of turbulence with large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties using direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.

    2015-01-01

    Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between

  2. Study of Particle Rotation Effect in Gas-Solid Flows using Direct Numerical Simulation with a Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Qiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yang, Hui [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-09-30

    A new and efficient direct numerical method with second-order convergence accuracy was developed for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The method combines the state-of-the-art immersed boundary method (IBM), the multi-direct forcing method, and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). First, the multi-direct forcing method is adopted in the improved IBM to better approximate the no-slip/no-penetration (ns/np) condition on the surface of particles. Second, a slight retraction of the Lagrangian grid from the surface towards the interior of particles with a fraction of the Eulerian grid spacing helps increase the convergence accuracy of the method. An over-relaxation technique in the procedure of multi-direct forcing method and the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme in the coupled fluid-particle interaction were applied. The use of the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme helps the overall IB-LBM achieve the second order accuracy and provides more accurate predictions of the translational and rotational motion of particles. The preexistent code with the first-order convergence rate is updated so that the updated new code can resolve the translational and rotational motion of particles with the second-order convergence rate. The updated code has been validated with several benchmark applications. The efficiency of IBM and thus the efficiency of IB-LBM were improved by reducing the number of the Lagragian markers on particles by using a new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers on particle surfaces. The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) has been shown to predict correctly the angular velocity of a particle. Prior to examining drag force exerted on a cluster of particles, the updated IB-LBM code along with the new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers has been further validated by solving several theoretical problems. Moreover, the unsteadiness of the drag force is examined when a

  3. Direct current modulation of spin-Hall-induced spin torque ferromagnetic resonance in platinum/permalloy bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Shigeyuki; Mitani, Seiji; Otani, YoshiChika; Kasai, Shinya

    2018-06-01

    We examined the spin-Hall-induced spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in platinum/permalloy bilayer thin films under bias direct current (DC). The bias DC modulated the symmetric components of the ST-FMR spectra, while no dominant modulation was found in the antisymmetric components. A detailed analysis in combination with simple model calculations clarified that the major origin of the modulation can be attributed to the DC resistance change under the precessional motion of magnetization. This effect is the second order contribution for the precession angle, even though the contribution can be comparable to the rectification voltage under some specific conditions.

  4. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Frank G.

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  5. Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating Structural Quartz Substrates for High-Performance Pressure-Sensitive Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefen; Sun, Tai; Yang, Jun; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dacheng; Fang, Liang; Lu, Bin; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-07-06

    Conformal graphene films have directly been synthesized on the surface of grating microstructured quartz substrates by a simple chemical vapor deposition process. The wonderful conformality and relatively high quality of the as-prepared graphene on the three-dimensional substrate have been verified by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra. This conformal graphene film possesses excellent electrical and optical properties with a sheet resistance of 80% (at 550 nm), which can be attached with a flat graphene film on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate, and then could work as a pressure-sensitive sensor. This device possesses a high-pressure sensitivity of -6.524 kPa(-1) in a low-pressure range of 0-200 Pa. Meanwhile, this pressure-sensitive sensor exhibits super-reliability (≥5000 cycles) and an ultrafast response time (≤4 ms). Owing to these features, this pressure-sensitive sensor based on 3D conformal graphene is adequately introduced to test wind pressure, expressing higher accuracy and a lower background noise level than a market anemometer.

  6. Charged Nanowire-Directed Growth of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Nanosheets in a Mixed Solvent for Biomimetic Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Liu, Lei; Chen, Si-Ming; Chang, Fu-Jia; Mao, Li-Bo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Ma, Tao; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Bio-inspired mineralization is an effective way for fabricating complicated inorganic materials, which inspires us to develop new methods to synthesize materials with fascinating properties. In this article, we report that the charged tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) can be used as bio-macromolecule analogues to direct the formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanosheets (ACCNs) in a mixed solvent. The effects of surface charges and the concentration of the TeNWs on the formation of ACCNs have been investigated. Particularly, the produced ACCNs can be functionalized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles to produce magnetic ACC/Fe3O4 hybrid nanosheets, which can be used to construct ACC/Fe3O4 composite films through a self-evaporation process. Moreover, sodium alginate-ACC nanocomposite films with remarkable toughness and good transmittance can also be fabricated by using such ACCNs as nanoscale building blocks. This mineralization approach in a mixed solvent using charged tellurium nanowires as bio-macromolecule analogues provides a new way for the synthesis of ACCNs, which can be used as nanoscale building blocks for fabrication of biomimetic composite films.

  7. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  8. Effect of the heat flux direction on electrical properties of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films crystallized using a microwave oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Zanetti, S.M.; Leite, E.R.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 (SBN) thin films were prepared by the polymeric precursors method and deposited by spin coating onto Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate and crystallized using a domestic microwave oven. It was studied the influence of the heat flux direction and the duration of the thermal treatment on the films crystallization. An element with high dielectric loss, a SiC susceptor, was used to absorb the microwave energy and transfers the heat to the film. Influence of the susceptor position to the sample crystallization was verified, the susceptor was placed or below the substrate or above the film. The SBN perovskite phase was observed after a thermal treatment at 700 deg. C for 10 min when the susceptor was placed below the substrate and for 30 min when the susceptor was placed above the film. Electrical measurements revealed that the film crystallized at 700 deg. C for 10 min, with the susceptor placed below the film, presented dielectric constant, dielectric loss, remanent polarization and coercive field of, 67, 0.011, 4.2 μC/cm 2 and 27.5 kV/cm, respectively. When the films were crystallized at 700 deg. C for 30 min, with the susceptor placed above the film, the dielectric constant was 115 and the dissipation factor was around of 0.033, remanent polarization and coercive field were 10.8 μC/cm 2 and 170 kV/cm, respectively

  9. Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB{sub 2} thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengdelius, Lina, E-mail: lina.tengdelius@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Samuelsson, Mattias [Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linköping (Sweden); Jensen, Jens; Lu, Jun; Hultman, Lars; Forsberg, Urban; Janzén, Erik; Högberg, Hans [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    ZrB{sub 2} thin films have been synthesized using direct current magnetron sputtering from a ZrB{sub 2} compound target onto 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100) substrates kept at different temperatures (no heating, 400 °C, and 550 °C), and substrate bias voltage (− 20 V to − 80 V). Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all the films are near stoichiometric and have a low degree of contaminants, with O being the most abundant (< 1 at.%). The films are crystalline, and their crystallographic orientation changes from 0001 to a more random orientation with increased deposition temperature. X-ray diffraction pole figures and selected area electron diffraction patterns of the films deposited without heating reveal a fiber-texture growth. Four point probe measurements show typical resistivity values of the films ranging from ∼ 95 to 200 μΩ cm, decreasing with increased growth temperature and substrate bias. - Highlights: • ZrB{sub 2} films have been deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100). • Film composition correlates well to that of the target. • Level of contamination in the films is low. • Film resistivity values range from ∼ 95 to 200 μΩ cm.

  10. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2016-11-30

    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu 2+ ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu 2+ ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn 2+ ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I 2 -filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation on cladding of corrosion-erosion resistant materials by a high power direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa

    In oil and gas industry, soil particles, crude oil, natural gas, particle-laden liquids, and seawater can carry various highly aggressive elements, which accelerate the material degradation of component surfaces by combination of slurry erosion, corrosion, and wear mechanisms. This material degradation results into the loss of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and impact strength; leading to detachment, delamination, cracking, and ultimately premature failure of components. Since the failure of high valued equipment needs considerable cost and time to be repaired or replaced, minimizing the tribological failure of equipment under aggressive environment has been gaining increased interest. It is widely recognized that effective management of degradation mechanisms will contribute towards the optimization of maintenance, monitoring, and inspection costs. The hardfacing techniques have been widely used to enhance the resistance of surfaces against degradation mechanisms. Applying a surface coating improves wear and corrosion resistance and ensures reliability and long-term performance of coated parts. A protective layer or barrier on the components avoids the direct mechanical and chemical contacts of tool surfaces with process media and will reduce the material loss and ultimately its failure. Laser cladding as an advanced hardfacing technique has been widely used for industrial applications in order to develop a protective coating with desired material properties. During the laser cladding, coating material is fused into the base material by means of a laser beam in order to rebuild a damaged part's surface or to enhance its surface function. In the hardfacing techniques such as atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF), and laser cladding, mixing of coating materials with underneath surface has to be minimized in order to utilize the properties of the coating material most effectively. In this regard, laser cladding offers

  12. In-situ, real-time, studies of film growth processes using ion scattering and direct recoil spectroscopy techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smentkowski, V. S.

    1999-04-22

    Time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) enables the characterization of the composition and structure of surfaces with 1-2 monolayer specificity. It will be shown that surface analysis is possible at ambient pressures greater than 3 mTorr using TOF-ISARS techniques; allowing for real-time, in situ studies of film growth processes. TOF-ISARS comprises three analytical techniques: ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which detects the backscattered primary ion beam; direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), which detects the surface species recoiled into the forward scattering direction; and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), which is 3 variant of DRS capable of isotopic resolution for all surface species--including H and He. The advantages and limitations of each of these techniques will be discussed. The use of the three TOF-ISARS methods for real-time, in situ film growth studies at high ambient pressures will be illustrated. It will be shown that MSRI analysis is possible during sputter deposition. It will be also be demonstrated that the analyzer used for MSRI can also be used for time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) under high vacuum conditions. The use of a single analyzer to perform the complimentary surface analytical techniques of MSRI and SIMS is unique. The dwd functionality of the MSRI analyzer provides surface information not obtained when either MSRI or SIMS is used independently.

  13. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on self-assembled (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane film: Characterization, direct electrochemistry, redox thermodynamics and biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fanghua; Hu Zhichao; Xu Jingjing; Tian Yuan; Wang Liwei; Xian Yuezhong; Jin Litong

    2008-01-01

    Highly organized (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (3-MPT) films have been prepared via self-assembled coupled with sol-gel linking technology. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is successfully immobilized onto the densely packed three-dimensional (3D) 3-MPT network and the direct electrochemistry of HRP is achieved without any electron mediators or promoters. Redox thermodynamics of HRP on the 3-MPT films, which is obtained from the temperature dependence of the reduction potential, suggests that the positive shift of redox potentials of HRP at the interface of 3-MPT originates from the solvent reorganization effects and conformational change of the polypeptide chain of HRP. Based on the direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic ability of HRP, a sensitive third-generation amperometric H 2 O 2 biosensor is developed with two linear dependence ranges of 5.0 x 10 -7 to 1.0 x 10 -4 and 1.0 x 10 -4 to 2.0 x 10 -2 mol L -1

  14. Future directions of positron annihilation spectroscopy in low-k dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidley, D.W.; Vallery, R.S.; Liu, M.; Peng, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) has become recognized in the microelectronics industry as one of only several methods capable of quantitatively characterizing engineered nanopores in next-generation (k < 2.2) interlayer dielectric (ILD) thin films. Successes and shortcomings of PALS to date will be assessed and compared with other methods of porosimetry such as ellipsometric and X-ray porosimetries (EP and XRP). A major theme in future low-k research focuses on the ability to integrate porous ILD's into chip fabrication; the vulnerability of porous dielectrics to etching, ashing, and chemical-mechanical polishing in process integration is delaying the introduction of ultra-low-k films. As device size approaches 45 nm the need to probe very small (sub-nanometer), semi-isolated pores beneath thin diffusion barriers is even more challenging. Depth-profiled PALS with its ability to determine a quantitative pore interconnection length and easily resolve 0.3 nm pores beneath diffusion barriers or in trench-patterned dielectrics should have a bright future in porous ILD research. The ability of PALS (and PAS in general) to deduce evolution and growth of pores with porosity should find broad applicability in the emerging field of high performance materials with strategically engineered nanopores. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullain, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.poullain@ensicaen.fr; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-15

    Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub x}, Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. • A simple way to subtract eddy currents during the measurement, is proposed.

  16. Tracking of large-scale structures in turbulent channel with direct numerical simulation of low Prandtl number passive scalar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiselj, Iztok

    2014-12-01

    Channel flow DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) at friction Reynolds number 180 and with passive scalars of Prandtl numbers 1 and 0.01 was performed in various computational domains. The "normal" size domain was ˜2300 wall units long and ˜750 wall units wide; size taken from the similar DNS of Moser et al. The "large" computational domain, which is supposed to be sufficient to describe the largest structures of the turbulent flows was 3 times longer and 3 times wider than the "normal" domain. The "very large" domain was 6 times longer and 6 times wider than the "normal" domain. All simulations were performed with the same spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the standard and large computational domains shows the velocity field statistics (mean velocity, root-mean-square (RMS) fluctuations, and turbulent Reynolds stresses) that are within 1%-2%. Similar agreement is observed for Pr = 1 temperature fields and can be observed also for the mean temperature profiles at Pr = 0.01. These differences can be attributed to the statistical uncertainties of the DNS. However, second-order moments, i.e., RMS temperature fluctuations of standard and large computational domains at Pr = 0.01 show significant differences of up to 20%. Stronger temperature fluctuations in the "large" and "very large" domains confirm the existence of the large-scale structures. Their influence is more or less invisible in the main velocity field statistics or in the statistics of the temperature fields at Prandtl numbers around 1. However, these structures play visible role in the temperature fluctuations at low Prandtl number, where high temperature diffusivity effectively smears the small-scale structures in the thermal field and enhances the relative contribution of large-scales. These large thermal structures represent some kind of an echo of the large scale velocity structures: the highest temperature-velocity correlations are not observed between the instantaneous temperatures and

  17. Direct Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Drainage and Imbibition to Investigate Capillary Pressure-Saturation-Interfacial Area Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konangi, S.; Palakurthi, N. K.; Karadimitriou, N.; Comer, K.; Ghia, U.

    2017-12-01

    We present results of pore-scale direct numerical simulations (DNS) of drainage and imbibition in a quasi-two-dimensional (40µm thickness) porous medium with a randomly distributed packing of cylindrical obstructions. The Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved in the pore space on an Eulerian mesh using the open-source finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, OpenFOAM. The Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method is employed to track the evolution of the fluid-fluid interface; a static contact angle is used to account for wall adhesion. From the DNS data, we focus on the macroscopic capillary pressure-saturation (Pc-Sw) relation, which is known to be hysteretic, i.e., this relation is flow process (such as drainage, imbibition and scanning curves) and history dependent. In order to overcome the problem of hysteresis, extended theories of multiphase flow hypothesized that the inclusion of specific interfacial area as a state variable will result in a unique relation between capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area (Pc-Sw-awn). We study the role of specific interfacial area on hysteresis in the macroscopic Pc-Sw relation under non-equilibrium (dynamic) conditions. Under dynamic conditions, capillary pressure depends on the rate of change of the wetting phase saturation, and the dynamic Pc-Sw relation includes the changes caused by viscous effects. Simulations of drainage and imbibition are performed for two capillary numbers by controlling the flow rate of the non-wetting (polydimenthlysiloxane oil) and wetting (water) fluids. From these simulations, the Pc-Sw curves will be estimated; the Pc-S-awn surface will be constructed to determine whether the data points from drainage and imbibition processes fall on a unique surface under transient conditions. Different macroscopic capillary pressure definitions based on phase-averaged pressures and interfacial area will be evaluated. Understanding macroscopic capillary pressure definitions and the uniqueness

  18. Numerical Analysis of Efficiency Enhancement in Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells by Using the SILVACO TCAD Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Un-Chol; Jiang Xiao-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A physical model for simulating plasmonic solar cells (SCs) using the SILVACO TCAD simulator is established and the effects of some factors on the efficiency enhancement of the amorphous silicon thin film SCs are simulated. Through this simulation, it is demonstrated that our method can successfully simulate the optical and electrical properties of plasmonic solar cells without the overestimation of the characteristics and without the neglect of parameter change in the device operation process. It is shown that not only the size and kind of metal nanoparticles but also other factors, such as the surrounding medium, the distance from the bottom of particles to the device surface, and the light incident angle, play important roles in the optical and electrical properties of plasmonic SCs. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Determination of the out-of-plane anisotropy contributions (first and second anisotropy terms) in amorphous Nd-Co thin films by micromagnetic numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Cid, R.; Morales, R.; Diaz, J.; Vélez, M.; Rubio, H.; Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Alameda, J. M.

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Nd-Co thin films exhibit stripe shaped periodic magnetic domains with local out-of-plane magnetization components due to their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This anisotropy has been quantified in a fairly simple way by reproducing the experimental magnetization curves by means of micromagnetic numerical simulations. The simulations show that the first (K1) and second (K2) anisotropy constants must be used to properly describe the variation of the stripe domains with the in plane applied magnetic field. A strong temperature dependence of both K1 and K2 has been obtained between 10 K and room temperature. This anisotropy behavior is characteristic of two magnetically coupled 3d-4f sublattices with competing anisotropies.

  20. Low-temperature growth of low friction wear-resistant amorphous carbon nitride thin films by mid-frequency, high power impulse, and direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D., E-mail: konba@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Garbrecht, Magnus; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Jensen, Jens; Greczynski, Grzegorz; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    The potential of different magnetron sputtering techniques for the synthesis of low friction and wear resistant amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films onto temperature-sensitive AISI52100 bearing steel, but also Si(001) substrates was studied. Hence, a substrate temperature of 150 °C was chosen for the film synthesis. The a-CN{sub x} films were deposited using mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) with an MF bias voltage, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with a synchronized HiPIMS bias voltage, and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) with a DC bias voltage. The films were deposited using a N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 0.16 at the total pressure of 400 mPa. The negative bias voltage, V{sub s}, was varied from 20 to 120 V in each of the three deposition modes. The microstructure of the films was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, while the film morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. All films possessed an amorphous microstructure, while the film morphology changed with the bias voltage. Layers grown applying the lowest substrate bias of 20 V exhibited pronounced intercolumnar porosity, independent of the sputter technique. Voids closed and dense films are formed at V{sub s} ≥ 60 V, V{sub s} ≥ 100 V, and V{sub s} = 120 V for MFMS, DCMS, and HiPIMS, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, N/C, of the films ranged between 0.2 and 0.24. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that Ar content varied between 0 and 0.8 at. % and increased as a function of V{sub s} for all deposition techniques. All films exhibited compressive residual stress, σ, which depends on the growth method; HiPIMS produces the least stressed films with values ranging between −0.4 and −1.2 GPa for all V{sub s}, while CN{sub x} films deposited by MFMS showed residual stresses up to −4.2

  1. Low-temperature growth of low friction wear-resistant amorphous carbon nitride thin films by mid-frequency, high power impulse, and direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D.; Schmidt, Susann; Garbrecht, Magnus; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Jensen, Jens; Greczynski, Grzegorz; Hultman, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential of different magnetron sputtering techniques for the synthesis of low friction and wear resistant amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN x ) thin films onto temperature-sensitive AISI52100 bearing steel, but also Si(001) substrates was studied. Hence, a substrate temperature of 150 °C was chosen for the film synthesis. The a-CN x films were deposited using mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) with an MF bias voltage, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with a synchronized HiPIMS bias voltage, and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) with a DC bias voltage. The films were deposited using a N 2 /Ar flow ratio of 0.16 at the total pressure of 400 mPa. The negative bias voltage, V s , was varied from 20 to 120 V in each of the three deposition modes. The microstructure of the films was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, while the film morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. All films possessed an amorphous microstructure, while the film morphology changed with the bias voltage. Layers grown applying the lowest substrate bias of 20 V exhibited pronounced intercolumnar porosity, independent of the sputter technique. Voids closed and dense films are formed at V s  ≥ 60 V, V s  ≥ 100 V, and V s  = 120 V for MFMS, DCMS, and HiPIMS, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, N/C, of the films ranged between 0.2 and 0.24. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that Ar content varied between 0 and 0.8 at. % and increased as a function of V s for all deposition techniques. All films exhibited compressive residual stress, σ, which depends on the growth method; HiPIMS produces the least stressed films with values ranging between −0.4 and −1.2 GPa for all V s , while CN x films deposited by MFMS showed residual stresses up to −4.2 GPa. Nanoindentation showed a significant

  2. Controlling Directional Liquid Motion on Micro- and Nanocrystalline Diamond/β-SiC Composite Gradient Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Xin; Kong, Tiantian; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhou, Xuechang; Tang, Yongbing

    2018-01-30

    In this Article, we report the synthesis of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite gradient films, using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and its application as a robust and chemically inert means to actuate water and hazardous liquids. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, the composition of the surface changed gradually from pure nanocrystalline diamond (hydrophobic) to a nanocrystalline β-SiC surface (hydrophilic). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the presence of diamond, graphite, and β-SiC phases. The as-prepared gradient films were evaluated for their ability to actuate water. Indeed, water was transported via the gradient from the hydrophobic (hydrogen-terminated diamond) to the hydrophilic side (hydroxyl-terminated β-SiC) of the gradient surface. The driving distance and velocity of water is pivotally influenced by the surface roughness. The nanogradient surface showed significant promise as the lower roughness combined with the longer gradient yields in transport distances of up to 3.7 mm, with a maximum droplet velocity of nearly 250 mm/s measured by a high-speed camera. As diamond and β-SiC are chemically inert, the gradient surfaces can be used to drive hazardous liquids and reactive mixtures, which was signified by the actuation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. We envision that the diamond/β-SiC gradient surface has high potential as an actuator for water transport in microfluidic devices, DNA sensors, and implants, which induce guided cell growth.

  3. Scalable Directed Assembly of Highly Crystalline 2,7-Dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2- b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhimin; Abbasi, Salman A; Busnaina, Ahmed A

    2018-05-30

    Assembly of organic semiconductors with ordered crystal structure has been actively pursued for electronics applications such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Among various film deposition methods, solution-based film growth from small molecule semiconductors is preferable because of its low material and energy consumption, low cost, and scalability. Here, we show scalable and controllable directed assembly of highly crystalline 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2- b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) films via a dip-coating process. Self-aligned stripe patterns with tunable thickness and morphology over a centimeter scale are obtained by adjusting two governing parameters: the pulling speed of a substrate and the solution concentration. OFETs are fabricated using the C8-BTBT films assembled at various conditions. A field-effect hole mobility up to 3.99 cm 2 V -1 s -1 is obtained. Owing to the highly scalable crystalline film formation, the dip-coating directed assembly process could be a great candidate for manufacturing next-generation electronics. Meanwhile, the film formation mechanism discussed in this paper could provide a general guideline to prepare other organic semiconducting films from small molecule solutions.

  4. Structural features of epitaxial NiFe2O4 thin films grown on different substrates by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Loukya, B.; Li, N.; Gupta, A.

    2012-04-01

    NiFe2O4 (NFO) thin films are grown on four different substrates, i.e., Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Titanate (PZN-PT), Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT), MgAl2O4 (MAO) and SrTiO3 (STO), by a direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition technique (DLI-CVD) under optimum growth conditions where relatively high growth rate (˜20 nm/min), smooth surface morphology and high saturation magnetization values in the range of 260-290 emu/ cm3 are obtained. The NFO films with correct stoichiometry (Ni:Fe=1:2) grow epitaxially on all four substrates, as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. While the films on PMN-PT and PZN-PT substrates are partially strained, essentially complete strain relaxation occurs for films grown on MAO and STO. The formations of threading dislocations along with dark diffused contrast areas related to antiphase domains having a different cation ordering are observed on all four substrates. These crystal defects are correlated with lattice mismatch between the film and substrate and result in changes in magnetic properties of the films. Atomic resolution HAADF imaging and EDX line profiles show formation of a sharp interface between the film and the substrate with no inter-diffusion of Pb or other elements across the interface. Antiphase domains are observed to originate at the film-substrate interface.

  5. Numerical study of turbulence-influence mechanism on arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yang, Fei; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Qi, Yang; Cui, Yufei; Liu, Zirui; Guo, Anxiang

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker (air DCCB). Using magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) theory, 3D laminar model and turbulence model are constructed and calculated. The standard k-epsilon model is utilized to consider the turbulence effect in the arc chamber of the DCCB. Several important phenomena are found: the arc column in the turbulence-model case is more extensive, moves much more slowly than the counterpart in the laminar-model case, and shows stagnation at the entrance of the chamber, unlike in the laminar-model case. Moreover, the arc voltage in the turbulence-model case is much lower than in the laminar-model case. However, the results in the turbulence-model case show a much better agreement with the results of the breaking experiments under DC condition than in the laminar-model case, which is contradictory to the previous conclusions from the arc researches of both the low-voltage circuit breaker and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) nozzle. First, in the previous air-arc research of the low-voltage circuit breaker, it is assumed that the air plasma inside the chamber is in the state of laminar, and the laminar-model application gives quite satisfactory results compared with the experiments, while in this paper, the laminar-model application works badly. Second, the turbulence-model application in the arc research of the SF6-nozzle performs much better and gives higher arc voltage than the laminar-model application does, whereas in this paper, the turbulence-model application predicts lower arc voltage than the laminar-model application does. Based on the analysis of simulation results in detail, the mechanism of the above phenomena is revealed. The transport coefficients are strongly changed by turbulence, which will enhance the arc diffusion and make the arc volume much larger. Consequently, the arc appearance and the distribution of Lorentz force in the turbulence-model case

  6. Numerical study of turbulence-influence mechanism on arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yang, Fei, E-mail: yfei2007@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Qi, Yang; Cui, Yufei [State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, Zirui [State Grid Shaanxi Electric Power Company, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Guo, Anxiang [Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shaanxi Electric Power Company, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2016-04-15

    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker (air DCCB). Using magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) theory, 3D laminar model and turbulence model are constructed and calculated. The standard k-epsilon model is utilized to consider the turbulence effect in the arc chamber of the DCCB. Several important phenomena are found: the arc column in the turbulence-model case is more extensive, moves much more slowly than the counterpart in the laminar-model case, and shows stagnation at the entrance of the chamber, unlike in the laminar-model case. Moreover, the arc voltage in the turbulence-model case is much lower than in the laminar-model case. However, the results in the turbulence-model case show a much better agreement with the results of the breaking experiments under DC condition than in the laminar-model case, which is contradictory to the previous conclusions from the arc researches of both the low-voltage circuit breaker and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) nozzle. First, in the previous air-arc research of the low-voltage circuit breaker, it is assumed that the air plasma inside the chamber is in the state of laminar, and the laminar-model application gives quite satisfactory results compared with the experiments, while in this paper, the laminar-model application works badly. Second, the turbulence-model application in the arc research of the SF6-nozzle performs much better and gives higher arc voltage than the laminar-model application does, whereas in this paper, the turbulence-model application predicts lower arc voltage than the laminar-model application does. Based on the analysis of simulation results in detail, the mechanism of the above phenomena is revealed. The transport coefficients are strongly changed by turbulence, which will enhance the arc diffusion and make the arc volume much larger. Consequently, the arc appearance and the distribution of Lorentz force in the turbulence-model case

  7. Numerical modeling of annular laminar film condensation in circular and non-circular micro-channels under normal and micro-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebuloni, S.

    2010-03-01

    A theoretical and numerical model to predict film condensation heat transfer in mini, micro and ultra micro-channels of different internal shapes is presented in this thesis. The model is based on a finite volume formulation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations and it includes the contributions of the unsteady terms, surface tension, axial shear stresses, gravitational forces and wall thermal conduction. Notably, interphase mass transfer and near-to-wall effects (disjoining pressure) are also included. This model has been validated versus various benchmark cases and versus published experimental results from three different laboratories, predicting micro-channel heat transfer data with an average error of 20 % or better. The conjugate heat transfer problem arising from the coupling between the thin film fluid dynamics, the heat transfer in the condensing fluid and the heat conduction in the channel wall has been studied and analyzed. The work has focused on the effects of three external wall boundary conditions: a uniform wall temperature, a non uniform wall heat flux and single-phase convective cooling. The thermal axial and peripheral conduction occurring in the wall of the channel can affect the behavior of the condensate film, not only because it redistributes the heat, but also because the annular laminar film condensation process is dependent on the local saturation to wall temperature difference. When moving from mini to micro and ultra-micro channels, the results shows that the axial conduction effects can become very important in the prediction of the wall temperature profile and they can not be ignored. Under these conditions, the overall performances of the heat exchanger become dependent not only on the fluid properties and the operative conditions but also on the geometry and wall material. Results obtained for steady state conditions are presented for circular, elliptical and flattened shape cross sections for R-134a and ammonia, for hydraulic

  8. Gold/silver/gold trilayer films on nanostructured polycarbonate substrates for direct and label-free nanoplasmonic biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A; Estévez, M-Carmen; Vázquez-García, Marc; Berenguel-Alonso, Miguel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Lechuga, Laura M

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasmooth gold/silver/gold trilayer nanostructured plasmonic sensors were obtained using commercial Blu-ray optical discs as nanoslits-based flexible polymer substrates. A thin gold film was used as an adhesion and nucleation layer to improve the chemical stability and reduce the surface roughness of the overlying silver film, without increasing ohmic plasmon losses. The structures were physically and optically characterized and compared with nanostructures of single gold layer. Ultrasmooth and chemically stable trilayer nanostructures with a surface roughness <0.5 nm were obtained following a simple and reproducible fabrication process. They showed a figure of merit (FOM) value up to 69.2 RIU -1 which is significantly higher (more than 95%) than the gold monolayer counterpart. Their potential for biosensing was demonstrated by employing the trilayer sensor for the direct and refractometric (label-free) detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) biomarker in undiluted urine achieving a Limit of Detection (LOD) in the pM order. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Scans along arbitrary directions in reciprocal space and the analysis of GaN films on SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poust, B [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Heying, B [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hayashi, S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ho, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Matney, K [Bede Scientific Inc., Englewood, CO 80112 (United States); Sandhu, R [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Wojtowicz, M [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Goorsky, M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-05-21

    Equations governing scans along arbitrary directions in reciprocal space were developed and used to map reciprocal lattice points (RLPs) with radial raster patterns to study mosaic structure in GaN thin films deposited on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates using AlN nucleation layers (NLs). The films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, keeping the GaN growth conditions the same, but using different AlN NL growth conditions. Mosaic tilt angles determined from symmetric RLP breadth measurements were similar for all samples measured, consistent with screw and mixed dislocation densities determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Mosaic twist was determined using off-axis skew-symmetric high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements of asymmetric RLP breadths, yielding results consistent with grazing incidence in-plane x-ray diffraction twist measurements. A clear correlation between the twist angle and the edge and mixed dislocation densities determined by TEM was not observed, warranting careful consideration of dislocation structure.

  10. Scans along arbitrary directions in reciprocal space and the analysis of GaN films on SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poust, B; Heying, B; Hayashi, S; Ho, R; Matney, K; Sandhu, R; Wojtowicz, M; Goorsky, M

    2005-01-01

    Equations governing scans along arbitrary directions in reciprocal space were developed and used to map reciprocal lattice points (RLPs) with radial raster patterns to study mosaic structure in GaN thin films deposited on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates using AlN nucleation layers (NLs). The films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, keeping the GaN growth conditions the same, but using different AlN NL growth conditions. Mosaic tilt angles determined from symmetric RLP breadth measurements were similar for all samples measured, consistent with screw and mixed dislocation densities determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Mosaic twist was determined using off-axis skew-symmetric high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements of asymmetric RLP breadths, yielding results consistent with grazing incidence in-plane x-ray diffraction twist measurements. A clear correlation between the twist angle and the edge and mixed dislocation densities determined by TEM was not observed, warranting careful consideration of dislocation structure

  11. Direct laser-patterned micro-supercapacitors from paintable MoS2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liujun; Yang, Shubin; Gao, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Gong, Yongji; Ma, Lulu; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Yunhuai; Zhang, Shengtao; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-09-09

    Micrometer-sized electrochemical capacitors have recently attracted attention due to their possible applications in micro-electronic devices. Here, a new approach to large-scale fabrication of high-capacitance, two-dimensional MoS2 film-based micro-supercapacitors is demonstrated via simple and low-cost spray painting of MoS2 nanosheets on Si/SiO2 chip and subsequent laser patterning. The obtained micro-supercapacitors are well defined by ten interdigitated electrodes (five electrodes per polarity) with 4.5 mm length, 820 μm wide for each electrode, 200 μm spacing between two electrodes and the thickness of electrode is ∼0.45 μm. The optimum MoS2 -based micro-supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage with aqueous electrolytes, with a high area capacitance of 8 mF cm(-2) (volumetric capacitance of 178 F cm(-3) ) and excellent cyclic performance, superior to reported graphene-based micro-supercapacitors. This strategy could provide a good opportunity to develop various micro-/nanosized energy storage devices to satisfy the requirements of portable, flexible, and transparent micro-electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Direct Determination of Field Emission across the Heterojunctions in a ZnO/Graphene Thin-Film Barristor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edmund M; Min, Bok Ki; Kim, Seong K; Kim, Seong Jun; Kang, Min-A; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok; Jung, Jongwan; Kim, Sangtae

    2015-08-26

    Graphene barristors are a novel type of electronic switching device with excellent performance, which surpass the low on-off ratios that limit the operation of conventional graphene transistors. In barristors, a gate bias is used to vary graphene's Fermi level, which in turn controls the height and resistance of a Schottky barrier at a graphene/semiconductor heterojunction. Here we demonstrate that the switching characteristic of a thin-film ZnO/graphene device with simple geometry results from tunneling current across the Schottky barriers formed at the ZnO/graphene heterojunctions. Direct characterization of the current-voltage-temperature relationship of the heterojunctions by ac-impedance spectroscopy reveals that this relationship is controlled predominantly by field emission, unlike most graphene barristors in which thermionic emission is observed. This governing mechanism makes the device unique among graphene barristors, while also having the advantages of simple fabrication and outstanding performance.

  13. The directed preparation of TiO2 nanotubes film on FTO substrate via hydrothermal method for gas sensing application

    Directory of Open Access Jo