WorldWideScience

Sample records for film surface reconstruction

  1. Thin film surface reconstruction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperatori, P. [CNR, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Chimica dei materiali

    1996-09-01

    The study of the atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces is a fundamental step in the knowledge and the development of new materials. Among the several surface-sensitive techniques employed to characterise the atomic arrangements, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) is one of the most powerful. With a simple data treatment, based on the kinematical theory, and using the classical methods of x-ray bulk structure determination, it gives the atomic positions of atoms at a surface or an interface and the atomic displacements of subsurface layers for a complete determination of the structure. In this paper the main features of the technique will be briefly reviewed and selected of application to semiconductor and metal surfaces will be discussed.

  2. Nanopatterned articles produced using surface-reconstructed block copolymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Wang, Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

    2016-06-07

    Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

  3. Transition from Reconstruction toward Thin Film on the (110) Surface of Strontium Titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Loon, A; Subramanian, A; Gerhold, S; McDermott, E; Enterkin, J A; Hieckel, M; Russell, B C; Green, R J; Moewes, A; Guo, J; Blaha, P; Castell, M R; Diebold, U; Marks, L D

    2016-04-13

    The surfaces of metal oxides often are reconstructed with a geometry and composition that is considerably different from a simple termination of the bulk. Such structures can also be viewed as ultrathin films, epitaxed on a substrate. Here, the reconstructions of the SrTiO3 (110) surface are studied combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and analyzed with density functional theory calculations. Whereas SrTiO3 (110) invariably terminates with an overlayer of titania, with increasing density its structure switches from n × 1 to 2 × n. At the same time the coordination of the Ti atoms changes from a network of corner-sharing tetrahedra to a double layer of edge-shared octahedra with bridging units of octahedrally coordinated strontium. This transition from the n × 1 to 2 × n reconstructions is a transition from a pseudomorphically stabilized tetrahedral network toward an octahedral titania thin film with stress-relief from octahedral strontia units at the surface.

  4. Atomic mechanism of polarization-controlled surface reconstruction in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Heng-Jui; Huang, Yen-Lin; Chu, Ying-Hao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Feng, Bin; Jiang, Ying; Shibata, Naoya; Wang, En-Ge; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    At the ferroelectric surface, the broken translational symmetry induced bound charge should significantly alter the local atomic configurations. Experimentally revealing the atomic structure of ferroelectric surface, however, is very challenging due to the strong spatial variety between nano-sized domains, and strong interactions between the polarization and other structural parameters. Here, we study surface structures of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film by using the annular bright-field imaging. We find that six atomic layers with suppressed polarization and a charged 180° domain wall are at negatively poled surfaces, no reconstruction exists at positively poled surfaces, and seven atomic layers with suppressed polarization and a charged 90° domain wall exist at nominally neutral surfaces in ferroelastic domains. Our results provide critical insights into engineering ferroelectric thin films, fine grain ceramics and surface chemistry devices. The state-of-the-art methodology demonstrated here can greatly advance our understanding of surface science for oxides.

  5. Surface reconstructions and related local properties of a BiFeO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Xu, P. X.; Zeng, Y.; Lu, L.; Barthel, J.; Schulthess, T.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Wang, H.; Jia, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Coupling between lattice and order parameters, such as polarization in ferroelectrics and/or polarity in polar structures, has a strong impact on surface relaxation and reconstruction. However, up to now, surface structures that involve the termination of both matrix polarization and polar atomic planes have received little attention, particularly on the atomic scale. Here, we study surface structures on a BiFeO3 thin film using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Two types of surface structure are found, depending on the polarization of the underlying ferroelectric domain. On domains that have an upward polarization component, a layer with an Aurivillius-Bi2O2-like structural unit is observed. Dramatic changes in local properties are measured directly below the surface layer. On domains that have a downward polarization component, no reconstructions are visible. Calculations based on ab initio density functional theory reproduce the results and are used to interpret the formation of the surface structures. PMID:28102296

  6. Fe3O4(001) films on Fe(001): Termination and reconstruction of iron-rich surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiridis, N.; Barbasz, J.; Lodziana, Zbigniew;

    2006-01-01

    High-quality and impurity-free magnetite surfaces with (root 2x root 2)R45 degrees reconstruction have been obtained for the Fe3O4(001) epitaxial films deposited on Fe(001). Based on atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy images for both negative and positive sample polarity and densit...

  7. Surface reconstructions

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known, even at the most elementary level of scientific knowledge, that free surfaces have properties which make them differ from the underlying bulk material. In the case of liquids, it is common knowledge - even among laymen - that the liquid surface acts as though it were a distinct skin-like material. At a slightly more advanced level, it is known that the liquid surface will seek to minimize its total surface energy by minimizing its surface area; thereby affecting its local vapor-pressure and adsorption behavior. In the case of solids too, it has long been known that different

  8. Surfaces, Digitisations and Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new digital reconstruction of r-regular sets in three-dimensional Euclidean space. We introduce a vector field and analyse the relation between the topologies of the boundaries of the r-regular set and its reconstruction. This reconstruction can be carried out faster than prior models...... based on the same digitisation, making it attractive for computing....

  9. Nanopatterned articles produced using reconstructed block copolymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Wang; , Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

    2017-05-02

    Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

  10. Image Interpolation Through Surface Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; LI Xue-mei

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing an HR (high-resolution) image which preserves the image intrinsic structures from its LR ( low-resolution) counterpart is highly challenging. This paper proposes a new surface reconstruction algorithm applied to image interpolation. The interpolation surface for the whole image is generated by putting all the quadratic polynomial patches together. In order to eliminate the jaggies of the edge, a new weight function containing edge information is incorporated into the patch reconstruction procedure as a constraint. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our method produces better results across a wide range of scenes in terms of both quantitative evaluation and subjective visual quality.

  11. Multifunctional thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  12. Markov Random Field Surface Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    ) and knowledge about data (the observation model) in an orthogonal fashion. Local models that account for both scene-specific knowledge and physical properties of the scanning device are described. Furthermore, how the optimal distance field can be computed is demonstrated using conjugate gradients, sparse......A method for implicit surface reconstruction is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaption of Markov Random Field regularization of a distance field. The Markov Random Field formulation allows us to integrate both knowledge about the type of surface we wish to reconstruct (the prior...

  13. Highly efficient solid state catalysis by reconstructed (001) Ceria surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyov, VF; Ozaki, T; Atrei, A; Wu, LJ; Al-Mahboob, A; Sadowski, JT; Tong, X; Nykypanchuk, D; Li, Q

    2014-04-10

    Substrate engineering is a key factor in the synthesis of new complex materials. The substrate surface has to be conditioned in order to minimize the energy threshold for the formation of the desired phase or to enhance the catalytic activity of the substrate. The mechanism of the substrate activity, especially of technologically relevant oxide surfaces, is poorly understood. Here we design and synthesize several distinct and stable CeO2 (001) surface reconstructions which are used to grow epitaxial films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7. The film grown on the substrate having the longest, fourfold period, reconstruction exhibits a twofold increase in performance over surfaces with shorter period reconstructions. This is explained by the crossover between the nucleation site dimensions and the period of the surface reconstruction. This result opens a new avenue for catalysis mediated solid state synthesis.

  14. Reconstructing NURBS Surface with Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    The method of reconstructing NURBS surface with features is proposed in this paper. Features including boundary curves and feature points are recognized from the scanned data. An initial surface is constructed with boundary curves. The desired NURBS is determined by modifying the initial surface to pass through feature points. Lagrange multiplier is used to find the solution. The error analysis is then done. Examples are given to verify the algorithm at last. The method can keep some features fixed and be widely used in CAD modeling.

  15. Hermite variational implicit surface reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN RongJiang; MENG XiangXu; WHANGBO TaegKeun

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new technique for reconstructing surfaces from a large set of unorganized 3D data points and their associated normal vectors. The surface is represented as the zero level set of an implicit vol-ume model which fits the data points and normal constraints. Compared with variational implicit sur-faces, we make use of surface normal vectors at data points directly in the implicit model and avoid of introducing manufactured off-surface points. Given n surface point/normal pairs, the proposed method only needs to solve an n×n positive definite linear system. It allows fitting large datasets effectively and robustly. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method with both globally supported and compactly supported radial basis functions on several datasets.

  16. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  17. Capacitor film surface assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, I.; White, W.

    1985-02-01

    In the present investigation of the optical surface of the three widely used, biaxially oriented capacitor films, polypropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, and polyester, with attention to film surface defects and thickness variation, the defects and their rate of occurrence proved traceable in terms of polymer structure, chemical grouping, and fabrication processing. Film thickness variation was small, yet differed for each film type. Film breakdown voltages have been determined, and alternative causes for the voltage values obtained are proposed. A reciprocal relation is noted between the film breakdown voltage and the dielectric constant.

  18. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  19. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    protocol of LSCD patients. Autologous limbal transplantation Despite its success, its utility is limited. the requirement for a sizable limbal donation; up to 30-40% must be harvested from the contralateral donor eye and its harvest may theoretically harm the structural integrity, cause subclinical LSCD or cryptogenic changes in the donor eye. Ex vivo expansion and cultivation techniques for autologous limbal stem cells are being actively investigated. , the use of human AM for ocular surface regeneration (OSR and as a growth support substrate for ex vivo expansion of autologous corneal equivalent epithelial cells and their successful OSR in animal cornea model, as well as human, was reported. The conventional cultivation methods for corneal epithelial tissues for clinical transplantation applications involve utilization of xenobiotic materials such as fetal bovine serum (FBS and murine-derived feeder cells. FBS-free culture systems have been developed to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection, but these have the disadvantage of reduced efficacy for cell propagation. it must be emphasized that AMT is not a substitution for LSCT and AMT should not be performed when true LSCD exists because AM only provides a supportive matrix for the limbal stem cells to migrate, proliferate and restore the corneal surface. There are several disadvantages of AMT and LSCT technique. This delicate procedure requires technical skill for the preparation of AM with attached corneal epithelial cells and surgical dexterity to manipulate the AM onto the ocular surface.A rabbit model for transplantation of cultivated corneal limbal stem cells onto corneal stem cell deficient animals was developed & its results are very encouraging for similar studies in human corneal surface reconstruction. Our investigations indicated that Ex vivo cultivation of human corneal limbal stem cells (HCLSC occurred with ease in the thermoresponsive biodegradable gel - “Mebiol Gel”. The growth rate within Mebiol Gel

  20. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. The second algorithm uses harmonic intrinsic...... volumes which are certain values of the surface tensors and allows for noisy measurements. From a generalized version of Wirtinger's inequality, we derive stability results that are utilized to ensure consistency of both reconstruction procedures. Consistency of the reconstruction procedure based...

  1. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. When only measurements subject to noise...... of surface tensors are available for reconstruction, we recommend to use certain values of the surface tensors, namely harmonic intrinsic volumes instead of the surface tensors evaluated at the standard basis. The second algorithm we present is based on harmonic intrinsic volumes and allows for noisy...

  2. Surface wrinkling on polydopamine film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jieyun; Xie, Jixun; Han, Xue; Lu, Conghua

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a non-lithographic strategy to realize surface patterns on polydopamine films. It is based on surface wrinkling, which is induced on polydopamine (PDA) films that are grown on uniaxially pre-strained polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates through self-polymerization of dopamine, followed by the pre-strain release. We investigate the influences of the experimental conditions including polymerization time, prestrain and the dopamine solution concentration on the wrinkling patterns. Furthermore, we take advantage of the reducibility of PDA to fabricate silver nanoparticle-deposited PDA films with surface-wrinkled patterns, which may have potential applications in the related fields.

  3. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    The set of all surface tensors of a convex body K (Minkowski tensors derived from the surface area measure of K) determine K up to translation, and hereby, the surface tensors of K contain all information on the shape of K. Here, shape means the equivalence class of all convex bodies...... that are translates of each other. An algorithm for reconstructing an unknown convex body in R 2 from its surface tensors up to a certain rank is presented. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the shape of an unknown convex body can be approximated when only a finite number s of surface tensors are available....... The output of the reconstruction algorithm is a polytope P, where the surface tensors of P and K are identical up to rank s. We establish a stability result based on a generalization of Wirtinger’s inequality that shows that for large s, two convex bodies are close in shape when they have identical surface...

  4. Film boiling on vertical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, N. V.; Merte, H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Film boiling of a saturated liquid on a vertical surface is analyzed to determine the local heat-transfer rates as a function of height and heater-surface superheat. Experiments show that the laminar-flow model is inadequate. A turbulent-vapor-flow model is used, and the influence of the interfacial oscillations is incorporated on a semiempirical basis. Measurements of local film boiling were obtained with a transient technique using saturated liquid nitrogen.

  5. Neural Network Based 3D Surface Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincy Joseph

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel neural-network-based adaptive hybrid-reflectance three-dimensional (3-D surface reconstruction model. The neural network combines the diffuse and specular components into a hybrid model. The proposed model considers the characteristics of each point and the variant albedo to prevent the reconstructed surface from being distorted. The neural network inputs are the pixel values of the two-dimensional images to be reconstructed. The normal vectors of the surface can then be obtained from the output of the neural network after supervised learning, where the illuminant direction does not have to be known in advance. Finally, the obtained normal vectors can be applied to integration method when reconstructing 3-D objects. Facial images were used for training in the proposed approach

  6. Surface reconstruction by offset surface filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Chen-shi; WANG Guo-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The problem of computing a piecewise linear approximation to a surface from its sample has been a focus of research in geometry modeling and graphics due to its widespread applications in computer aided design. In this paper, we give a new algorithm, to be called offset surface filtering (OSF) algorithm, which computes a piecewise-linear approximation of a smooth surface from a finite set of cloud points. The algorithm has two main stages. First, the surface normal on every point is estimated by the least squares best fitting plane method. Second, we construct a restricted Delaunay triangulation, which is a tubular neighborhood of the surface defined by two offset surfaces. The algorithm is simple and robust. We describe an implementation of it and show example outputs.

  7. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Sur...

  8. MBE Growth and STM Analysis of Surface Morphology and Reconstructions of InAs Films%InAs薄膜的分子束外延生长与表面形貌及表面重构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继红; 罗子江; 周勋; 张毕禅; 郭祥; 丁召

    2013-01-01

    InAs films were prepared on InAs (001) substrate by utilizing the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology. During the growth process of InAs films, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations and patterns were used to measure and monitor the real-time growth rate and status. After growth and subsequent annealing, the sample was quenched down to room temperature then transferred into scanning tunneling microscope(STM) for observation. STM images confirmed that the surface morphology of this sample was atomically flat. Combined the RHEED patterns with STM images, it is speculated that the surface reconstruction of InAs films was mixture of/32(2×4) and α2(2 ×4).%利用带有反射高能电子衍射(RHEED)仪的分子束外延(MBE)方法,通过RHEED图像演变实时监控薄膜生长状况,采用RHEED强度振荡测量薄膜生长速率,在InAs(001)基片上同质外延InAs薄膜.利用扫描隧道显微镜(STM)对MBE生长的InAs薄膜表面形貌以及表面重构进行扫描分析,证实样品表面为原子级平整,并指出样品表面处于β2(2×4)与α2(2×4)两种重构混合的重构相.

  9. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  10. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, N

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects set in the film can be related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerical solving of adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position in the soap film can be reproduced by simple modeling taking into account film thickness measurements.

  11. 3D Surface Reconstruction and Automatic Camera Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Illustrations in this view-graph presentation are presented on a Bayesian approach to 3D surface reconstruction and camera calibration.Existing methods, surface analysis and modeling,preliminary surface reconstruction results, and potential applications are addressed.

  12. Mirror Surface Reconstruction from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Hartley, Richard; Salzmann, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    This paper tackles the problem of reconstructing the shape of a smooth mirror surface from a single image. In particular, we consider the case where the camera is observing the reflection of a static reference target in the unknown mirror. We first study the reconstruction problem given dense correspondences between 3D points on the reference target and image locations. In such conditions, our differential geometry analysis provides a theoretical proof that the shape of the mirror surface can be recovered if the pose of the reference target is known. We then relax our assumptions by considering the case where only sparse correspondences are available. In this scenario, we formulate reconstruction as an optimization problem, which can be solved using a nonlinear least-squares method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on both synthetic and real images. We then provide a theoretical analysis of the potential degenerate cases with and without prior knowledge of the pose of the reference target. Finally we show that our theory can be similarly applied to the reconstruction of the surface of transparent object.

  13. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...... combined with a Markov Random Field regularisation method. Conceptually, the method maintains an implicit ideal description of the sought surface. This implicit surface is iteratively updated by realigning the input point sets and Markov Random Field regularisation. The regularisation is based on a prior...... energy that has earlier proved to be particularly well suited for human surface scans. The method has been tested on full cranial scans of ten test subjects and on several scans of the outer human ear....

  14. Surface reconstruction of W2C(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Takashi; Hishita, Shunichi; Tanaka, Takaho; Otani, Shigeki

    2011-08-01

    A single crystal surface of ditungsten carbide, W2C(0001) was investigated using low-energy (LEED) and high-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). A new reconstruction, \\sqrt {13} \\times \\sqrt {13} {R}+/- 13.9^{\\circ } , was found as a clean surface structure after annealing the W2C at > 1900 K. The surface carbon content is shown as larger than that in the bulk. Our preliminary results showed that the same structure is realized also on WC(0001). The same surface periodicity is described for an Mo2C(0001) LEED pattern in the literature. This reconstruction phase is presumably common on the (0001) surface of hexagonal group-6 transition-metal carbides. In the off-specular HREELS, an atomic vibration of 44.8 meV (361 cm - 1) appeared within the gap energy region of the bulk phonon bands, which was assigned to a surface carbon vibration perpendicular to the surface. One possible explanation of the low vibrational frequency is very low adsorption height of the surface carbon atoms.

  15. Overlapping constraint for variational surface reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Solem, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a counter example, illustrating a shortcoming in most variational formulations for 3D surface estimation, is presented. The nature of this shortcoming is a lack of an overlapping constraint. A remedy for this shortcoming is presented in the form of a penalty function with an analysis...... of the effects of this function on surface motion. For practical purposes, this will only have minor influence on current methods. However, the insight provided in the analysis is likely to influence future developments in the field of variational surface reconstruction....

  16. Surface Reconstruction for Cross Sectional Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美和; 唐泽圣

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,a new solution to the problem of reconstructing the surface of 3D objects over a set of cross-sectional contours is proposed.An algorithm for single branch contours connection,which is based on the closest local polar angle method,is first presented.Then the branching problems(including non-singular branchin and singular branching)are completely solved by decomposing them into several single-branching problems.Finally,these methods are applied to the reconstruction of the external surface of a complexly shaped object such as the cellular region of human brain.The results show that the presented methods are practical and satisfactory.

  17. Reconstruction of low-index graphite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The low-index graphite surfaces (10 1 -0), (10 1 -1), (11 2 -0) and (11 2 - 1) have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) including van-der-Waals (vdW) corrections. Different from the (0001) surface which has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, there is no comprehensive study on the (10 1 -0)- (10 1 -1)-, (11 2 -0)- and (11 2 - 1)-surfaces available, although they are of relevance for Li insertion processes, e.g. in Li-ion batteries. In this study the structure and stability of all non-(0001) low-index surfaces were calculated with RPBE-D3 and converged slab models. In all cases reconstruction involving bond formation between unsaturated carbon atoms of two neighboring graphene sheets reduces the surface energy dramatically. Two possible reconstruction patterns have been considered. The first possibility leads to formation of oblong nanotubes. Alternatively, the graphene sheets form bonds to different neighboring sheets at the upper and lower sides and sinusoidal structures are formed. Both structure types have similar stabilities. Based on the calculated surface energies the Gibbs-Wulff theorem was applied to construct the macroscopic shape of graphite single crystals.

  18. Dense surface reconstruction with shadows in MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of internal organ surfaces provides useful information for better control and guidance of the operations of surgical tools for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The current reconstruction techniques using stereo cameras are still challenging due to the difficulties in correspondence matching in MIS, since there is very limited texture but significant specular reflection on organ surfaces. This paper proposes a new approach to overcome the problem by introducing weakly structured light actively casting surgical tool shadows on organ surfaces. The contribution of this paper is twofold: first, we propose a robust approach to extract shadow edges from a sequence of shadowed images; second, we develop a novel field surface interpolation (FSI) approach to obtain an accurate and dense disparity map. Our approach does not rely on texture information and is able to reconstruct accurate 3-D information by exploiting shadows from surgical tools. One advantage is that the point correspondences are directly calculated and no explicit stereo matching is required, which ensures the efficiency of the method. Another advantage is the minimum hardware requirement because only stereo cameras and a separated single-point light source are required. We evaluated the proposed approach using both phantom models and ex vivo images. Based on the experimental results, we achieved the precision of the recovered 3-D surfaces within 0.7 mm for phantom models and 1.2 mm for ex vivo images. The comparison of disparity maps indicates that with the addition of shadows, the proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art stereo algorithms for MIS.

  19. Iterative reconstruction of the transducer surface velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Erwin; van Dongen, Koen

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasound arrays used for medical imaging consist of many elements placed closely together. Ideally, each element vibrates independently. However, because of mechanical coupling, crosstalk between neighboring elements may occur. To quantify the amount of crosstalk, the transducer velocity distribution should be measured. In this work, a method is presented to reconstruct the velocity distribution from far-field pressure field measurements acquired over an arbitrary surface. The distribution is retrieved from the measurements by solving an integral equation, derived from the Rayleigh integral of the first kind, using a conjugate gradient inversion scheme. This approach has the advantages that it allows for arbitrary transducer and pressure field measurement geometries, as well as the application of regularization techniques. Numerical experiments show that measuring the pressure field along a hemisphere enclosing the transducer yields significantly more accurate reconstructions than measuring along a parallel plane. In addition, it is shown that an increase in accuracy is achieved when the assumption is made that all points on the transducer surface vibrate in phase. Finally, the method has been tested on an actual transducer with an active element of 700 × 200 μm which operates at a center frequency of 12.2 MHz. For this transducer, the velocity distribution has been reconstructed accurately to within 50 μm precision from pressure measurements at a distance of 1.98 mm (=16λ0) using a 200-μm-diameter needle hydrophone.

  20. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry, E-mail: rochtch@iptm.ru; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula [Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System, 53 Kabanbay Batyr St., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)

    2015-09-14

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  1. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Irzhak, Dmitry; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-09-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  2. Consistent Reconstruction of Cortical Surfaces from Longitudinal Brain MR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and consistent reconstruction of cortical surfaces from longitudinal human brain MR images is of great importance in studying subtle morphological changes of the cerebral cortex. This paper presents a new deformable surface method for consistent and accurate reconstruction of inner, central and outer cortical surfaces from longitudinal MR images. Specifically, the cortical surfaces of the group-mean image of all aligned longitudinal images of the same subject are first reconstructed ...

  3. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  4. Surface reconstruction of Pt(001) quantitatively revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R.; Meinel, K.; Krahn, O.; Widdra, W.

    2016-11-01

    The complex hexagonal reconstructions of the (001) surfaces of platinum and gold have been under debate for decades. Here, the structural details of the Pt(001) reconstruction have been quantitatively reinvestigated by combining the high resolving power of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). In addition, LEED simulations based on a Moiré approach have been applied. Annealing temperatures around 850 °C yield a superstructure that approaches a commensurable c (26.6 ×118 ) substrate registry. It evolves from a Moiré-like buckling of a compressed hexagonal top layer (hex) where atomic rows of the hex run parallel to atomic rows of the square substrate. Annealing at 920 °C stimulates a continuous rotation of the hex where all angles between ±0.7° are simultaneously realized. At temperatures around 1080 °C, the nonrotated hex coexists with a hex that is rotated by about 0.75°. Annealing at temperatures around 1120 °C yield a locking of the hex in fixed rotation angles of 0.77°, 0.88°, and 0.94°. At temperatures around 1170 °C, the Pt(001)-hex-R 0.94° prevails as the energetically most favored form of the rotated hex.

  5. Double stripe reconstruction of the Pt(111) surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghani Pushpa; Shobhana Narasimhan

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the reconstruction of the Pt(111) surface theoretically, using a 2D generalization of the Frenkel–Kontorova model. The parameters in the model are obtained by performing ab initio density functional theory calculations. The Pt(111) surface does not reconstruct under normal conditions but experiments have shown that there are two ways to induce the reconstruction: by increasing the temperature, or by depositing adatoms on the surface. The basic motif of this reconstruction is a `double stripe’ with an increased surface density and alternating hcp and fcc domains, arranged to form a honeycomb pattern with a very large repeat distance of 100–300 Å. In this paper, we have studied the `double stripe’ reconstruction of the Pt(111) surface. In agreement with experiment, we find that it is favourable for the surface to reconstruct in the presence of adatoms, but not otherwise.

  6. NEW VISUAL METHOD FOR FREE-FORM SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method is put forward combining computer vision with computer aided geometric design (CAGD) to resolve the problem of free-form surface reconstruction. The surface is first subdivided into N-sided Gregory patches, and a stereo algorithm is used to reconstruct the boundary curves. Then, the cross boundary tangent vectors are computed through reflectance analysis. At last, the whole surface can be reconstructed jointing these patches with G1 continuity(tangent continuity). Examples on synthetic images are given.

  7. An Application Study of Transition Surface Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJing-ping; HEYu-lin; LIAOXiao-ping

    2004-01-01

    the reconstruction of transition surface is one of time consuming activities during surface modeling in reverse engineering. Yet currently available software applications suffer from shortcoming in processing the connection among free form surfaces. In this paper, a new method is put forward combining Surfacer with Unigraphics to resolve this problem: Curves and surfaces are first constructed in Surfacer, then, the finished data is imported into Unigraphics based on IGES format. At last, the transition surface can be reconstructed in Unigraphics. The application of this method in transition surface reconstruction is illustrated by means of two case studies,showing the connection between free form surfaces; filleting and rounding among multiple surfaces; transition surface between two sets of surfaces.

  8. Surface reconstruction precursor to melting in Au309 clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The melting of gold cluster is one of essential properties of nanoparticles and revisited to clarify the role played by the surface facets in the melting transition by molecular dynamics simulations. The occurrence of elaborate surface reconstruction is observed using many-body Gupta potential as energetic model for 309-atom (2.6 nm decahedral, cuboctahedral and icosahedral gold clusters. Our results reveal for the first time a surface reconstruction as precursor to the melting transitions. The surface reconstruction lead to an enhanced melting temperature for (100 faceted decahedral and cuboctahedral cluster than (111 faceted icosahedral gold cluster, which form a liquid patch due to surface vacancy.

  9. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  10. Salicylic acid electrooxidation. A surface film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturova, M.D.; Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M.M. [N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Univ. of Hannover, Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management Hannover (Germany); Skundin, A. [A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    A possibility to use electrochemical treatment for salicylic acid (SA) removal from waste water was studied. It was found that SA can be oxidized at platinum anode with formation of harmless products. Features of anodic process, in particular, formation of solid film on anode surface as well as properties of the film were investigated. (orig.)

  11. Surface characteristics of PLA and PLGA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragkumar N, Thanki [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique Macromoleculaire (LCPM), UMR CNRS-INPL 7568, Groupe ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Edith, Dellacherie [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique Macromoleculaire (LCPM), UMR CNRS-INPL 7568, Groupe ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Six, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique Macromoleculaire (LCPM), UMR CNRS-INPL 7568, Groupe ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)]. E-mail: Jean-Luc.Six@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr

    2006-12-30

    Surface segregation and restructuring in polylactides (poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(L-lactide)) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films of various thicknesses were investigated using both attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle relaxation measurements. In case of poly(D,L-lactide) (DLPLA), it was observed that the surface segregation and the surface restructuring of methyl side groups are influenced by the polymer film thickness. This result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the same way, PLGA thick films were also characterized by an extensive surface segregation of methyl side groups. Finally, surface restructuring was investigated by dynamic contact angle measurements and it was observed when film surface comes into contact with water. In parallel, we also found that poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) thin and clear films with thickness {approx}15 {mu}m undergo conformational changes on the surface upon solvent treatment with certain solvents. The solvent treated surface of PLLA becomes hazy and milky white and its hydrophobicity increases compared to untreated surface. FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that polymer chains at the surface undergo certain conformational changes upon solvent treatment. These changes are identified as the restricted motions of C-O-C segments and more intense and specific vibrations of methyl side groups. During solvent treatment, the change in water contact angle and FTIR spectrum of PLLA is well correlated.

  12. Consistent Reconstruction of Cortical Surfaces from Longitudinal Brain MR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Yaping; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and consistent reconstruction of cortical surfaces from longitudinal human brain MR images is of great importance in studying longitudinal subtle change of the cerebral cortex. This paper presents a novel deformable surface method for consistent and accurate reconstruction of inner, central and outer cortical surfaces from longitudinal brain MR images. Specifically, the cortical surfaces of the group-mean image of all aligned longitudinal images of the same subject are first reconstr...

  13. Structural Stability and Optical Properties of Nanomaterials with Reconstructed Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzder, A; Williamson, A; Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2003-10-24

    The authors present density functional and quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the stability and optical properties of semiconductor nanomaterials with reconstructed surfaces. they predict the relative stability of silicon nanostructures with reconstructed and unreconstructed surfaces, and show that surface step geometries unique to highly curved surfaces dramatically reduce the optical gaps and decrease excitonic lifetimes. These predictions provide an explanation of both the variations in the photoluminescence spectra of colloidally synthesized nanoparticles and observed deep gap levels in porous silicon.

  14. surface modification of polyethylene films using atmospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    measured an increase of ozone with increasing oxygen admixture. Neither of ... Detailed modeling of both the chemistry inside the plasma and plasma effluent as well as the ... Film Treated by Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge. Plasma. Surface ...

  15. Ultra Fast Optical Sectioning: Signal preserving filtering and surface reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Poel, Mike van der; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    In 3D surface scanning it is desirable to lter away bad data without altering the quality of the remaining good data. Filtering of raw scanner data before surface reconstruction can minimize the induced er- ror and improve on the probability of reconstructing the true surface. If outliers consist...... to extract high quality 3D surface points from 2D images recorded at over 3000 fps. The scanner has been developed for digital impression taking in the dental area. Our work relates to future in-ear scanning for tting custom hearing aids without impression taking.......In 3D surface scanning it is desirable to lter away bad data without altering the quality of the remaining good data. Filtering of raw scanner data before surface reconstruction can minimize the induced er- ror and improve on the probability of reconstructing the true surface. If outliers consist...

  16. Ellipsometry of functional organic surfaces and films

    CERN Document Server

    Hinrichs, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Ellipsometry is the method of choice to determin the properties of surfaces and thin films. It provides comprehensive and sensitive characterization in a contactless and non-invasive measurements. This book gives a state-of-the-art survey of ellipsometric investigations of organic films and surfaces, from laboratory to synchrotron applications, with a special focus on in-situ use in processing environments and at solid-liquid interfaces.

  17. Surface structure of oriented PET films

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K

    2001-01-01

    crystallinity and the level of molecular orientation of the polymer are highest at the film surface and gradually decrease away from it. The same trend for an increase in structural order nearer the film surface was observed in a series of PET films drawn uniaxially in laboratory conditions. The observed strong dependence of stratification in the oriented films on drawing ratio, lead to the conclusion, that the structural gradients arise as a result of viscous flow. The molecular mechanism of stratification is discussed and leads to the idea of enhanced chain mobility at the PET film surface. The idea is in line with recent studies showing a depression of the glass transition temperature of free polymer surfaces. In addition, the results on structure formation in PET films during drawing, give support to the existing view that polymer crystallisation is assisted by a spinodal-decomposition nucleation process. Polymer films are widely used as substrates in nano-composite materials and therefore have to possess...

  18. Corneal surface reconstruction - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan H N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye and when damage due to burns or injury and several other diseases, stem cells residing in its rim called "limbus" are stimulated to multiply to support growth of new epithelial cells over its surface. If this ready source of stem cells is damaged or destroyed the natural repair is not possible and such a condition is known as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (CLSCD disease. Stem cell transplant helps such persons to regenerate the corneal surface. Human corneal limbal stem cell transplantation is at present an established procedure with reasonable good clinical outcome particularly when autologous limbal epithelial tissue from a fellow unaffected eye is used. 1, 2 A major concern related to the autograft is the possibility of CLSCD at the donor site, 3 techniques that allowed the expansion of a small limbal biopsy in the laboratory using cell cultures that could be then transplanted to the affected eye have been developed ,4, 5 Human amniotic membrane (HAM is used as a scaffold for both culturing the human limbal epithelial cells and for ocular surface reconstruction with the cultured limbal epithelial cells. 4-7 However, researchers have used alternative scaffolds like collagen 8, fibrin gel 9 and cross-linked gel of fibronectin and fibrin. 10 All these are biological materials and also need for animal 3T3 feeder layer for stem cell cultures. The properties of HAM are unique including antiadhesive effects, bacteriostatic effects, wound protection, pain reduction, and improvement of epithelialization and characteristically lacking imunogenicity. The use of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT to treat ocular surface abnormalities was first reported by Graziella Pellegrini, chief of stem cell laboratory at Giovanni Paolo Hospital in Venice, Italy, who was the first to demonstrate the limbal stem cell transplant in 1997. Amniotic membrane has been successfully used in

  19. Surface reconstruction precursor to melting in Au309 clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Fuyi Chen; Li, Z. Y.; Roy L. Johnston

    2011-01-01

    The melting of gold cluster is one of essential properties of nanoparticles and revisited to clarify the role played by the surface facets in the melting transition by molecular dynamics simulations. The occurrence of elaborate surface reconstruction is observed using many-body Gupta potential as energetic model for 309-atom (2.6 nm) decahedral, cuboctahedral and icosahedral gold clusters. Our results reveal for the first time a surface reconstruction as precursor to the melting transitions. ...

  20. Surface Reconstruction and Image Enhancement via $L^1$-Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Dobrev, Veselin

    2010-01-01

    A surface reconstruction technique based on minimization of the total variation of the gradient is introduced. Convergence of the method is established, and an interior-point algorithm solving the associated linear programming problem is introduced. The reconstruction algorithm is illustrated on various test cases including natural and urban terrain data, and enhancement oflow-resolution or aliased images. Copyright © by SIAM.

  1. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  2. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  3. Physisorbed Films on Planar and Nonplanar Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the case of multilayer liquid films on planar surfaces, we found that the widely used Frenkel-Halsey -Hill theory is the leading term of a many-body expansion of the more general Dzyaloshinskii-Lifshitz-Pitaevskii theory in the nonretardation limit. While the FHH theory is a good approximation in the thin film region, retardation has been shown to be important at thickness d >=q 100 A. A universal behavior of the retardation has also been found. Submonolayer He film on weak-binding substrate surfaces have been found to have unexpected and exciting new features. The weak binding of the substrate potential supports only low density monolayer He films so that the monolayer He solid can be eliminated. Meanwhile, the z -wise delocalization of He atoms reduces the He-He interaction and the lateral binding. It is possible that the 2D liquid film will be eliminated as well and a quasi-2D bose gas is expected. A further possibility is that no He monolayer film at all will be present on a weak-binding substrate. The possibility of using the fractal geometry to describe (global) surface roughness has been investigated. A power-law relation between the coverage and thickness is found on a fractally rough surface, with its exponent determined by the surface fractal dimension. A new and interesting phenomenon has been found: the adsorbed film "defractalizes" the substrate surface; this is observable by small angle x-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Adsorption inside a cylindrical pore and near an oblique corner have also been discussed.

  4. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  5. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood.

  6. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction from multistatic SAR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D; Moses, Randolph L

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses reconstruction of three-dimensional surfaces from multiple bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Techniques for surface reconstruction from multiple monostatic SAR images already exist, including interferometric processing and stereo SAR. We generalize these methods to obtain algorithms for bistatic interferometric SAR and bistatic stereo SAR. We also propose a framework for predicting the performance of our multistatic stereo SAR algorithm, and, from this framework, we suggest a metric for use in planning strategic deployment of multistatic assets.

  7. Film cooling enhancement with surface restructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuping

    Discrete-hole film cooling is used extensively in turbine components. In past decades, many research works concerning this technique have been published. Recently, efforts have been directed at seeking technologies that would increase film cooling effectiveness. Particularly, surface reshaping through protective coatings, such as a thermal barrier coating (TBC), is very attractive to turbine designers because extra machining work is not needed for its application. In the present work, film cooling enhancement with surface restructure is experimentally studied using an infrared (IR) imaging technique. The first surface structure studied is the surface with flow-aligned blockers. The studied configurations include single-hole and three-hole-row structures. The single-hole case is used for studying the effects of blocker design parameters, which include blocker height (0.2D, 0.4D, and 0.6D), distance between two neighboring blockers (0.8D, D, and 1.2D), blocker length (2", 4", and 6"), and blowing ratio M (0.43 and 0.93). The design with the best performance is chosen for the three-hole-row cases. The second surface shape studied, is the so-called upstream ramp, which is placed in front of a row of film cooling holes. Investigated geometrical parameters include upstream ramp angles (8.5°, 15°, and 24°) and blowing ratio M (0.29, 0.43, 0.57, 0.93, and 1.36). Detailed local film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are measured using an IR imaging technique. The third film cooling concept is the so-called trenched film cooling holes, i.e., film cooling holes sitting in a transverse groove. The film cooling structure for this experimental test consists of a three-hole row embedded in a trench 0.5D in depth and 2D in width, where D is the diameter of the holes. Five blowing ratios (0.29, 0.43, 0.57, 0.93, and 1.36) are tested. Based on the tested results, the three film cooling schemes are also compared. To implement the experimental work, a test system

  8. Surface reconstruction through poisson disk sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Hou

    Full Text Available This paper intends to generate the approximate Voronoi diagram in the geodesic metric for some unbiased samples selected from original points. The mesh model of seeds is then constructed on basis of the Voronoi diagram. Rather than constructing the Voronoi diagram for all original points, the proposed strategy is to run around the obstacle that the geodesic distances among neighboring points are sensitive to nearest neighbor definition. It is obvious that the reconstructed model is the level of detail of original points. Hence, our main motivation is to deal with the redundant scattered points. In implementation, Poisson disk sampling is taken to select seeds and helps to produce the Voronoi diagram. Adaptive reconstructions can be achieved by slightly changing the uniform strategy in selecting seeds. Behaviors of this method are investigated and accuracy evaluations are done. Experimental results show the proposed method is reliable and effective.

  9. NeuralNetwork Based 3D Surface Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Vincy

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel neural-network-based adaptive hybrid-reflectance three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction model. The neural network combines the diffuse and specular components into a hybrid model. The proposed model considers the characteristics of each point and the variant albedo to prevent the reconstructed surface from being distorted. The neural network inputs are the pixel values of the two-dimensional images to be reconstructed. The normal vectors of the surface can then be obtained from the output of the neural network after supervised learning, where the illuminant direction does not have to be known in advance. Finally, the obtained normal vectors can be applied to integration method when reconstructing 3-D objects. Facial images were used for training in the proposed approach

  10. Surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; M.M. Szindler; M. Chwastek-Ogierman; BRUMA M.; P. Jarka; Tomiczek, B.

    2011-01-01

    urpose: The purpose of this paper was to analyse the surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles. Design/methodology/approach: SSix different polymers which belong to the group of polyoxadiazoles were dissolved in the solvent NMP. Each of these polymer was deposited on a glass substrate and a spin coating method was applied with a spin speed of 1000, 2000 and 3000 rev/min. Changes in surface topography and roughness were observed. An atomic force microscope AFM Park System has been used....

  11. RECONSTRUCTION OF WELD POOL SURFACE BASED ON SHAPE FROM SHADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Quanying; CHEN Shanben; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    A valid image-processing algorithm of weld pool surface reconstruction according to an input image of weld pool based on shape from shading (SFS) in computer vision is presented. The weld pool surface information is related to the backside weld width, which is crucial to the quality of weldjoint. The image of weld pool is recorded with an optical sensing method. Firstly, the reflectance map model, which specifies the imaging process, is estimated. Then, the algorithm of weld pool surface reconstruction based on SFS is implemented by iteration scheme and speeded by hierarchical structure. The results indicate the accuracy and effectiveness of the approach.

  12. Homotopy based Surface Reconstruction with Application to Acoustic Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a new algorithm for surface reconstruction in a"e(3) from spatially arranged one-dimensional cross sections embedded in a"e(3). This is generally the case with acoustic signals that pierce an object non-destructively. Continuous deformations (homotopies) that smoothly...... homotopies that can generate a C (2) surface. An algorithm to generate surface from acoustic sonar signals is presented with results. Reconstruction accuracies of the homotopies are compared by means of simulations performed on basic geometric primitives....

  13. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Current-induced surface roughness reduction in conducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    Thin film surface roughness is responsible for various materials reliability problems in microelectronics and nanofabrication technologies, which requires the development of surface roughness reduction strategies. Toward this end, we report modeling results that establish the electrical surface treatment of conducting thin films as a physical processing strategy for surface roughness reduction. We develop a continuum model of surface morphological evolution that accounts for the residual stress in the film, surface diffusional anisotropy and film texture, film's wetting of the layer that is deposited on, and surface electromigration. Supported by linear stability theory, self-consistent dynamical simulations based on the model demonstrate that the action over several hours of a sufficiently strong and properly directed electric field on a conducting thin film can reduce its surface roughness and lead to a smooth planar film surface. The modeling predictions are in agreement with experimental measurements on copper thin films deposited on silicon nitride layers.

  15. Piezoelectric Film Waveguides for Surface Acoustic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Zhovnir

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of piezoelectric film waveguide structures for surface acoustic waves (SAW. Piezoelectric ZnO film is supposed to be placed on a fused quartz substrate. The analytical ratios and numerical results allow to determine the design parameters of the waveguide structures to provide a single-mode SAW propagation mode. The results of amplitude and phase experimental studies of the SAW in the waveguide structures that were carried out on the laser optical sensing set up confirm the theoretical calculations.

  16. Surface Reconstruction from Parallel Curves with Application to Parietal Bone Fracture Reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    Full Text Available Maxillofacial trauma are common, secondary to road traffic accident, sports injury, falls and require sophisticated radiological imaging to precisely diagnose. A direct surgical reconstruction is complex and require clinical expertise. Bio-modelling helps in reconstructing surface model from 2D contours. In this manuscript we have constructed the 3D surface using 2D Computerized Tomography (CT scan contours. The fracture part of the cranial vault are reconstructed using GC1 rational cubic Ball curve with three free parameters, later the 2D contours are flipped into 3D with equidistant z component. The constructed surface is represented by contours blending interpolant. At the end of this manuscript a case report of parietal bone fracture is also illustrated by employing this method with a Graphical User Interface (GUI illustration.

  17. Surface roughness and chemical properties of porous inorganic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Carrie L.; McAfee, Paul M. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Jin, Yi [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Lin, Y.S., E-mail: jerry.lin@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Porous inorganic films of different materials and pore architecture: mesoporous γ-alumina, mesoporous yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), macroporous YSZ and macroporous/microporous zeolite silicalite, were synthesized by the sol–gel spin-coating or dip-coating methods on silicon wafers of different surface roughness. Their surface chemical properties, pore and phase structure, and surface roughness were studied by various surface characterization methods. The pore sizes of these films are determined by their primary particle size. All the films studied are hydrophilic due to the presence of hydroxyl groups on the external crystallite surface, and their hydrophilicity increases in the order: macroporous YSZ < mesoporous YSZ < silicalite < γ-alumina. The γ-alumina films have highly smooth surfaces, while mesoporous YSZ, macroporous YSZ and silicalite films have similar surface roughness much rougher than γ-alumina films. The surface roughness of these coated films does not depend on the coating method, surface roughness of the substrate, surface chemistry or pore structure of the films. It is more controlled by the shape and size of the primary particles and aggregates in the sol or suspension from which the films are obtained. - Highlights: • Porous films of various pore structures are prepared by sol–gel methods. • γ-Alumina films have much smoother surface than thin films of other materials. • Film surface roughness is controlled by the shape and size of particles in the sols.

  18. Reconstructing surface triangulations by their intersection matrices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The intersection matrix of a finite simplicial complex has as each of its entries the rank of the intersection of its respective simplices. We prove that such matrix defines the triangulation of a closed connected surface up to isomorphism.

  19. Modeling surface imperfections in thin films and nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, J. S.; Jensen, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection on the surf......Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection...... classes of imperfections are examined. The imperfections are introduced as periodic structures with a super cell periods ten times larger than the simple grating period. Two classes of imperfections concern the grating and one class concern the substrate. It is shown that imperfections of a few nanometers...

  20. Surface structure of anatase TiO{sub 2}(001): Reconstruction, atomic steps, and domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yong; Gan, Shupan; Chambers, Scott A.; Altman, Eric I.

    2001-06-15

    The surface structure of anatase TiO{sub 2}(001) was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). A two-domain (1{times}4)/(4{times}1) reconstruction, similar to those previously reported in LEED and ion scattering studies, was observed by STM and RHEED. This reconstruction was found to be stable not only from room temperature to 850{degree}C in ultrahigh vacuum and oxygen-rich environments, but also during the anatase film growth. High-resolution STM images obtained at positive sample biases revealed two types of atomic row within each surface unit cell, indicating different Ti-derived states at the surface. At the same time, XPS of the reconstructed surfaces showed no evidence of Ti{sup 3+}. Based on the STM, XPS, RHEED, and LEED results, an {open_quotes}added{close_quotes}-and-{open_quotes}missing{close_quotes}-row model is proposed to account for the (1{times}4) reconstruction. Atomic steps and their relationship to the population of (1{times}4) and (4{times}1) domains were also investigated. The results showed that for vicinal surfaces the domain population depended strongly on the overall surface step orientation. While populations of the (1{times}4) and the (4{times}1) domains were nearly equal on flat (001) surfaces, they became significantly lopsided on a surface with its normal 2{degree} away from the (001) direction, demonstrating a strong correlation between surface steps and domain population on vicinal surfaces.

  1. Surface Structure of Anatase TiO{sub 2}(001): Reconstruction, Atomic Steps, and Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yong; Gan, Shupan; Chambers, Scott A.; Altman, Eric I.

    2001-06-15

    The surface structure of anatase TiO{sub 2}(001) was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). A two-domain (1 x 4)/(4 x 1) reconstruction, similar to those previously reported in LEED and ion scattering studies, was observed by STM and RHEED. This reconstruction was found to be stable not only from room temperature to 850 C in ultra-high vacuum and oxygen rich environments, but also during the anatase film growth. High-resolution STM images obtained at positive sample biases revealed two types of atomic rows within each surface unit cell, indicating different Ti-derived states at the surface. At the same time, XPS of the reconstructed surfaces showed no evidence of Ti{sup 3+}. Based on the STM, XPS, RHEED, and LEED results, an ''added''-and-''missing''-row model is proposed to account for the (1 x 4) reconstruction. Atomic steps and their relationship to the population of (1 x 4) and (4 x 1) domains were also investigated. Results showed that for vicinal surfaces, the domain population depended strongly on the overall surface step orientation. While populations of the (1 x 4) and the (4 x 1) domains were nearly equal on the flat (001) surfaces, they became significantly lopsided on the surface with its normal 2{sup o} away from the (001) direction, demonstrating a strong correlation between surface steps and domain population on vicinal surfaces.

  2. Surface plasmons in porous gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, S. P.; Stetsenko, M. O.; Krishchenko, I. M.; Maksimenko, L. S.; Kaganovich, E. B.; Serdega, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    The surface plasmon resonance effects in porous gold (por-Au) films—nanocomposite porous films containing an ensemble of disordered gold nanoparticles—have been investigated by modulation-polarization spectroscopy. Por-Au films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (using a direct particle flow from an erosion torch formed by a YAG:Nd3+ laser in argon). The spectral and angular dependences of the polarization difference ρ(λ, θ) of internal-reflection coefficients of s- and p-polarized radiation in the Kretschmann geometry and the spectral dependences of isotropic reflection angles at ρ(θ) = 0 are measured. Two types of surface plasmon resonance are found: one occurs on isolated nanoparticles (dipole and multipole modes), and the other is due to the dipole-dipole interaction of neighboring nanoparticles. The frequency of electron plasma oscillations for the nanoparticle ensemble and the frequencies and decay parameters of resonances are determined. Dispersion relations for the radiative and nonradiative modes are presented. The negative sign of the dispersion branch of nonradiative modes of dipole-dipole interaction is explained by the spatial dispersion of permittivity. The relationships between the formation conditions of the films, their structure, and established resonance parameters (determining the resonant-optical properties of films) are discussed.

  3. Superconductivity of metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in superconducting metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon is reviewed, mainly focusing on the results of the author’s group. After a brief introduction of an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV)-low-temperature (LT)-compatible electron transport measurement system, direct observation of the zero resistance state for the Si(111)-(\\sqrt{7} × \\sqrt{3} )-In surface is described, which demonstrates the existence of a superconducting transition in this class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The measurement and analysis of the temperature dependence of the critical current density indicate that a surface atomic step works as a Josephson junction. This identification is further confirmed by LT-scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observation of Josephson vortices trapped at atomic steps on the Si(111)-(\\sqrt{7} × \\sqrt{3} )-In surface. These experiments reveal unique features of metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon that may be utilized to explore novel superconductivity.

  4. Simultaneous measurements of top surface and its underlying film surfaces in multilayer film structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Davies, Angela

    2017-09-19

    With the growth of 3D packaging technology and the development of flexible, transparent electrodes, the use of multilayer thin-films is steadily increasing throughout high-tech industries including semiconductor, flat panel display, and solar photovoltaic industries. Also, this in turn leads to an increase in industrial demands for inspection of internal analysis. However, there still remain many technical limitations to overcome for measurement of the internal structure of the specimen without damage. In this paper, we propose an innovative optical inspection technique for simultaneous measurements of the surface and film thickness corresponding to each layer of multilayer film structures by computing the phase and reflectance over a wide range of wavelengths. For verification of our proposed method, the sample specimen of multilayer films was fabricated via photolithography process, and the surface profile and film thickness of each layer were measured by two different techniques of a stylus profilometer and an ellipsometer, respectively. Comparison results shows that our proposed technique enables simultaneous measurements of the top surface and its underlying film surfaces with high precision, which could not be measured by conventional non-destructive methods.

  5. Growing extremely thin bulklike metal film on a semiconductor surface: Monolayer Al(111) on Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Zhang, S. B.; Ebert, Philipp; Yang, Shenyuan; Tang, Zhe; Wu, Kehui; Wang, E. G.

    2007-10-29

    We report combined scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and theoretical study of the growth of ultrathin Al film on the Si(111) substrate. We show that by (i) a modification of the substrate reconstruction with a √3×√3 surface and (ii) a choice of materials with commensurate lattices, atomically flat film can be obtained even at the ultimate one monolayer limit, while maintaining a bulklike atomic structure. Detailed analysis shows that this monolayer Al(111)-1×1Al(111)-1×1 film is electronically decoupled from the Si substrate, and it shows metallic characteristics.

  6. Surface films and corrosion of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, J.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In Sweden and Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be encapsulated in cast iron canisters that have an outer shield made of copper. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister construction. General corrosion of the copper is not expected to be the limiting factor in the waste repository environment when estimating the life-time of the canister construction. However, different forms of localised corrosion, i.e. pitting, stress corrosion cracking, or environmentally assisted creep fracture may cause premature failure of the copper shield. Of the probable constituents in the groundwater, nitrites, chlorides, sulphides and carbonates have been suggested to promote localised corrosion of copper. The main assumption made in planning this research program is that the surface films forming on copper in the repository environment largely determine the susceptibility of copper to the different forms of localised corrosion. The availability of reactants, which also may become corrosion rate limiting, is investigated in several other research programs. This research program consists of a set of successive projects targeted at characterising the properties of surface films on copper in repository environment containing different detrimental anions. A further aim was to assess the significance of the anion-induced changes in the stability of the oxide films with regard to localised corrosion of copper. This report summarises the results from a series of investigations on properties of surface films forming on copper in water of pH = 8.9 at temperature of 80 deg C and pressure of 2 MPa. The main results gained so far in this research program are as follows: The surface films forming on copper in the thermodynamic stability region of monovalent copper at 80 deg C consist of a bulk part (about 1 mm thick) which is a good ionic and electronic conductor, and an outer, interfacial layer (0.001 - 0.005 mm thick) which shows p-type semiconductor

  7. Streaming Surface Reconstruction from Real Time 3D Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bodenmüller, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, a robust method for fast surface reconstruction from real time 3D point streams is presented. It is designed for the integration in a fast visual feedback system that supports a user while manually 3D scanning objects. The method iteratively generates a dense and homogeneous triangular mesh by inserting sample points from the real time data stream and refining the surface model locally. A spatial data structure ensures a fast access to growing point sets and continuously updat...

  8. A digital system for surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiyang; Brock, Robert H.; Hopkins, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A digital photogrammetric system, STEREO, was developed to determine three dimensional coordinates of points of interest (POIs) defined with a grid on a textureless and smooth-surfaced specimen. Two CCD cameras were set up with unknown orientation and recorded digital images of a reference model and a specimen. Points on the model were selected as control or check points for calibrating or assessing the system. A new algorithm for edge-detection called local maximum convolution (LMC) helped extract the POIs from the stereo image pairs. The system then matched the extracted POIs and used a least squares “bundle” adjustment procedure to solve for the camera orientation parameters and the coordinates of the POIs. An experiment with STEREO found that the standard deviation of the residuals at the check points was approximately 24%, 49% and 56% of the pixel size in the X, Y and Z directions, respectively. The average of the absolute values of the residuals at the check points was approximately 19%, 36% and 49% of the pixel size in the X, Y and Z directions, respectively. With the graphical user interface, STEREO demonstrated a high degree of automation and its operation does not require special knowledge of photogrammetry, computers or image processing.

  9. Nematic films at chemically structured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, N. M.; Telo da Gama, M. M.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the morphology of a thin nematic film adsorbed at flat substrate patterned by stripes with alternating aligning properties, normal and tangential respectively. We construct a simple ‘exactly-solvable’ effective interfacial model where the liquid crystal distortions are accounted for via an effective interface potential. We find that chemically patterned substrates can strongly deform the nematic-air interface. The amplitude of this substrate-induced undulations increases with decreasing average film thickness and with increasing surface pattern pitch. We find a regime where the interfacial deformation may be described in terms of a material-independent universal scaling function. Surprisingly, the predictions of the effective interfacial model agree semi-quantitatively with the results of the numerical solution of a full model based on the Landau-de Gennes theory coupled to a square-gradient phase field free energy functional for a two phase system.

  10. The reconstruction of fossil planation surface in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of results of relative subjects, the fossil planation surface has been discussed by the authors from the point of geomorphologic view. The discussion contents included the characteristic information, research methods, paleotopography (gradient and altitude) and other problems about fossil planation surface. The recognition and reconstruction of fossil planation surface mainly rely on the following characteristic information: ( i ) the character of erosion unconformity surface; (ii) the paleo-weathering crust and residual deposits; (iii) the paleo-karst and filled deposit in the paleo-karst under the unconformity surface,and (iv) the character and environment of sediment above the unconformity surface. According to the above-mentioned characteristic information, the authors recognized and reconstructed two stages of fossil planation surface on Paleo-land of North China and Yangtze Paleo-land. These two fossil planation surfaces formed from Middle Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous and from Lower Permian to Upper Permian respectively. The paleo-gradient of fossil planation surface changed within 0.31‰-1.32‰, mostly less than 1.0‰. According to the developing depth of paleo-karst, the authors considered that in Suqiao buried-hill region of Paleo-land of North China, the paleo-altitude is 300 m or so above paleo-sea-level. The authors hope that the research is in favor of discussion about rising scale and process of the Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the research of fossil planation surface can provide a theoretical base for relative research,such as the reconstruction of paleoenvironment, the evolution and drift of paleo-continent, the formation and distribution of weathering ore deposits, the reservior and prospection of oil and gas, etc.

  11. Reconstruction of faults in elastic half space from surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Darko; Voisin, Christophe; Ionescu, Ioan R.

    2017-05-01

    We study in this paper a half-space linear elasticity model for surface displacements caused by slip along underground faults. We prove uniqueness of the fault location and (piecewise-planar) geometry and of the slip field for a given surface displacement field. We then introduce a reconstruction algorithm for the realistic case where only a finite number of surface measurements are available. After showing how this algorithm performs on simulated data and assessing the effect of noise, we apply it to measured data. The data were recorded during slow slip events in Guerrero, Mexico. Since this is a well studied subduction zone, it is possible to compare our inferred fault geometry to other reconstructions (obtained using different techniques) found in the literature.

  12. Recent advances in 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Alavi, Zahrasadat; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-11-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as one of the most commonly used instruments in biology and material sciences, employs electrons instead of light to determine the surface properties of specimens. However, the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface attributes, we need to restore the 3D shape model from the SEM images. 3D surface reconstruction is a longstanding topic in microscopy vision as it offers quantitative and visual information for a variety of applications consisting medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, and mechanics. In this paper, we attempt to explain the expanding body of the work in this area, including a discussion of recent techniques and algorithms. With the present work, we also enhance the reliability, accuracy, and speed of 3D SEM surface reconstruction by designing and developing an optimized multi-view framework. We then consider several real-world experiments as well as synthetic data to examine the qualitative and quantitative attributes of our proposed framework. Furthermore, we present a taxonomy of 3D SEM surface reconstruction approaches and address several challenging issues as part of our future work.

  13. A molecular dynamics investigation of surface reconstruction on magnetite (001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, J. R.; Wasserman, E.; Felmy, A. R.

    1999-07-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations using analytical potential functions with polarizable oxygen ions have been used to identify a novel mode of reconstruction on the half-occupied tetrahedral layer termination of the magnetite (Fe 3O 4) (001) surface. In the proposed reconstruction, the twofold coordinated iron ion in the top monolayer rotates downward to occupy a vacant half-octahedral site in the plane of the second-layer iron ions. At the same time, half of the tetrahedral iron ions in the third iron layer are pushed upward to occupy an adjacent octahedral vacancy at the level of the second-layer iron ions. The other half of the third-layer iron ions remain roughly in their original positions. The proposed reconstruction is consistent with recent low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. It also provides a compelling interpretation for the arrangement of atoms suggested by high-resolution scanning-tunneling microscopy studies.

  14. Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    2012-06-01

    The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

  15. Surface studies of magnetic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Zeybek, O

    2000-01-01

    Despite the resonances of the various multiplet components the dichroism signal retains a uniform spectral shape. The well-resolved multiplet structures have been obtained in 5p photoemission of Tb using circularly polarised light. This multiplet structure is caused by the interaction between the core level photohole and those partially filled subshell, i.e. as result of the unpaired 4f and 5p electrons. In 4f levels of Tb(0001) films, the well-resolved surface component of the Tb sup 8 S sub 7 sub / sub 2 has been observed a separation of magnetic circular dichroism in the angular dependence effect for the surface layer and for the bulk. Depending on the preparation procedure, new iron superstructures on W(110) substrate have been observed. The photographs of the LEED images provide information about the ordered arrangement of atoms on the surface and the distances between the spots. These LEED patterns are also an evidence of crystal structure of iron films. The sharpness of the spots gives insight on how w...

  16. Effect of thin film on the generation of vorticity by surface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Parfenyev, V M; Lebedev, V V

    2016-01-01

    Recently a theoretical scheme explaining the vorticity generation by surface waves in liquids was developed [S. Filatov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 054501 (2016)]. Here we study how a thin (monomolecular) film presented at the surface of liquid affects the generated vorticity. We demonstrate that the vorticity becomes parametrically larger than for the case with a clean surface and now it depends on viscosity of the liquid. We also discuss the motion of particles passively advected by the generated surface flow. The results can be used in different applications: from the analysis of pollutants' diffusion on the ocean surface till the reconstruction of vorticity based on the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements.

  17. CZTSSe thin film solar cells: Surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Chinmay Sunil

    Chalcopyrite semiconducting materials, specifically CZTS, are a promising alternative to traditional silicon solar cell technology. Because of the high absorption coefficient; films of the order of 1 micrometer thickness are sufficient for the fabrication of solar cells. Liquid based synthesis methods are advantageous because they are easily scalable using the roll to roll manufacturing techniques. Various treatments are explored in this study to enhance the performance of the selenized CZTS film based solar cells. Thiourea can be used as a sulfur source and can be used to tune band gap of CZTSSe. Bromine etching can be used to manipulate the thickness of sintered CZTSSe film. The etching treatment creates recombination centers which lead to poor device performance. Various after treatments were used to improve the performance of the devices. It was observed that the performance of the solar cell devices could not be improved by any of the after treatment steps. Other surface treatment processes are explored including KCN etching and gaseous H2S treatments. Hybrid solar cells which included use of CIGS nanoparticles at the interface between CZTSSe and CdS are also explored.

  18. Verification and source-position error analysis of film reconstruction techniques used in the brachytherapy planning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Chui, Chen-Shou; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen Tainsong [Institute of Biochemical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Sinlau Christian Hospital, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sinlau Christian Hospital, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Physics, Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    A method was presented that employs standard linac QA tools to verify the accuracy of film reconstruction algorithms used in the brachytherapy planning system. Verification of reconstruction techniques is important as suggested in the ESTRO booklet 8: ''The institution should verify the full process of any reconstruction technique employed clinically.'' Error modeling was also performed to analyze seed-position errors. The ''isocentric beam checker'' device was used in this work. It has a two-dimensional array of steel balls embedded on its surface. The checker was placed on the simulator couch with its center ball coincident with the simulator isocenter, and one axis of its cross marks parallel to the axis of gantry rotation. The gantry of the simulator was rotated to make the checker behave like a three-dimensional array of balls. Three algorithms used in the ABACUS treatment planning system: orthogonal film, 2-films-with-variable-angle, and 3-films-with-variable-angle were tested. After exposing and digitizing the films, the position of each steel ball on the checker was reconstructed and compared to its true position, which can be accurately calculated. The results showed that the error is dependent on the object-isocenter distance, but not the magnification of the object. The averaged errors were less than 1 mm within the tolerance level defined by Roueet al. [''The EQUAL-ESTRO audit on geometric reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy,'' Radiother. Oncol. 78, 78-83 (2006)]. However, according to the error modeling, the theoretical error would be greater than 2 mm if the objects were located more than 20 cm away from the isocenter with a 0.5 deg. reading error of the gantry and collimator angles. Thus, in addition to carefully performing the QA of the gantry and collimator angle indicators, it is suggested that the patient, together with the applicators or seeds inside, should be placed close to

  19. Energy minimization calculations for diamond (111) surface reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbilt, D.; Louie, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    A remarkable variety of surface reconstructions occur on the (111) surfaces of the tetrahedral elements C, Si and Ge. A possible common denominator may be the occurrence of a similar 2 x 1 reconstruction on all three elemental surfaces. While clear 2 x 1 LEED patterns are observed for Si and Ge (111) surfaces, LEED cannot distinguish between a true 2 x 2 or disordered domains of 2 x 1 for the diamond (111) surface. However, the similarity of the angle-resolved photoemission (ARUPS) results for C, Si, and Ge suggests that a common 2 x 1 structure may be responsible. The 2 x 1 structure disappears upon annealing for Si and Ge but appears upon annealing for C, indicating that it may be thermodynamically stable only for C. Thus the study of the diamond 2 x 2/2 x 1 surface is of particular interest. Here, we report direct energy minimization calculations for these models. A first principles linear combination of atomic orbitals approach has been used to calculate total energies in the pseudopotential and local density (LDA) approximations. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 3D reconstruction of concave surfaces using polarisation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, A.; Farooq, A. R.; Ahmed, J.; Smith, L. N.; Smith, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for improved shape recovery using polarisation-based photometric stereo. The majority of previous research using photometric stereo involves 3D reconstruction using both the diffuse and specular components of light; however, this paper suggests the use of the specular component only as it is the only form of light that comes directly off the surface without subsurface scattering or interreflections. Experiments were carried out on both real and synthetic surfaces. Real images were obtained using a polarisation-based photometric stereo device while synthetic images were generated using PovRay® software. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can extract three-dimensional (3D) surface information effectively even for concave surfaces with complex texture and surface reflectance.

  1. Colored 3D surface reconstruction using Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian-peng; Chen, Xiang-ning; Chen, Ying; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    A colored 3D surface reconstruction method which effectively fuses the information of both depth and color image using Microsoft Kinect is proposed and demonstrated by experiment. Kinect depth images are processed with the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation which efficiently combines the depth and color data to improve its quality. The registered depth data are integrated to achieve a surface reconstruction through the colored truncated signed distance fields presented in this paper. Finally, the improved ray casting for rendering full colored surface is implemented to estimate color texture of the reconstruction object. Capturing the depth and color images of a toy car, the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation is used to improve the quality of depth images and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is approximately 4.57 dB, which is better than 1.16 dB of the joint-bilateral filter. The colored construction results of toy car demonstrate the suitability and ability of the proposed method.

  2. Reconstructing interaction potentials in thin films from real-space images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gienger, Jonas; Severin, Nikolai; Rabe, Jürgen P; Sokolov, Igor M

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that an inverse Monte Carlo approach allows one to reconstruct effective interaction potentials from real-space images. The method is exemplified on monomolecular ethanol-water films imaged with scanning force microscopy, which provides the spatial distribution of the molecules. Direct Monte Carlo simulations with the reconstructed potential allow for obtaining characteristics of the system which are unavailable in the experiment, such as the heat capacity of the monomolecularly thin film, and for a prediction of the critical temperature of the demixing transition.

  3. Stability and effects of carbon-induced surface reconstructions in cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobîcă, I. M.; van Helden, P.; van Santen, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    This computational study of carbon induced reconstruction of Co surfaces demonstrates that surface reconstruction is stable in the presence of a hydrogen at low coverage. These reconstructions can create new sites that allow for low activation energy CO dissociation. Carbon induced surface reconstruction of the edge of the FCC-Co(221) step surface will result in highly reactive step-edge sites. Such sites also provide a low activation energy for carbon to diffuse into the subsurface layer of cobalt.

  4. Multiview specular stereo reconstruction of large mirror surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    In deflectometry, the shape of mirror objects is recovered from distorted images of a calibrated scene. While remarkably high accuracies are achievable, state-of-the-art methods suffer from two distinct weaknesses: First, for mainly constructive reasons, these can only capture a few square centimeters of surface area at once. Second, reconstructions are ambiguous i.e. infinitely many surfaces lead to the same visual impression. We resolve both of these problems by introducing the first multiview specular stereo approach, which jointly evaluates a series of overlapping deflectometric images. Two publicly available benchmarks accompany this paper, enabling us to numerically demonstrate viability and practicability of our approach. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Performance analysis of different surface reconstruction algorithms for 3D reconstruction of outdoor objects from their digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Abhik; Chakravarty, Debashish

    2016-01-01

    3D reconstruction of geo-objects from their digital images is a time-efficient and convenient way of studying the structural features of the object being modelled. This paper presents a 3D reconstruction methodology which can be used to generate photo-realistic 3D watertight surface of different irregular shaped objects, from digital image sequences of the objects. The 3D reconstruction approach described here is robust, simplistic and can be readily used in reconstructing watertight 3D surface of any object from its digital image sequence. Here, digital images of different objects are used to build sparse, followed by dense 3D point clouds of the objects. These image-obtained point clouds are then used for generation of photo-realistic 3D surfaces, using different surface reconstruction algorithms such as Poisson reconstruction and Ball-pivoting algorithm. Different control parameters of these algorithms are identified, which affect the quality and computation time of the reconstructed 3D surface. The effects of these control parameters in generation of 3D surface from point clouds of different density are studied. It is shown that the reconstructed surface quality of Poisson reconstruction depends on Samples per node (SN) significantly, greater SN values resulting in better quality surfaces. Also, the quality of the 3D surface generated using Ball-Pivoting algorithm is found to be highly depend upon Clustering radius and Angle threshold values. The results obtained from this study give the readers of the article a valuable insight into the effects of different control parameters on determining the reconstructed surface quality.

  6. 3DSEM++: Adaptive and intelligent 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Holz, Jessica D; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Owen, Heather A; He, Max M; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis of microscopic objects is a longstanding topic in several scientific disciplines, such as biological, mechanical, and materials sciences. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as a promising imaging equipment has been around for decades to determine the surface properties (e.g., compositions or geometries) of specimens by achieving increased magnification, contrast, and resolution greater than one nanometer. Whereas SEM micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D), many research and educational questions truly require knowledge and facts about their three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D surface reconstruction from SEM images leads to remarkable understanding of microscopic surfaces, allowing informative and qualitative visualization of the samples being investigated. In this contribution, we integrate several computational technologies including machine learning, contrario methodology, and epipolar geometry to design and develop a novel and efficient method called 3DSEM++ for multi-view 3D SEM surface reconstruction in an adaptive and intelligent fashion. The experiments which have been performed on real and synthetic data assert the approach is able to reach a significant precision to both SEM extrinsic calibration and its 3D surface modeling.

  7. Adaptive Surface Reconstruction Based on Tensor Product Algebraic Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Song; Falai Chen

    2009-01-01

    Surface reconstruction from unorganized data points is a challenging problem in Computer Aided Design and Geometric Modeling. In this paper, we extend the mathematical model proposed by Juttler and Felis (Adv. Comput. Math., 17 (2002), pp. 135-152) based on tensor product algebraic spline surfaces from fixed meshes to adaptive meshes. We start with a tensor product algebraic B-spline surface defined on an initial mesh to fit the given data based on an optimization approach. By measuring the fitting errors over each cell of the mesh, we recursively insert new knots in cells over which the errors are larger than some given threshold, and construct a new algebraic spline surface to better fit the given data locally. The algorithm terminates when the error over each cell is less than the threshold. We provide some examples to demonstrate our algorithm and compare it with Jiittler's method. Examples suggest that our method is effective and is able to produce reconstruction surfaces of high quality.AMS subject classifications: 65D17

  8. Contour-Based Surface Reconstruction using MPU Implicit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Ilya; Marker, Jeffrey; Museth, Ken; Nissanov, Jonathan; Breen, David

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a technique for creating a smooth, closed surface from a set of 2D contours, which have been extracted from a 3D scan. The technique interprets the pixels that make up the contours as points in ℝ(3) and employs Multi-level Partition of Unity (MPU) implicit models to create a surface that approximately fits to the 3D points. Since MPU implicit models additionally require surface normal information at each point, an algorithm that estimates normals from the contour data is also described. Contour data frequently contains noise from the scanning and delineation process. MPU implicit models provide a superior approach to the problem of contour-based surface reconstruction, especially in the presence of noise, because they are based on adaptive implicit functions that locally approximate the points within a controllable error bound. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique with a number of example datasets, providing images and error statistics generated from our results.

  9. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  10. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  11. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  12. Modeling surface imperfections in thin films and nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P.-E.; Madsen, J. S.; Jensen, S. A.; Madsen, M. H.; Karamehmedovic, M.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection on the surface. Combining measurement data from several instruments increases the knowledge of non-perfect surfaces. In this paper we investigate how to incorporate this knowledge of surface imperfection into inverse methods used in scatterometry and ellipsometry using the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis. Three classes of imperfections are examined. The imperfections are introduced as periodic structures with a super cell periods ten times larger than the simple grating period. Two classes of imperfections concern the grating and one class concern the substrate. It is shown that imperfections of a few nanometers can severely change the reflective response on silicon gratings. Inverse scatterometry analyses of gratings with imperfection using simulated data with white noise have been performed. The results show that scatterometry is a robust technology that is able to characterize grating imperfections provided that the imperfection class is known.

  13. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F; Chang, J; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Hassinger, E; Daou, R; Rondeau, M; Ramshaw, B J; Liang, R; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Pyon, S; Takayama, T; Takagi, H; Sheikin, I; Malone, L; Proust, C; Behnia, K; Taillefer, Louis

    2011-08-16

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBa(2)Cu(3)O(y) (YBCO), application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order. Here we use a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and La(1.8-x)Eu(0.2)Sr(x)CuO(4) (Eu-LSCO) to show that the two materials exhibit the same process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping. The fact that in Eu-LSCO this reconstruction coexists with spin and charge modulations that break translational symmetry shows that stripe order is the generic non-superconducting ground state of hole-doped cuprates.

  14. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...... ~15 to 30 minutes, indicating that the tablet surface was homogeneously covered with film coating. The surface roughness started to increase from the beginning of the coating process, and the increase in the roughness broke off after 30 minutes of spraying. The results clearly showed that the surface...

  15. Spin density wave order, topological order, and Fermi surface reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, Subir; Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Schattner, Yoni

    2016-01-01

    In the conventional theory of density wave ordering in metals, the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order co-incides with the reconstruction of the Fermi surfaces into small 'pockets'. We present models which display this transition, while also displaying an alternative route between these phases via an intermediate phase with topological order, no broken symmetry, and pocket Fermi surfaces. The models involve coupling emergent gauge fields to a fractionalized SDW order, but retain the canonical electron operator in the underlying Hamiltonian. We establish an intimate connection between the suppression of certain defects in the SDW order, and the presence of Fermi surface sizes distinct from the Luttinger value in Fermi liquids. We discuss the relevance of such models to the physics of the hole-doped cuprates near optimal doping.

  16. Robust surface reconstruction by design-guided SEM photometric stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Matsuse, Hiroki; Koutaki, Gou

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel approach that addresses the blind reconstruction problem in scanning electron microscope (SEM) photometric stereo for complicated semiconductor patterns to be measured. In our previous work, we developed a bootstrapping de-shadowing and self-calibration (BDS) method, which automatically calibrates the parameter of the gradient measurement formulas and resolves shadowing errors for estimating an accurate three-dimensional (3D) shape and underlying shadowless images. Experimental results on 3D surface reconstruction demonstrated the significance of the BDS method for simple shapes, such as an isolated line pattern. However, we found that complicated shapes, such as line-and-space (L&S) and multilayered patterns, produce deformed and inaccurate measurement results. This problem is due to brightness fluctuations in the SEM images, which are mainly caused by the energy fluctuations of the primary electron beam, variations in the electronic expanse inside a specimen, and electrical charging of specimens. Despite these being essential difficulties encountered in SEM photometric stereo, it is difficult to model accurately all the complicated physical phenomena of electronic behavior. We improved the robustness of the surface reconstruction in order to deal with these practical difficulties with complicated shapes. Here, design data are useful clues as to the pattern layout and layer information of integrated semiconductors. We used the design data as a guide of the measured shape and incorporated a geometrical constraint term to evaluate the difference between the measured and designed shapes into the objective function of the BDS method. Because the true shape does not necessarily correspond to the designed one, we use an iterative scheme to develop proper guide patterns and a 3D surface that provides both a less distorted and more accurate 3D shape after convergence. Extensive experiments on real image data demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness

  17. Intrinsic instability of thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoni, Arif; Hu, Han; Sun, Liyong; Sun, Ying

    2016-11-01

    The instability of a thin liquid film on nanostructures is not well understood but is important in liquid-vapor two-phase heat transfer (e.g., thin film evaporation and boiling), lubrication, and nanomanufacturing. In thin film evaporation, the comparison between the non-evaporating film thickness and the critical film breakup thickness determines the stability of the film: the film becomes unstable when the critical film breakup thickness is larger than the non-evaporating film thickness. In this study, a closed-form model is developed to predict the critical breakup thickness of a thin liquid film on 2D periodic nanostructures based on minimization of system free energy in the limit of a liquid monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for water thin films on square nanostructures of varying depth and wettability and the simulations agree with the model predictions. The results show that the critical film breakup thickness increases with the nanostructure depth and the surface wettability. The model developed here enables the prediction of the minimum film thickness for stable thin film evaporation on a given nanostructure.

  18. Surface Stability of Epitaxial Elastic Films by the Casimir Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-Pu; Li, Wen J.

    2002-08-01

    We investigate the morphological stability of epitaxial thin elastic films on a substrate by the Casimir force between the film surface and a flat plate. Critical undulation wavelengths are derived for two different limit conditions. Consideration of the Casimir force in both limit cases decreases the critical wavelength of the surface perturbation.

  19. Surface Stability of Epitaxial Elastic Films by the Casimir Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚溥; 李文荣

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the morphological stability of epitaxial thin elastic films on a substrate by the Casimir force between the film surface and a flat plate. Critical undulation wavelengths are derived for two different limit conditions. Consideration of the Casimir force in both limit cases decreases the critical vavelength of the surface perturbation.

  20. Deformable Surface 3D Reconstruction from Monocular Images

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Being able to recover the shape of 3D deformable surfaces from a single video stream would make it possible to field reconstruction systems that run on widely available hardware without requiring specialized devices. However, because many different 3D shapes can have virtually the same projection, such monocular shape recovery is inherently ambiguous. In this survey, we will review the two main classes of techniques that have proved most effective so far: The template-based methods that rely on establishing correspondences with a reference image in which the shape is already known, and non-rig

  1. 3D surface reconstruction multi-scale hierarchical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bellocchio, Francesco; Ferrari, Stefano; Piuri, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    3D Surface Reconstruction: Multi-Scale Hierarchical Approaches presents methods to model 3D objects in an incremental way so as to capture more finer details at each step. The configuration of the model parameters, the rationale and solutions are described and discussed in detail so the reader has a strong understanding of the methodology. Modeling starts from data captured by 3D digitizers and makes the process even more clear and engaging. Innovative approaches, based on two popular machine learning paradigms, namely Radial Basis Functions and the Support Vector Machines, are also introduced

  2. Merging Surface Reconstructions of Terrestrial and Airborne LIDAR Range Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-19

    take advantage of weak locality in any data [7]. A number of surface reconstruction algorithms triangulate unstructured point clouds [1,3,6]. In...Xeon CPU with 4 GB of RAM. The results for five different point clouds from S1, S2, and S3 are shown in Table 2. Fig. 6 shows the fused mesh from...point cloud 2, and Fig. 11 shows the fused mesh from point cloud 4. Table 2 reports run times for all point clouds , including a break down of the

  3. Height measurement of astigmatic test surfaces by a keratoscope that uses plane geometry surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, N K; Cohen, K L; Obla, P; Coggins, J M; Holmgren, D E

    1996-06-01

    To assess the accuracy with which the Keratron keratoscope (Optikon 2000, Rome, Italy) measured astigmatic test surfaces by a profile reconstruction algorithm within a plane geometry model and to discriminate between error caused by the model and error caused by other factors. Height was reported by the Keratron for eight surfaces with central astigmatism ranging from 4 to 16 diopters. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation produced theoretic reflected ring patterns on which the Keratron's reconstruction algorithm was performed. The Keratron's measurements were compared with the surfaces' formulas and the ray-traced simulations. With a new mathematical filter for smoothing ring data, now part of the Keratron's software, maximum error was 0.47% of the total height and was usually less than 1% of local power for surfaces with 4 diopters of astigmatism. For surfaces with 16 diopters of astigmatism, maximum error was as high as 2.9% of total height and was usually less than 2.5% of local power. The reconstruction algorithm accounted for 40% and 70% of height error, respectively. The efficacy of keratoscopes cannot be assumed from their design theories but must be tested. Although plane geometry surface reconstruction contributed greatly to total height error, total error was so small that it is unlikely to affect clinical use.

  4. Local Surface Reconstruction from MER images using Stereo Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoe; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The authors present a semi-automatic workflow that reconstructs the 3D shape of the martian surface from local stereo images delivered by PnCam or NavCam on systems such as the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission and in the future the ESA-NASA ExoMars rover PanCam. The process is initiated with manually selected tiepoints on a stereo workstation which is then followed by a tiepoint refinement, stereo-matching using region growing and Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA)-based bundle adjustment processing. The stereo workstation, which is being developed by UCL in collaboration with colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) within the EU FP7 ProVisG project, includes a set of practical GUI-based tools that enable an operator to define a visually correct tiepoint via a stereo display. To achieve platform and graphic hardware independence, the stereo application has been implemented using JPL's JADIS graphic library which is written in JAVA and the remaining processing blocks used in the reconstruction workflow have also been developed as a JAVA package to increase the code re-usability, portability and compatibility. Although initial tiepoints from the stereo workstation are reasonably acceptable as true correspondences, it is often required to employ an optional validity check and/or quality enhancing process. To meet this requirement, the workflow has been designed to include a tiepoint refinement process based on the Adaptive Least Square Correlation (ALSC) matching algorithm so that the initial tiepoints can be further enhanced to sub-pixel precision or rejected if they fail to pass the ALSC matching threshold. Apart from the accuracy of reconstruction, it is obvious that the other criterion to assess the quality of reconstruction is the density (or completeness) of reconstruction, which is not attained in the refinement process. Thus, we re-implemented a stereo region growing process, which is a core matching algorithm within the UCL

  5. RUPTURING OF POLYMER FILMS WITH RUBBING-INDUCED SURFACE DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Du; F.C.Xie; Y.J.Wang; O.K.C.Tsui

    2003-01-01

    It has been a long-standing question whether dewetting of polymer film from non-wettable substrate surfaces wherein the bicontinuous morphology never forms in the dewetting film is due to spinodal instability or heterogeneous nucleation. In this experiment, we use a simple method to make the distinction through introduction of topographical defects of the films by rubbing the sample surface with a rayon cloth. Spinodal dewetting is identified for those films that dewet by a characteristic wavevector, q*, independent of the density of rubbing-induced defects. Heterogeneous nucleation, on the other hand, is identified for those with q* increasing with increasing density of defects. Our result shows that PS films on oxide coated silicon with thickness less than ≈ 13 nm are dominated by spinodal dewetting, but the thicker films are dominated by nucleation dewetting. We also confirm that spinodal dewetting does not necessarily lead to a bicontinuous morphology in the dewetting film, contrary to the classic theory of Cahn.

  6. Theory of alkali-metal-induced reconstructions of fcc(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Bøssing; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of missing-row reconstruction energies of the fcc(100) surfaces of the metals Al, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au have been performed with the effective-medium theory with and without the presence of a potassium overlayer. It is shown that the tendency to reconstruct in the presence......-metal-induced reconstruction of fcc(110) surfaces are pointed out....

  7. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  8. Surface Morphology of Annealed Lead Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Kalugasalam,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thin films of Lead Phthalocyanine (PbPc on glass substrates were prepared by Vacuum deposition. The thickness of the films was 450 nm. The sample annealed in high vacuum at 373 K temperature. The sample has been analysed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in order to get structural and surface morphology of the PbPc thin film. The formation of XRD patterns of PbPc shows a triclinic grains (T seen along with monoclinic (M forms of PbPc. The sample is annealed at 373 K temperatures; the film shows peaks that assigned to the triclinic phase. SEM and AFM are the best tools to investigate the surface smoothness and to find the grain size of the particles. The grain size is calculated for all films of different thicknesses. The annealed AFM micrograph shows that the surface of the films consists of large holes. The annealed AFM image indicates a smooth surface. It is very clear that the grain size decreases with increase in the annealing temperature. The roughness also decreases with the increase in film annealing temperature. Annealed film leads to the oxidation of the hthalocyanine with oxygen absorbed or diffused. Therefore, the heat is responsible for the increase in film thickness. Since the films expand, it is believed that the porosity is increased.

  9. Spinodal surface instability of soft elastic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi Qing; Feng, Xi Qiao

    2008-06-01

    When the thicknesses of thin films reduce to microns or even nanometers, surface energy and surface interaction often play a significant role in their deformation behavior and surface morphology. The spinodal surface instability induced by the van der Waals force in a soft elastic thin film perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate is investigated theoretically using the bifurcation theory of elastic structures. The analytical solution is derived for the critical condition of spinodal surface morphology instability by accounting for the competition of the van der Waals interaction energy, elastic strain energy and surface energy. Detailed examinations on the effect of surface energy, thickness and elastic properties of the film show that the characteristic wavelength of the deformation bifurcation mode depends on the film thickness via an exponential relation, with the power index in the range from 0.749 to 1.0. The theoretical solution has a good agreement with relevant experiment results.

  10. Spinodal surface instability of soft elastic thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Qing Huang; Xi Qiao Feng

    2008-01-01

    When the thicknesses of thin films reduce to microns or even nanometers, surface energy and surface interaction often play a significant role in their deformation behavior and surface morphology. The spinodal surface instability induced by the van der Waals force in a soft elastic thin film perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate is investigated theoretically using the bifurcation theory of elastic structures. The analytical solution is derived for the critical condition of spinodal surface morphology instability by accounting for the competition of the van der Waals interaction energy, elastic strain energy and surface energy. Detailed examinations on the effect of surface energy, thickness and elastic propeties of the film show that the characteristic wavelength of the deformation bifurcation mode depends on the film thickness via an exponential relation, with the power index in the range from 0.749 to 1.0. The theoretical solution has a good agreement with relevant experiment results.

  11. Biocompatibility and Surface Studies of Microwave CVD Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Garguilo, J. M.; Koeck, F. A. M.; Nemanich, R. J.; Price, K. J.

    2002-03-01

    The structure and surface properties of a variety of diamond and diamond like carbon films were studied at the nano-scale, in an attempt to assess the biocompatibility of these surfaces. The process of microwave chemical vapor deposition was used to deposit undoped diamond, nitrogen doped diamond, diamond with a titanium monolayer, and diamond-like carbon samples. The contact angles of de-ionized water droplets on the surface of the samples were measured to analyze the surface energy of each film. The rms roughness values of the diamond films measured by atomic force microscopy were also used in determining surface characteristics. Surface treatments of hydrogen passivation, and oxidization were applied to the surface of each film. Hydrogen passivation of the undoped diamond, and nitrogen doped diamond surfaces increases the contact angle on average 30 degrees. Oxidation of the surface decreases the contact angle on average 20 degrees. The surface treatments did not significantly change the contact angle of the diamond like carbon films. Protein adsorption is the first event to take place at a tissue/material interface of an implant into the body, and fibrinogen is the major surface protein, which initiates coagulation and inflammation in the body. The adsorption of fibrinogen was used as an indicator of the biocompatibility of these diamond materials. Fibrinogen was applied to the diamond, and diamond like carbon films. A correlation between contact angle/surface energy, roughness, and the fibrinogen adsorption of these diamond surfaces is reported. There was no significant change in the contact angles following the application of fibrinogen to the surface of the films. This could indicate the biocompatibility of the diamond films. This work supported by the NSF REU program at NCSU and a Physical Sciences Student Research grant from MSU.

  12. Undulatory delamination of thin polymer films on gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chah, Soonwoo; Noolandi, Jaan; Zare, Richard N

    2005-10-20

    Using two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance measurements, we have observed the formation of traveling waves in the delamination of thin films of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) exposed to methanol. Films were spin-coated on a gold surface and the methanol was added to the top surface. The stress-induced instability caused by the swelling of the PDMS thin film when its edge is pinned to the gold surface leads to wrinkle formation and propagation at the interface. The periodic pattern is thought to be the result of an Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld (ATG) instability.

  13. RECONSTRUCTION OF SYMMETRIC B-SPLINE CURVES AND SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Weidong; KE Yinglin

    2007-01-01

    A method to reconstruct Symmetric B-spline curves and surfaces is presented. The symmetry property is realized by using Symmetric knot vector and Symmetric control points. Firstly, data points are divided into two parts based on the symmetry axis or symmetry plane extracted from data points. Then the divided data points are parameterized and a Symmetric knot vector is selected in order to get Symmetric B-spline basis functions. Constraint equations regarding the control points are deduced to keep the control points of the B-spline curve or surface to be Symmetric with respect to the extracted symmetry axis or symmetry plane. Lastly, the constrained least squares fitting problem is solved with the Lagrange multiplier method. Two examples from industry are given to show that the proposed method is efficient, robust and able to meet the general engineering requirements.

  14. Object 3D surface reconstruction approach using portable laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Liye; Li, Changqing; Wang, Shifeng

    2017-06-01

    The environment perception plays the key role for a robot system. The 3D surface of the objects can provide essential information for the robot to recognize objects. This paper present an approach to reconstruct objects' 3D surfaces using a portable laser scanner we designed which consists of a single-layer laser scanner, an encoder, a motor, power supply and mechanical components. The captured point cloud data is processed to remove the discrete points, denoise filtering, stitching and registration. Then the triangular mesh generation of point cloud is accomplished by using Gaussian bilateral filtering, ICP real-time registration and greedy triangle projection algorithm. The experiment result shows the feasibility of the device designed and the algorithm proposed.

  15. Nonlinear optical microscopy for imaging thin films and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, L.B.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second harmonic generation to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. We have demonstrated the use of several nonlinear optical responses for imaging thin films. The second harmonic response of a thin film of C{sub 60} has been used to image patterned films. Two photon absorption light induced fluorescence has been used to image patterned thin films of Rhodamine 6G. Applications of nonlinear optical microscopy include the imaging of charge injection and photoinduced charge transfer between layers in semiconductor heterojunction devices as well as across membranes in biological systems.

  16. International Conference on Solid Films and Surfaces (2nd) (ICSFS-2), Programn and Abstracts Held at College Park, Maryland on 8-11 June 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    the multi-layer structure with buffer Chromium film on the glass. When the film deposition rate is small, the Oxygen and Nitrogen are captured and form...Upon rorreS- ivF anneali7n7 ur to 920 K after ion bombardment of .... ... pure (11) SnO-, the fllowin surface reconstruction types suc- ssivelv arr_ _. K

  17. Native Spirituality in (Reconstructed Personhood: Observing and Filming Yuri Vella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Toulouze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to understand what role spiritual mattersplay in the ideas and everyday life of a public figure quite famous in Western Siberia, the Forest Nenets writer, reindeer herder and activist Yuri Vella, and how the so-called religious practice is articulated in his life. In our reflection, we do not rely on any ad-hoc discourse, on issue-centred interviews, but on our fieldwork observation of speech and practice, a big part of which has been recorded on video with the aim of using it in the making of ethnographic films.

  18. Surface modification of PE film by DBD plasma in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, C.-S. [State Key Laboratory of Material Modification by Electron, Ion and Laser Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: rchsh@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, K.; Nie, Q.-Y.; Wang, D.-Z.; Guo, S.-H. [State Key Laboratory of Material Modification by Electron, Ion and Laser Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, surface modification of polyethylene (PE) films is studied by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment in air. The treated samples were examined by water contact angle measurement, calculation of surface free energy, Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water contact angle changes from the original value of 93.2{sup o} to the minimum value of 53.3{sup o} and surface free energy increases from 27.3 to 51.89 J/m{sup 2} after treatment time of 50 s. Both ATR and XPS show some oxidized species are introduced into the sample surface by the plasma treatment and that the change tendencies of the water contact angle and surface free energy with the treatment time are the same as that of the oxygen concentration on the treated sample surface. Cu films were deposited on the treated and untreated PE surfaces. The peel adhesive strength between the Cu film and the treated sample is 1.5 MPa, whereas the value is only 0.8 MPa between the Cu film and the untreated PE. SEM pictures show that the Cu film deposited on the plasma treated PE surface is smooth and the crystal grain is smaller, contrarily the Cu film on the untreated PE surface is rough and the crystal grain is larger.

  19. Use of biaxially oriented polypropylene film for evaluating and cleaning contaminated atomic force microscopy probe tips: An application to blind tip reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.

    2002-11-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a surface is basically a convolution of the probe tip geometry and the surface features; it is important to know this tip effect to ensure that an image truly reflects the surface features. We have found that a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is suitable for checking tip performance and for cleaning contaminated tips, thus making it possible to collect images of the same area of a BOPP film surface before and after the tip was cleaned. Therefore, the difference between the two different images is solely due to the contamination of the tip. We took advantage of our ability to collect AFM images of the same area using the same tip, in one instance, contaminated and, in the other, after being cleaned. First we used blind reconstruction on the image collected using the contaminated tip. Blind tip reconstruction allows one to extract the geometry of the tip from a given image. Once we had estimated the geometry of the contaminated tip, we used it to simulate the tip effect using the image collected using the cleaned tip. By comparing the simulation result with the image collected using the contaminated tip we showed that the blind reconstruction routine works well. Prior to this, there was no de facto method for testing blind reconstruction algorithms.

  20. Experimental Study on Plasma Surface Treatment of Capacitors Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Dai; Ting, Yin; Fuchang, Lin; Fei, Yan

    Plasma surface treatment is an optional way to change the electrical performance of the film capacitors used widely in pulse power application. This paper presents the experimental study of glow discharge plasma treatment to polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) film. By using infrared spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM), the chemical component and microstructure of material surface has detected to be changed with different treatment strength and various discharge gas. After treatment, the film surface tends to be rougher and some sorts of polar radicals or groups found to be introduced. But there is no obvious change of the electrical strength of the film. At last, theoretical analysis has been carried out with polypropylene film experimental treatment results in author's former work.

  1. Incommensurate growth of Co thin film on close-packed Ag(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sukanta; Menon, Krishna Kumar S. R.

    2016-05-01

    Growth of ultrathin Co layers on close-packed Ag(111)were investigated by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy(ARPES) techniques. The close-packed hexagonal face of Co(0001), exhibits a lattice misfit about 13% with Ag(111) surface which manipulates the growth to be incommensurate up to a certain thickness. The strain field causes aperiodic height undulation in the sub-angstrom regime of the film which was confirmed by p(1 × 1) LEED pattern along with a 6-fold moiré reconstruction pattern in the lower film thickness (up to ˜2ML). The evolution of the LEED pattern was studied with increasing film coverage. Lattice strain was measured with respect to the relative positions of these double spots as a functionof film thickness. Almost a constant strain (˜13%) in the full range of film thickness explains the moiré pattern formation in order to stabilize the incommensurate growth. For higher film coverages, an epitaxial well-ordered commensurate growth was observed. Core level and valance band electronic structures of these films were studied by XPS and ARPES techniques.

  2. The role of surface elasticity in liquid film formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champougny, Lorene; Scheid, Benoit; Restagno, Frederic; Rio, Emmanuelle; Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Team; TIPS-Fluid Physics Unit Team

    2014-11-01

    The formation of thin liquid films, either free standing (soap films) or deposited on a solid substrate (coated films), is of utmost importance for many applications, ranging from the control of foam stability to surface functionalization. In this work, the behavior of thin liquid films during their generation from a surfactant solution is investigated through comparison between a hydrodynamic model including surface elasticity and experiments. ``Twin'' models are proposed to describe the coating of films onto a solid plate (Landau-Levich-Derjaguin configuration) as well as soap film pulling (Frankel configuration) in a single framework. Experimental data are successfully fitted using the models, surface elasticity being the only adjustable parameter. For a given surfactant solution, the analyses of soap and coated films both yield the same value for the effective surface elasticity, showing that it is an intrinsic parameter of a surfactant solution. Conversely, we demonstrate that Frankel- or Landau-Levich-like experiments can be used in practice as surface rheometers to determine the numerical value of the (effective) surface elasticity of a solution, especially for values lower than those measurable by classical devices. L.C. was supported by ANR F2F. B.S. thanks the F.R.S.-FNRS for funding as well as the IAP-MicroMAST project.

  3. Weak nonlinear surface-charging effects in electrolytic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2003-11-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full nonlinear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the renormalization of the theory and apply it to a triple-layer model for a thin film with Stern layer of thickness h. For this model we give expressions for the surface charge sigma(L) and the disjoining pressure P(d)(L) and show their dependence on the parameters. The influence of image charges naturally arises in the formalism, and we show that predictions depend strongly on h because of their effects. In particular, we show that the surface charge vanishes as the film thickness L-->0. The fluctuation terms in this class of theories contribute a Casimir-like attraction across the film. Although this attraction is well known to be negligible compared with the mean-field component for model electrolytic films with no surface-charge regulation, in the model studied here these fluctuations also affect the surface-charge regulation leading to a fluctuation component in the disjoining pressure which has the same behavior as the mean-field component even for large film thickness.

  4. Reconstructing the energy band electronic structure of pulsed laser deposited CZTS thin films intended for solar cell absorber applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Rajesh; Oulad Elhmaidi, Zakaria; Sekkat, Zouheir; Abd-lefdil, Mohammed; El Khakani, My Ali

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the use of pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) technique for the growth of high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films onto Si, and glass substrates without resorting to any post sulfurization process. The PLD-CZTS films were deposited at room temperature (RT) and then subjected to post annealing at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C in Argon atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the PLD films crystallize in the characteristic kesterite CZTS structure regardless of their annealing temperature (Ta), but their crystallinity is much improved for Ta ≥ 400 °C. The PLD-CZTS films were found to exhibit a relatively dense morphology with a surface roughness (RMS) that increases with Ta (from ∼14 nm at RT to 70 nm at Ta = 500 °C with a value around 40 nm for Ta = 300-400 °C). The optical bandgap of the PLD-CZTS films, was derived from UV-vis transmission spectra analysis, and found to decrease from 1.73 eV for non-annealed films to ∼1.58 eV for those annealed at Ta = 300 °C. These band gap values are very close to the optimum value needed for an ideal solar cell absorber. In order to achieve a complete reconstruction of the one-dimensional energy band structure of these PLD-CZTS absorbers, we have combined both XPS and UPS spectroscopies to determine their chemical bondings, the position of their valence band maximum (relative to Fermi level), and their work function values. This enabled us to sketch out, as accurately as possible, the band alignment of the heterojunction interface formed between CZTS and both CdS and ZnS buffer layer materials.

  5. Efficient Surface Mesh Reconstruction from Unorganized Points Using Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANYouwei; YANLamei; GUOQingping

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the automatic reconstruction from unorganized points is presented,where first an artificial neural network is used to order the data and form a grid of control vertices with triangle topology. Then, we present a general scheme for mesh simplification and optimization that allows to control the geometric approximation as well as the element shape and size quality (required for numerical simulations). The new approach makes possible the construction of adapted geometric meshes for surfaces by specifying the element sizes(and directions) so as to bound the error below a usergiven threshold value. The experimental results show that our methods are accurate and simple to implement.

  6. Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.

  7. Reconstruction of an effective magnon mean free path distribution from spin Seebeck measurements in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Angel, E.; Zarate, R. A.; Fuentes, S.; Guo, E. J.; Kläui, M.; Jakob, G.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mean-free-path (MFP) distribution of the energy carriers is crucial to engineer and tune the transport properties of materials. In this context, a significant body of work has investigated the phonon and electron MFP distribution, however, similar studies of the magnon MFP distribution have not been carried out so far. In this work, we used thickness-dependence measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck (LSSE) effect of yttrium iron garnet films to reconstruct the cumulative distribution of a SSE related effective magnon MFP. By using the experimental data reported by (Guo et al 2016 Phys. Rev. X 6 031012), we adapted the phonon MFP reconstruction algorithm proposed by (Minnich 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 205901) and apply it to magnons. The reconstruction showed that magnons with different MFP contribute in different manner to the total LSSE and the effective magnon MFP distribution spreads far beyond their typical averaged values.

  8. Study of Hydrogen flame annealed Au thin-film surface morphology, integrity and film quality on various substrate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Michael; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2013-03-01

    Au thin-films have many applications in both industry and proof of concept investigations in device engineering. Typical Au depositions on substrate give rise to Stanski-Krastanov (SK) like growth while Frank-van der Merwe (FM) mode like growth is desired in many molecular self assembly and other engineering applications. Au films are magnetron sputter deposited at 100mtorr at low deposition rates (~ 1ML/min) on cleaved/fresh mica, glass microscopy slides and Si surfaces. Samples are hydrogen flame annealed to facilitate surface diffusion with minimal film contamination. Resulting Au surfaces were investigated and compared against purchased Au(111) on mica (standard) surface. Regular and custom built hydrophilic and hydrophobic AFM (Atomic Force Microcopy) probes were used in contact, and non contact AFM with topography and phase imaging to access the contamination and surface defects. Surface integrity, roughness, corrugation and morphology on Au surfaces were estimated. LHU Nanotechnology Program, PASSHE FPDC (LOU # 2010-LHU-03).

  9. Fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijia; Chen, Jianrong; Ma, Yuanjun; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface with a modified Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function was conducted. The topography of rough membrane surface was measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the results showed that the membrane surface was isotropous. Accordingly, the fractal dimension and roughness of membrane surface were calculated by the power spectrum method. The rough membrane surface was reconstructed on the MATLAB platform with the parameter values acquired from raw AFM data. The reconstructed membrane was much similar to the real membrane morphology measured by AFM. The parameters (including average roughness and root mean square (RMS) roughness) associated with membrane morphology for the model and real membrane were calculated, and a good match of roughness parameters between the reconstructed surface and real membrane was found, indicating the feasibility of the new developed method. The reconstructed membrane surface can be potentially used for interaction energy evaluation.

  10. Poly(acrylic acid surface grafted polypropylene films: Near surface and bulk mechanical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Radical photo-grafting polymerization constitutes a promising technique for introducing functional groups onto surfaces of polypropylene films. According to their final use, surface grafting should be done without affecting overall mechanical properties. In this work the tensile drawing, fracture and biaxial impact response of biaxially oriented polypropylene commercial films grafted with poly(acrylic acid (PAA were investigated in terms of film orientation and surface modification. The variations of surface roughness, elastic modulus, hardness and resistance to permanent deformation induced by the chemical treatment were assessed by depth sensing indentation. As a consequence of chemical modification the optical, transport and wettability properties of the films were successfully varied. The introduced chains generated a PAA-grafted layer, which is stiffer and harder than the neat polypropylene surface. Regardless of the surface changes, it was proven that this kind of grafting procedure does not detriment bulk mechanical properties of the PP film.

  11. Tribological thin films on steel rolling element bearing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ryan David

    Tribological thin films are of interest to designers and end-users of friction management and load transmission components such as steel rolling element bearings. This study sought to reveal new information about the properties and formation of such films, spanning the scope of their technical evolution from natural oxide films, to antiwear films from lubricant additives, and finally engineered nanocomposite metal carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (MC/a-C:H) films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the near-surface material (depth gear oil additives. Site-specific thinning of cross-section cone surface sections for TEM analyses was conducted using the focused ion beam milling technique. Two types of oxide surface films were characterized for the cones tested in mineral oil only, each one corresponding to a different lubrication severity. Continuous and adherent antiwear films were found on the cone surfaces tested with lubricant additives, and their composition depended on the lubrication conditions. A sharp interface separated the antiwear film and base steel. Various TEM analytical techniques were used to study the segregation of elements throughout the film volume. The properties of nanocomposite tantalum carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (TaC/a-C:H) thin films depend sensitively on reactive magnetron sputtering deposition process conditions. TaC/a-C:H film growth was studied as a function of three deposition parameters in designed experiments: acetylene flow rate, applied d.c. bias voltage, and substrate carousel rotation rate. Empirical models were developed for the following film characteristics to identify process-property trend relationships: Ta/C atomic ratio, hydrogen content, film thickness. TaC crystallite size, Raman spectrum, compressive stress, hardness, and elastic modules. TEM measurements revealed the film base structure consisted of equiaxed cubic B1-TaC crystallites (< 5 nm) suspended in an a-C:H matrix. At the nanometer-scale, the

  12. Surface modification by plasma polymerization: film deposition, tailoring of surface properties and biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, J.

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this thesis concerns the surface modification of materials by thin film deposition in a plasma reactor. In particular, thin polymeric films bearing amine functionalities were synthesized by plasma polymerization of amino group containing monomers. In addition to the synthesis, attention was directed towards the characterization of these films, and the tailoring of their surface properties on a molecular level. Finally, the amino groups introduced by plasma polymerization...

  13. Surface Morphology of Undoped and Doped ZnSe Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, T.; Hayes, M.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Thomas E.; Morgan, S.; Burger, A.

    1998-01-01

    Rare-earth doped ions in polar II-VI semiconductors have recently played an important role in the optical properties of materials and devices. In this study, undoped ZnSe and erbium doped ZnSe films were grown by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used together with optical microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy to characterize the films. Doped samples were found to have higher surface roughness and quite different surface morphology compared to that of undoped samples. The grown films generally show a relatively smooth and uniform surface indicating that they are of overall good quality. The impact of plasma etching on ZnSe:Er film examined under AFM is also discussed.

  14. Nonlocal effect in surface plasmon polariton of ultrathin metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Hong-jie; Yu, Yabin, E-mail: apybyu@hnu.edu.cn; Wu, Reng-lai; Yu, Yan-qin; Wang, Ya-xin

    2015-09-01

    Using the nonlocal conductivity based on quantum response theory, we study the optical properties of p-polarized wave in quartz–metal–film–air structures, especially the influence of nonlocal effect on the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) resonance. In absorption spectrum, the resonant peak of SPP is found, and the dependence of the resonant peak on film thickness shows that nonlocal effect in the SPP resonance is enhanced significantly with the decrease of film-thickness, especially in the less than 20 nm metal film. We calculate the surface charge density as a function of frequency, and find that the frequencies at the charge and absorption peaks are the same. This clearly confirms that the absorption peak stems from SPP resonance excitation, and SPPs absorb the energy of the electromagnetic wave via charge oscillations. In the case of SPP resonance, the charge and electric field on the down-surface of thin film are always greater than that on the up-surface; however, the situation is just opposite in the case of no SPP resonance. This implies that the SPP resonance occurs near the down-surface of the film. Moreover, due to the nonlocal response of electric current to the electric field, the energy flow and electric current show anomalous oscillations, and with the increase of film thickness the anomalous oscillations exhibit obvious attenuation.

  15. Electronic structure of reconstructed InAs(001) surfaces - identification of bulk and surface bands based on their symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowska, Natalia; Kolodziej, Jacek J.

    2016-02-01

    Using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) band structures of indium- and arsenic-terminated InAs(001) surfaces are investigated. These surfaces are highly reconstructed, elementary cells of their lattices contain many atoms in different chemical configurations, and moreover, they are composed of domains having related but different reconstructions. These domain-type surface reconstructions result in the reciprocal spaces containing regions with well-defined k→∥-vector and regions with not-well-defined one. In the ARPES spectra most of the surface related features appear as straight lines in the indeterminate k→∥-vector space. It is shown that, thanks to differences in crystal and surface symmetries, the single photon energy ARPES may be successfully used for classification of surface and bulk bands of electronic states on complex, highly reconstructed surfaces instead of the most often used variable photon energy studies.

  16. NON-CONTACT MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF FREEFORM SURFACE AND NURBS RECONSTRUCTION OF MEASUREMENT POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the development of the non-contact measurement system of free-form surface, NURBS reconstruc-tion of measurement points of freeform surface is effectively realized by modifying the objective function and recursiveprocedure and calculating the optimum number of control points. The reconstruction precision is evaluated through Ja-cobi's transformation method. The feasibility of the measurement system and effectiveness of the reconstruction algo-rithm above are proved by experiment.

  17. Surface Topology Reconstruction From The White Light Interferogram By Means Of Prony Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoma Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of surface topology reconstruction from a white light interferogram. The method is based on interferogram modelling by complex exponents (Prony method. The compatibility of white light interferogram and Prony models has already been proven. Effectiveness of the method was tested by modelling and examining reconstruction of tilted and spherical surfaces, and by estimating the reconstruction accuracy.

  18. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A; Pei, Y.T.; Shaha, K.P.; Chen, C.Q.; Vainchtein, David; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growin

  19. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TITANIUM FILMS WITH SODIUM ION IMPLANTATION: SURFACE PROPERTIES AND PROTEIN ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Y. Cai

    2007-01-01

    Sodium implanted titanium films with different ion doses were characterized to correlate their ion implantation parameters. Native titanium films and ion implanted titanium films were characterized with combined techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and light microscopy (LM). The surface presented increased sodium concentration on treated titanium films with ion dose increasing, except for the group with the highest ion dose of 4× 1017 ions/cm2. XPS depth profiling displayed that sodium entered titanium film around 25-50 nm depth depending on its implantation ion dose. AFM characterization showed that sodium ion implantation treatment changed the surface morphology from a relatively smooth titanium film to rough surfaces corresponding to different implantation doses.After sodium implantation, implanted titanium films presented big particles with island structure morphology. The surface morphology and particle growth displayed the corresponding trend.Fibrinogen adsorption on these titanium films was performed to correlate with the surface properties of treated titanium films. The results show that protein adsorption on ion-implanted samples with dose of 2 × 1017 and 4 × 1017 are statistically higher (p < 0. 01) than samples treated with dose of 5×1016 and 1 ×1017, as well as the control samples.

  20. Effect of Surface Hydrogen Coverage on Field Emission Properties of DiamondFilms Investigated by High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Guang; XIONG Yan-Yun; LIN Zhang-Da; FENG Ke-An; GU Chang-Zhi; JIN Zeng-Sun

    2000-01-01

    The influence of surface hydrogen coverage on the electron field emission of diamond films was investigated by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that hydrogen plasma treatment increased the surface hydrogen coverage while annealing caused hydrogen desorption and induced surface reconstruction. Field electron emission measurements manifested that increase of surface hydrogen coverage could improve the field emission properties, due to the decrease of electron affinity of the diamond .surface hy hvdrogen adsorption.

  1. Incoherent wavefront reconstruction by a retroemission device containing a thin fluorescent film: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozova, Vlada S; Khaydukov, Eugenyi V; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2016-07-20

    A retroemission device (REM) is an incoherent holographic device that represents a lenslet array situated on a substrate containing fluorescent material. Each lenslet focuses each wavelet of an optical wavefront incident on the REM device into a diffraction-limited volume (voxel) in the fluorescent material, so that the voxel coordinates encode the angle of incidence and curvature of the wavelet. The back-propagating fraction of the excited fluorescence is collected by the lenslet and quasi-collimated into a back-propagating wavelet. All wavelets are combined to reconstruct the incident wavefront propagating in the backward direction. We present a theoretical model of REM based on Fresnel-Kirchhoff approximation describing the reconstructed 3D image characteristics versus the thickness of the fluorescence film at the focal plane of the lenslets. Results of the computer simulations of the REM-based images of a point source, two axially separated point sources and an extended object (a circular rim) situated in the sagittal plane are presented. These results speak in favor of using a fluorescence film of minimum diffraction-limited thickness at the lenslet back focal plane. This REM structure minimizes the fluorescence background and improves the 3D imaging resolution in virtue of the exclusion of out-of-voxel fluorescence contributions to the reconstructed wavefront.

  2. Multiframe image point matching and 3-d surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, R Y

    1983-02-01

    This paper presents two new methods, the Joint Moment Method (JMM) and the Window Variance Method (WVM), for image matching and 3-D object surface reconstruction using multiple perspective views. The viewing positions and orientations for these perspective views are known a priori, as is usually the case for such applications as robotics and industrial vision as well as close range photogrammetry. Like the conventional two-frame correlation method, the JMM and WVM require finding the extrema of 1-D curves, which are proved to theoretically approach a delta function exponentially as the number of frames increases for the JMM and are much sharper than the two-frame correlation function for both the JMM and the WVM, even when the image point to be matched cannot be easily distinguished from some of the other points. The theoretical findings have been supported by simulations. It is also proved that JMM and WVM are not sensitive to certain radiometric effects. If the same window size is used, the computational complexity for the proposed methods is about n - 1 times that for the two-frame method where n is the number of frames. Simulation results show that the JMM and WVM require smaller windows than the two-frame correlation method with better accuracy, and therefore may even be more computationally feasible than the latter since the computational complexity increases quadratically as a function of the window size.

  3. Effect of film slicks on near-surface wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail; Ermakov, Stanislav; Ostrovsky, Lev; Shomina, Olga

    2016-09-01

    The transient effects of horizontal variation of sea-surface wave roughness due to surfactant films on near-surface turbulent wind are studied theoretically and experimentally. Here we suggest two practical schemes for calculating variations of wind velocity profiles near the water surface, the average short-wave roughness of which is varying in space and time when a film slick is present. The schemes are based on a generalized two-layer model of turbulent air flow over a rough surface and on the solution of the continuous model involving the equation for turbulent kinetic energy of the air flow. Wave tank studies of wind flow over wind waves in the presence of film slicks are described and compared with theory.

  4. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  5. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed....

  6. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  7. Molecular Precursors-Induced Surface Reconstruction at Graphene/Pt(111) Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Shi, Xingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by experimental observations of Pt(111) surfaces reconstruction at the Pt/graphene (Gr) interfaces with ordered vacancy networks in the outermost Pt layer, the mechanism of the surface reconstruction is investigated by van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory in combination with particle-swarm optimization algorithm and ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Our global structural search finds a more stable reconstructed (Rec) structure than that was reported before. With correction for vacancy formation energy, we demonstrate that the experimental observed surface reconstruction occurred at the earlier stages of graphene formation: 1) reconstruction occurred when C60 adsorption (before decomposition to form graphene) for C60 as a molecular precursor, or 2) reconstruction occurred when there were (partial) hydrogens retain in the adsorbed carbon structures for C2H4 and C60H30 as precursors. The reason can be attributed to that the energy gain, from the strengthened Pt-C bonding for C of C60 or f...

  8. Influence of Annealing Temperature on CZTS Thin Film Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenmei; Han, Junfeng; Ge, Jun; Peng, Xianglin; Liu, Yunong; Jian, Yu; Yuan, Lin; Xiong, Xiaolu; Cha, Limei; Liao, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) films were deposited by direct current sputtering and the samples were annealed in different oven-set temperatures and atmosphere (Ar and H2S). The surface evolution was investigated carefully by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the as-sputtered precursor contained little Cu and large amounts of Zn and Sn. The metallic precursor was continuous and compact without pinholes or cracks. With the increase of the temperature from room temperature to 250°C, Cu atoms diffused to the film surface to form Cu1- x S and covered other compounds. Some small platelets were smaller than 500 nm spreading randomly in the holes of the film surfaces. When the temperature reached 350°C, Zn and Sn atoms began to diffuse to the surface and react with S or Cu1- x S. At 400°C, SEM showed the melting of large particles and small particles with a size from 100 nm to 200 nm in the background of the film surface. Excess Zn segregated towards the surface regions and formed ZnS phase on the surface. In addition, the signal of sodium in the CZTS surface was observed above 400°C. At 600°C, a large amount of regular structures with clear edges and corners were observed in the film surface in SEM images. A clear recrystallized process on the surface was assumed from those observations.

  9. On near-free-surface dynamics of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongping

    In the present studies of four projects we developed several novel techniques to investigate near-free-surface dynamics of thin polymer films. In the first project, we studied the dynamical properties of the first 2-3 nm region of glassy isotactic poly (methyl methacrylate) (i-PMMA) films by means of the nano surface hole relaxation technique. We found that for the measured surface relaxation times there is a strong substrate property dependence, which can propagate into i-PMMA films for a distance of more than 100nm. An unexpected molecular weight (Mw) dependence of the near surface relaxation time is found for thick i-PMMA films, which, together with the finding that the free surface could be assigned a local surface glass transition temperature of ˜40K below bulk T g, indicates a viscous liquid regime while the rest of the underneath bulk part is in the glassy state. In the second project, the nano gold sphere embedding technique was used to study the nearfree-surface dynamics of polystyrene (PS) films within wide temperature and time windows. Three sections of measurements are conducted in this project. In the first section, we studied the Mw dependence of the near-free-surface dynamics of PS films and found that at temperatures above bulk Tg there exists a Mw dependence which can be explained using the Rouse dynamics for melt polymers. However, at a temperature of 16K below bulk T g no w M dependence is discernible, which is in contrast to that for i-PMMA films where even at a temperature of ˜36K below bulk Tg a Mw dependence of the near free surface dynamics is still observed. In the second section of this work, we studied the nano gold sphere embedding behavior within a wide temperature and time window, and for the first time the depth dependence of the near-free-surface dynamics with the nanometer scale resolution was observed. By an embedding-model-free data analysis the results show that when the measurement temperature is above a temperature of ˜378K

  10. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. Reyes [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca, Ixtlahuaca Kilómetro 15.5, C.P. 50200 Edo. de México (Mexico); Hautefeuille, M., E-mail: mathieu_h@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Coyoacán, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 D.F. Mexico (Mexico); García, A. Esparza [Fotofísica y Películas Delgadas, Departamento de Tecnociencias, CCADET-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mejia, O. Olea [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, 50200 San Cayetano, Estado de México (Mexico); López, M.A. Camacho [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Tollocan s/n, esq. Paseo Colón, Toluca, Estado de México 50110 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser-induced microbumps were formed on bismuth films using a simple, low-cost, laser setup. • The patterns, similar to those typically obtained with high-power lasers, were characterized. • Control of laser ablation conditions is critical in the fabrication of surface microbumps. - Abstract: In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD–DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  11. Thermally tailored gradient topography surface on elastomeric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudeshna; Bhandaru, Nandini; Das, Ritopa; Harikrishnan, G; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2014-05-14

    We report a simple method for creating a nanopatterned surface with continuous variation in feature height on an elastomeric thin film. The technique is based on imprinting the surface of a film of thermo-curable elastomer (Sylgard 184), which has continuous variation in cross-linking density introduced by means of differential heating. This results in variation of viscoelasticity across the length of the surface and the film exhibits differential partial relaxation after imprinting with a flexible stamp and subjecting it to an externally applied stress for a transient duration. An intrinsic perfect negative replica of the stamp pattern is initially created over the entire film surface as long as the external force remains active. After the external force is withdrawn, there is partial relaxation of the applied stresses, which is manifested as reduction in amplitude of the imprinted features. Due to the spatial viscoelasticity gradient, the extent of stress relaxation induced feature height reduction varies across the length of the film (L), resulting in a surface with a gradient topography with progressively varying feature heights (hF). The steepness of the gradient can be controlled by varying the temperature gradient as well as the duration of precuring of the film prior to imprinting. The method has also been utilized for fabricating wettability gradient surfaces using a high aspect ratio biomimetic stamp. The use of a flexible stamp allows the technique to be extended for creating a gradient topography on nonplanar surfaces as well. We also show that the gradient surfaces with regular structures can be used in combinatorial studies related to pattern directed dewetting.

  12. Dynamic behavior of surface film on LiCoO{sub 2} thin film electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Masaki [Material Engineering Div. 3, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Dokko, Kaoru; Kanamura, Kiyoshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Electrochemical oxidation behavior of non-aqueous electrolytes on LiCoO{sub 2} thin film electrodes were investigated by in situ polarization modulation Fourier transform infrared (PM-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). LiCoO{sub 2} thin film electrode on gold substrate was prepared by rf-sputtering method. In situ PM-FTIR spectra were obtained at various electrode potentials during cyclic voltammetry measurement between 3.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. During anodic polarization, oxidation of non-aqueous electrolyte was observed, and oxidized products remained on the electrode at the potential higher than 3.75 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} as a surface film. During cathodic polarization, the stripping of the surface film was observed at the potential lower than 3.9 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Depth profile of XPS also showed that more organic surface film remained on charged LiCoO{sub 2} than that on discharged one. AFM images of charged and discharged electrodes showed that some decomposed products deposited on charged electrode and disappeared from the surface of discharged one. These results indicate that the surface film on LiCoO{sub 2} is not so stable. (author)

  13. Dynamic behavior of surface film on LiCoO 2 thin film electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masaki; Dokko, Kaoru; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    Electrochemical oxidation behavior of non-aqueous electrolytes on LiCoO 2 thin film electrodes were investigated by in situ polarization modulation Fourier transform infrared (PM-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). LiCoO 2 thin film electrode on gold substrate was prepared by rf-sputtering method. In situ PM-FTIR spectra were obtained at various electrode potentials during cyclic voltammetry measurement between 3.5 V vs. Li/Li + and 4.2 V vs. Li/Li +. During anodic polarization, oxidation of non-aqueous electrolyte was observed, and oxidized products remained on the electrode at the potential higher than 3.75 V vs. Li/Li + as a surface film. During cathodic polarization, the stripping of the surface film was observed at the potential lower than 3.9 V vs. Li/Li +. Depth profile of XPS also showed that more organic surface film remained on charged LiCoO 2 than that on discharged one. AFM images of charged and discharged electrodes showed that some decomposed products deposited on charged electrode and disappeared from the surface of discharged one. These results indicate that the surface film on LiCoO 2 is not so stable.

  14. Magnetic Surfaces, Thin Films, and Multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY AND MAGNETO-OPTICS * PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY OF Pd/Co AND RELATED MULTILAYERS 441 S...THE PERPENDICULAR MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY AND STRUCTURE OF SPUTTERED Ag/Co, Pd/Co, AND AgPd/Co MULTILAYERED FILMS 473 Akira Yamaguchi, We-Hyo Soe, Ryoichi...the magnetic phase transi- tion and magnetic anisotropy, has attracted considerable interest. Theoretical predictions on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

  15. Remote Sensing: Environmental Effects of Surface Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-15

    constitution of natural film-forming material. " Protein: heptone from soybeans, C/N approx. 6 " Carbohydrates: alginic acid, MW-240,00 (polymannuronic...acid) " Lipid: triolein, MW=885.4 Mlix peptone (25% as carbon), alginic acid (50% as carbon), and triolein (25% as carbon). It should be restated that...and the rheology Initial experiments were performed in the laboratory and )f the air-sea interface. It will be shown in ensuing sections on the

  16. RUPTURING OF POLYMER FILMS WITH RUBBING—INDUCED SURFACE DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Du; F.C.Xie; Y.J.Wang; O.K.C.Tsui; O.K.C.Tsui

    2003-01-01

    It has been a long-standing question whether dewetting of polymer film from non-wettable substrate surfaces wherein the bicontinuous morphology never forms in the dewetting film is due to spinodal instability or heterogeneous nucleation.In this experiment,we use a simple method to make the distinction through introduction of topographical defects of the films by rubbing the sample surface with a rayon cloth.Spinodal dewetting is identified for those films that dewet by a characteristic wavevector,q,independent of the density of rubbing-induced defects.Heterogeneous nucleation,on the other hand,is identified for those with q increasing with increasing density of defects.Our result shows that PS films on oxide coated silicon with thickness less than≈13nm are dominated by spinodal dewetting,but the thicker films are dominated by nucleation dewetting.We also confirm that spinodal dewetting does not necessarily lead to a bicontinuous morphology in the dewetting film,contrary to the classic theory of Cahn.

  17. Surface acoustic wave devices including Langmuir-Blodgett films (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesskii, V. P.

    1991-06-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental research related to the use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is reviewed. The sensitivity of the different cuts of quartz and lithium niobate to inertial loading is investigated, and it is shown that some cuts in lithium niobate are twice as sensitive to mass loading than the commonly used YZ-cut. The large variety of organic compounds suitable for the production of LB films makes it possible to create SAW sensors reacting selectively to certain substances. The existing SAW sensors based on LB films are characterized by high sensitivity and fast response.

  18. Precision analysis of non-conformal reconstruction for the surface acoustic field on axisymmetric structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuanan; HE Zuoyong

    2003-01-01

    Reconstruction of the surface acoustic field of axisymmetric body with arbitrary boundary conditions using near-field acoustic data is studied. The method of numerical reconstruction based on orthonormalization function expansion (OFE) and boundary element integral (BEI) is presented which can overcome the singular integral problem in the boundary integral equations. By numerical examples, the precision of reconstruction for the non-conformal surface with the axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric vibrating on axisymmetric body is given.The results of the numerical simulation are shown that this kind of reconstruction method is available for engineering.

  19. Reconstruction of surface impedance of an object located over a planar PEC surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenal, Guel Seda; Cayoeren, Mehmet; Tetik, Evrim [Istanbul Technical University Electrical and Electronics Engineering Faculty Maslak 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: unalgu@itu.edu.tr, E-mail: mehmet@cayoren.com, E-mail: tetike@itu.edu.tr

    2008-11-01

    A method for the determination of inhomogeneous surface impedance of an arbitrary shaped cylindrical object located over a perfectly conducting (PEC) plane is presented. The problem is reduced to the solution of an ill-posed integral equation by the use of single layer representation which is handled by Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD). The total field and its normal derivative on the boundary of the object which are required for the evaluation of the surface impedance are obtained through Nystroem method. The method can also be used in shape reconstruction by using the relation between the shape of a PEC object and its equivalent one in terms of the surface impedance. The numerical implementations yield quite satisfactory results.

  20. Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang, E-mail: mingqiangbao@gmail.com, E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bi, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chatelon, Jean Pierre [Univerisité de Saint-Etienne, Université de Lyon, LT2C, 25 rue du Docteur Rémy Annino, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Ross, C. A., E-mail: mingqiangbao@gmail.com, E-mail: caross@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of −H{sup →}×n{sup →}, where n{sup →} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.

  1. Hydrophobicity of electron beam modified surface of hydroxyapatite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor, M., E-mail: gregor@fmph.uniba.sk [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Plecenik, T. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Tofail, S.A.M. [Materials & Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Zahoran, M.; Truchly, M. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vargova, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Laffir, F. [Materials & Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Plesch, G. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kus, P.; Plecenik, A. [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Surface potential of hydroxyapatite films were modified by focused electron beam. • Micron-sized domains of modified surface potential were created. • Wettability and surface free energy of the irradiated areas was studied. • Possible mechanisms of increased surface hydrophobicity are discussed. - Abstract: Arrays of micron-sized domains of modified surface potential were created on hydroxyapatite films by mid-energy (20 keV) electron beam irradiation available in a laboratory scanning electron microscope. The dosage of electron beam was varied between 10{sup −3} and 10{sup 3} μC/cm{sup 2} to inject charge into the film surface. Contrary to the conventional electrowetting theory, the dosage of injected charge used in creating such microdomains caused a gradual increase of the water contact angle from 57° to 93° due to the elimination of the polar component of the surface free energy. Surface contamination by carbonaceous species can be held only partially responsible for such behavior at lower dosage of electron beam. A transfer of free surface charge to water and an electron beam induced disruption of polar orientation of OH ions have been attributed to be influencial factors in the overall dewetting behavior.

  2. Buckling of reconstruction elements of the edges of triple steps on vicinal Si(111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhachuk, R. A., E-mail: zhachuk@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Coutinho, J. [University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago, I3N, Department of Physics (Portugal); Rayson, M. J. [University of Surrey, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Briddon, P. R. [Newcastle University, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    The structure of steps with a height of three (111) interplanar distances on vicinal Si(111) surfaces has been analyzed through density functional theory calculations. It has been shown that several stable atomic configurations are possible depending on the buckling of the reconstruction elements of edges of the steps on the surface. It has been found that the direction of the buckling of reconstruction elements in the ground state of the surface is determined by the Coulomb interaction with their nearest atomic environment.

  3. Weak non-linear surface charging effects in electrolytic films

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, D. S.; Horgan, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full non-linear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the reno...

  4. Surface modification by plasma polymerization: film deposition, tailoring of surface properties and biocompatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van Menno Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this thesis concerns the surface modification of materials by thin film deposition in a plasma reactor. In particular, thin polymeric films bearing amine functionalities were synthesized by plasma polymerization of amino group containing monomers. In addition to the synthesis,

  5. Quantum Transport and Surface Scattering in Magnetic Metallic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yin; DONG Zheng-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account the quantum size effect and the spin dependence of the electronic band structure,and including the spin dependence of the scattering from bulk impurities and two different sets of surface roughness,we present a theory on the electronic transport in magnetic film,in which the average autocorrelation function (ACF) for surface roughness is described by a Gaussion model.Our result shows that the conductivity is a sensitive function of surface roughness and exchange energy.It is also found that in the thin film limit and in the lower-order approximation of the surface scattering,the total conductivity is given by a sum of conductivities of all the subbands and the two spin channels,for each subband and each spin channel the scattering rates due to the impurities and two surfaces are additive.

  6. Microstructure and Magnetic Domains of Iron Films on Liquid Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian-Ping; XIA A-Gen; ZHANG Chu-Hang; YANG Bo; FANG Zheng-Nong; YE Gao-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Iron (Fe) films with a thickness ranging from 1.0 nm to 80.0 nm are deposited on silicone oil surfaces by a vapor phase deposition method. The films with a thickness of d < 2.0 nm do not exhibit planar morphology but ramified aggregates instead. Magnetic force microscopy studies for the Fe films (10.0nm≤d≤80.0nm) show that the domain wall structure is widespread and irregularly shaped and the oscillation phase shift Δθ, which records as the magnetic force image, changes from 0.29°to 0.81°. Correspondingly, the magnetic force gradient varies from 1.4×10~(-3) to 4.0×10~(-3)N/m, respectively. In our measurement, the characteristic domain walls, such as Bloch walls, Neel walls and cross-tie walls, are not observed in the film system clearly.

  7. Surface Chemistry Interactions of Cationorm with Films by Human Meibum and Tear Film Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi As. Georgiev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cationorm® (CN cationic nanoemulsion was demonstrated to enhance tear film (TF stability in vivo possibly via effects on tear film lipid layer (TFLL. Therefore the interactions of CN with human meibum (MGS and TFLL in vitro and in vivo deserve special study. MGS and CN were spread at the air/water interface of a Langmuir surface balance to ensure a range of MGS/CN oil phase ratios: 20/1, 10/1, 5/1, 3/1, 2/1 and 1/1. The films capability to reorganize during dynamic area changes was evaluated via the surface pressure-area compression isotherms and step/relaxation dilatational rheology studies. Films structure was monitored with Brewster angle microscopy. CN/TFLL interactions at the ocular surface were monitored with non-contact specular microscopy. The in vitro studies of MGS/CN layers showed that (i CN inclusion (at fixed MGS content increased film elasticity and thickness and that (ii CN can compensate for moderate meibum deficiency in MGS/CN films. In vivo CN mixed with TFLL in a manner similar to CN/MGS interactions in vitro, and resulted in enhanced thickness of TFLL. In vitro and in vivo data complement each other and facilitated the study of the composition-structure-function relationship that determines the impact of cationic nanoemulsions on TF.

  8. A Survey on Methods for Reconstructing Surfaces from Unorganized Point Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Matiukas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reconstructing and visualizing surfaces from unorganized point sets. These can be acquired using different techniques, such as 3D-laser scanning, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi-camera imaging. The problem of reconstructing surfaces from their unorganized point sets is common for many diverse areas, including computer graphics, computer vision, computational geometry or reverse engineering. The paper presents three alternative methods that all use variations in complementary cones to triangulate and reconstruct the tested 3D surfaces. The article evaluates and contrasts three alternatives.Article in English

  9. A Computer Vision Method for 3D Reconstruction of Curves-Marked Free-Form Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Hanwei; Zhang Xiangwei

    2001-01-01

    Visual method is now broadly used in reverse engineering for 3D reconstruction. Thetraditional computer vision methods are feature-based, i.e., they require that the objects must revealfeatures owing to geometry or textures. For textureless free-form surfaces, dense feature points areadded artificially. In this paper, a new method is put forward combining computer vision with CAGD.The surface is subdivided into N-side Gregory patches using marked curves, and a stereo algorithm isused to reconstruct the curves. Then, the cross boundary tangent vector is computed throughreflectance analysis. At last, the whole surface can be reconstructed by jointing these patches withG1 continuity.

  10. Topographic matching of distal radius and proximal fibula articular surface for distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Chen, S; Wang, Z; Guo, Y; Liu, B; Tong, D

    2016-07-01

    During osteoarticular reconstruction of the distal radius with the proximal fibula, congruity between the two articular surfaces is an important factor in determining the quality of the outcome. In this study, a three-dimensional model and a coordinate transformation algorithm were developed on computed tomography scanning. Articular surface matching was performed and parameters for the optimal position were determined quantitatively. The mean radii of best-fit spheres of the articular surfaces of the distal radius and proximal fibula were compared quantitatively. The radial inclination and volar tilt following reconstruction by an ipsilateral fibula graft, rather than the contralateral, best resembles the values of the native distal radius. Additionally, the ipsilateral fibula graft reconstructed a larger proportion of the distal radius articular surface than did the contralateral. The ipsilateral proximal fibula graft provides a better match for the reconstruction of the distal radius articular surface than the contralateral, and the optimal position for graft placement is quantitatively determined.

  11. Diagnostic value of 3 D CT surface reconstruction in spinal fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Dietrich, K. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Steinecke, R. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Kloeppel, R. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Schulz, H.G. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic value of three-dimensional (3 D) CT surface reconstruction in spinal fractures in comparison with axial and reformatted images. A total of 50 patients with different CT-proven spinal fractures were analysed retrospectively. Based on axial scans and reformatted images, the spinal fractures were classified according to several classifications as Magerl for the thoraco-lumbar and lower cervical spine by one radiologist. Another radiologist performed 3 D CT surface reconstructions with the aim of characterizing the different types of spinal fractures. A third radiologist classified the 3 D CT surface reconstruction according to the Magerl classification. The results of the blinded reading process were compared. It was checked to see in which type and subgroup 3 D surface reconstructions were helpful. Readers one and two obtained the same results in the classification. The 3 D surface reconstruction did not yield any additional diagnostic information concerning type A and B injuries. Indeed, the full extent of the fracture could be easier recognized with axial and reformatted images in all cases. In 10 cases of C injuries, the dislocation of parts of vertebrae could be better recognized with the help of 3 D reconstructions. A 3 D CT surface reconstruction is only useful in rotational and shear vertebral injuries (Magerl type C injury). (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A comparison of surface properties of metallic thin film photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mistry, Sonal; Valizadeh, Reza; Jones, L.B; Middleman, Keith; Hannah, Adrian; Militsyn, B.L; Noakes, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In this work the preparation of metal photocathodes by physical vapour deposition magnetron sputtering has been employed to deposit metallic thin films onto Cu, Mo and Si substrates. The use of metallic cathodes offers several advantages: (i) metal photocathodes present a fast response time and a relative insensitivity to the vacuum environment (ii) metallic thin films when prepared and transferred in vacuum can offer smoother and cleaner emitting surfaces. The photocathodes developed here will ultimately be used in S-band Normal Conducting RF (NCRF) guns such as that used in VELA (Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator) and the proposed CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) Free Electron Laser test facility. The samples grown on Si substrates were used to investigate the morphology and thickness of the film. The samples grown onto Cu and Mo substrates were analysed and tested as photocathodes in a surface characterisation chamber, where X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was em...

  13. Surface conductivity measurements in nanometric to micrometric foam films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Oriane; Mounier, Anne; Simon, Gilles; Biance, Anne-Laure

    2015-05-20

    Foam films (a liquid lamella in air covered by surfactants) are tools of choice for nanofluidic characterization as they are intrinsically nanometric. Their size is indeed fixed by a balance between external pressure and particular molecular interactions in the vicinity of interfaces. To probe the exact nature of these interfaces, different characterizations can be performed. Among them, conductivity in confined systems is a direct probe of the electrostatic environment in the vicinity of the surface. Therefore, we designed a dedicated experiment to measure this conductivity in a cylindrical bubble coupled to interferometry for film thickness characterization. We then show that this conductivity depends on the surfactant nature. These conductivity measurements have been performed in an extremely confined system, the so called Newton black foam films. Unexpectedly in this case, a conductivity close to surface conductivity is recovered.

  14. Surface properties and exponential stress relaxations of mammalian meibum films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftimov, Petar; Yokoi, Norihiko; Tonchev, Vesselin; Nencheva, Yana; Georgiev, Georgi As

    2017-03-01

    The surface properties of meibomian secretion (MGS), the major constituent of the tear film (TF) lipid layer, are of key importance for TF stability. The interfacial properties of canine, cMGS, and feline, fMGS, meibum films were studied using a Langmuir surface balance. These species were selected because they have blinking frequency and TF stability similar to those of humans. The sample's performance during dynamic area changes was evaluated by surface pressure (π)-area (A) isocycles and the layer structure was monitored with Brewster angle microscopy. The films' dilatational rheology was probed via the stress-relaxation technique. The animal MGS showed similar behavior both between each other and with human MGS (studied previously). They form reversible, non-collapsible, multilayer thick films. The relaxations of canine, feline, and human MGS films were well described by double exponential decay reflecting the presence of two processes: (1) fast elastic process, with characteristic time τ  100 s-emphasizing the meibum layers viscoelasticity. The temperature decrease from 35 to 25 °C resulted in decreased thickness and lateral expansion of all MGS layers accompanied with increase of the π/A hysteresis and of the elastic process contribution to π relaxation transients. Thus, MGS films of mammals with similar blinking frequency and TF stability have similar surface properties and stress relaxations unaltered by the interspecies MGS compositional variations. Such knowledge may impact the selection of animal mimics of human MGS and on a better understanding of lipid classes' impact on meibum functionality.

  15. Ellipsometry of clean surfaces, submonolayer and monolayer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, F.H.P.M.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Bootsma, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The geometric and electronic structure of the surface region of a crystal is often different from the bulk structure and therefore the optical properties differ in principle also. Theories for the optical properties of (sub)monolayer films are compared, with special attention to anisotropic layers.

  16. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    2001-01-01

    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which...

  17. Rewetting and Flow Film Boiling Along Hot Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王补宣Thermal Engineering Department; Tsinghua University; Beijing 100084; PRC; 彭晓峰

    1994-01-01

    The recent investigations on the rewettmg and film boiling of liquid flowing along a hot/heated surface are briefly reviewed and discussed.Some advanced theoretical analyses are conducted and new conclusions achieved.These investigations describe the fundamental characteristics of liquid flow boiling and further the complicated rewetting phenomena,and have resulted in considerable insight intothe mechanism.

  18. Hydrogen mediated transport of Sn to Ru film surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faradzhev, N.; Sidorkin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report on the interaction of atomic hydrogen with Sn and thin Ru film at room temperature. The study is done using a combination of photoelectron and low energy ion scattering spectroscopies as well as scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of hydrogen on a Sn surface leads to the

  19. Hydrogen mediated transport of Sn to Ru film surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faradzhev, N.; Sidorkin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report on the interaction of atomic hydrogen with Sn and thin Ru film at room temperature. The study is done using a combination of photoelectron and low energy ion scattering spectroscopies as well as scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of hydrogen on a Sn surface leads to the

  20. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films

    OpenAIRE

    Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Franke, T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with anWe demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfl...

  1. Lipases efficiently stearate and cutinases acetylate the surface of arabinoxylan films

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan, A. M.; Anasontzis, G. E.; Matamá, Maria Teresa; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Olsson, L; Gatenholm, P.

    2013-01-01

    This is the first report on successful enzyme catalyzed surface esterification of hemicellulose films. Enzyme catalyzed surface acetylation with vinyl acetate and stearation with vinyl stearate were studied on rye arabinoxylan (AX) films. Different surface analytical techniques (FT-IR, TOF-SIMS, ESCA, CA) show that lipases from Mucor javanicus, Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa successfully surface stearate AX films and that a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi surface acetylates these films...

  2. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) Monthly Analysis, Version 3b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 3b (v3b) of the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a monthly SST analysis on a 2-degree global grid based on the International...

  3. Surface Structure of Thin Films of Multifunctional Ionizable Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Anuradhi; Perahia, Dvora

    Phase segregation results in a rich variety of structures in co-polymers where interfacial forces often dominate the structure of thin films. Introduction of ionizable segments often drives the formation of compounded structures with multiple blocks residing at the interfaces. Here we probe thin films, 40-50nm, of an A-B-C-B-A co-polymer where C is a randomly sulfonated polystyrene with sulfonation fractions of 0, 26 and 52 mole %, B is poly (ethylene-r-propylene), and A is poly (t-butyl styrene) as the sulfonation level and temperature are varied using Neutron Reflectivity AFM, and surface tension measurements. As cast films form layers with both hydrophobic blocks dominating the solid and air interfaces and the ionizable block segregating to the center. Following annealing at 1700C, above Tg of styrene sulfonate, the films coarsen, with surface aggregation dominating the structure, though interfacial regions remain dominated by the hydrophobic segments. We show that in contrast to non-ionic co-polymers, formation of micelles dominated the structure of these ionic structured films. Supported in part by DOE Grant No. DE-SC007908.

  4. Reversible wurtzite-tetragonal reconstruction in ZnO(1010) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mo-Rigen; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jing

    2012-07-27

    Bistable surface: The reversible phase transition between wurtzite (WZ) and body-centered-tetragonal (BCT) lattice was activated in ZnO(1010) surfaces and directly imaged at atomic scale by using aberration-corrected electron microscopy. A nucleation-growth mechanism for the surface reconstruction is further proposed based on observations and calculations of the WZ-BCT domain boundary.

  5. QUALITY ANALYSIS OF 3D SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION USING MULTI-PLATFORM PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the necessity of accurate 3D surface reconstruction has been more pronounced for a wide range of mapping, modelling, and monitoring applications. The 3D data for satisfying the needs of these applications can be collected using different digital imaging systems. Among them, photogrammetric systems have recently received considerable attention due to significant improvements in digital imaging sensors, emergence of new mapping platforms, and development of innovative data processing techniques. To date, a variety of techniques haven been proposed for 3D surface reconstruction using imagery collected by multi-platform photogrammetric systems. However, these approaches suffer from the lack of a well-established quality control procedure which evaluates the quality of reconstructed 3D surfaces independent of the utilized reconstruction technique. Hence, this paper aims to introduce a new quality assessment platform for the evaluation of the 3D surface reconstruction using photogrammetric data. This quality control procedure is performed while considering the quality of input data, processing procedures, and photo-realistic 3D surface modelling. The feasibility of the proposed quality control procedure is finally verified by quality assessment of the 3D surface reconstruction using images from different photogrammetric systems.

  6. Research on free curved surface reconstructing technology based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binggao; An, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Lijuan

    2011-11-01

    This paper studied the 3-D reconstructing technology of free curved surface. Initially, it scanned the local model of flight vehicle to use the new digital measuring equipment-laser tracker, got the point clouds of the model. And then, it reconstructed curved surface of the model by using the powerful modeling function of CATIA. Finally, the paper also utilized the units of alignment and data processing to make a relative error analysis of the reconstructed model and point clouds. The experiment conclusion showed that the method of measurement accorded with error requirements, and had the practical value of industrial application and production.

  7. Surface plasmon resonance in nanocrystalline gold-copper alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S; Datta, Subhadeep; Roy, R K; Pal, A K

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Au(x)Cu(1-x) films were synthesized by depositing Cu/Au/Cu multilayer in nanocrystalline thin film form with requisite thickness of individual layers onto fused silica substrates by high pressure sputtering technique. The absorbance spectra showed only one surface plasmon peak for all the compositions with the exception that the peak position did not indicate gradual shift as gold concentration was increased. Peak position for the two compositions corresponding to the two superlattice structures, AuCu3 and AuCu, deviated significantly from linear variation. The experimental results have been discussed in light of the existing Mie theory and the Core-shell model.

  8. Surface of Alumina Films after Prolonged Breakdowns in Galvanostatic Anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Girginov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown phenomena are investigated at continuous isothermal (20∘C and galvanostatic (0.2–5 mA cm−2 anodizing of aluminum in ammonium salicylate in dimethylformamide (1 M AS/DMF electrolyte. From the kinetic (-curves, the breakdown voltage ( values are estimated, as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of formation voltage ( at different current densities. The surface of the aluminum specimens was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Data on topography and surface roughness parameters of the electrode after electric breakdowns are obtained as a function of anodization time. The electrode surface of anodic films, formed with different current densities until the same charge density has passed (2.5 C cm−2, was assessed. Results are discussed on the basis of perceptions of avalanche mechanism of the breakdown phenomena, due to the injection of electrons and their multiplication in the volume of the film.

  9. Validation of a laboratory method for evaluating dynamic properties of reconstructed equine racetrack surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Setterbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties. METHODS: Track-testing device (TTD impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic. Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof

  10. Forming lipid bilayer membrane arrays on micropatterned polyelectrolyte film surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xuejing; Qi, Guodong; Han, Xiaojun

    2013-07-01

    A novel method of forming lipid bilayer membrane arrays on micropatterned polyelectrolyte film surfaces is introduced. Polyelectrolyte films were fabricated by the layer-by-layer technique on a silicon oxide surface modified with a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The surface pK(a) value of the APTES monolayer was determined by cyclic voltammetry to be approximately 5.61, on the basis of which a pH value of 2.0 was chosen for layer-by-layer assembly. Micropatterned polyelectrolyte films were obtained by deep-UV (254 nm) photolysis though a mask. Absorbed fluorescent latex beads were used to visualize the patterned surfaces. Lipid bilayer arrays were fabricated on the micropatterned surfaces by immersing the patterned substrates into a solution containing egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies yielded a lateral diffusion coefficient for probe molecules of 1.31±0.17 μm(2) s(-1) in the bilayer region, and migration of the lipid NBD PE in bilayer lipid membrane arrays was observed in an electric field.

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Badea, Cristian T.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-11-01

    We present a 3-D image reconstruction method for free-space fluorescence tomography of mice using hybrid anatomical prior information. Specifically, we use an optically reconstructed surface of the experimental animal and a digital mouse atlas to approximate the anatomy of the animal as structural priors to assist image reconstruction. Experiments are carried out on a cadaver of a nude mouse with a fluorescent inclusion (2.4-mm-diam cylinder) implanted in the chest cavity. Tomographic fluorescence images are reconstructed using an iterative algorithm based on a finite element method. Coregistration of the fluorescence reconstruction and micro-CT (computed tomography) data acquired afterward show good localization accuracy (localization error 1.2+/-0.6 mm). Using the optically reconstructed surface, but without the atlas anatomy, image reconstruction fails to show the fluorescent inclusion correctly. The method demonstrates the utility of anatomical priors in support of free-space fluorescence tomography.

  12. Conducting Boron Sheets Formed by the Reconstruction of the α-Boron (111) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Maximilian; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Goedecker, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Systematic ab initio structure prediction was applied for the first time to predict low energy surface reconstructions by employing the minima hopping method on the α-boron (111) surface. Novel reconstruction geometries were identified and carefully characterized in terms of structural and electronic properties. Our calculations predict the formation of a planar, monolayer sheet at the surface, which is responsible for conductive surface states. Furthermore, the isolated boron sheet is shown to be the ground state 2D structure in vacuum at a hole density of η=1/5 and is therefore a potential candidate as a precursor for boron nanostructures.

  13. Surface Grafting of Phenolic Resole onto LDPE Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue CHENG; Yi ZHENG; Wan Tai YANG

    2006-01-01

    Low density polyethylene film surface-grafted phenolic resole was prepared by a sequential processes. Firstly, acrylic acid was grafted to the surface of low density polyethylene by photo-grafting. Secondly, the carboxylic groups in poly(acrylic acid) chains were transferred to sulfonic groups by the reaction of carboxylic groups with sulfanilic acid. Finally, a thin layer of phenolic resole was cured onto the surface of low density polyethylene. The grafting process was characterized by FTIR-ATR and gravimetric analysis. A possible model was proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  14. Surface scattering mechanisms of tantalum nitride thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we utilize an electrical analysis method to develop a TaN thin film resistor with a stricter spec and near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for car-used electronic applications. Simultaneously, we also propose a physical mechanism mode to explain the origin of near-zero TCR for the TaN thin film resistor (TFR). Through current fitting, the carrier conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to surface scattering and finally to ohmic conduction for different TaN TFRs with different TaN microstructures. Experimental data of current-voltage measurement under successive increasing temperature confirm the conduction mechanism transition. A model of TaN grain boundary isolation ability is eventually proposed to influence the carrier transport in the TaN thin film resistor, which causes different current conduction mechanisms.

  15. Electrochemically polymerized conjugated polymer films: Stability improvement and surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bin

    Conjugated polymers have been widely used in various applications including organic solar cells, electrochromic devices, chemical sensors, and biomedical devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and its derivatives have received considerable interest because of their low oxidation potential, relatively high chemical stability, and high conductivity. Electrochemical deposition is a convenient method for precisely fabricating conjugated polymer thin films. Here, we report the stability improvement and surface functionalization of electrochemically polymerized PEDOT films. The long-term performance of PEDOT coatings is limited by their relatively poor stability on various inorganic substrates. Two different methods were used to improve the stability of PEDOT coatings, one involved using carboxylic acid functionalized EDOT (EDOT-acid) as adhesion promoter. EDOT-acid molecules were chemically bonded onto activated metal oxide substrates via chemisorption. PEDOT was then polymerized onto the EDOT-acid modified substrates, forming covalently bonded coatings. An aggressive ultrasonication test confirmed the significantly improved adhesion of the PEDOT films on electrodes with EDOT-acid treatment over those without treatment. The other method was to use an octa-ProDOT-functionalized POSS derivative (POSSProDOT) as cross-linker. PEDOT copolymer films were electrochemically deposited with various concentrations of POSS-ProDOT. The optical, morphological and electrochemical properties of the copolymer films could be systematically tuned with the incorporation of POSS-ProDOT. Significantly enhanced electrochemical and mechanical stability of the copolymers were observed at intermediate levels of POSS-ProDOT content (3.1 wt%) via chronic stimulation tests. Surface functionalization of conducting polymer films provides a potential means for systematically tailoring their chemical and physical properties. We have synthesized, polymerized and characterized a dialkene

  16. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence in amorphous silicon carbide films by adjusting Ag island film sizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wei; Wang Xin-Zhan; Dai Wan-Lei; Lu Wan-Bing; Liu Yu-Mei; Fu Guang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Ag island films with different sizes are deposited on hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (α-SiC∶H) films,and the influences of Ag island films on the optical properties of the α-SiC∶H films are investigated.Atomic force microscope images show that Ag nanoislands are formed after Ag coating,and the size of the Ag islands increases with increasing Ag deposition time.The extinction spectra indicate that two resonance absorption peaks which correspond to out-of-plane and in-plane surface plasmon modes of the Ag island films are obtained,and the resonance peak shifts toward longer wavelength with increasing Ag island size.The photoluminescence (PL) enhancement or quenching depends on the size of Ag islands,and PL enhancement by 1.6 times on the main PL band is obtained when the sputtering time is 10 min.Analyses show that the influence of surface plasmons on the PL of α-SiC:H is determined by the competition between the scattering and absorption of Ag islands,and PL enhancement is obtained when scattering is the main interaction between the Ag islands and incident light.

  17. Geometry of the valence transition induced surface reconstruction of Sm(0001)

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, E; Nyholm, R; Torrelles, X; Rius, J; Delin, A; Grechnev, A; Eriksson, O; Konvicka, C; Schmid, M; Varga, P

    2002-01-01

    We present a structural determination of the surface reconstruction of the Sm(0001) surface using surface x-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and {\\it ab initio} calculations. The reconstruction is associated with a large (22%) expansion of the atomic radius for the top monolayer surface Sm atoms. The mechanism driving the surface reconstruction in Sm is unique among all elements and is connected to the strong correlations of the $4f$ electrons in Sm and the intermediate valence observed in certain Sm compounds. The atoms constituting the top monolayer of Sm(0001) have vastly different chemical properties compared to the layer underneath and behave as if they were an adsorbate of a different chemical species.

  18. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, B. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-14

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  19. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  20. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  1. Surface structure of coherently strained ceria ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yezhou; Stone, Kevin H.; Guan, Zixuan; Monti, Matteo; Cao, Chuntian; El Gabaly, Farid; Chueh, William C.; Toney, Michael F.

    2016-11-01

    Cerium oxide, or ceria, is an important material for solid oxide fuel cells and water splitting devices. Although the ceria surface is active in catalytic and electrochemical reactions, how its catalytic properties are affected by the surface structure under operating conditions is far from understood. We investigate the structure of the coherently strained Ce O2 ultrathin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia (001) single crystals by specular synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) under oxidizing conditions as a first step to study the surface structure in situ. An excellent agreement between the experiment data and the model is achieved by using a "stacks and islands" model that has a two-component roughness. One component is due to the tiny clusters of nanometer scale in lateral dimensions on each terrace, while the other component is due to slightly different Ce O2 thickness that span over hundreds of nanometers on neighboring terraces. We attribute the nonuniform thickness to step depairing during the thin film deposition that is supported by the surface morphology results on the microscopic level. Importantly, our model also shows that the polarity of the ceria surface is removed by a half monolayer surface coverage of oxygen. The successful resolution of the ceria surface structure using in situ specular synchrotron XRD paves the way to study the structural evolution of ceria as a fuel cell electrode under catalytically relevant temperatures and gas pressures.

  2. Surface characterization of Laponite-Poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Eduard A.; Negulescu, Ioan I.; Daly, William H.; Donose, Bogdan C.; Nguyen, Anh V.

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to understand how ionic strength of precursor polymer-clay gels influences the final structure of multilayered nanocomposite films fabricated from such gels. We have prepared three aqueous precursor gels containing 3wt% LRD, 2wt% PEO and 95wt% water, in which the salt concentrations were kept at 0X, 1X and 3X with X = 5.57 * 10^- 5 g NaCl/mL. The Laponite (LRD) - PEO multilayered films (LRD60%-PEO40%) were fabricated by manually spreading and drying each gel on a glass slide. Prior to the AFM measurements the polymer-clay composite films where freeze-dried by immersion in liquid nitrogen until they were totally degassed. Frozen samples where then fractured and left for additional drying for 24 hours in a desiccator. The imaging procedure employed here was tapping-mode AFM. Distinct features were identified on the layered transversal surface of the films, and were attributed to the different salt concentrations in the samples. Addition of salt increases the adhesion and compactness properties of the nanoparticles, as a more uniform side surface can be observed after freeze-fracturing the materials.

  3. Picosecond laser induced periodic surface structure on copper thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thi Trang Dai; Petit, Agnès; Semmar, Nadjib, E-mail: nadjib.semmar@univ-orleans.fr

    2014-05-01

    LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure) formation on copper thin films induced by a picosecond laser beam (Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm, 42 ps and 10 Hz) was studied experimentally. Copper thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering. The surface modifications of irradiated zones were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of LIPSS were identified with respect to the laser fluence (F), number of laser shots (N) and substrate material. Namely, with a number of laser shots (1000 < N < 10,000) and a fluence of (200 mJ/cm{sup 2} < F < 500 mJ/cm{sup 2}), Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (LSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 260 nm and an orientation perpendicular to polarization) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS (HSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 130 nm and an orientation parallel to the polarization) were observed. The regime of regular spikes formation was determined for N ≥ 1000. Moreover, the 2D-map of the relationship among LIPSS formation, laser fluence and number of laser shots on copper thin film with two different substrates was established. A physics interpretation of regular spikes and LIPSS formation on copper thin film induced by ps laser with overlapping multi-shots is proposed based on experimental data and the theory of Plateau-Rayleigh instability.

  4. Picosecond laser induced periodic surface structure on copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thi Trang Dai; Petit, Agnès; Semmar, Nadjib

    2014-05-01

    LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structure) formation on copper thin films induced by a picosecond laser beam (Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm, 42 ps and 10 Hz) was studied experimentally. Copper thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering. The surface modifications of irradiated zones were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of LIPSS were identified with respect to the laser fluence (F), number of laser shots (N) and substrate material. Namely, with a number of laser shots (1000 LIPSS (LSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 260 nm and an orientation perpendicular to polarization) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS (HSFL with a spatial period of Λ ∼ 130 nm and an orientation parallel to the polarization) were observed. The regime of regular spikes formation was determined for N ≥ 1000. Moreover, the 2D-map of the relationship among LIPSS formation, laser fluence and number of laser shots on copper thin film with two different substrates was established. A physics interpretation of regular spikes and LIPSS formation on copper thin film induced by ps laser with overlapping multi-shots is proposed based on experimental data and the theory of Plateau-Rayleigh instability.

  5. Reconstruction of ploughed soil surface with 3D fractal interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Li, X.

    2014-01-01

    By using a laser profiler, the roughness of ploughed soil surface was obtained. 3D fractal interpolation method was used to interpolate several kinds of reduced measured surface data which were reduced from the original measured ploughed soil surface elevation data in different reduction rates. Also

  6. Shape-aware surface reconstruction from sparse 3D point-clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Florian; Salamanca, Luis; Thunberg, Johan; Tack, Alexander; Jentsch, Dennis; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Hertel, Frank; Goncalves, Jorge; Gemmar, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The reconstruction of an object's shape or surface from a set of 3D points plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. in anatomy reconstruction from tomographic measurements or in the process of aligning intra-operative navigation and preoperative planning data. In such scenarios, one usually has to deal with sparse data, which significantly aggravates the problem of reconstruction. However, medical applications often provide contextual information about the 3D point data that allow to incorporate prior knowledge about the shape that is to be reconstructed. To this end, we propose the use of a statistical shape model (SSM) as a prior for surface reconstruction. The SSM is represented by a point distribution model (PDM), which is associated with a surface mesh. Using the shape distribution that is modelled by the PDM, we formulate the problem of surface reconstruction from a probabilistic perspective based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). In order to do so, the given points are interpreted as samples of the GMM. By using mixture components with anisotropic covariances that are "oriented" according to the surface normals at the PDM points, a surface-based fitting is accomplished. Estimating the parameters of the GMM in a maximum a posteriori manner yields the reconstruction of the surface from the given data points. We compare our method to the extensively used Iterative Closest Points method on several different anatomical datasets/SSMs (brain, femur, tibia, hip, liver) and demonstrate superior accuracy and robustness on sparse data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo bioluminescence tomography based on multi-view projection and 3D surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Kun; Leng, Chengcai; Deng, Kexin; Hu, Yifang; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a powerful optical molecular imaging modality, which enables non-invasive realtime in vivo imaging as well as 3D quantitative analysis in preclinical studies. In order to solve the inverse problem and reconstruct inner light sources accurately, the prior structural information is commonly necessary and obtained from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. This strategy requires expensive hybrid imaging system, complicated operation protocol and possible involvement of ionizing radiation. The overall robustness highly depends on the fusion accuracy between the optical and structural information. In this study we present a pure optical bioluminescence tomographic system (POBTS) and a novel BLT method based on multi-view projection acquisition and 3D surface reconstruction. The POBTS acquired a sparse set of white light surface images and bioluminescent images of a mouse. Then the white light images were applied to an approximate surface model to generate a high quality textured 3D surface reconstruction of the mouse. After that we integrated multi-view luminescent images based on the previous reconstruction, and applied an algorithm to calibrate and quantify the surface luminescent flux in 3D.Finally, the internal bioluminescence source reconstruction was achieved with this prior information. A BALB/C mouse with breast tumor of 4T1-fLuc cells mouse model were used to evaluate the performance of the new system and technique. Compared with the conventional hybrid optical-CT approach using the same inverse reconstruction method, the reconstruction accuracy of this technique was improved. The distance error between the actual and reconstructed internal source was decreased by 0.184 mm.

  8. Vaporization Studies from Slag Surfaces Using a Thin Film Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Seshadri; Shyrokykh, Tetiana; Schröder, Christina; Scheller, Piotr R.

    2013-08-01

    The investigations of vanadium vaporization from CaO-SiO2-FeO-V2O5 thin film slags were conducted using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT) with air as the oxidizing atmosphere. The slag samples were analyzed after the experiments by SEM/EDX. The vanadium content was found to decrease as a function of time. The loss of vanadium from the slag film after 30 minutes of oxidation was approximately 18 pct and after 50 minutes, it was nearly 56 pct. The possible mechanism of vanadium loss would be the surface oxidation of vanadium oxide in the slag, VO x to V5+, followed by surface evaporation of V2O5, which has a high vapor pressure at the experimental temperature.

  9. Thin-film limit formalism applied to surface defect absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovský, Jakub; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-12-15

    The thin-film limit is derived by a nonconventional approach and equations for transmittance, reflectance and absorptance are presented in highly versatile and accurate form. In the thin-film limit the optical properties do not depend on the absorption coefficient, thickness and refractive index individually, but only on their product. We show that this formalism is applicable to the problem of ultrathin defective layer e.g. on a top of a layer of amorphous silicon. We develop a new method of direct evaluation of the surface defective layer and the bulk defects. Applying this method to amorphous silicon on glass, we show that the surface defective layer differs from bulk amorphous silicon in terms of light soaking.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy of thin organic films on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerio, F. J.; Boerio, J. P.; Bozian, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The principles of external reflection infrared spectroscopy for obtaining spectra of thin films on surfaces by reflecting infrared radiation from the surface at large, almost grazing angles, were reviewed and new applications were described. Infrared spectra of monomolecular films formed by myristic acid adsorbed from dilute solutions in nitrobenzene onto aluminum and chromium were obtained. Adsorption onto both substrates involved dissociation of the acid groups to form carboxylate species but undissociated monomer was retained in the films formed on aluminum. Myristic acid was adsorbed onto aluminum with a vertical conformation in which the twofold symmetry axes of the carboxylate groups were nearly perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The twofold axes of the carboxylate groups were more inclined with respect to the normal to the surface for the chromium substrates. Terephthalic acid and terephthalic acid-d 4 were adsorbed onto aluminum from dilute solutions in ethanol with a vertical conformation in which one acid group was dissociated to form a salt with a metal ion in the substrate while the other acid group may have formed hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. When thin films of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymers were applied to the aluminized back sides of silicon solar cells which were then immersed in boiling water for a few minutes, the hydrated oxide pseudoboehmite rapidly formed at the interface. A primer containing γ-methacryoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) inhibited the formation of pseudoboehmite from the rough aluminized back sides of crystalline silicon cells but not from the smooth aluminized back sides of amorphous cells.

  11. Surface Chemistry of Nano-Structured Mixed Metal Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Low Temperature Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Titanium Carbide with Tunable Porous Architectures, Chemistry of Materials, (01...of the C–H bond to form carboxyl, both of which decompose via a COd 2 intermediate to evolve CO2 and H2. High surface area, porous titanium carbide films...characterization of nanocrystalline titanium carbide with tunable porous architectures” Chem. Mater. 22, 319-329 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm902184m 3

  12. Robust surface states in epitaxial Bi(111) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Jin, Xiaofeng

    Bulk Bi a prototype semimetal with trivial electronic band topology. Unanticipatedly, we show the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak and Aharonov-Bohm effects in epitaxial Bi(111) thin films. Meanwhile, we clearly identify the interaction of the top and bottom surface states via quantum tunneling by the electrical conductance and weak anti-localization measurements. These results have significantly enriched our understanding about the electronic structure of Bi, which might be helpful for clearing up some of its longstanding subtle issues.

  13. Surface structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) films influenced by chain entanglement in the corresponding film-formation solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianquan; Liu, Yingjun; He, Jinsheng; Zhang, Rongping; Zuo, Biao; Wang, Xinping

    2014-11-28

    The effects of the properties of casting solution on the surface structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were systematically investigated. It was observed that the hydrophobicity of PMMA films increased with increasing viscosity of the corresponding polymer solution regardless of the film-formation techniques that were utilized. The ratio of the C-H symmetric stretching vibrations of methylene groups (hydrophobic components, with a peak at 2910 cm(-1)) to those of the ester methyl groups (relative hydrophilic components, with a peak at 2955 cm(-1)) from sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra, A2910/A2955, was used as a parameter to evaluate the structure on the film surface, which was related to the surface wettability of the films. The results showed that A2910/A2955 of cast PMMA films increased linearly with ηsp(0.3) (ηsp, the specific viscosity of the casting solution), whereas that of the corresponding spin-coated films showed a linear relationship defined as ηsp(0.3)E(0.26), where E is the average number of entanglement points per molecule (E = Mw/Me). These results indicate that a relative equilibrium conformation on the PMMA film surface, adopted from the perspective of thermodynamics, was easily achieved during film formation, when the conformation of the polymer chains in the corresponding casting solution was close to that in the bulk. For the spin-coated films, the chain entanglement structure in the casting solution was a more important factor for the resulting film to reach a relative equilibrium state, since this structure was in favor of maintaining the pristine conformation in casting solution under centrifugal force during spin-coating. This work may help to enhance the fundamental understanding of the formation of the film surface structure from polymer solution to the resulting solid film, which will affect not only the corresponding surface properties, but also the dynamics of the resulting thin films.

  14. Interplay between surface and surface resonance states on height selective stability of fcc Dy(111) film at nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hupalo, Myron; Ho, Kai-Ming; Thiel, Patricia A; Tringides, Michael C

    2016-11-16

    Using first-principles calculations we show that face-centered cubic Dy(111) ultrathin films exhibit height selective stability. The origin of such height selection can be attributed to the interplay between the localized surface states and surface resonance states due to electron confinement effects. Such effect could be utilized to manipulate the film thickness at the atomic level to achieve desirable film properties or to control the growth of nanostructures on the thin film for various applications.

  15. GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the 3D surface of palaeoglaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramón; Rea, Brice R.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig R.; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Lukas, Sven; Renssen, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Glacier reconstructions are widely used in palaeoclimatic studies and this paper presents a new semi-automated method for generating glacier reconstructions: GlaRe, is a toolbox coded in Python and operating in ArcGIS. This toolbox provides tools to generate the ice thickness from the bed topography along a palaeoglacier flowline applying the standard flow law for ice, and generates the 3D surface of the palaeoglacier using multiple interpolation methods. The toolbox performance has been evaluated using two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known, using the basic reconstruction routine in GlaRe. Results in terms of ice surface, ice extent and equilibrium line altitude show excellent agreement that confirms the robustness of this procedure in the reconstruction of palaeoglaciers from glacial landforms such as frontal moraines.

  16. Application of x-ray direct methods to surface reconstructions: The solution of projected superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, X.; Rius, J.; Boscherini, F.; Heun, S.; Mueller, B. H.; Ferrer, S.; Alvarez, J.; Miravitlles, C.

    1998-02-01

    The projections of surface reconstructions are normally solved from the interatomic vectors found in two-dimensional Patterson maps computed with the intensities of the in-plane superstructure reflections. Since for difficult reconstructions this procedure is not trivial, an alternative automated one based on the ``direct methods'' sum function [Rius, Miravitlles, and Allmann, Acta Crystallogr. A52, 634 (1996)] is shown. It has been applied successfully to the known c(4×2) reconstruction of Ge(001) and to the so-far unresolved In0.04Ga0.96As (001) p(4×2) surface reconstruction. For this last system we propose a modification of one of the models previously proposed for GaAs(001) whose characteristic feature is the presence of dimers along the fourfold direction.

  17. A Scheme for Reconstructing Free-form Surface from Shading with Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; TANG Linxin; SHI Hanmin

    2006-01-01

    The reconstruction of free-form surface is a fundamental problem in digital manufacture. This article presents a novel solution to reconstructing free-form surface from an intensity image under the Lambertian reflection model,that is a method called shape from shading (SFS). Our approach is based on the two-dimensional cellular automata (CA), and fully uses the local information of both image and the reconstructed surface. After several iterations, the free-form surface corresponding to the input image is obtained. The encouraging results on both synthetic and real-world images are provided in this paper, and the performance of our algorithm is analyzed on synthetic images using mean and standard deviation of depth (Z) errors.

  18. Probing the electronic transport on the reconstructed Au/Ge(001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Krok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By using scanning tunnelling potentiometry we characterized the lateral variation of the electrochemical potential µec on the gold-induced Ge(001-c(8 × 2-Au surface reconstruction while a lateral current flows through the sample. On the reconstruction and across domain boundaries we find that µec shows a constant gradient as a function of the position between the contacts. In addition, nanoscale Au clusters on the surface do not show an electronic coupling to the gold-induced surface reconstruction. In combination with high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we conclude that an additional transport channel buried about 2 nm underneath the surface represents a major transport channel for electrons.

  19. A photogrammetry-based system for 3D surface reconstruction of prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-kun; Gao, Fan; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative close range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) system using the commercial digital SLR cameras to measure and reconstruct the 3D surface of prosthetics and orthotics. This paper describes the instrumentation, techniques and preliminary results of the proposed system. The technique works by taking pictures of the object from multiple view angles. The series of pictures were post-processed via feature point extraction, point match and 3D surface reconstruction. In comparison with the traditional method such as laser scanning, the major advantages of our instrument include the lower cost, compact and easy-to-use hardware, satisfactory measurement accuracy, and significantly less measurement time. Besides its potential applications in prosthetics and orthotics surface measurement, the simple setup and its ease of use will make it suitable for various 3D surface reconstructions.

  20. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Hohmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Siegfried; Kögel, Svea; Brunner, Yvonne; Schmieg, Barbara; Ewald, Christina; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Länge, Kerstin

    2015-05-21

    We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  2. Wavefront Reconstruction and Mirror Surface Optimizationfor Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    correction. A DM has a reflective surface with actuators along the back struc- ture that apply forces causing the mirror surface to adapt to a desired shape...actuators. The actuators cause forces along the back of the mirror structure and the mirror surface deflects to form the conjugate shape of the wavefront...optical axis of the primary mirror. The interferometer and null corrector are mounted to remove the 81 Interferometer Null corrector Hexapod ❋✐❣✉r

  3. SU-E-J-128: 3D Surface Reconstruction of a Patient Using Epipolar Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoku, J; Nakabayashi, S; Kumagai, S; Ishibashi, T; Kobayashi, T [Teikyo University, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Haga, A; Saotome, N [University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, N [Teikyo University Hospital, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To obtain a 3D surface data of a patient in a non-invasive way can substantially reduce the effort for the registration of patient in radiation therapy. To achieve this goal, we introduced the multiple view stereo technique, which is known to be used in a 'photo tourism' on the internet. Methods: 70 Images were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera from different angles and positions. The camera positions and angles were inferred later in the reconstruction step. A sparse 3D reconstruction model was locating by SIFT features, which is robust for rotation and shift variance, in each image. We then found a set of correspondences between pairs of images by computing the fundamental matrix using the eight-point algorithm with RANSAC. After the pair matching, we optimized the parameter including camera positions to minimize the reprojection error by use of bundle adjustment technique (non-linear optimization). As a final step, we performed dense reconstruction and associate a color with each point using the library of PMVS. Results: Surface data were reconstructed well by visual inspection. The human skin is reconstructed well, althogh the reconstruction was time-consuming for direct use in daily clinical practice. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction using multi view stereo geometry is a promising tool for reducing the effort of patient setup. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI(25861128)

  4. One-shot 3d surface reconstruction from instantaneous frequencies: solutions to ambiguity problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Nijmeijer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Phase-measuring profilometry is a well known technique for 3D surface reconstruction based on a sinusoidal pattern that is projected on a scene. If the surface is partly occluded by, for instance, other objects, then the depth shows abrupt transitions at the edges of these occlusions. This causes am

  5. An orientation inference framework for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ling; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present an orientation inference framework for reconstructing implicit surfaces from unoriented point clouds. The proposed method starts from building a surface approximation hierarchy comprising of a set of unoriented local surfaces, which are represented as a weighted combination of radial basis functions. We formulate the determination of the globally consistent orientation as a graph optimization problem by treating the local implicit patches as nodes. An energy function is defined to penalize inconsistent orientation changes by checking the sign consistency between neighboring local surfaces. An optimal labeling of the graph nodes indicating the orientation of each local surface can, thus, be obtained by minimizing the total energy defined on the graph. The local inference results are propagated over the model in a front-propagation fashion to obtain the global solution. The reconstructed surfaces are consolidated by a simple and effective inspection procedure to locate the erroneously fitted local surfaces. A progressive reconstruction algorithm that iteratively includes more oriented points to improve the fitting accuracy and efficiently updates the RBF coefficients is proposed. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method by showing the surface reconstruction results on some real-world 3-D data sets with comparison to those by using the previous methods.

  6. SiO adsorption on a p(2 × 2) reconstructed Si(1 0 0) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violanda, M.; Rudolph, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption mechanism of SiO molecule incident on a clean Si(1 0 0) p(2 × 2) reconstructed surface using density functional theory based methods. Stable adsorption geometries of SiO on Si surface, as well as their corresponding activation and adsorption energies are identifie

  7. Direct observation of surface reconstruction and termination on a complex metal oxide catalyst by electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Yihan

    2012-03-19

    On the surface: The surface reconstruction of an MoVTeO complex metal oxide catalyst was observed directly by various electron microscopic techniques and the results explain the puzzling catalytic behavior. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of tubulin sheets and re-investigation of microtubule surface lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, R; Mandelkow, E

    1983-10-25

    Sheets are incomplete microtubule walls observed as polymorphic variants of microtubule assembly. Their substructure is similar to that of microtubules, as shown by two-dimensional optical and computer reconstruction. We have extended earlier studies by computing a three-dimensional reconstruction. From a re-investigation of the surface lattice it appears that the three-start helix of microtubules is right-handed rather than left-handed.

  9. Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zurrida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Primary treatment is surgery, with mastectomy as the main treatment for most of the twentieth century. However, over that time, the extent of the procedure varied, and less extensive mastectomies are employed today compared to those used in the past, as excessively mutilating procedures did not improve survival. Today, many women receive breast-conserving surgery, usually with radiotherapy to the residual breast, instead of mastectomy, as it has been shown to be as effective as mastectomy in early disease. The relatively new skin-sparing mastectomy, often with immediate breast reconstruction, improves aesthetic outcomes and is oncologically safe. Nipple-sparing mastectomy is newer and used increasingly, with better acceptance by patients, and again appears to be oncologically safe. Breast reconstruction is an important adjunct to mastectomy, as it has a positive psychological impact on the patient, contributing to improved quality of life.

  10. Lifting of the Au(100) surface reconstruction by Pt, Cr, Fe, and Cu adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempas, Christopher D.; Skomski, Daniel; Tait, Steven L.

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption and growth of metals on the surfaces of other metals is an important topic for studies of heterogeneous catalysis and bimetallic nanoparticles. The surface structure of these systems impacts nanoparticle growth, catalytic activity, and reaction selectivity. In these experiments, platinum, chromium, iron, or copper were vapor deposited on the reconstructed Au(100) surface. The initial growth of each metal was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Each of the four metals forms anisotropic rectangular islands oriented in the direction of the gold reconstruction rows. The gradual lifting of the surface reconstruction by increased metal coverage is observed, and the reconstruction is fully lifted after 0.5 ML of Pt, Cr, or Fe, or by 3.3 ML of Cu. After the reconstruction is lifted, the island shape changes from rectangular to square, illustrating the effect of surface structure on growth. Second layer islands begin to form before the completion of the first full layer.

  11. Surface chemical studies of chemical vapour deposited diamond thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Proffitt, S

    2001-01-01

    could not easily be correlated to the bulk film properties. It is suggested that electron emission arises from the graphite component of graphite- diamond grain boundaries that are present in the nanocrystalline films. species. The adsorbed O and Cl species are more strongly bound to the K layer than they are to the diamond substrate, so thermal desorption of K from the K/CI/diamond or K/O/diamond surface results also in the simultaneous loss ofO and Cl. The phosphorus precursor trisdimethylaminophosphine (TDMAP) has a negligible reactive sticking probability on the clean diamond surface. This can be increased by thermal cracking of the gas phase precursor by a heated filament, resulting in non-activated adsorption to produce an adlayer containing a mixture of surface-bound ligands and phosphorus containing species. The ligands were readily lost upon heating, leaving P, some of which was lost from the surface at higher temperatures. Pre-hydrogenation of the diamond surface inhibited the uptake of cracked TDMA...

  12. Soap opera : polymer-surfactant interactions on thin film surfaces /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, B. H. (Byram H.); Johal, M. S. (Malkiat S.); Wang, H. L. (Hsing-Lin); Robinson, J. M. (Jeanne M.)

    2001-01-01

    Surfactants are macromolecules with unique properties. They commonly contain a polar head group with a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain. These properties allow surfactants to solubilize greases and other nonpolar molecules. One particular way that this is accomplished is through the formation of micelles. Micelles are formed at the critical micelle concentration (cmc), which varies depending upon the nature of the surfactant and also the media in which the surfactant resides. These micelles can take a variety of shapes, but are generally characterized by surrounding the grease with the nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, exposing only the polarized head groups to the media, usually water. This property of easy solubilization has made surfactants a very attractive industrial agent, They are used most conventionally as industrial cleaning agents and detergents. However, they also have lesser-known applications in conjunction with polymers and other macromolecular mixtures, often creating a system with novel properties, such as increased solubilization and smoother mixture consistency. A recently developed field has investigated the self-assembly of polymers and polyelectrolytes onto thin film surfaces. There are many reasons for studying this process, such as for second harmonic generation purposes and bioassays. In this study, the interaction between the anionic polyelectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and two surfactants of opposite charge, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Dodecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (DTAB), in their assembly onto thin film surfaces was investigated. The kinetics of adsorbance onto the thin films was examined, followed by construction of 10-bilayer films using an alternating layer of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) to provide the electrostatic means for the PAZO/surfactant combination to assemble onto the thin film. The kinetics of adsorption is being

  13. Thin films of solid electrolytes and studies of their surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoren; Gu, Zhi X.

    1991-11-01

    Much research work has been done on the materials of solid electrolytes and their applications. Solid electrolytes or fast ionic conductors are generally used in solid state batteries and solid state ionic devices. In the utilization of solid electrolytes, thin film forms have practical advantages. They will make the devices and batteries miniaturization which is particularly important for certain applications such as microelectronic devices, space programs, and integrated circuits of self-contained power. So preparation of thin films of solid electrolytes and studies of their surfaces are significant. There has been interest in the properties of amorphous ionic conductors, as glasses have acknowledged advantages over crystalline electrolytes, including physical isotropy, the absence of grain boundaries, and continuously-variable composition. Furthermore, many glasses based on silver halides have conductivities as high as 10 Scm-1 at room temperature. So we have chosen the quaternary system AgI-Ag2O-P2O5-B2O3 as the basic materials, prepared thin films, studied their properties, and constructed thin film electrolytic batteries.

  14. Acoustic imaging in application to reconstruction of rough rigid surface with airborne ultrasound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynkin, A.; Dolcetti, G.; Hunting, S.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the surface roughness is of high importance to various areas of science and engineering. One important application of this technology is for remote monitoring of open channel flows through observing its dynamic surface roughness. In this paper a novel airborne acoustic method of roughness reconstruction is proposed and tested with a static rigid rough surface. This method is based on the acoustic holography principle and Kirchhoff approximation which make use of acoustic pressure data collected at multiple receiver points spread along an arch. The Tikhonov regularisation and generalised cross validation technique are used to solve the underdetermined system of equations for the acoustic pressures. The experimental data are collected above a roughness created with a 3D printer. For the given surface, it is shown that the proposed method works well with the various number of receiver positions. In this paper, the tested ratios between the number of surface points at which the surface elevation can be reconstructed and number of receiver positions are 2.5, 5, and 7.5. It is shown that, in a region comparable with the projected size of the main directivity lobe, the method is able to reconstruct the spatial spectrum density of the actual surface elevation with the accuracy of 20%.

  15. Patient Registration Using Photogrammetric Surface Reconstruction from Smartphone Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwich, O.; Rose, A.; Bien, T.; Malolepszy, C.; Mucha, D.; Krüger, T.

    2016-06-01

    In navigated surgery the patient's body has to be co-registered with presurgically acquired 3D data in order to enable navigation of the surgical instrument. For this purpose the body surface of the patient can be acquired by means of photogrammetry and co-registered to corresponding surfaces in the presurgical data. In this paper this task is exemplarily solved for 3D data of human heads using the face surface to establish correspondence. We focus on investigation of achieved geometric accuracies reporting positioning errors in the range of 1 mm.

  16. Reconstructing Surface Triangulations by Their Intersection Matrices 26 September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The intersection matrix of a simplicial complex has entries equal to the rank of the intersecction of its facets. We prove that this matrix is enough to define up to isomorphism a triangulation of a surface.

  17. Radial Basis Function Based Implicit Surface Reconstruction Interpolating Arbitrary Triangular Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Mingyong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for smooth surface reconstructions interpolating triangular meshes with arbitrary topology and geometry. The approach is based on the well-known radial basis functions (RBFs) and the constructed surfaces are generalized thin-plate spline surfaces. Our algorithm first defines a pair of offset points for each vertex of a given mesh to enhance the controllability of local geometry and to assure stability of the construction. A linear system is then solved by LU decomposition and the implicit governing equation of interpolating surface is obtained. The constructed surfaces finally are visualized by a Marching Cubes based polygonizer. The approach provides a robust and efficient solution for smooth surface reconstruction from various 3D meshes.

  18. Deformation in Thin Glassy Polymer Films from Surface towards Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mithun; de Silva, Johann P.; Cross, Graham L. W.

    Polymer thin glassy films occupy an important place in last two decades of condensed matter research, concerning its surprising surface mobility and spatially dependent structural relaxation. However, ranges of cleverly designed indirect measurements on confined polymer glassy films already probed its mechanical properties; it is still a challenging task to directly probe such small confined volume through conventional mechanical testing. We have designed confined layer compression testing with a precisely designed and aligned flat probe during nanoindentation, which was further accompanied with atomic force microscopy. Due to natural confinement from the surrounding material, we show that a state of `uniaxial strain' is created beneath the probe under small axial strains. By this methodology we are able to directly probe uniaxial flows under both anelastic and plastic conditions while doing controlled creep studies at different positions in the film starting from surface towards interior. Depending on the extent of deformation, we found ranges of effects, such as densification, anelastic yield, and plastic yield. Enhanced creep rate upon deformation supports the idea of `deformation induced mobility'. Work performed at Trinity College Dublin.

  19. Femtosecond laser surface structuring of molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biophotonics Lab: National Laser Centre Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano, Itala (Italy); Sechoghela, P.; Mongwaketsi, N. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN)–CNR, Piazza Leanardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Color change of the molybdenum thin film from shinny to violet–yellowish color after laser irradiation at various laser powers. • Formation of the molybdenum dioxide coating after laser exposure, as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction spectrometry. • Selective solar absorbing nature of the laser exposed films. • Study of the binding energies is presented in this contribution using the XPS spectrometry. - Abstract: This contribution reports on the femtosecond surface structuring of molybdenum thin coatings deposited by electron beam evaporation onto Corning glass substrates. The 1-D type periodic grating lines created by such an ablation showed that the widths of the shallow grooves followed a logarithmic dependence with the laser energy incident on the molybdenum film. The electronic valence “x” of the created oxide surface layer MoO{sub x} was found to be incident laser power dependent via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations. Such a photo-induced MoO{sub x}–Mo nanocomposite exhibited effective selective solar absorption in the UV–vis–IR spectral range.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces using structured light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Müller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger

    2014-11-01

    In computer assisted quality control the three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces is playing an ever more important role. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution for the three-dimensional measurement of technical surfaces with high vertical and lateral resolution. However, the three-dimensional reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces with very low surface-roughness and local slopes still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. Furthermore the high data acquisition rates of current optical measurement systems depend on highly complex and expensive scanning-techniques making them impractical for inline quality control. In this paper we present a novel measurement principle based on a multi-pinhole structured light solution without moving parts which enables the threedimensional reconstruction of specular and diffuse reflecting technical surfaces. This measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point-measurements. These point measurements are realized by spatially locating and analyzing the resulting Point Spread Function (PSF) in parallel for each point measurement. Analysis of the PSF is realized by pattern recognition and model-fitting algorithms accelerated by current Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU) hardware to reach suitable measurement rates. Using the example of optical surfaces with very low surface-roughness we demonstrate the three-dimensional reconstruction of these surfaces by applying our measurement principle. Thereby we show that the resulting high measurement accuracy enables cost-efficient three-dimensional surface reconstruction suitable for inline quality control.

  1. RETRACTION: Surface impedance determination of an object located over a planar PEC surface and its use in shape reconstruction Surface impedance determination of an object located over a planar PEC surface and its use in shape reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda Ünal, Gül; Yapar, Ali; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2009-06-01

    This paper has substantial overlap with the paper 'Reconstruction of surface impedance of an object located over a planar PEC surface' by Gül Seda Ünal, Mehmet Çayören and Evrim Tetik (2008 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 135 012099). Therefore this article has been retracted by IOP Publishing and by the authors, Gül Seda Ünal, Ali Yapar and Ibrahim Akduman.

  2. Molecular assembly and organic film growth on complex intermetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahboob, Abdullah; Sharma, Hem Raj; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Ledieu, Julian; Fournée, Vincent; McGrath, Ronan

    We extensively studied the role of molecular symmetry and symmetry/structures of wide ranges of substrate-surfaces from non-periodic to periodic to quasi-crystalline in nucleation, growth and phase transition in films made of organic molecular materials. Recently, most interest in quasicrystals is due to the generalization of aperiodic ordering to several classes of systems. Compared to periodic materials, these provide a closer approximation to an isotropic first Brillouin zone, which is of great importance to the design of new functional materials. Here, we present results obtained from our ongoing study of interface mediated molecular assembly extended on complex intermetallic surfaces with specific examples of C60 and Zn-phthalocyanine on quasicrystalline and approximant surfaces. We employed in-situ real-time low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) for investigation of the processes in assembly and film growth and post-growth STM study and DFT calculations to understand structural details and growth mechanism. Research were carried out in part at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Lab, USA; partly at Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, France; and partly at the Surface Science Research Centre, University of Liverpool, UK.

  3. Locally controlled globally smooth ground surface reconstruction from terrestrial point clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Rychkov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to ground surface reconstruction from massive terrestrial point clouds are presented. Using a set of local least squares (LSQR) planes, the "holes" are filled either from the ground model of the next coarser level or by Hermite Radial Basis Functions (HRBF). Global curvature continuous as well as infinitely smooth ground surface models are obtained with Partition of Unity (PU) using either tensor product B-Splines or compactly supported exponential function. The resulting surface function has local control enabling fast evaluation.

  4. Unpredicted surface termination of α-Fe2O3(0001) film grown by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Shun; Kubo, Osamu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Oda, Masaya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Tabata, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shizuo; Katayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    We analyze the surface structure of an α-Fe2O3(0001) film grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which has been recently developed as a simple, safe, and cost-effective film growth method. Using coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy, we found that the atomic-layer sequence of the surface termination of an α-Fe2O3(0001) film grown by mist CVD was Fe-O3-Fe- from the top layer. This surface termination is predicted to form in an oxygen-poor environment by density functional theory combined with a thermodynamical approach despite that the mist CVD process is performed with atmospheric-pressure air. The surface structure markedly changes after annealing above 600 °C in ultrahigh vacuum. We found that only a couple of layers from the top layer transform into Fe3O4(111) after 650 °C annealing, which would be so-called biphase reconstruction. Complete transformation into a Fe3O4(111) film occurs at 700 °C, whose atomic-layer sequence is determined to be Fe-O4-Fe3- from the top layer.

  5. Effect of Surface Modification on Microbiol Polyhydroxyalkanoate Films on Biocompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霰霜; 赵锴; 陈金春; 夏彩虹; 陈国强

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro biocompatibility of a new type of polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hexanoate (PHBHHx). The hydrophilicity and biocompatibility were studied with two kinds of enzymes, amylase BAN480L and lipase Novozym388. The degree of hydrophilicity was observed using contact angle measurements. In vitro biocompatibility evaluations were carried out by direct incubation of mouse fibroblast cell line L929 on the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) films. The samples treated with BAN480L showed that the PHA biocompatibility increased while the hydrophilicity decreased. Relative to untreated samples, the number of cells on the Novozym388 modified PHBHHx significant decrease as the hydrophilicity also decreased. The results indicated that other surface characteristics besides hydrophilicity influence the biocompatibility of PHBHHx films.

  6. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.; Franke, T.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect.

  7. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  8. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas

    2016-04-01

    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  9. PHOTOMETRIC STEREO SHAPE-AND-ALBEDO-FROM-SHADING FOR PIXEL-LEVEL RESOLUTION LUNAR SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS techniques recover pixel-wise surface details based on the relationship between terrain slopes, illumination and imaging geometry, and the energy response (i.e., image intensity captured by the sensing system. Multiple images with different illumination geometries (i.e., photometric stereo can provide better SAfS surface reconstruction due to the increase in observations. Photometric stereo SAfS is suitable for detailed surface reconstruction of the Moon and other extra-terrestrial bodies due to the availability of photometric stereo and the less complex surface reflecting properties (i.e., albedo of the target bodies as compared to the Earth. Considering only one photometric stereo pair (i.e., two images, pixel-variant albedo is still a major obstacle to satisfactory reconstruction and it needs to be regulated by the SAfS algorithm. The illumination directional difference between the two images also becomes an important factor affecting the reconstruction quality. This paper presents a photometric stereo SAfS algorithm for pixel-level resolution lunar surface reconstruction. The algorithm includes a hierarchical optimization architecture for handling pixel-variant albedo and improving performance. With the use of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC photometric stereo images, the reconstructed topography (i.e., the DEM is compared with the DEM produced independently by photogrammetric methods. This paper also addresses the effect of illumination directional difference in between one photometric stereo pair on the reconstruction quality of the proposed algorithm by both mathematical and experimental analysis. In this case, LROC NAC images under multiple illumination directions are utilized by the proposed algorithm for experimental comparison. The mathematical derivation suggests an illumination azimuthal difference of 90 degrees between two images is recommended to achieve

  10. Identification of nanoscale structure and morphology reconstruction in oxidized a-SiC:H thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasin, A.V.; Rusavsky, A.V.; Nazarov, A.N.; Lysenko, V.S.; Lytvyn, P.M.; Strelchuk, V.V. [Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 41 Nauki Pr., Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Kholostov, K.I.; Bondarenko, V.P. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6P. Brovki Str., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Starik, S.P. [Bakul Institute of Superhard Materials, 2 Avtzavodskaya Str., Kiev 04074 (Ukraine)

    2012-11-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of magnetron discharge power results in densification of a-SiC:H thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The denser a-SiC:H material the better resistance to oxidation by oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation of soft a-SiC:H films can result in increase of electric conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of graphitic clusters was found in a-SiC:H after annealing in oxygen. - Abstract: Oxidation behavior of a-SiC:H layers deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique was examined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in combination with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy and submicron selected area Raman scattering spectroscopy. Partially oxidized a-SiC:H samples (oxidation at 600 Degree-Sign C in oxygen) were examined to clarify mechanism of the oxidation process. Nanoscale and microscale morphological defects (pits) with dimension of about 50 nm and several microns respectively have appeared after thermal treatment. KPFM measurements exhibited the surface potential of the material in micro pits is significantly smaller in comparison with surrounding material. Submicron RS measurements indicates formation of graphite-like nano-inclusions in the pit defects. We conclude that initial stage of oxidation process in a-SiC:H films takes place not homogeneously throughout the layer but it is initiated in local nanoscale regions followed by spreading over all layer.

  11. Sharpening our Understanding but Blurring the Boundaries: Dynamic Observations of Surface Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Donald R.

    2003-08-20

    Every now and then, reading a specific paper stimulates--in my mind at least--a variety of associations and connections that highlight advances that have been made and suggests links between areas that I may not have previously connected. The recent series of papers by McCarty and Bartelt (and co-workers) using low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to study the dynamics of surface reconstruction of TiO2 , and NiAl sent my thinking in a variety loosely connected directions. Paraphrasing the response of one of my colleagues - the work causes us to think dynamically where we have often thought statically about what happens when surfaces reconstruct. The measurements also highlight the importance of newer techniques to help us visualize and understand phenomena that may have puzzled us for years. The dynamic interactions between surface structure and both the defect structure (and history) of the substrate and the nature of the environment of the specimen highlight an aspect of phenomena that drive surface reconstruction not normally considered and suggests additional and delightful challenges we face in understanding the bulk stability and surface structures of nano-sized objects. Since the physical arrangement of the atoms controls every aspect of the physics and chemistry of a surface or interface, the atomic geometry is a fundamental defining characteristic of a surface. , Details of the structure of a surface, including altered atomic positions, the presence of steps and various types of defects can significantly change the chemistry of a surface and impact processes ranging from the formation of interfaces in electronic components to the efficiency of a catalyst. Because of its importance there has been considerable effort devoted to understanding and predicting surface structures. However, dynamical aspects of surface reconstruction and the significance of material defects in the process have not been part of the standard picture.

  12. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.

    2013-05-24

    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Miniature photometric stereo system for textile surface structure reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Kampouris, Christos; Malassiotis, Sotiris

    2013-04-01

    In this work a miniature photometric stereo system is presented, targeting the three-dimensional structural reconstruction of various fabric types. This is a supportive module to a robot system, attempting to solve the well known "laundry problem". The miniature device has been designed for mounting onto the robot gripper. It is composed of a low-cost off-the-shelf camera, operating in macro mode, and eight light emitting diodes. The synchronization between image acquisition and lighting direction is controlled by an Arduino Nano board and software triggering. The ambient light has been addressed by a cylindrical enclosure. The direction of illumination is recovered by locating the reflection or the brightest point on a mirror sphere, while a flatfielding process compensates for the non-uniform illumination. For the evaluation of this prototype, the classical photometric stereo methodology has been used. The preliminary results on a large number of textiles are very promising for the successful integration of the miniature module to the robot system. The required interaction with the robot is implemented through the estimation of the Brenner's focus measure. This metric successfully assesses the focus quality with reduced time requirements in comparison to other well accepted focus metrics. Besides the targeting application, the small size of the developed system makes it a very promising candidate for applications with space restrictions, like the quality control in industrial production lines or object recognition based on structural information and in applications where easiness in operation and light-weight are required, like those in the Biomedical field, and especially in dermatology.

  14. Three-dimensional wavelet transform and multiresolution surface reconstruction from volume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Sloan, Kenneth R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Multiresolution surface reconstruction from volume data is very useful in medical imaging, data compression and multiresolution modeling. This paper presents a hierarchical structure for extracting multiresolution surfaces from volume data by using a 3-D wavelet transform. The hierarchical scheme is used to visualize different levels of detail of the surface and allows a user to explore different features of the surface at different scales. We use 3-D surface curvature as a smoothness condition to control the hierarchical level and the distance error between the reconstructed surface and the original data as the stopping criteria. A 3-D wavelet transform provides an appropriate hierarchical structure to build the volume pyramid. It can be constructed by the tensor products of 1-D wavelet transforms in three subspaces. We choose the symmetric and smoothing filters such as Haar, linear, pseudoCoiflet, cubic B-spline and their corresponding orthogonal wavelets to build the volume pyramid. The surface is reconstructed at each level of volume data by using the cell interpolation method. Some experimental results are shown through the comparison of the different filters based on the distance errors of the surfaces.

  15. Reconstruction of Sub-Surface Velocities from Satellite Observations Using Iterative Self-Organizing Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this letter a new method based on modified self-organizing maps is presented for the reconstruction of deep ocean current velocities from surface information provided by satellites. This method takes advantage of local correlations in the data-space to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed deep velocities. Unlike previous attempts to reconstruct deep velocities from surface data, our method makes no assumptions regarding the structure of the water column, nor the underlying dynamics of the flow field. Using satellite observations of surface velocity, sea-surface height and sea-surface temperature, as well as observations of the deep current velocity from autonomous Argo floats to train the map, we are able to reconstruct realistic high--resolution velocity fields at a depth of 1000m. Validation reveals extremely promising results, with a speed root mean squared error of ~2.8cm/s, a factor more than a factor of two smaller than competing methods, and direction errors consistently smaller than 30 degrees...

  16. Understanding nanorheology and surface forces of confined thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yan, Bin; Faghihnejad, Ali; Xu, Haolan; Zeng, Hongbo

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the nanorheology and associated intermolecular/surface forces of fluids in confined geometries or porous media is of both fundamental and practical importance, providing significant insights into various applications such as lubrication and micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. In this work, we briefly reviewed the fundamentals of nanoreheolgy, advances in experimental techniques and theoretical simulation methods, as well as important progress in the nanorheology of confined thin films. The advent of advanced experimental techniques such as surface forces apparatus (SFA), X-ray surface forces apparatus (XSFA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) and computational methods such as molecular dynamics simulations provides powerful tools to study a wide range of rheological phenomena at molecular level and nano scale. One of the most challenging issues unresolved is to elucidate the relationship between the rheological properties and structural evolution of the confined fluid films and particles suspensions. Some of the emerging research areas in the nanorheology field include, but are not limited to, the development of more advanced characterization techniques, design of multifunctional rheological fluids, bio-related nanorheology, and polymer brushes.

  17. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  18. Inverse Gas Chromatography with Film Cell Unit: An Attractive Alternative Method to Characterize Surface Properties of Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Géraldine L; Pierre, Guillaume; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Graber, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is widely used for the characterization of surfaces. The present work describes a novel IGC tool, the recently developed film cell module, which measures monolithic thin solid film surface properties, whereas only samples in powder or fiber state or polymer-coated supports can be studied by classic IGC. The surface energy of four different solid supports was measured using both classic IGC with columns packed with samples in the powder state, and IGC with the new film cell module or the sessile drop technique, using samples in the film state. The total surface energy and its dispersive and specific components were measured for glass, polyethylene, polyamide and polytetrafluoroethylene. Similar results were obtained for the four materials using the three different techniques. The main conclusion is that the new film cell module for IGC is an attractive alternative to the sessile drop technique as it gives very accurate and reproducible results for surface energy components, with significant savings in time and the possible control of sample humidity and temperature. This film cell module for IGC extends the application field of IGC to any thin solid film and can be used to study the effect of any surface treatment on surface energy.

  19. Preservation of the Pt(100) surface reconstruction after growth of a continuous layer of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Bjerre, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that a layer of graphene can be grown on the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface and that the reconstruction is preserved after growth. A continuous sheet of graphene can be grown across domain boundaries and step edges without loss of periodicity or change...... to accommodation of edge dislocations. The defect formation energy and the induced buckling of the graphene have been characterized by DFT calculations....... in direction. Density functional theory calculations on a simple model system support the observation that the graphene can have different rotation angles relative to the hex-reconstructed Pt surface. The graphene sheet direction can be changed by incorporating pentagon-heptagon defects giving rise...

  20. Microscale investigation of thin film surface ageing of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P K; Kringos, N; Birgisson, B; Wallqvist, V

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the mechanism of bitumen surface ageing, which was validated utilizing the atomic force microscopy and the differential scanning calorimetry. To validate the surface ageing, three different types of bitumen with different natural wax content were conditioned in four different modes: both ultraviolet and air, only ultraviolet, only air and without any exposure, for 15 and 30 days. From the atomic force microscopy investigation after 15 and 30 days of conditioning period, it was found that regardless the bitumen type, the percentage of microstructure on the surface reduced with the degree of exposure and time. Comparing all the four different exposures, it was observed that ultraviolet radiation caused more surface ageing than the oxidation. It was also found that the combined effect was not simply a summation or multiplication of the individual effects. The differential scanning calorimetry investigation showed that the amount of crystalline fractions in bitumen remain constant even after the systematic conditioning. Interestingly, during the cooling cycle, crystallization of wax molecules started earlier for the exposed specimens than the without exposed one. The analysis of the obtained results indicated that the ageing created a thin film upon the exposed surface, which acts as a barrier and creates difficulty for the wax induced microstructures to float up at the surface. From the differential scanning calorimetry analysis, it can be concluded that the ageing product induced impurities in the bitumen matrix, which acts as a promoter in the crystallization process.

  1. Characterization of air-formed surface oxide film on a Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (MP35N) and its change in Hanks' solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Akiko, E-mail: nag-bcr@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Inorganic Materials, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yusuke [Department of Metals, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Suzuki, Yuta [Department of Inorganic Materials, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Katayama, Keiichi [Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao [Department of Metals, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Yamashita, Kimihiro [Department of Inorganic Materials, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    The air-formed surface oxide films used for stents were characterized to determine their composition and chemical state on a Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy. The change of the films in Hanks' solution was used to estimate the reconstruction of the film in the human body. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the composition of the film and substrate, as well as the film's thickness. The surface oxide film on the Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (when mechanically polished) consists of oxide species of cobalt, nickel, chromium, and molybdenum, contains a large amount of OH{sup -}, and has a thickness of approximately 2.5 nm. Cations exist in the oxide as Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Mo{sup 4+}, Mo{sup 5+}, and Mo{sup 6+}. Chromium is enriched and cobalt and nickel are depleted in the oxide; however, nickel is enriched and cobalt is depleted in the substrate alloy just under the surface oxide film. Concentration of chromium was low and that of nickel was high at small take-off angles. This indicates that distribution of chromium is greater in the inner layer, but nickel is distributed more in the outer layer of the surface oxide film. During immersion in Hanks' solution, cobalt and nickel dissolved, and the film composition changed to mostly chromium oxide (Cr{sup 3+}), along with small amounts of cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum oxides, and calcium phosphate containing magnesium, potassium, and carbonate. After immersion in Hanks' solution, the thickness of the surface layer containing calcium phosphate increased to more than 4 nm, while the amount of OH{sup -} increased. The amount of cobalt and nickel in the surface oxide film and in the substrate alloy just below the oxide decreased during immersion.

  2. Surface reactions of molecular and atomic oxygen with carbon phosphide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Justin; Torres, Jessica; Wolfe, Glenn; d'Agostino, Alfred; Fairbrother, D Howard

    2005-11-01

    The surface reactions of atomic and molecular oxygen with carbon phosphide films have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Carbon phosphide films were produced by ion implantation of trimethylphosphine into polyethylene. Atmospheric oxidation of carbon phosphide films was dominated by phosphorus oxidation and generated a carbon-containing phosphate surface film. This oxidized surface layer acted as an effective diffusion barrier, limiting the depth of phosphorus oxidation within the carbon phosphide film to phosphorus atoms as well as the degree of phosphorus oxidation. For more prolonged AO exposures, a highly oxidized phosphate surface layer formed that appeared to be inert toward further AO-mediated erosion. By utilizing phosphorus-containing hydrocarbon thin films, the phosphorus oxides produced during exposure to AO were found to desorb at temperatures >500 K under vacuum conditions. Results from this study suggest that carbon phosphide films can be used as AO-resistant surface coatings on polymers.

  3. THREE DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN HEART SURFACE FROM SINGLE IMAGE- VIEW UNDER DIFFERENT ILLUMINATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Al-Surmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction from a single-view image is a longstanding issue in computer vision literature, especially in the medical field. Traditional medical imaging techniques that provide information about the heart and which are used to reconstruct the heart model, include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT images. However, in some cases, they are not available and the applications that use these techniques to model the human heart only produce acceptable results after a long process, which involves acquiring the input data, as well as the segmentation process, the matching process, effort and cost. Therefore, it would be useful to be able to use a 2D single image to reconstruct the 3D heart surface model. We introduce an image-based human heart surface reconstruction from a single image as input. To model the surface of the heart, the proposed method, first, detects and corrects the specular reflection from the heart’s surface, which causes deformation of the surface in the R3. Second, it extrudes the three axes for each image pixel (e.g., x, y and z axes from the input image, in which the z-axis is calculated using the intensity value. Finally, a 3D reconstruction of the heart surface is created to help the novice cardiac surgeon to reduce the period of time in learning cardiac surgery and to enhance their perception of the operating theatre. The experimental results for images of the heart show the efficiency of the proposed method compared to the existing methods.

  4. Ocean Surface reconstruction from the synergy of Sentinel-3 sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Haro, C.; Autret, E.; Isern-Fontanet, J.; Tandeo, P.; Le Goff, C.; Garello, R.; Fablet, R.

    2015-12-01

    Along-track altimetric measurements of Sea Surface Heights (SSH) are very well suited to quantify across-track currents. However, the spatial resolution of derived 2D velocities is restricted to scales above 100-150 km and the limited number of altimeters can lead to errors in the location of currents. On the contrary, infrared measurements of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are well suited to locate flow patterns but it is difficult to extract quantitative estimations of ocean currents. During the last years, some works began to exploit the synergy of SST and altimetry measurements in order to retrieve ocean currents. Nevertheless, all this previous works employed measurements which were near in time but not simultaneous. In that sense, Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission that will circumvent this temporal limitation, providing simultaneous measurements of SST and altimetry with high-end accuracy and reliability. Our approach, based on the spectral properties of simultaneous SST and SSH observations, is tested using ENVISAT (RA, AATSR) data, since its geometry is similar to that of Sentinel-3 (SRAL, SLSTR).

  5. Calibration-free quantitative surface topography reconstruction in scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, E.T.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Mansilla, C.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new approach to obtain reliable surface topography reconstructions from 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. In this method a set of images taken at different tilt angles are compared by means of digital image correlation (DlC). It is argued that the strength of the met

  6. Comprehensive Use of Curvature For Robust And Accurate Online Surface Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefloch, Damien; Kluge, Markus; Sarbolandi, Hamed; Weyrich, Tim; Kolb, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Interactive real-time scene acquisition from hand-held depth cameras has recently developed much momentum, enabling applications in ad-hoc object acquisition, augmented reality and other fields. A key challenge to online reconstruction remains error accumulation in the reconstructed camera trajectory, due to drift-inducing instabilities in the range scan alignments of the underlying iterative-closest-point (ICP) algorithm. Various strategies have been proposed to mitigate that drift, including SIFT-based pre-alignment, color-based weighting of ICP pairs, stronger weighting of edge features, and so on. In our work, we focus on surface curvature as a feature that is detectable on range scans alone and hence does not depend on accurate multi-sensor alignment. In contrast to previous work that took curvature into consideration, however, we treat curvature as an independent quantity that we consistently incorporate into every stage of the real-time reconstruction pipeline, including densely curvature-weighted ICP, range image fusion, local surface reconstruction, and rendering. Using multiple benchmark sequences, and in direct comparison to other state-of-the-art online acquisition systems, we show that our approach significantly reduces drift, both when analyzing individual pipeline stages in isolation, as well as seen across the online reconstruction pipeline as a whole.

  7. Reconstructing daily clear-sky land surface temperature for cloudy regions from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Chen, Zhongxin; Gao, Feng; Anderson, Martha; Song, Lisheng; Wang, Limin; Hu, Bo; Yang, Yun

    2017-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud contamination affects thermal band observations and will lead to inconsistent LST results. In this study, we present a new Remotely Sensed DAily land Surface Temperature reconstruction (RSDAST) model that recovers clear sky LST for pixels covered by cloud using only clear-sky neighboring pixels from nearby dates. The reconstructed LST was validated using the original LST pixels. Model shows high accuracy for reconstructing one masked pixel with R2 of 0.995, bias of -0.02 K and RMSE of 0.51 K. Extended spatial reconstruction results show a better accuracy for flat areas with R2 of 0.72‒0.89, bias of -0.02-0.21 K, and RMSE of 0.92-1.16 K, and for mountain areas with R2 of 0.81-0.89, bias of -0.35-1.52 K, and RMSE of 1.42‒2.24 K. The reconstructed areas show spatial and temporal patterns that are consistent with the clear neighbor areas. In the reconstructed LST and NDVI triangle feature space which is controlled by soil moisture, LST values distributed reasonably and correspond well to the real soil moisture conditions. Our approach shows great potential for reconstructing clear sky LST under cloudy conditions and provides consistent daily LST which are critical for daily drought monitoring.

  8. A new method for patterning azopolymer thin film surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Sh. Golghasemi; Barille, R.; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.; Zielinska, S.; Ortyl, E.

    2017-04-01

    We present a simple bottom-up approach via an incoherent unpolarized illumination and the choice of a solvent-droplet-induced-dewetting method to photoinduce nano doughnuts on the surface of azopolymer thin films. We demonstrate that doughnut-shaped nanostructures can be formed and tailored with a wide range of typical sizes, thus providing a rich field of applications using surface photo-patterning. Furthermore, due to the presence of highly photoactive azobenzene derivative in the material, illumination of these nanostructures by a polarized laser light shows the possibility of a further growth and reshaping opening the way for fundamental studies of size-dependent scaling laws of optical properties and possible fabrication of nano-reactor or nano-trap patterns.

  9. Ions Bombardment in Thin Films and Surface Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沭华; 任兆杏

    2003-01-01

    Ions bombardment is very important in thin films and surface processing. The ionenergy and ion flux are two important parameters in ion bombardment. The ion current densitymainly dependent on the plasma density gives the number of energetic ions bombarding thesubstrate. The self-bias voltage in plasma sheath accelerates plasma ions towards the substrate.RF discharge can increase plasma density and RF bias can also provide the insulator substrate witha plasma sheath. In order to choose and control ion energy, ion density, the angle of incidence,and ion species, ion beam sources are used. New types of electrodeless ion sources (RF, MW,ECR-MW) have been introduced in detail. In the last, the effects of ion bombardment on thinfilms and surface processing are presented.

  10. Reconstruction Accuracy Assessment of Surface and Underwater 3D Motion Analysis: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed accuracy of surface and underwater 3D reconstruction of a calibration volume with and without homography. A calibration volume (6000 × 2000 × 2500 mm with 236 markers (64 above and 88 underwater control points—with 8 common points at water surface—and 92 validation points was positioned on a 25 m swimming pool and recorded with two surface and four underwater cameras. Planar homography estimation for each calibration plane was computed to perform image rectification. Direct linear transformation algorithm for 3D reconstruction was applied, using 1600000 different combinations of 32 and 44 points out of the 64 and 88 control points for surface and underwater markers (resp.. Root Mean Square (RMS error with homography of control and validations points was lower than without it for surface and underwater cameras (P≤0.03. With homography, RMS errors of control and validation points were similar between surface and underwater cameras (P≥0.47. Without homography, RMS error of control points was greater for underwater than surface cameras (P≤0.04 and the opposite was observed for validation points (P≤0.04. It is recommended that future studies using 3D reconstruction should include homography to improve swimming movement analysis accuracy.

  11. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-03-27

    The present study sheds light on the long-standing challenges associated with high-voltage operation of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction (formation of a surface reduced layer, to transition) and chemical evolution (formation of a surface reaction layer) at the surface of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 particles. These are primarily responsible for the prevailing capacity fading and impedance buildup under high-voltage cycling conditions, as well as the first-cycle coulombic inefficiency. It was found that the surface reconstruction exhibits a strong anisotropic characteristic, which predominantly occurs along lithium diffusion channels. Furthermore, the surface reaction layer is composed of lithium fluoride embedded in a complex organic matrix. This work sets a refined example for the study of surface reconstruction and chemical evolution in battery materials using combined diagnostic tools at complementary length scales.

  12. The structure and surface energy of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung, E-mail: ytchen@yuntech.edu.tw; Chen, Chin-Wu; Wu, Te-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • X-ray diffraction patterns indicated NiFe thin films exhibited a face-centred cubic (FCC) structural. • NiFe films were more crystalline after postannealing treatment than they were after RT treatment. • NiFe films formed a contact angle of <90°, which indicated that the NiFe films were hydrophilic. • The surface energy was associated with the crystallinity of the thin films. • NiFe thin films exhibit low surface-energy characteristics that can produce a self-cleaning effect. - Abstract: In this study, NiFe thin films were deposited on a glass substrate at room temperature (RT) or postannealed at 150 and 250 °C for 1 h; the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films were 300–1500 Å thick. The structure, surface energy, and average contact angle properties of the NiFe thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that the NiFe thin films exhibited a face-centred cubic (FCC) structural state. The XRD results also revealed that the NiFe films were more crystalline after post-annealing treatment than they were after RT treatment alone, suggesting that the NiFe crystalline structure exhibited FCC (1 1 1) texturing. The NiFe films formed a contact angle of <90° with the test liquids water and diiodomethane, which indicated that the NiFe films were hydrophilic. The surface energy of the NiFe thin films decreased when post-annealing treatment was used and their thickness was increased from 60.4 to 47.9 mJ/mm{sup 2}, suggesting that the surface energy was associated with the crystallinity of the thin films. Therefore, these NiFe thin films exhibit low surface-energy characteristics that can produce a self-cleaning effect.

  13. Top and bottom surfaces limit carrier lifetime in lead iodide perovskite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Moore, David T.; Yan, Yong; Miller, Elisa M.; Zhu, Kai; Beard, Matthew C.

    2017-01-23

    Carrier recombination at defects is detrimental to the performance of solar energy conversion systems, including solar cells and photoelectrochemical devices. Point defects are localized within the bulk crystal while extended defects occur at surfaces and grain boundaries. If not properly managed, surfaces can be a large source of carrier recombination. Separating surface carrier dynamics from bulk and/or grain-boundary recombination in thin films is challenging. Here, we employ transient reflection spectroscopy to measure the surface carrier dynamics in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite polycrystalline films. We find that surface recombination limits the total carrier lifetime in perovskite polycrystalline thin films, meaning that recombination inside grains and/or at grain boundaries is less important than top and bottom surface recombination. The surface recombination velocity in polycrystalline films is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in single crystals, possibly due to unintended surface passivation of the films during synthesis.

  14. Room-Temperature Growth of Al Films on Si(111)-7×7 Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; ZHANG Yan-Feng; WANG De-Yong; JIA Jin-Feng; XUE Qi-Kun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reflection high energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) are used to investigate the structure and morphology of Al films deposited on Si(111)-7 × 7 surface at room temperature. The films are polycrystalline, made up of (100) and (111) oriented islands, which primarily result from the interface elastic effect and free surface energies of the Al (100) and (111) surfaces.

  15. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    McAnally, G D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm sup - sup 1) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are ...

  16. Correlating the Local Defect-Level Density with the Macroscopic Composition and Energetics of Chalcopyrite Thin-Film Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Sebastian; Kück, Dennis; Timmer, Alexander; Lauermann, Iver; Ümsür, Bünyamin; Greiner, Dieter; Kaufmann, Christian A; Mönig, Harry

    2015-06-17

    The unusual defect chemistry of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films is a main issue for a profound understanding of recombination losses in chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells. Especially, impurity-driven passivation of electronic levels due to point defects segregating at the surface and at grain boundaries is extensively debated. By combining current imaging tunneling spectroscopy with photoelectron spectroscopy, the local defect-level density and unusual optoelectronic grain-boundary properties of this material are correlated with the macroscopic energy levels and surface composition. Vacuum annealing of different CIGSe materials provides evidence that Na diffusion from the glass substrate does not affect the surface defect passivation or grain-boundary properties of standard Cu-poor materials. Furthermore, we find no major impact on the observed thermally activated dipole compensation or the accompanying change in surface band bending (up to 0.6 eV) due to Na. In contrast, Cu-rich CIGSe shows an opposing surface defect chemistry with only minor heat-induced band bending. Our results lead to a comprehensive picture, where the highly desirable type inversion at the p/n interface in standard chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells is dominated by band bending within the CIGSe absorber rather than the result of Na impurities or an n-type defect phase segregating at the interface. This is in accordance with recent studies suggesting a surface reconstruction as the origin for Cu depletion and band-gap widening at the surface of chalcopyrite thin films.

  17. Surface phase transitions upon reduction of epitaxial WO{sub 3}(1 0 0) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Altman, E.I.; Posadas, A.; Ahn, C.H

    2004-01-15

    The surface structure and morphology of WO{sub 3}(1 0 0) thin films were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction. The films experienced a net-reducing environment when annealed in oxygen at 800 K leading to surface phase transitions from p(2x2) to p(4x2), and from p(4x2) to a mix p(4x2) and p(3x2). Increasing the annealing temperature to 830 K in ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) led to a fully p(3x2) reconstructed surface. Continued UHV annealing above 800 K caused (1x1) islands to appear on the p(3x2) surface and the film color to darken. Eventually, prolonged UHV annealing led to a (1x1)-terminated surface with straight steps oriented in [0 0 1] or [0 1 0] directions due to crystallographic shear planes. The randomly spaced steps on the (1x1) surface indicated variations in the local stoichiometry in the film. An added row model proposed for the p(4x2) structure is also shown to be consistent with the p(3x2) structure. The formation of the p(4x2) structure from the p(2x2) structure was attributed to W{sup 5+} migration into the bulk to form the troughs between the added rows. Reduction of the p(4x2) structure caused the troughs to narrow rather than deepen, suggesting that W{sup 5+} or added row surface diffusion competes with migration of reduced W ions into the bulk when the p(3x2) structure forms. The STM images also show evidence that the (1x1) structure forms through coalescence of the added rows.

  18. Concurrence of bulk and surface order reconstruction to the relaxation of frustrated nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoddeo, Antonino

    2016-08-01

    Applying appropriate electric pulses to a nematic liquid crystal confined between plates, the bulk order reconstruction can occur, a mechanism allowing the switching between topologically different nematic textures without any director rotation. Using a moving mesh finite element method we describe the order tensor dynamics for a nematic inside an asymmetric n-cell, putting in evidence as textural distortions induced by strong asymmetries can be relaxed via both bulk and surface order reconstruction, occurring close to a confining plate with different time duration.

  19. Antiferrodistortive reconstruction of the PbTiO{sub 3} surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkholm, A.; Streiffer, S. K.; Murty, R. M. V.; Eastman, J. A.; Thompson, C.; Auciello, O.; Thompson, L.; Moore, J. F. Stephenson, G. B.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2002-01-07

    We present in situ x-ray scattering measurements of the surface structures of PbTiO{sub 3} (001) in equilibrium with PbO vapor. At 875 to 1025 K, a reconstruction having c(2x2) symmetry is present under most conditions, while a 1x6 reconstruction occurs under PbO-poor conditions. The atomic structure of the c(2x2) phase is found to consist of a single layer of an antiferrodistortive structure with oxygen cages counter-rotated by 10 degrees about the titanium ions.

  20. Stereo Reconstruction of Atmospheric Cloud Surfaces from Fish-Eye Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katai-Urban, G.; Otte, V.; Kees, N.; Megyesi, Z.; Bixel, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this article a method for reconstructing atmospheric cloud surfaces using a stereo camera system is presented. The proposed camera system utilizes fish-eye lenses in a flexible wide baseline camera setup. The entire workflow from the camera calibration to the creation of the 3D point set is discussed, but the focus is mainly on cloud segmentation and on the image processing steps of stereo reconstruction. Speed requirements, geometric limitations, and possible extensions of the presented method are also covered. After evaluating the proposed method on artificial cloud images, this paper concludes with results and discussion of possible applications for such systems.

  1. Atomic scale control and understanding of cubic silicon carbide surface reconstructions, nanostructures and nanochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukiassian, Patrick G.; Enriquez, Hanna B.

    2004-05-01

    The atomic scale ordering and properties of cubic silicon carbide (bgr-SiC) surfaces and nanostructures are investigated by atom-resolved room and high-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS), synchrotron radiation-based valence band and core level photoelectron spectroscopy (VB-PES, CL-PES) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). In this paper, we review the latest results on the atomic scale understanding of (i) the structure of bgr-SiC(100) surface reconstructions, (ii) temperature-induced metallic surface phase transition, (iii) one dimensional Si(C) self-organized nanostructures having unprecedented characteristics, and on (iv) nanochemistry at SiC surfaces with hydrogen. The organization of these surface reconstructions as well as the 1D nanostructures' self-organization are primarily driven by surface stress. In this paper, we address such important issues as (i) the structure of the Si-rich 3 × 2, the Si-terminated c (4 × 2), the C-terminated c (2 × 2) reconstructions of the bgr-SiC(100) surface, (ii) the temperature-induced reversible {\\mathrm {c}}(4\\times 2) \\Leftrightarrow 2\\times 1 metallic phase transition, (iii) the formation of highly stable (up to 900 °C) Si atomic and vacancy lines, (iv) the temperature-induced sp to sp3 diamond like surface transformation, and (v) the first example of H-induced semiconductor surface metallization on the bgr-SiC (100) 3 × 2 surface. The results are discussed and compared to other experimental and theoretical investigations.

  2. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  3. Fabrication of a super-hydrophobic nanofibrous zinc oxide film surface by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Bin [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fiber and Polymer Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: bding@ucdavis.edu; Ogawa, Tasuku [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Kim, Jinho [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); SNT Ltd, Kawasaki 212-0054 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kouji [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Shiratori, Seimei [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); SNT Ltd, Kawasaki 212-0054 (Japan)], E-mail: shiratori@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2008-03-03

    We report a new approach for fabricating a super-hydrophobic nanofibrous zinc oxide (ZnO) film surface. The pure poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and composite PVA/ZnO nanofibrous films can be obtained by electrospinning the PVA and PVA/zinc acetate solutions, respectively. After the calcination of composite fibrous films, the inorganic fibrous ZnO films with a reduced fiber diameter were fabricated. The wettability of three kinds of fibrous film surfaces were modified with a simple coating of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) in hexane. The resultant samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), water contact angle (WCA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the pure PVA fibrous films maintained the super-hydrophilic surface property even after the FAS modification. Additionally, the WCA of composite fibrous films was increased from 105 to 132 deg. with the coating of FAS. Furthermore, the surface property of inorganic ZnO fibrous films was converted from super-hydrophilic (WCA of 0 deg.) to super-hydrophobic (WCA of 165{sup o}) after the surface modification with FAS. Observed from XPS data, the hydrophobicity of FAS coated various film surfaces were found to be strongly affected by the ratio of fluoro:oxygen on the film surfaces.

  4. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

  5. An adaptive learning approach for 3-D surface reconstruction from point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Agostinho de Medeiros Brito; Neto, Adrião Duarte Dória; de Melo, Jorge Dantas; Goncalves, Luiz Marcos Garcia

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiresolution approach for surface reconstruction from clouds of unorganized points representing an object surface in 3-D space. The proposed method uses a set of mesh operators and simple rules for selective mesh refinement, with a strategy based on Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM). Basically, a self-adaptive scheme is used for iteratively moving vertices of an initial simple mesh in the direction of the set of points, ideally the object boundary. Successive refinement and motion of vertices are applied leading to a more detailed surface, in a multiresolution, iterative scheme. Reconstruction was experimented on with several point sets, including different shapes and sizes. Results show generated meshes very close to object final shapes. We include measures of performance and discuss robustness.

  6. 3D shape reconstruction of specular surfaces by using phase measuring deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Chen, Kun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    The existing estimation methods for recovering height information from surface gradient are mainly divided into Modal and Zonal techniques. Since specular surfaces used in the industry always have complex and large areas, considerations must be given to both the improvement of measurement accuracy and the acceleration of on-line processing speed, which beyond the capacity of existing estimations. Incorporating the Modal and Zonal approaches into a unifying scheme, we introduce an improved 3D shape reconstruction version of specular surfaces based on Phase Measuring Deflectometry in this paper. The Modal estimation is firstly implemented to derive the coarse height information of the measured surface as initial iteration values. Then the real shape can be recovered utilizing a modified Zonal wave-front reconstruction algorithm. By combining the advantages of Modal and Zonal estimations, the proposed method simultaneously achieves consistently high accuracy and dramatically rapid convergence. Moreover, the iterative process based on an advanced successive overrelaxation technique shows a consistent rejection of measurement errors, guaranteeing the stability and robustness in practical applications. Both simulation and experimentally measurement demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed improved method. According to the experimental result, the computation time decreases approximately 74.92% in contrast to the Zonal estimation and the surface error is about 6.68 μm with reconstruction points of 391×529 pixels of an experimentally measured sphere mirror. In general, this method can be conducted with fast convergence speed and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable and real-time approach for the shape reconstruction of specular surfaces in practical situations.

  7. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  8. Surface properties of latex film and solvent-borne film resulted from fluorinated acrylate copolymers prepared by emulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluorinated acrylate copolymer, poly (BMA-co-DFHMA, was prepared by emulsion polymerization using a preemulsified monomer addition process. The FTIR and 1H –NMR were used to characterize the copolymer structure. The contact angle of water on the solvent-borne film increased dramatically and reached an equilibrium value (103° when the PDFHMA content in the copolymer was only 0.97 mol%. However, the contact of water on the latex film increased slowly, and reached the equilibrium value of 99° until the fluorinated component content was as highly as 9 mol%. A similar result was observed for the oil contact angle on the two types of films. XPS results showed that when the F/C ratio on film surfaces reached equilibrium, the required content of fluorinated component in the copolymer for the solvent-borne film was much lower than that for the latex film.

  9. RF Magnetron Sputtering Aluminum Oxide Film for Surface Passivation on Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters on the surface passivation, surface damage, optical properties, and composition of the films have been investigated. It is found that proper sputtering power and uniform magnetic field reduced the surface damage from the high-energy ion bombardment to the silicon wafers during the process and consequently decreased the interface trap density, resulting in the good surface passivation; relatively high refractive index of aluminum oxide film is benefic to improve the surface passivation. The negative-charged aluminum oxide film was then successfully prepared. The surface passivation performance was further improved after postannealing by formation of an SiOx interfacial layer. It is demonstrated that the reactive sputtering is an effective technique of fabricating aluminum oxide surface passivation film for low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells.

  10. Grafting of PEG400 onto the surface of LLDPE/SMA film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gufeng; ZHANG Yi; ZHU Yafei; XU Jiarui

    2007-01-01

    Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)was melt and blended with styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA).The blending films were then immersed in poly(ethylene glycol)400 (PEG400) at room temperature.The surface composition of the blend films was determined by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy coupled with a variable incidence angle attenuated total reflection accessory (ATR-FTIR).Results show that PEG400 can be grafted onto the surface of the films via esterification with SMA.The immersion of PEG promotes the enrichment of SMA onto the surface of the films.The water contact angle data show that grafting of PEG400 onto PE can greatly improve the hydrophilicity of the PE surface.These experiments show that surface functionalization of polyethylene films by blending SMA and then surface grafting of PEG is feasible,which suggest an effective and simple route for PE surface modification via blending and grafting.

  11. THE SURFACE EFFECT ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF MICROMACHINED POLYSILICON FILMS FOR MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Jianning; Yang Jichang; Wen Shizhu

    2005-01-01

    In order to accomplish reliable mechanical design of MEMS, the influences of surface roughness and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the mechanical properties of micromachined polysilicon films for MEMS are investigated. Surface effect on the fracture properties of micromachined polysilicon films is evaluated with a new microtensile testing method using a magnet-coil force actuator. Statistical analysis of the surface roughness effects on the tensile strength predicated the surface roughness characterization of polysilicon films being tested and the direct relation of the mechanical properties with the surface roughness features. The fracture strength decreases with the increase of the surface roughness. The octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers coating leads to an increase of the average fracture strength up to 32.46%. Surface roughness and the hydrophobic properties of specimen when coated with OTS films are the two main factors influencing the tensile strength of micromachined polysilicon films for MEMS.

  12. Surface and Electrical Properties of NiCr Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jicheng; TIAN Li; YAN Jianwu

    2008-01-01

    Several batches of NiCr alloy thin films with different thickness were prepared in a multi-targets magnetron sputtering apparatus by changing sputtering time while keeping sputtering target power of Ni and Cr fixed. Then the as-deposited films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-Ray spectrometer (EDX),Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and four-point probe (FPP) to measure surface grain size, roughness and sheet resistance. The film thickness was measured by Alpha-Step IQ Profilers. The thickness dependence of surface roughness, lateral grain size and resistivity was also studied. The experimental results show that the grain size increases with film thickness and the surface roughness reaches the order of nanometer at all film thickness. The as-deposited film resistivity decreases with film thickness.

  13. Aqueous phase deposition of dense tin oxide films with nano-structured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshitake, E-mail: masuda-y@aist.go.jp; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-06-01

    Dense tin oxide films were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. The pH of the solutions was controlled to pH 1.3 by addition of HCl. Precise control of solution condition and crystal growth allowed us to obtain dense tin oxide films. Concave–convex surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates was entirely-covered with the continuous films. The films were about 65 nm in thickness and had nano-structured surfaces. Morphology of the films was strikingly different from our previous reported nano-sheet assembled structures. The films were not removed from the substrates by strong water flow or air blow to show strong adhesion strength. The aqueous solution process can be applied to surface coating of various materials such as nano/micro-structured surfaces, particles, fibers, polymers, metals or biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. They had nano-structured surfaces. Concave-convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films. - Highlights: • Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. • They had nano-structured surfaces. • Concave–convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films.

  14. Reduced glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films: surface effect or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumchen, O; McGraw, J D; Forrest, J A; Dalnoki-Veress, K

    2012-08-03

    We have examined the direct effect of manipulating the number of free surfaces on the measured glass transition temperature T(g) of thin polystyrene films. Thin films in the range 35 nm thickness and refractive index of freestanding films. By noting the change in slope in each of these quantities, a T(g) value can be assigned in quantitative agreement with previously reported results. For thin freestanding films this value is reduced from that of the bulk. The exact same films are then transferred to a Si substrate and the T(g) of the resulting supported film was determined. The T(g) values of the now supported films are the same as the bulk value and the same as previous reports of similar supported films. These experiments unambiguously show that free interfaces are the dominant cause of the T(g) reductions for the film thicknesses studied.

  15. Experimental Study on the Surface Modification of Ultra Thin DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-xing; ZHU Shi-gen

    2005-01-01

    School of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051Surface modification of Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was carried out in order to estimate the reliability of the ultra thin DLC films. The wear resistance, conductivity and mechatronic reliability of the films were studied by contact atomic force microscope (AFM), electric force microscope (EFM) and conductive AFM. The failure mechanism of pits formed and the reason for conductivity changed of DLC films were examined.

  16. Cortical Surface Reconstruction via Unified Reeb Analysis of Geometric and Topological Outliers in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonggang; Lai, Rongjie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel system for the automated reconstruction of cortical surfaces from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. At the core of our system is a unified Reeb analysis framework for the detection and removal of geometric and topological outliers on tissue boundaries. Using intrinsic Reeb analysis, our system can pinpoint the location of spurious branches and topological outliers, and correct them with localized filtering using information from both image intensity distributions and geometric regularity. In this system, we have also developed enhanced tissue classification with Hessian features for improved robustness to image inhomogeneity, and adaptive interpolation to achieve sub-voxel accuracy in reconstructed surfaces. By integrating these novel developments, we have a system that can automatically reconstruct cortical surfaces with improved quality and dramatically reduced computational cost as compared with the popular FreeSurfer software. In our experiments, we demonstrate on 40 simulated MR images and the MR images of 200 subjects from two databases: the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and International Consortium of Brain Mapping (ICBM), the robustness of our method in large scale studies. In comparisons with FreeSurfer, we show that our system is able to generate surfaces that better represent cortical anatomy and produce thickness features with higher statistical power in population studies. PMID:23086519

  17. Surface functionalization by fine ultraviolet-patterning of nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Renguo [Department of Complex Systems Science, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Zhang, Hedong, E-mail: zhang@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Complex Systems Science, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Komada, Suguru [Department of Micro-Nano System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Mitsuya, Yasunaga [Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute, Noa Yotsuya Building 2F, 1-13, Yotsuya-Douri, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-0819 (Japan); Fukuzawa, Kenji; Itoh, Shintaro [Department of Micro-Nano System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • We present fine UV-patterning of nm-thick liquid films for surface functionalization. • The patterned films exhibit both a morphological pattern and a functional pattern of different surface properties. • The finest pattern linewidth was 0.5 μm. • Fine patterning is crucial for improving surface and tribological properties. - Abstract: For micro/nanoscale devices, surface functionalization is essential to achieve function and performance superior to those that originate from the inherent bulk material properties. As a method of surface functionalization, we dip-coated nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films onto solid surfaces and then patterned the lubricant films with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation through a photomask. Surface topography, adhesion, and friction measurements demonstrated that the patterned films feature a concave–convex thickness distribution with thicker lubricant in the irradiated regions and a functional distribution with lower adhesion and friction in the irradiated convex regions. The pattern linewidth ranged from 100 to as fine as 0.5 μm. The surface functionalization effect of UV-patterning was investigated by measuring the water contact angles, surface energies, friction forces, and depletion of the patterned, as-dipped, and full UV-irradiated lubricant films. The full UV-irradiated lubricant film was hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 102.1°, and had lower surface energy, friction, and depletion than the as-dipped film, which was hydrophilic with a water contact angle of 80.7°. This demonstrates that UV irradiation substantially improves the surface and tribological properties of the nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films. The UV-patterned lubricant films exhibited superior surface and tribological properties than the as-dipped film. The water contact angle increased and the surface energy, friction, and depletion decreased as the pattern linewidth decreased. In particular, the 0.5-μm patterned lubricant

  18. Controlled reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Antoine; Ciraci, Cristian; Mock, Jack J.; Hill, Ryan T.; Wang, Qiang; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Smith, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and tunable absorption is essential for a variety of applications, such as the design of controlled emissivity surfaces for thermophotovoltaic devices1; tailoring of the infrared spectrum for controlled thermal dissipation2; and detector elements for imaging3. Metamaterials based on metallic elements are particularly efficient as absorbing media, because both the electrical and the magnetic properties of a metamaterial can be tuned by structured design4. To date, metamaterial absorbers in the infrared or visible range have been fabricated using lithographically patterned metallic structures2,5–9, making them inherently difficult to produce over large areas and hence reducing their applicability. We demonstrate here an extraordinarily simple method to create a metamaterial absorber by randomly adsorbing chemically synthesized silver nanocubes onto a nanoscale thick polymer spacer layer on a gold film –making no effort to control the spatial arrangement of the cubes on the film– and show that the film-coupled nanocubes provide a reflectance spectrum that can be tailored by varying the geometry. Each nanocube is the optical analog of the well-known grounded patch antenna, with a nearly identical local field structure that is modified by the plasmonic response of the metal dielectric function, and with an anomalously large absorption efficiency that can be partly attributed to an interferometric effect10. The absorptivity of large surface areas can be controlled using this method, at scales out of reach of lithographic approaches like e-beam lithography otherwise required to manipulate matter at the nanometer scale. PMID:23222613

  19. DFT and Monte Carlo study of the W(001) surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovkin, Ivan N.; Yakovkin, Ivan I.; Petrova, Nataliia V.

    2017-07-01

    The driving force for the W(001) surface reconstruction and electronic structures of pristine and H-covered W(001) surfaces are studied by means of relativistic DFT calculations. The spin-orbit coupling leads to the splitting of the bands. Adsorbed physical monolayer of hydrogen due to forming adsorption bonds stabilizes the (1 × 1) structure of the H/W(001) surface. The performed calculations have not revealed any substantial nesting of Fermi surface, so do not support the Peierls-like charge-density-wave mechanism of the surface reconstruction. The total energy of the (√2 × √2) )R45° W(001) surface structure is found to be lower, by 0.14 eV per atom, than for the (1 × 1 W(001). The dependence of the relative intensity of the characteristic LEED reflection on temperature, obtained with the help of Monte Carlo simulations using the interaction energies estimated from DFT calculations, is in good agreement with available experimental data, thus supporting the concept of the order-disorder type of the transition between the low-temperature ((√2 × √2))R45° and room-temperature (1 × 1) surface structures of W(001).

  20. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O2 or C3F8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  1. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  2. Lipases efficiently stearate and cutinases acetylate the surface of arabinoxylan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, A M; Anasontzis, G E; Matama, T; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Olsson, L; Gatenholm, P

    2013-08-10

    This is the first report on successful enzyme catalyzed surface esterification of hemicellulose films. Enzyme catalyzed surface acetylation with vinyl acetate and stearation with vinyl stearate were studied on rye arabinoxylan (AX) films. Different surface analytical techniques (FT-IR, TOF-SIMS, ESCA, CA) show that lipases from Mucor javanicus, Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa successfully surface stearate AX films and that a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi surface acetylates these films. The specificities of cutinase and lipases were also compared, and higher activity was observed for lipases utilizing long alkyl chain substrates while higher activity was observed for cutinase utilizing shorter alkyl chain substrates. The contact angle analysis showed films with increased initial hydrophobicity on the surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical modification of chitosan film via surface grafting of citric acid molecular to promote the biomineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Shen, Xin; Zhou, Huan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Yingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Deng, Linhong, E-mail: dlh@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chitosan film was modified by surface grafting of citric acid. • The modified film has good hydrophilicity and moisture-retaining capacity. • The citric acid grafting treatment significantly promote the biomineralization. • MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts research confirms the biocompatibility of the film. - Abstract: We develop a novel chitosan–citric acid film (abbreviated as CS–CA) suitable for biomedical applications in this study. In this CS–CA film, the citric acid, which is a harmless organic acid has been extensively investigated as a modifying agent on carbohydrate polymers, was cross-linked by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto the surface of chitosan (CS) film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the graft copolymerization of the modified chitosan film (CS–CA). Surface wettability, moisturizing performance, the capacity of mineralization in vitro and biocompatibility of the films were characterized. After modification, this CS–CA film has good hydrophilicity. It is very evident that the citric acid grafting treatment significantly promotes the biomineralization of the chitosan based substrates. Cell experiments show that the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts can adhere and proliferate well on the surface of CS–CA film. This CS–CA film, which can be prepared in large quantities and at low cost, should have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Surface morphology and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films obtained by PLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xi-mei; LIAN Jian-she; GUO Zuo-xing; JIANG Qing

    2005-01-01

    ZnO thin films on Si(111) substrate were deposited by laser ablation of Zn target in oxygen reactive atmosphere, Nd-YAG laser with wavelength of 1 064 nm was used as laser source. XRD and FESEM microscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the deposited ZnO films. The optical properties of the ZnO thin films were characterized by photoluminescence. The UV and deep level (yellow-green) light were observed from the films. The UV light is the intrinsic property and deep level light is attributed to the existence of antisite defects (OZn). The intensity of UV and deep level light depends strongly on the surface morphology and is explained by the surface roughness of ZnO film. A strongly UV emission can be obtained from ZnO film with surface roughness in nanometer range.

  5. PREFACE: International Conference on Solid Films and Surfaces (ICSFS 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, C. A.; Almeida, C. M.; Cremona, M.; Rocca, M.; Stavale, F.

    2015-03-01

    Foreword The 17th ICSFS took place at the wonderful city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from the 8th to the 11th of September, 2014. The conference focused on recent advances in controlling and characterizing the physical and chemical properties of films and surfaces, with a particular emphasis on materials for electronic, photonic and spintronic applications. In addition, themes of bio-functionalized structures and devices were strongly discussed in the ICSFS, covering interdisciplinary nano and nano-bio science and technology. The conference has promoted, in various sub-fields of materials surfaces and thin films, an excellent forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions in the field. In this volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering we are glad to present 11 peer-reviewed ICSFS contributing papers. The cross-disciplinary nature of conference topics is clearly reflected in these Proceedings' contents. The themes discussed ranged from those close to more traditional condensed matter physics, such as semiconductor surfaces to physical chemistry related issues. The Proceedings were organized in accordance with contributions presented at the Conference. We were glad with the presence of over 160 participants, including 24 invited and plenary talks and over 50 oral contributions. We strongly believe that these Proceedings will be useful for a wide audience of those interested in basic and applied surfaces and thin solid interfaces. Acknowledgment We would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which oversaw the general organization, particularly of Dicom (Social Communication Division) from the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology, Inmetro (Brazil). We also would like to thank all the invited speakers and session chairs for making the meeting such a great success. The Conference was supported and sponsored by Academia

  6. COMPLEX SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON OBJECT-ORIENTED DEVELOPING TOOL VBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Taking AutoCAD2000 as platform, an algorithm for the reconstruction of surface from scattered data points based on VBA is presented. With this core technology customers can be free from traditional AutoCAD as an electronic board and begin to create actual presentation of real-world objects. VBA is not only a very powerful tool of development, but with very simple syntax. Associating with those solids, objects and commands of AutoCAD 2000, VBA notably simplifies previous complex algorithms, graphical presentations and processing, etc. Meanwhile, it can avoid appearance of complex data structure and data format in reverse design with other modeling software. Applying VBA to reverse engineering can greatly improve modeling efficiency and facilitate surface reconstruction.

  7. Prediction of a reconstructed α-boron (111) surface by the minima hopping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Maximilian; Goedecker, Stefan; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2014-03-01

    Boron exhibits an impressive structural variety and immense efforts have recently been made to explore boron structures of low dimensionality, such as boron fullerenes, two-dimensional boron sheets or boron nanotubes which are theoretically predicted to exhibit superior electronic properties compared to their carbon analogues. By performing an extensive and systematic ab initio structural search for the (111) surface of α-boron (111) using the minima hopping structure prediction method we found very strong reconstructions that lead to two-dimensional surface layers. The topmost layer of these low energy reconstructions is a conductive, nearly perfectly planar boron sheet. If exfoliation was experimentally possible, promising precursors for a large variety of boron nano-structures such as single walled boron nanotubes and boron fullerenes could be obtained.

  8. Surface morphology of ultrathin graphene oxide films obtained by the SAW atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachova, Olga V.; Balashov, Sergey M.; Costa, Carlos A. R.; Pavani Filho, A.

    2015-08-01

    Lately, graphene oxide (GO) thin films have attracted much attention: they can be used as humidity-sensitive coatings in the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors; being functionalized, they can be used in optoelectronic or biodevices, etc. In this research we study surface morphology of small-area thin GO films obtained on Si and quartz substrates by deposition of very small amounts of H2O-GO aerosols produced by the SAW atomizer. An important feature of this method is the ability to work with submicrovolumes of liquids during deposition that provides relatively good control over the film thickness and quality, in particular, minimization of the coffee ring effect. The obtained films were examined using AFM and electron microscopy. Image analysis showed that the films consist of GO sheets of different geometry and sizes and may form discrete or continuous coatings at the surface of the substrates with the minimum thickness of 1.0-1.8 nm which corresponds to one or two monolayers of GO. The thickness and quality of the deposited films depend on the parameters of the SAW atomization (number of atomized droplets, a volume of the initial droplet, etc.) and on sample surface preparation (activation in oxygen plasma). We discuss the structure of the obtained films, uniformity and the surface coverage as a function of parameters of the film deposition process and sample preparation. Qualitative analysis of adhesion of GO films is made by rinsing the samples in DI water and subsequent evaluation of morphology of the remained films.

  9. Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Rackel Reis; Dumée, Ludovic F.; Tardy, Blaise L.; Raymond Dagastine; John D. Orbell; Jürg A. Schutz; Duke, Mikel C.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing the design of thin-film composite membrane surfaces is one of the most promising pathways to deal with treating varying water qualities and increase their long-term stability and permeability. Although plasma technologies have been explored for surface modification of bulk micro and ultrafiltration membrane materials, the modification of thin film composite membranes is yet to be systematically investigated. Here, the performance of commercial thin-film composite desalination membra...

  10. Direct measurement of the surface dynamics of supercooled liquid-glycerol by optical scanning a film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fang; Zhang Guo-Feng; Dong Shuang-Li; Sun Jian-Hu; Chen Rui-Yun; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2009-01-01

    The surface dynamics of supercooled liquid-glycerol is studied by scanning the thickness of the glycerol film with single photon detection. Measurements are performed at room temperature well above the glycerol's glass transition temperature. It is shown that the surface dynamics of the glycerol film is very sensitive to the temperature. The linear relationship between the thickness of the film and the viscosity predicted by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTH) law is also presented experimentally.

  11. Role of surface states in the Casimir force between semiconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Govoni, Marco; Benassi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We present results of first principle calculations of the Casimir force between Si films of nanometric size, which show that it depends significantly upon the configuration of the surface atoms, and give evidence of the importance of surface states.

  12. Improving past sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern Hemisphere oceans using planktonic foraminiferal census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddam, N. A.; Michel, E.; Siani, G.; Cortese, G.; Bostock, H. C.; Duprat, J. M.; Isguder, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present an improved database of planktonic foraminiferal census counts from the Southern Hemisphere oceans (SHO) from 15°S to 64°S. The SHO database combines three existing databases. Using this SHO database, we investigated dissolution biases that might affect faunal census counts. We suggest a depth/ΔCO32- threshold of ~3800 m/ΔCO32- = ~ -10 to -5 µmol/kg for the Pacific and Indian Oceans and ~4000 m/ΔCO32- = ~0 to 10 µmol/kg for the Atlantic Ocean, under which core-top assemblages can be affected by dissolution and are less reliable for paleo-sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. We removed all core tops beyond these thresholds from the SHO database. This database has 598 core tops and is able to reconstruct past SST variations from 2° to 25.5°C, with a root mean square error of 1.00°C, for annual temperatures. To inspect how dissolution affects SST reconstruction quality, we tested the data base with two "leave-one-out" tests, with and without the deep core tops. We used this database to reconstruct summer SST (SSST) over the last 20 ka, using the Modern Analog Technique method, on the Southeast Pacific core MD07-3100. This was compared to the SSST reconstructed using the three databases used to compile the SHO database, thus showing that the reconstruction using the SHO database is more reliable, as its dissimilarity values are the lowest. The most important aspect here is the importance of a bias-free, geographic-rich database. We leave this data set open-ended to future additions; the new core tops must be carefully selected, with their chronological frameworks, and evidence of dissolution assessed.

  13. Surface treatment of polyimide film for metal magnetron deposition in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V.; Vertyanov, D.; Timoshenkov, S.; Nikolaev, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper brings forward a solution for acquisition of good quality metallization layers on the polyimide substrate by magnetron deposition in vacuum environment. Different film type structures have been analyzed after refining and activation surface treatment operations. Positive effect was shown after the application of polyimide lacquer for surface dielectric film planarization and for structural defects elimination.

  14. A Vertical Draining Film with an Insoluble Surfactant and Nonlinear Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh; Braun, Richard; Snow, Steve

    2000-11-01

    The drainage of a thin Newtonian film with an insoluble surfactant is studied theoretically in 1+1 dimensions. Lubrication theory is applied to the thin film, which is suspended vertically from a frame and drains into a bath. Three nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) govern the evolution of the film shape, surface velocity and surfactant concentration. The surface viscosity and the surface tension of the films are nonlinear functions of the surface concentration; the functions are of the form defined by Lopez and Hirsa for hemicyanine in water. At high concentrations the effects from surface viscosity and the Marangoni effect become more pronounced. Slow and fast draining limits can still be reached and a Marangoni-driven wave that is very localized may be observed. In some instances, the film surface may even be swept clean over some part of its length. When the surface is swept clean, we expect that a vertical film cannot be made for any useful length of time. This is in agreement with expected behavior when films are made with insoluble surfactants; the surface concentration must be high in order for the film to last. This work has been partially supported by the NSF and Dow Corning.

  15. Influence of additive element on surface oxide film of A356 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Zhi-ying; LIANG Hong-yu; MAO Xie-min; HONG Mei

    2006-01-01

    The influences of RE-modification and Sr-modification on the hydrogen content and surface oxide film of A356 aluminum alloy melt were investigated. The hydrogen content of the melt was measured by reduce pressure test. The phases in the surface oxide film were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and the morphology of the surface oxide film was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that RE-modification reduces the hydrogen content of A356 aluminum alloy greatly.Contrarily, Sr-modification increases the hydrogen content remarkably. After being treated with RE, a large number of LaAl11O18 consisting of Al2O3 and La2O3, are generated in the surface oxide film of A356 alloy. The surface oxide film of Sr-modification is almost composed of Al2SrO4. According to the results of SEM, the surface oxide film of Sr-modification is very easy to crack,destroy the continuity and compactness of surface oxide film, accelerate the vapor diffusing into the melt, consequently, increase the hydrogen content of A356 alloy melt significantly. But RE-modification makes the surface oxide film compact, and restrains the aluminum exposed to water, so reduces the hydrogen content of A356 alloy melt.

  16. Organogel-based thin films for self-cleaning on various surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Pengchao; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei

    2013-08-27

    Self-cleaning on various surfaces is obtained using the facile approach of modifying the surface with a thin organogel film. The film not only absorbs oil but also holds it in a crosslinked network, which endows the material with excellent self-cleaning properties. This facile method can be applied to various common engineering metals.

  17. Second-order model for free surface convection and interface reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong O.; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    1997-03-01

    To improve the numerical analysis of free surface convection and its reconstruction, both first- and second-order algorithms are developed based on the volume of fraction method. Through the rearrangement of the surface cell and resetting of volume fraction, 16 possible cases of distribution of volume fraction in a cell block can be reduced to a single case. The methodology applied to the second-order model is to define the second-order linear curve having both face slopes as near to horizontal as possible while satisfying the cell`s defined volume fraction. The second-order method is compared with the FLAIR method and the first-order method through the simulation of the convection for various sizes of circular liquid shapes and solitary waves. For the small curvature of a free surface, e.g. circles with a large diameter, the linear method such as the FLAIR method and the first-order method shows relatively good predictions. However, for large curvature configurations, e.g. circles with a relatively small diameter or solitary waves, the linear approach shows large distortion of free surface. On the contrary, the second-order model always shows powerful prediction capabilities of free surface convection. Therefore, it is recommended that for the reconstruction and convection of free surface geometry with a large curvature, the second-order model should be used. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 21 figs.

  18. Surface molecular aggregation structure and surface physicochemical properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Morita, M.; Takahara, A.

    2008-03-01

    Effect of side chain length on the molecular aggregation states and surface properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s [PFA-Cy, where y is fluoromethylene number in Rf group] thin films were systematically investigated. Spin-coated PFA-Cy thin films were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The receding contact angles showed small values for PFA-Cy with short side chain (y=8. GIXD revealed that fluoroalkyl side chain of PFA-Cy with y>=8 was crystallized and formed ordered structures at the surface region as well as bulk one. These results suggest that water repellent mechanism of PFA-Cy can be attributed to the presence of highly ordered fluoroalkyl side chains at the outermost surfaces. The results of XPS in the dry and hydrated states and contact angle measurement in water support the mechanism of lowering contact angle for water by exposure of carbonyl group to the water interface through reorientation of short fluoroalkyl chains. The surface nanotextured PFA-C8 through imprinting of anodic aluminum oxide mold showed extremely high hydrophobicity as well as high oleophobicity.

  19. Surface molecular aggregation structure and surface physicochemical properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, K; Yamaguchi, H; Takahara, A [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Kobayashi, M [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Morita, M [Fundamental Research Department, Chemical Division, Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Nishi Hitotsuya, Settsu-shi, Osaka 566-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2008-03-15

    Effect of side chain length on the molecular aggregation states and surface properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s [PFA-C{sub y}, where y is fluoromethylene number in R{sub f} group] thin films were systematically investigated. Spin-coated PFA-C{sub y} thin films were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The receding contact angles showed small values for PFA-C{sub y} with short side chain (y{<=}6) and increased above y{>=}8. GIXD revealed that fluoroalkyl side chain of PFA-C{sub y} with y{>=}8 was crystallized and formed ordered structures at the surface region as well as bulk one. These results suggest that water repellent mechanism of PFA-C{sub y} can be attributed to the presence of highly ordered fluoroalkyl side chains at the outermost surfaces. The results of XPS in the dry and hydrated states and contact angle measurement in water support the mechanism of lowering contact angle for water by exposure of carbonyl group to the water interface through reorientation of short fluoroalkyl chains. The surface nanotextured PFA-C{sub 8} through imprinting of anodic aluminum oxide mold showed extremely high hydrophobicity as well as high oleophobicity.

  20. Real-time surface reconstruction from stereo endoscopic images for intraoperative registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhl, S.; Bodenstedt, S.; Suwelack, S.; Kenngott, H.; Mueller-Stich, B. P.; Dillmann, R.; Speidel, S.

    2011-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a medically complex discipline that can heavily benefit from computer assistance. One way to assist the surgeon is to blend in useful information about the intervention into the surgical view using Augmented Reality. This information can be obtained during preoperative planning and integrated into a patient-tailored model of the intervention. Due to soft tissue deformation, intraoperative sensor data such as endoscopic images has to be acquired and non-rigidly registered with the preoperative model to adapt it to local changes. Here, we focus on a procedure that reconstructs the organ surface from stereo endoscopic images with millimeter accuracy in real-time. It deals with stereo camera calibration, pixel-based correspondence analysis, 3D reconstruction and point cloud meshing. Accuracy, robustness and speed are evaluated with images from a test setting as well as intraoperative images. We also present a workflow where the reconstructed surface model is registered with a preoperative model using an optical tracking system. As preliminary result, we show an initial overlay between an intraoperative and a preoperative surface model that leads to a successful rigid registration between these two models.

  1. ITO-MgF2 Film Development for PowerSphere Polymer Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, Paul D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-kilogram class microsatellites with a PowerSphere electric power system are attractive for fulfilling a variety of potential NASA missions. However, PowerSphere polymer surfaces must be coated with a film that has suitable electrical sheet resistivity for electrostatic discharge control, be resistant to atomic oxygen attack, be transparent to ultraviolet light for composite structure curing and resist ultraviolet light induced darkening for efficient photovoltaic cell operation. In addition, the film must be tolerant of polymer layer folding associated with launch stowage of PowerSphere inflatable structures. An excellent film material candidate to meet these requirements is co-sputtered, indium oxide (In2O3) - tin oxide (SnO2), known as 'ITO', and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). While basic ITO-MgF2 film properties have been the subject of research over the last decade, further research is required in the areas of film durability for space-inflatable applications and precise film property control for large scale commercial production. In this paper, the authors present film durability results for a folded polymer substrate and film resistance to vacuum UV darkening. The authors discuss methods and results in the area of film sheet resistivity measurement and active control, particularly dual-channel, plasma emission line measurement of ITO and MgF2 plasma sources. ITO-MgF2 film polymer coupon preparation is described as well as film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed microscopically and electrically. Results show that an approx. 500A ITO-18vol% MgF2 film is a promising candidate to protect PowerSphere polymer surfaces for Earth orbit missions. Preliminary data also indicate that in situ film measurement methods are promising for active film resistivity control in future large scale production. Future film research plans are also

  2. Electromagnetic Scattering from Rough Sea Surface with PM Spectrum Covered by an Organic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; GUO Li-Xin; WANG An-Qi; WU Zhen-Sen

    2011-01-01

    The rough sea surface covered by an organic film will cause attenuation of capillarity waves, which implies that the organic films play an important role in rough sea surface processes. We focus on a one-dimensional(1D)rough sea surface with the Pierson-Moskowitz(PM)spectrum distributed to the homogeneous insoluble organic slicks. First, the impact of the organic film on the PM surface spectrum is presented, as well as that of the correlation length, the rms height and slope of the rough sea surface. The damping effect of the organic film changes the physical parameters of the rough sea surface. For example, the organic film will reduce the rms height and slopee of the rough sea surface, which results in the attenuation of the high-frequency components of the PM spectrum leading to modification of the surface PM spectrum. Then, the influence of the organic film on the electromagnetic(EM) scattering coefficients from PM rough sea surface covered by the organic film is investigated and discussed in detail, compared with the clean PM rough sea surface through the method of moments.

  3. Growth and surface characterization of tin-doped indium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Erie

    measured and atomic resolution was achieved. Bright and dark atomic features were assigned to a surface with bulk (1x1) termination. Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations performed by collaborators confirmed that indium atoms are being imaged bright and dark in empty-states STM, depending on the configuration of their oxygen neighbors; bright when neighboring three-fold and dark when neighboring four-fold oxygen atoms. Epitaxial (100)-oriented thin films of In2O3 and Sn-doped In2O3 were also grown. The YSZ substrate was characterized using RHEED and LEED and was found to have a (2x2) reconstructed surface. RHEED showed that the Sn-doped In2O3 grows in a 3-dimensional growth mode. Using LEED it was found that the surface of Sn-doped In2O3 exposes a surface with a c(1x1) termination. Considering symmetry arguments and the systematic absence of LEED spots, it was concluded that the surface can have only an oxygen termination. Due to the polarity of this orientation, it was found that unusually high concentrations of tin, ca. 15.6 at%, are needed to render the surface flat. Comparing STM measurements with DFT calculations published in the literature, it was concluded that surface oxygen atoms are dimerized, with all O dimers present for a high Sn concentration in ITO. At low Sn-concentrations the observed STM images are consistent with a model where only 2/3 of the oxygen atoms are present, again consistent with published DFT predictions. It is thus concluded that both, the Sn concentration and oxygen dimerization, are instrumental in stabilizing the polar ITO (001) surface.

  4. Fabrication of ZnO submicrorod films with water repellency by surface etching and hydrophobic modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xianming, E-mail: xmhou@tsu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Taishan University, Taian 271021 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Lixia [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Taishan University, Taian 271021 (China); Zhou Feng [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Liqing [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Taishan University, Taian 271021 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Superhydrophobic ZnO submicrorod films have been fabricated on zinc sheets through an H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-assisted surface etching process and subsequent surface modification with a monolayer of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FDS). The crystal structure, chemical compositions, morphologies, and wettability of the resultant ZnO films were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurements. It is found that the surface of the as-prepared ZnO films on zinc substrate was hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 95 {+-} 2 deg., whereas after modification with FDS, the film exhibited superhydrophobicity and the water CA increased to 154 {+-} 2 deg. It is shown that both the higher surface roughness and the lower surface free energy play an important role in creating the superhydrophobic films.

  5. Selective reflection technique as a probe to monitor the growth of a metallic thin film on dielectric surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Weliton Soares; Chevrollier, Martine; de Silans, Thierry Passerat

    2013-01-01

    Controlling thin film formation is technologically challenging. The knowledge of physical properties of the film and of the atoms in the surface vicinity can help improve control over the film growth. We investigate the use of the well-established selective reflection technique to probe the thin film during its growth, simultaneously monitoring the film thickness, the atom-surface van der Waals interaction and the vapor properties in the surface vicinity.

  6. The 2√(3)×2√(3)R30 surface reconstruction of alkali/Si(1 1 1):B semiconducting surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier-Colletta, C.; Chaput, L. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Nancy Université/CNRS, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Tejeda, A. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Nancy Université/CNRS, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Cardenas, L.A.; Kierren, B.; Malterre, D. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Nancy Université/CNRS, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Fagot-Revurat, Y., E-mail: yannick.fagot-revurat@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Nancy Université/CNRS, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Fèvre, P. Le; Bertran, F.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    The surface structure of alkali doped Si(1 1 1):B ultra-thin films has been studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A comparative study of K/Si(1 1 1)-3 × 1 and K/Si(1 1 1):B-2√(3)×2√(3)R30 interfaces allowed us to determine the saturation coverage to be 0.5 monolayer in the later case. The 2√(3)-surface reconstruction is shown to be a common property of pure K, Rb, Cs materials and K{sub 0.4}Rb{sub 0.6} alloys but progressively disappears if Rb is replaced by Ca. Taking into account the existence of two distinct boron sites in the ratio 1/3 as seen from B-1s core levels spectra, LAPW-DFT calculations have been carried out in order to optimize the atomic structure. As a result, alkali adatoms are shown to form trimers leading to a large modulation of the Si-B bonds accompanied by an inhomogeneous doping of the dangling bonds in agreement with voltage dependent STM images.

  7. Reconstructing, Reinterpreting, and Renarrating Code-switching in the Italian Dubbed Version of British and American Multilingual Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Monti

    2016-02-01

    The film scripts will be analysed focusing, in particular, on those cases where it is possible to recognize some sort of ideological and cultural manipulation applied in re-constructing, re-narrating and re-interpreting the characters’ multicultural identity for the Italian audience, thus possibly leading the defining ethno-cultural and linguistic features of the films’ original dialogues to be diluted to the point of neutralization (Pavesi 2005 and therefore failing to convey the translanguaging space (Wei 2011 the immigrant characters live in.

  8. Effect of interface on surface morphology and proton conduction of polymer electrolyte thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akihiro; Kuroda, Seiichi; Mohamed, Hamdy F M; Tavernier, Bruno

    2013-07-21

    To understand the relationship between surface morphology and proton conduction of polymer electrolyte thin films, perfluorinated ionomer Nafion® thin films were prepared on different substrates such as glassy carbon (GC), hydrophilic-GC (H-GC), and platinum (Pt) as models for the ionomer film within a catalyst layer. Atomic force microscopy coupled with an electrochemical (e-AFM) technique revealed that proton conduction decreased with film thickness; an abrupt decrease in proton conductance was observed when the film thickness was less than ca. 10 nm on GC substrates in addition to a significant change in surface morphology. Furthermore, thin films prepared on H-GC substrates with UV-ozone treatment exhibited higher proton conduction than those on untreated GC substrates. However, Pt substrates exhibited proton conduction comparable to that of GCs for films thicker than 20 nm; a decrease in proton conduction was observed at ∼5 nm thick film but was still much higher than for carbon substrates. These results indicate that the number of active proton-conductive pathways and/or the connectivity of the proton path network changed with film thickness. The surface morphology of thinner films was significantly affected by the film/substrate interface and was fundamentally different from that of the bulk thick membrane.

  9. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

  10. Decoupled Method for Reconstruction of Surface Conditions From Internal Temperatures On Ablative Materials With Uncertain Recession Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining measurements of flight environments on ablative heat shields is both critical for spacecraft development and extremely challenging due to the harsh heating environment and surface recession. Thermocouples installed several millimeters below the surface are commonly used to measure the heat shield temperature response, but an ill-posed inverse heat conduction problem must be solved to reconstruct the surface heating environment from these measurements. Ablation can contribute substantially to the measurement response making solutions to the inverse problem strongly dependent on the recession model, which is often poorly characterized. To enable efficient surface reconstruction for recession model sensitivity analysis, a method for decoupling the surface recession evaluation from the inverse heat conduction problem is presented. The decoupled method is shown to provide reconstructions of equivalent accuracy to the traditional coupled method but with substantially reduced computational effort. These methods are applied to reconstruct the environments on the Mars Science Laboratory heat shield using diffusion limit and kinetically limited recession models.

  11. A method for brain 3D surface reconstruction from MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-xin

    2014-09-01

    Due to the encephalic tissues are highly irregular, three-dimensional (3D) modeling of brain always leads to complicated computing. In this paper, we explore an efficient method for brain surface reconstruction from magnetic resonance (MR) images of head, which is helpful to surgery planning and tumor localization. A heuristic algorithm is proposed for surface triangle mesh generation with preserved features, and the diagonal length is regarded as the heuristic information to optimize the shape of triangle. The experimental results show that our approach not only reduces the computational complexity, but also completes 3D visualization with good quality.

  12. Influence of surface properties on the structure of granular silver films and excitation of localized plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinin, D. P.; Konshina, E. A.; Polischuk, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    Granular silver films deposited on a thin insulating film of amorphous hydrogenated carbon ( a-C:H) and transparent conducting electrode (polycrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) layer) have been investigated by spectroscopy and microscopy methods. The extinction spectra of silver films on the surface of these materials are found to be significantly different. An annealing of silver films causes a blue shift of the peak of plasmon resonance band in the spectrum of silver nanoparticles: by 16 nm on the a-C:H surface and by 94 nm on the ITO surface. Silver films on the surface of a-C:H films are characterized by a narrower band in the extinction spectrum, which is peaked at 446 nm. The changes observed in the optical density of Ag films are related to the change in size and area of nanoparticles. The results of spectral studies of Ag films are in agreement with the data on the nanostructure obtained by scanning electron microscopy and statistical image processing. The spectra of granular silver films are shown to correlate well with the nanoparticle distribution function over the film area.

  13. A Hierarchical Building Segmentation in Digital Surface Models for 3D Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hierarchical method for segmenting buildings in a digital surface model (DSM, which is used in a novel framework for 3D reconstruction, is proposed. Most 3D reconstructions of buildings are model-based. However, the limitations of these methods are overreliance on completeness of the offline-constructed models of buildings, and the completeness is not easily guaranteed since in modern cities buildings can be of a variety of types. Therefore, a model-free framework using high precision DSM and texture-images buildings was introduced. There are two key problems with this framework. The first one is how to accurately extract the buildings from the DSM. Most segmentation methods are limited by either the terrain factors or the difficult choice of parameter-settings. A level-set method are employed to roughly find the building regions in the DSM, and then a recently proposed ‘occlusions of random textures model’ are used to enhance the local segmentation of the buildings. The second problem is how to generate the facades of buildings. Synergizing with the corresponding texture-images, we propose a roof-contour guided interpolation of building facades. The 3D reconstruction results achieved by airborne-like images and satellites are compared. Experiments show that the segmentation method has good performance, and 3D reconstruction is easily performed by our framework, and better visualization results can be obtained by airborne-like images, which can be further replaced by UAV images.

  14. Low-energy electron irradiation induced top-surface nanocrystallization of amorphous carbon film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Xue, E-mail: fanx@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Low-energy electron irradiation was proposed to nanocrystallize the top-surface of the as-deposited amorphous carbon film, and sp{sup 2} nanocrystallites formed in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. Display Omitted - Abstract: We report a low-energy electron irradiation method to nanocrystallize the top-surface of amorphous carbon film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. The nanostructure evolution of the carbon film as a function of electron irradiation density and time was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the electron irradiation gave rise to the formation of sp{sup 2} nanocrystallites in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. The formation of sp{sup 2} nanocrystallite was ascribed to the inelastic electron scattering in the top-surface of carbon film. The frictional property of low-energy electron irradiated film was measured by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The sp{sup 2} nanocrystallized top-surface induced a lower friction coefficient than that of the original pure amorphous film. This method enables a convenient nanocrystallization of amorphous surface.

  15. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumari Chandrasekharan Sunil Sekhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies.

  16. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  17. Reconstruction of surface morphology from coherent scattering of ''white'' synchrotron radiation in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar

    2009-07-01

    Energy Dispersive Reflectometry (EDR) beamline at BESSY II provides ''white'' X-rays in the useful energy range of 5surfaces. Technologically smooth wafers of semiconducting materials of Si and GaAs are used as ''trivial'' samples to determine the so called apparatus function. In addition I measured coherent reflectivity maps from thin film of highly scattering material of Pt with high atom number, Z=78 and patterned semiconducting surface like a GaAs surface grating which provides a certain periodicity in the measured scattering intensity. Finally I measured the surface speckles from a spatially confined Si wafer under the constraint that the size of the sample is smaller than the footprint of the incoming beam at the sample position. To reconstruct surface morphology from coherent reflectivity data is a typical inverse problem. Conventional phase retrieval algorithms like Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm, error reduction (ER) algorithm, hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm are used in earlier work by other authors. I modified the conventional GS algorithm and ER algorithm which takes into account the additional Fresnel propagator term and also the illumination function at the sample position. I tested the modified algorithm successfully for a model surface in the form of a surface grating. I used the modified algorithm to reconstruct surface morphology from various static speckle measurements I performed at EDR beamline. The surface profiles reconstructed for different samples from the data at different energies (below the critical energy for the material at a particular incident angle) show almost the same roughness behavior for surface height with mean roughness of {proportional_to}1 nm. With the static speckle data I measured I could retrieve a one-dimensional picture of the sample surface with spatial

  18. An investigation of thin Zr films on 6H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001) surfaces by XPS, LEED, and STM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idczak, K.; Mazur, P.; Zuber, S.; Markowski, L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the results of the growth of zirconium films deposited under the ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on the 6H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001) surfaces were studied. Observed changes in the chemical composition, bonding environment, and surface reconstruction, and the effects of high-temperature annealing of the film are presented and discussed as well. In the performed experiment, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy were used. The results show that for both investigated substrates, the grown films have eminently rich and varied compositions. Besides the metallic zirconium, there are also zirconium oxides, zirconium carbides, or zirconium nitrides. The growth process proceeds according to the Volmer-Weber mode. Moreover, the zirconium-semiconductor interface does not form typical Schottky contact, but some paths with a quasi-ohmic conduction character can be observed.

  19. An investigation of thin Zr films on 6H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001) surfaces by XPS, LEED, and STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idczak, K.; Mazur, P.; Zuber, S.; Markowski, L. [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, the results of the growth of zirconium films deposited under the ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on the 6H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001) surfaces were studied. Observed changes in the chemical composition, bonding environment, and surface reconstruction, and the effects of high-temperature annealing of the film are presented and discussed as well. In the performed experiment, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy were used. The results show that for both investigated substrates, the grown films have eminently rich and varied compositions. Besides the metallic zirconium, there are also zirconium oxides, zirconium carbides, or zirconium nitrides. The growth process proceeds according to the Volmer-Weber mode. Moreover, the zirconium-semiconductor interface does not form typical Schottky contact, but some paths with a quasi-ohmic conduction character can be observed. (orig.)

  20. LOGISMOS-B for primates: primate cortical surface reconstruction and thickness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Sanchez, Mar; Shi, Yundi; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Cortical thickness and surface area are important morphological measures with implications for many psychiatric and neurological conditions. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of the cortical surface from 3D MRI scans is challenging due to the variable anatomy of the cortex and its highly complex geometry. While many methods exist for this task in the context of the human brain, these methods are typically not readily applicable to the primate brain. We propose an innovative approach based on our recently proposed human cortical reconstruction algorithm, LOGISMOS-B, and the Laplace-based thickness measurement method. Quantitative evaluation of our approach was performed based on a dataset of T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans from 12-month-old macaques where labeling by our anatomical experts was used as independent standard. In this dataset, LOGISMOS-B has an average signed surface error of 0.01 +/- 0.03mm and an unsigned surface error of 0.42 +/- 0.03mm over the whole brain. Excluding the rather problematic temporal pole region further improves unsigned surface distance to 0.34 +/- 0.03mm. This high level of accuracy reached by our algorithm even in this challenging developmental dataset illustrates its robustness and its potential for primate brain studies.

  1. Superhydrophobic films on glass surface derived from trimethylsilanized silica gel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debmita; Medda, Samar Kumar; De, Goutam

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with the fabrication of sol-gel-derived superhydrophobic films on glass based on the macroscopic silica network with surface modification. The fabricated transparent films were composed of a hybrid -Si(CH(3))(3)-functionalized SiO(2) nanospheres exhibiting the desired micro/nanostructure, water repellency, and antireflection (AR) property. The wavelength selective AR property can be tuned by controlling the physical thickness of the films. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies revealed the existence of SiO(2) nanoparticles of average size ∼9.4 nm in the sols. TEM studies showed presence of interconnected SiO(2) NPs of ∼10 nm in size. The films were formed with uniformly packed SiO(2) aggregates as observed by FESEM of film surface. FTIR of the films confirmed presence of glasslike Si-O-Si bonding and methyl functionalization. The hydrophobicity of the surface was depended on the thickness of the deposited films. A critical film thickness (>115 nm) was necessary to obtain the air push effect for superhydrophobicity. Trimethylsilyl functionalization of SiO(2) and the surface roughness (rms ≈30 nm as observed by AFM) of the films were also contributed toward the high water contact angle (WCA). The coated glass surface showed WCA value of the droplet as high as 168 ± 3° with 6 μL of water. These superhydrophobic films were found to be stable up to about 230-240 °C as confirmed by TG/DTA studies, and WCA measurements of the films with respect to the heat-treatment temperatures. These high water repellant films can be deposited on relatively large glass surfaces to remove water droplets immediately without any mechanical assistance.

  2. Characterization of film surface treated with ECR plasma by Doppler broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Nishijima, S; Hirata, K; Kobayashi, Y; Honda, Y; Tagawa, S

    2000-01-01

    Doppler broadened positron annihilation measurements were carried out using the positron beam technique on plasma treated polyethylene films as a function of incident positron energy. In addition, surface properties of the treated films also have been measured using other conventional techniques such as FT-IR, SEM and AFM. The surface tension of the films was also determined using sessile drop method. The S-parameter is seen to decrease on the surface upon plasma treatment that introduces polar groups such as hydroxyl and carbonyl on the surface. The results are discussed.

  3. Fermi surface and quantum well states of V(110) films on W(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupin, Oleg [MS 6-2100, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rotenberg, Eli [MS 6-2100, Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kevan, S D [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2007-09-05

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have measured the Fermi surface of V(110) films epitaxially grown on a W(110) substrate. We compare our results for thicker films to existing calculations and measurements for bulk vanadium and find generally very good agreement. For thinner films, we observe and analyse a diverse array of quantum well states that split and distort the Fermi surface segments. We have searched unsuccessfully for a thickness-induced topological transition associated with contact between the zone-centre jungle gym and zone-boundary hole ellipsoid Fermi surface segments. We also find no evidence for ferromagnetic splitting of any bands on this surface.

  4. Surface chemistry of the preferred (111) and (220) crystal oriented microcrystalline Si films by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Daisuke; Koshino, Hideto; Tang, Zeguo; Shirai, Hajime [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Sakura (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The surface chemistry of the preferentially (111) and (220) crystal orientated chlorinated hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H:Cl) films was studied using a rf PE-CVD of a dichlorosilane (SiH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and H{sub 2} mixture. The growing surface for the preferentially (220) crystal oriented {mu}c-Si:H:Cl films included much voids and dangling bonds, whereas the growing surface with the preferential (111) crystal orientation was chemically stable relatively. These findings suggest that the sticking process of deposition precursors and/or the reconstruction of Si clusters within the sub-surface determine the preferential crystal orientation. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Fermi-surface reconstruction and complex phase equilibria in CaFe2As2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofryk, K; Saparov, B; Durakiewicz, T; Chikina, A; Danzenbächer, S; Vyalikh, D V; Graf, M J; Sefat, A S

    2014-05-09

    Fermi-surface topology governs the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based materials. Using low-temperature transport, angle-resolved photoemission, and x-ray diffraction, we show unambiguous evidence of large Fermi-surface reconstruction in CaFe2As2 at magnetic spin-density-wave and nonmagnetic collapsed-tetragonal (cT) transitions. For the cT transition, the change in the Fermi-surface topology has a different character with no contribution from the hole part of the Fermi surface. In addition, the results suggest that the pressure effect in CaFe2As2 is mainly leading to a rigid-band-like change of the valence electronic structure. We discuss these results and their implications for magnetism and superconductivity in this material.

  6. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  7. Fermi-Surface Reconstruction and Complex Phase Equilibria in CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofryk, K.; Saparov, B.; Durakiewicz, T.; Chikina, A.; Danzenbächer, S.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Graf, M. J.; Sefat, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Fermi-surface topology governs the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based materials. Using low-temperature transport, angle-resolved photoemission, and x-ray diffraction, we show unambiguous evidence of large Fermi-surface reconstruction in CaFe2As2 at magnetic spin-density-wave and nonmagnetic collapsed-tetragonal (cT) transitions. For the cT transition, the change in the Fermi-surface topology has a different character with no contribution from the hole part of the Fermi surface. In addition, the results suggest that the pressure effect in CaFe2As2 is mainly leading to a rigid-band-like change of the valence electronic structure. We discuss these results and their implications for magnetism and superconductivity in this material.

  8. Single reconstructed Fermi surface pocket in an underdoped single-layer cuprate superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M K; Harrison, N; McDonald, R D; Ramshaw, B J; Modic, K A; Barišić, N; Greven, M

    2016-01-01

    The observation of a reconstructed Fermi surface via quantum oscillations in hole-doped cuprates opened a path towards identifying broken symmetry states in the pseudogap regime. However, such an identification has remained inconclusive due to the multi-frequency quantum oscillation spectra and complications accounting for bilayer effects in most studies. We overcome these impediments with high-resolution measurements on the structurally simpler cuprate HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg1201), which features one CuO2 plane per primitive unit cell. We find only a single oscillatory component with no signatures of magnetic breakdown tunnelling to additional orbits. Therefore, the Fermi surface comprises a single quasi-two-dimensional pocket. Quantitative modelling of these results indicates that a biaxial charge density wave within each CuO2 plane is responsible for the reconstruction and rules out criss-crossed charge stripes between layers as a viable alternative in Hg1201. Lastly, we determine that the characteristic gap between reconstructed pockets is a significant fraction of the pseudogap energy.

  9. Self-organized homo-epitaxial growth of (001) vanadium assisted by oxygen surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, S.; Turban, P.; Kierren, B.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the effect of oxygen on the vanadium homoepitaxial growth process is analyzed by using Auger spectroscopy, electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. As the oxygen induced 1 × 5 surface structure got a lattice spacing 6% different from the pure V lattice, relaxation is observed by electron diffraction during the growth. The average in-plane lattice spacing is thus shown to be proportional to the oxygen surface concentration. The surface lattice relaxation is observed to exponentially vary with the number of deposited atomic planes. A kinetic model is proposed and allows us to explain these observations. Furthermore, it helps us to distinguish two regimes depending on growth temperature. At high temperature, the oxygen surface concentration during growth is due to oxygen upward diffusion from the underneath V layer. For lower temperature however, this upward diffusion is not efficient and another source of oxygen contamination is evidenced. When the oxygen surface concentration is sufficient, a spectacular self-organization is observed at the surface by surface microscopy. Ribbons shape islands are observed and are tentatively explained as a consequence of oxygen surface concentration and stress induced by the surface reconstruction.

  10. Optical field-induced surface relief formation on chalcogenide and azo-benzene polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teteris, J.; Gertners, U.

    2012-08-01

    The dependence of the surface relief formation in amorphous As2S3 and Disperse Red 1dye grafted polyurethane polymer films on the polarization state of recording light was studied. It is shown that the direction of mass transport on the film surface is determined by the direction of light electric vector and photoinduced anisotropy in the film. We propose a photoinduced dielectropfhoretic model to explain the photoinduced mass transport in amorphous films. Model is based on the photoinduced softening of the matrix, formation of defects with enhanced or decreased polarizability, and their drift under the electrical field gradient of light.

  11. Corrosion control of aluminum surfaces by polypyrrole films: influence of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Santos Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPy films were galvanostatically deposited on 99.9 wt. (% aluminum electrodes from aqueous solutions containing each carboxylic acid: tartaric, oxalic or citric. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to analyze the morphology of the aluminum surfaces coated with the polymeric films. It was observed that the films deposited from tartaric acid medium presented higher homogeneity than those deposited from oxalic and citric acid. Furthermore, the corrosion protection of aluminum surfaces by PPy films was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization experiments.

  12. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies on The Surface Morphologies of Chemical Bath Deposited Cus Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Soonmin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, copper sulphide thin films were deposited onto microscope glass slide by chemical bath deposition technique. The tartaric acid was served as complexing agent to chelate with Cu2+ to obtain complex solution. The influence of pH value on the surface morphologies of the films has been particularly investigated using the atomic force microscopy technique. The atomic force microscopy results indicate that the CuS films deposited at pH 1 were uniform, compact and pinhole free. However, the incomplete surface coverage observed for the films prepared at high pH (pH 2 and 2.5 values.

  13. Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yoonyoung; Desta, Yohannes; Goettert, Jost; Lee, G. S.; Ajmera, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon (SiCF) films achieved by wet chemical treatments and through x-ray irradiation is examined. The SiCF films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, using gas precursors of tetrafluoromethane and disilane. As-deposited SiCF film composition was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface modification of SiCF films utilizing n-lithiodiaminoethane wet chemical treatment is discussed. Sessile water-drop contact angle changed from 95°+/-2° before treatment to 32°+/-2° after treatment, indicating a change in the film surface characteristics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. For x-ray irradiation on the SiCF film with a dose of 27.4 kJ/cm3, the contact angle of the sessile water drop changed from 95°+/-2° before radiation to 39°+/-3° after x-ray exposure. The effect of x-ray exposure on chemical bond structure of SiCF films is studied using Fourier transform infrared measurements. Electroless Cu deposition was performed to test the applicability of the surface modified films. The x-ray irradiation method offers a unique advantage in making possible surface modification in a localized area of high-aspect-ratio microstructures. Fabrication of a Ti-membrane x-ray mask is introduced here for selective surface modification using x-ray irradiation.

  14. Ion-beam modifications of the surface morphology and conductivity in some polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramakrishna Murthy; E Venkateshwar Rao

    2002-10-01

    Studies on the surface micromorphology and surface conductivity in thin polymer films of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) in both as-grown and ion-implanted polymer films have been carried out to reveal certain specific features of the ordered state in these materials. Optical microscopic investigations revealed the existence and enhanced formation in number of spherulites and dendrites in ionimplanted films relative to the as-grown films. The number and rate of formation of spherulites indicated an increase in the degree of crystallinity in these films. Measurements of surface conductivity of as-grown and ion-implanted polymer films, employing four-point probe method, indicated a decrease in electrical conductivity on ion-implantation. Photomicrographic analysis of the PVA and PEO thin film surfaces, has enabled to propose a temperature–stress induced mechanism of crystallization in conjunction with the surface conductivity measurements. The decrease in surface conductivity on ion-implantation in both PVA and PEO thin films, is attributed to a decrease in mobility of macromolecular charged species due to an increase in degree of crystallinity as has been observed by optical microscopy.

  15. Surface Functionalization of Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Copper Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Surface Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe

    2014-01-07

    Biofouling is a major operational challenge in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, motivating a search for improved biofouling control strategies. Copper, long known for its antibacterial activity and relatively low cost, is an attractive potential biocidal agent. In this paper, we present a method for loading copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on the surface of a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide RO membrane. Cu-NPs were synthesized using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a capping agent, resulting in particles with an average radius of 34 nm and a copper content between 39 and 49 wt.%. The positive charge of the Cu-NPs imparted by the PEI allowed a simple electrostatic functionalization of the negatively charged RO membrane. We confirmed functionalization and irreversible binding of the Cu-NPs to the membrane surface with SEM and XPS after exposing the membrane to bath sonication. We also demonstrated that Cu-NP functionalization can be repeated after the Cu-NPs dissolve from the membrane surface. The Cu-NP functionalization had minimal impact on the intrinsic membrane transport parameters. Surface hydrophilicity and surface roughness were also maintained, and the membrane surface charge became positive after functionalization. The functionalized membrane exhibited significant antibacterial activity, leading to an 80-95% reduction in the number of attached live bacteria for three different model bacterial strains. Challenges associated with this functionalization method and its implementation in RO desalination are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Imprint Control of BaTiO3 Thin Films via Chemically Induced Surface Polarization Pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungwoo; Kim, Tae Heon; Patzner, Jacob J; Lu, Haidong; Lee, Jung-Woo; Zhou, Hua; Chang, Wansoo; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Gruverman, Alexei; Eom, Chang-Beom

    2016-04-13

    Surface-adsorbed polar molecules can significantly alter the ferroelectric properties of oxide thin films. Thus, fundamental understanding and controlling the effect of surface adsorbates are crucial for the implementation of ferroelectric thin film devices, such as ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Herein, we report an imprint control of BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films by chemically induced surface polarization pinning in the top few atomic layers of the water-exposed BTO films. Our studies based on synchrotron X-ray scattering and coherent Bragg rod analysis demonstrate that the chemically induced surface polarization is not switchable but reduces the polarization imprint and improves the bistability of ferroelectric phase in BTO tunnel junctions. We conclude that the chemical treatment of ferroelectric thin films with polar molecules may serve as a simple yet powerful strategy to enhance functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions for their practical applications.

  17. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene film using single liquid electrode atmosphericpressure glow discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lan; Lü Guo-Hua; Chen Wei; Pang Hua; Zhang Gu-Ling; Yang Si-Ze

    2011-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene films are treated by room temperature helium atmospheric pressure plasma plumes, which are generated with a home-made single liquid electrode plasma device. After plasma treatment, the water contact angle of polytetrafluoroethylene film drops from 114° to 46° and the surface free energy increases from 22.0 mJ/m2 to 59.1 mJ/m2. The optical emission spectrum indicates that there are reactive species such as O2+, O and He in the plasma plume. After plasma treatment, a highly crosslinking structure is formed on the film surface and the oxygen element is incorporated into the film surface in the forms of -C-O-C-, -C=O, and -O-C=O groups. Over a period of 10 days, the contact angle of the treated film is recovered by only about 10°, which indicates that the plasma surface modification is stable with time.

  18. Formation and tribology properties of polyfluoroal-kylmethacrylate film on the magnetic head surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoli; ZHANG Chenhui; LUO Jianbin; WEN Shizhu

    2005-01-01

    A polyfluoroalkylmethacrylate (PFAM) film has been coated on the surface of the magnetic head by a dipping coating method to modify the surface properties. The films were characterized by means of a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS), contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that the concentration of the solution is the main factor affecting the thickness, contact angle and surface topography of the film. The magnetic head with the PFAM film at a concentration of 500 ppm exhibits the best tribology properties, and the stiction between the magnetic head and the disk is no more than 2.4 g after 20000 contact start stop (CSS) cycles. Therefore, a fully covered PFAM film with few defects helps improve the tribology properties of the magnetic head, and decrease the adsorbed contaminant on the magnetic head surface.

  19. Reconstructing the vibro-acoustic quantities on a highly non-spherical surface using the Helmholtz equation least squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Logesh Kumar; Wu, Sean F

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents helpful guidelines and strategies for reconstructing the vibro-acoustic quantities on a highly non-spherical surface by using the Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS). This study highlights that a computationally simple code based on the spherical wave functions can produce an accurate reconstruction of the acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity on planar surfaces. The key is to select the optimal origin of the coordinate system behind the planar surface, choose a target structural wavelength to be reconstructed, set an appropriate stand-off distance and microphone spacing, use a hybrid regularization scheme to determine the optimal number of the expansion functions, etc. The reconstructed vibro-acoustic quantities are validated rigorously via experiments by comparing the reconstructed normal surface velocity spectra and distributions with the benchmark data obtained by scanning a laser vibrometer over the plate surface. Results confirm that following the proposed guidelines and strategies can ensure the accuracy in reconstructing the normal surface velocity up to the target structural wavelength, and produce much more satisfactory results than a straight application of the original HELS formulations. Experiment validations on a baffled, square plate were conducted inside a fully anechoic chamber.

  20. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in the surface-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Choudhary; O N Anand; O S Tyagi

    2009-05-01

    Studies on surface reactivity of substrate iron (Fe-particles) were made in the tribo-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates. Two alkyl octadecenoates namely ethyl octadecenoate and methyl 12-hydroxy octadecenoate, slightly different in their chemical nature, were taken for preparing the chemisorbed reaction films (CRF) at the temperature 100 ± 5°C. The reaction products collected in the composite (amorphous) phase were isolated into three different solvent-soluble fractions (sub-layer films) using polar solvents of increasing polar strength. The FTIR analysis of these films showed that these were primarily organic in nature and were composed of alkyl and/or aryl hydroxy ethers, unsaturated hydroxy ketones, and aromatic structures chemically linked with iron surface. These reaction films also contained large amount of iron (Fe). Further, these film fractions also showed varying thermal behaviour during thermal decomposition in the temperature range of 50-800°C when thermally evaluated in the nitrogen environment.

  1. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  2. Thin-film preparation by back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition using metal powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Several kinds of functional thin films were deposited using a new thin-film preparation method named the back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition (BIPLD) method. In this BIPLD method, powder targets were used as the film source placed on a transparent target holder, and then a visible-wavelength pulsed laser was irradiated from the holder side to the substrate. Using this new method, titanium oxide and boron nitride thin films were deposited on the silicon substrate. Surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggest that all of the thin films were deposited on the substrate with some large droplets irrespective of the kind of target used. The deposition rate of the films prepared by using this method was calculated from film thickness and deposition time to be much lower than that of the films prepared by conventional PLD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results suggest that rutile and anatase TiO2 crystal peaks were formed for the films prepared using the TiO2 rutile powder target. Crystal peaks of hexagonal boron nitride were observed for the films prepared using the boron nitride powder target. The crystallinity of the prepared films was changed by annealing after deposition.

  3. Investigation of the Hysteretic Phenomena in RHEED Intensity Change in the Study of Surface Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Takács

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of the RHEED intensity change against temperaturein case of GaAs and InAs surfaces. RHEED as a technique is a widely used monitoringmethod for observing molecular-beam-epitaxial (MBE growth. The reconstruction andother changes of the surface can be investigated by observing the RHEED pattern. Both thestatic and the dynamic RHEED-s are very complex phenomena, but these effects can beused as versatile tools for in-situ monitoring of the growth of the epitaxial layer, in spite ofthe fact that we do not know much about the details of its nature. Our observations showedthat the specular beam intensity of RHEED had changed with the change of the surfacetemperature. We investigated the changes of the GaAs and InAs (001 surfaces by using thiseffect. The change in intensity follows the observed surface reconstruction. This change inthe RHEED intensity against temperature shows hysteretic properties, with a differentcharacter for each material. So far, the explanations for these phenomena were different inboth cases. Here, we explain these hysteretic phenomena in general terms with the T(xhyperbolic model for coupled hysteretic systems, which is applicable to both materials.Experimental results presented in the paper are in good agreement with the modelpredictions.

  4. Reconstructing Variations of Global Sea-Surface Temperature during the Last Interglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P. U.; He, F.; Parnell, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The last interglaciation (LIG; ~130-116 ka) was the most recent period in Earth history with higher-than-present global sea level (≥6 m) under similar-to-preindustrial concentrations of atmospheric CO2, suggesting additional feedbacks related to albedo, insolation, and ocean circulation in generating the apparent climatic differences between the LIG and present Holocene. However, our understanding of how much warmer the LIG sea surface was relative to the present interglaciation remains uncertain, with current estimates suggesting from 0°C to 2°C warmer than late-20thcentury average global temperatures. Moreover, the timing, spatial expression, and amplitude of regional and global sea surface temperature variability related to other climate forcing during the LIG are poorly constrained, largely due to uncertainties in age control and proxy temperature reconstructions. An accurate characterization of global and regional temperature change during the LIG can serve as a benchmark for paleoclimate modeling intercomparison projects and help improve understanding of sea-level sensitivity to temperature change. We will present a global compilation (~100 published records) of sea surface temperature (SST) and other climate reconstructions spanning the LIG. Using a Monte Carlo-enabled cross-correlation maximization algorithm to climatostratigraphically align proxy records and then account for both the resulting chronologic and proxy calibration uncertainties with Bayesian statistical inference, our results quantify the spatial timing, amplitude, and uncertainty in estimates of global and regional sea surface temperature change during the LIG and its relation to potential forcings.

  5. Nanoscale patterning, macroscopic reconstruction, and enhanced surface stress by organic adsorption on vicinal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Schmitt, Stefan; Sander, Dirk; Tian, Zhen; Kirschner, Jürgen; Vrdoljak, Pavo; Stadler, Christoph; Maier, Florian; Marchetto, Helder; Schmidt, Thomas; Schöll, Achim; Umbach, Eberhard

    2017-01-01

    Self-organization is a promising method within the framework of bottom-up architectures to generate nanostructures in an efficient way. The present work demonstrates that self-organization on the length scale of a few to several tens of nanometers can be achieved by a proper combination of a large (organic) molecule and a vicinal metal surface if the local bonding of the molecule on steps is significantly stronger than that on low-index surfaces. In this case thermal annealing may lead to large mass transport of the subjacent substrate atoms such that nanometer-wide and micrometer-long molecular stripes or other patterns are being formed on high-index planes. The formation of these patterns can be controlled by the initial surface orientation and adsorbate coverage. The patterns arrange self-organized in regular arrays by repulsive mechanical interactions over long distances accompanied by a significant enhancement of surface stress. We demonstrate this effect using the planar organic molecule PTCDA as adsorbate and Ag(10 8 7) and Ag(775) surfaces as substrate. The patterns are directly observed by STM, the formation of vicinal surfaces is monitored by high-resolution electron diffraction, the microscopic surface morphology changes are followed by spectro-microscopy, and the macroscopic changes of surface stress are measured by a cantilever bending method. The in situ combination of these complementary techniques provides compelling evidence for elastic interaction and a significant stress contribution to long-range order and nanopattern formation.

  6. Interferometer for measuring the dynamic surface topography of a human tear film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.

    2012-03-01

    The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. Following a blink, the tear film quickly smoothes and starts to become irregular after 10 seconds. This irregularity can affect comfort and vision quality. An in vivo method of characterizing dynamic tear films has been designed based upon a near-infrared phase-shifting interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the tear film, allowing sub-micron analysis of the dynamic surface topography. Movies showing the tear film behavior can be generated along with quantitative metrics describing changes in the tear film surface. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or corneal topography and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods. The interferometer design is capable of identifying features in the tear film much less than a micron in height with a spatial resolution of about ten microns over a 6 mm diameter. This paper presents the design of the tear film interferometer along with the considerations that must be taken when designing an interferometer for on-eye diagnostics. Discussions include eye movement, design of null optics for a range of ocular geometries, and laser emission limits for on-eye interferometry.

  7. Dynamic Deposition of Nanocopper Film on the β-SiCp Surface by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform nanocopper film was deposited on the surface of micron β-SiC particle by magnetron sputtering technology successfully. The surface morphology and phase constitution of the β-SiC particle with nanocopper film were analyzed and dynamic deposition behavior was investigated in detail. The concept of dynamic deposition was put forward to interpret formation mechanism of copper nanofilm on the surface of β-SiC particles.

  8. X-ray scattering from freestanding polymer films with geometrically curved surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    D.J. Lee; K. Shin; Seeck, O; Kim, H.; Seo, Y.-S.; Tolan, M.; Rafailovich, M. H.; Sokolov, J.; Sinha, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the x-ray surface scattering from a freestanding polymer film exhibits features that cannot be explained by the usual stochastic formalism for surfaces with random height fluctuations. Instead, a geometric description of the film morphology assuming two curved surfaces characterized by a radius of curvature and a lateral cutoff length successfully accounts for the phase difference between the Kiessig fringes of the nominal "specular" and "off-specular" components of the scatterin...

  9. Role of point defects on the reactivity of reconstructed anatase titanium dioxide (001) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Huijuan; Tan, Shijing; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Zhengwang; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Bing; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J G

    2013-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of different surfaces of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been the subject of extensive studies in recent decades. The anatase TiO2(001) and its (1 × 4) reconstructed surfaces were theoretically considered to be the most reactive and have been heavily pursued by synthetic chemists. However, the lack of direct experimental verification or determination of the active sites on these surfaces has caused controversy and debate. Here we report a systematic study on an anatase TiO2(001)-(1 × 4) surface by means of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques in combination with first-principles calculations. Two types of intrinsic point defects are identified, among which only the Ti(3+) defect site on the reduced surface demonstrates considerable chemical activity. The perfect surface itself can be fully oxidized, but shows no obvious activity. Our findings suggest that the reactivity of the anatase TiO2(001) surface should depend on its reduction status, similar to that of rutile TiO2 surfaces.

  10. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  11. Polarity Effects of Substrate Surface in Epitaxial ZnO Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; Callahan, M. J.; George, M. A.; McCarty, P.

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on the two polar surfaces (0-face and Zn-face) of (0001) ZnO single crystal substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering deposition. As a comparison, films are also deposited on the (000 I) Al203 substrates. It is found that the two polar surfaces have different photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, surface structure and morphology, which are strongly inference the epitaxial film growth. The morphology and structure of epitaxial films on the ZnO substrates are different from the film on the Al203 substrates. An interesting result shows that high temperature annealing of ZnO single crystals will improve the surface structure on the O-face surface rather than the opposite Surface. The measurements of PL, low-angle incident x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy of ZnO films indicate that the O-terminated surface is better for ZnO epitaxial film growth using reactive sputtering deposition.

  12. Model Research on the Effect of Surface Film on Ammonia Volatilization from Rice Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Shun-yao; YIN Bin; ZHU Zhao-liang

    2002-01-01

    Pan and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of surface film on ammonia volatilization from water and paddy soil. The results showed that the addition of the surface film on floodwater reduced the rate of ammonia volatilization, however, the reduction of the latter varied greatly with its rates of addition. Jayaweera-Mikkelsen ammonia volatilization model with the introduction of a parameter Kf, a relative measure of the resistance of the surface film on ammonia volatilization, was used to elucidate the effectiveness of the surface film on lowering ammonia volatilization. The Kf value was calculated from the results obtained in the pan experiment with different rates of surface film addition. With the modified model and the optimized Kf value, the effects of the surface film in reducing ammonia volatilization under different environmental conditions were simulated and analyzed. However, it was found that the simulation was not satisfactory in the field experiment and the parameter Kf should be further tuned so as to improve the simulation and to optimize the addition rate of the surface film in field conditions.

  13. Hydrodynamic surface fluctuations of polymer films by coherent X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunjung [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hkim@sogang.ac.kr; Jiang, Zhang [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 United States (United States); Lee, Heeju [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Joo [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jiao, Xuesong; Li, Chunhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 United States (United States); Lurio, Laurence [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, IL 60115 United States (United States); Rafailovich, Miriam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 United States (United States); Sinha, S.K. [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 United States (United States)

    2007-05-23

    We have applied X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to measure the surface dynamics of polymer films of thicknesses down to a few times of the polymer radius of gyration. XPCS is currently the only technique to measure selectively dynamics of surface and/or interfacial fluctuations of the films thanks to high brilliance and coherence of the third generation synchrotron source. The results show the behavior of the capillary waves expected in viscous liquid when the film thickness is thicker than four times of the radius of gyration. However, thinner films show a deviation indicating the need to account for viscoelasticity. We present also the theory for surface dynamics of the thermally excited fluctuations on homogenous single-layer film with arbitrary depth is generalized to describe surface and interfacial dynamics of polymeric liquid bilayer films in terms of susceptibilities, power spectra and characteristic relaxation time constants. The effects on surface dynamics originating from viscosity inhomogeneities close to surface region are investigated by the bilayer theory and compared with the surface dynamics from homogeneous single-layer films under non-slip and slip boundary conditions.

  14. Effect of ion bombardment on the surface morphology of Zn-films sputtered in an unbalanced magnetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.; Matous, J.; Valvoda, V. [Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics

    1995-02-01

    It is well known that magnetron sputtered films of low melting point T{sub m} materials have (due to their crystallisation at low substrate temperatures, T < 100{sup o}C) rough and diffusely reflecting surfaces, even when thin, for instance about 20 nm for In films. Only extremely thin films have a smooth and specular reflecting surface. This paper reports on the possibility of sputtering thick films of low T{sub m} materials with a smooth, optically specular reflecting surface using an unbalanced magnetron. To demonstrate this possibility, Zn films were studied and it was shown that a surface roughness of the film can be effectively controlled by ion bombardment of the film during growth. The smoothing of the Zn film does not depend on film thickness but on ion bombardment of the growing film. (author).

  15. Analysis of self-repair films on friction surface lubricated with nano-Cu additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qian; XU Yi; SHI Pei-jing; YU He-long; XU Bin-shi

    2005-01-01

    The surface modified nanocopper particles were prepared with chemical reduction method. The wear test was carried out on a T-11 ball-on-plate friction and wear tester made in Poland. The material of the upper sample was GCr15 and the counterpart was AISI-1045 steel. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the samples were observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, while the element distributions on the worn surfaces were determined by means of electron microprobe analysis. As the results, a film mainly made of Cu is formed on the worn surface. The film on the surface of the still upper sample is thicker than that formed on the revolving coun terpart. At the edge of the groove of the worn surface made by the milling before test there is Cu element observed obviously, but there is not any Cu element in the bottom of the groove. A possible action mechanism of the film is suggested. The friction movement can induce reactivity of the metal and continuously produce activation surface. It benefits the film formed by nano-Cu in lubricant on the worn surface. Hardness and modulus of nano-Cu films were successfully measured and analyzed by the nanoindentation instrument. The results show that the hardness and modulus of the films are lower than those of the initial surface.

  16. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  17. The Thickness Distribution of Oxidation Film on Tapered Pipe Surface in Dieless Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thickness distribution of oxidation film on the surface of AISI304 stainless steel tapered pipe, its influence factors, and the effect of metal matrix deformation on oxidation behavior during dieless drawing were studied in this paper. The results showed that oxidation rate was affected strongly by induction heating temperature and deformation degree. The thickness distribution of oxidation film was uneven and increased from the larger diameter end to the smaller diameter end along the axial direction of tapered pipe. When induction heating temperature raised or the distance between heat and cold sources was increased, or feed speed was decreased, oxidation rate was accelerated and oxidation film on the tapered pipe surface thickened significantly, due to massive cracks in oxidation film induced by deformation of metal matrix. The density and width of cracks in oxidation film were enlarged, and the thickness of oxidation film increased with the increase in deformation degree.

  18. Analysis of past surface temperature reconstructions based on the tree-ring chronologies and borehole temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, O. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Pronichev, A. N.; Tyuflin, S. A.; Bukharova, T. I.

    2016-06-01

    There have been done many past surface temperature reconstructions based on the temperature measurements in rock and glacier boreholes. However, the reliability of these reconstructions connected with the uniqueness and stability properties is not studied. We carried out the reconstruction by search of the past surface temperature in form of the finite set of the Fourier series that provides the unique and stable solution. The tree-ring chronologies are used as the high-resolution proxy climate indicator to find out the dominant periods of the Fourier series. The Tikhonov regularization method is applied to solve the inverse problem.

  19. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  20. Surface textured molybdenum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared for thin film solar cells using pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C., E-mail: ielinyc@cc.ncue.edu.tw; Wang, B.L.; Yen, W.T.; Shen, C.H.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of etching on the electrical properties, transmittance, and scattering of visible light in molybdenum doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Mo (MZO) thin films prepared by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering. We used two different etching solutions - KOH and HCl - to alter the surface texture of the MZO thin film so that it could trap light. The experimental results showed that an MZO film with a minimum resistivity of about 8.9 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and visible light transitivity of greater than 80% can be obtained without heating at a Mo content of 1.77 wt.%, sputtering power of 100 W, working pressure of 0.4 Pa, pulsed frequency of 10 kHz, and film thickness of 500 nm. To consider the effect of resistivity and optical diffuse transmittance, we performed etching of an 800 nm thick MZO thin film with 0.5 wt.% HCl for 3-6 s at 300 K. Consequently, we obtained a resistivity of 1.74-2.75 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm, total transmittance at visible light of 67%-73%, diffuse transmittance at visible light of 25.1%-28.4%, haze value of 0.34-0.42, and thin film surface crater diameters of 220-350 nm.

  1. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction within noncontact diffuse optical tomography using structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Kirstin; Hartmann, Raimo; Bischoff, Tobias; Oelerich, Jan O.; Finkensieper, Stephan; Heverhagen, Johannes T.

    2012-12-01

    A main field in biomedical optics research is diffuse optical tomography, where intensity variations of the transmitted light traversing through tissue are detected. Mathematical models and reconstruction algorithms based on finite element methods and Monte Carlo simulations describe the light transport inside the tissue and determine differences in absorption and scattering coefficients. Precise knowledge of the sample's surface shape and orientation is required to provide boundary conditions for these techniques. We propose an integrated method based on structured light three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that provides detailed surface information of the object, which is usable for volume mesh creation and allows the normalization of the intensity dispersion between surface and camera. The experimental setup is complemented by polarization difference imaging to avoid overlaying byproducts caused by inter-reflections and multiple scattering in semitransparent tissue.

  2. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction within noncontact diffuse optical tomography using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Kirstin; Hartmann, Raimo; Bischoff, Tobias; Oelerich, Jan O; Finkensieper, Stephan; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2012-12-01

    A main field in biomedical optics research is diffuse optical tomography, where intensity variations of the transmitted light traversing through tissue are detected. Mathematical models and reconstruction algorithms based on finite element methods and Monte Carlo simulations describe the light transport inside the tissue and determine differences in absorption and scattering coefficients. Precise knowledge of the sample's surface shape and orientation is required to provide boundary conditions for these techniques. We propose an integrated method based on structured light three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that provides detailed surface information of the object, which is usable for volume mesh creation and allows the normalization of the intensity dispersion between surface and camera. The experimental setup is complemented by polarization difference imaging to avoid overlaying byproducts caused by inter-reflections and multiple scattering in semitransparent tissue.

  3. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  4. Surface-mounted MOF templated fabrication of homochiral polymer thin film for enantioselective adsorption of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Fu, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-26

    A self-polymerized chiral monomer 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) has been introduced into the pores of an achiral surface-mounted metal organic framework (SURMOF), and then the homochiral poly(l-DOPA) thin film has been successfully formed after UV light irradiation and etching of the SURMOF. Remarkably, such a poly(l-DOPA) thin film exhibited enantioselective adsorption of naproxen. This study opened a SURMOF-templated approach for preparing porous polymer thin films.

  5. REGION-BASED 3D SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION USING IMAGES ACQUIRED BY LOW-COST UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate 3D surface reconstruction of our environment has become essential for an unlimited number of emerging applications. In the past few years, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS are evolving as low-cost and flexible platforms for geospatial data collection that could meet the needs of aforementioned application and overcome limitations of traditional airborne and terrestrial mobile mapping systems. Due to their payload restrictions, these systems usually include consumer-grade imaging and positioning sensor which will negatively impact the quality of the collected geospatial data and reconstructed surfaces. Therefore, new surface reconstruction surfaces are needed to mitigate the impact of using low-cost sensors on the final products. To date, different approaches have been proposed to for 3D surface construction using overlapping images collected by imaging sensor mounted on moving platforms. In these approaches, 3D surfaces are mainly reconstructed based on dense matching techniques. However, generated 3D point clouds might not accurately represent the scanned surfaces due to point density variations and edge preservation problems. In order to resolve these problems, a new region-based 3D surface renostruction trchnique is introduced in this paper. This approach aims to generate a 3D photo-realistic model of individually scanned surfaces within the captured images. This approach is initiated by a Semi-Global dense Matching procedure is carried out to generate a 3D point cloud from the scanned area within the collected images. The generated point cloud is then segmented to extract individual planar surfaces. Finally, a novel region-based texturing technique is implemented for photorealistic reconstruction of the extracted planar surfaces. Experimental results using images collected by a camera mounted on a low-cost UAS demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for photorealistic 3D surface reconstruction.

  6. Region-Based 3d Surface Reconstruction Using Images Acquired by Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Z.; Al-Rawabdeh, A.; He, F.; Habib, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D surface reconstruction of our environment has become essential for an unlimited number of emerging applications. In the past few years, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are evolving as low-cost and flexible platforms for geospatial data collection that could meet the needs of aforementioned application and overcome limitations of traditional airborne and terrestrial mobile mapping systems. Due to their payload restrictions, these systems usually include consumer-grade imaging and positioning sensor which will negatively impact the quality of the collected geospatial data and reconstructed surfaces. Therefore, new surface reconstruction surfaces are needed to mitigate the impact of using low-cost sensors on the final products. To date, different approaches have been proposed to for 3D surface construction using overlapping images collected by imaging sensor mounted on moving platforms. In these approaches, 3D surfaces are mainly reconstructed based on dense matching techniques. However, generated 3D point clouds might not accurately represent the scanned surfaces due to point density variations and edge preservation problems. In order to resolve these problems, a new region-based 3D surface renostruction trchnique is introduced in this paper. This approach aims to generate a 3D photo-realistic model of individually scanned surfaces within the captured images. This approach is initiated by a Semi-Global dense Matching procedure is carried out to generate a 3D point cloud from the scanned area within the collected images. The generated point cloud is then segmented to extract individual planar surfaces. Finally, a novel region-based texturing technique is implemented for photorealistic reconstruction of the extracted planar surfaces. Experimental results using images collected by a camera mounted on a low-cost UAS demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for photorealistic 3D surface reconstruction.

  7. Hybrid Sol-Gel-Derived Films That Spontaneously Form Complex Surface Topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destino, Joel F; Jones, Zachary R; Gatley, Caitlyn M; Zhang, Yi; Craft, Andrew K; Detty, Michael R; Bright, Frank V

    2016-10-04

    Surface patterns over multiple length scales are known to influence various biological processes. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of new, two-component xerogel thin films derived from carboxyethylsilanetriol (COE) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals films surface with branched and hyper branched architectures that are ∼2 to 30 μm in diameter, that extend ∼3 to 1300 nm above the film base plane with surface densities that range from 2 to 77% surface area coverage. Colocalized AFM and Raman spectroscopy show that these branched structures are COE-rich domains, which are slightly stiffer (as shown from phase AFM imaging) and exhibit lower capacitive force in comparison with film base plane. Raman mapping reveals there are also discrete domains (≤300 nm in diameter) that are rich in COE dimers and densified TEOS, which do not appear to correspond with any surface structure seen by AFM.

  8. Quantum transport in the surface states of epitaxial Bi(111) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Wu, Lin; Gong, Xinxin; Xiao, Shunhao; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Although bulk Bi is a prototypical semimetal with a topologically trivial electronic band structure, we show by various quantum transport measurements that epitaxial Bi(111) thin films have unexpected and nontrivial properties. Not only the top and the bottom but also the side surfaces of epitaxial Bi(111) thin films are always robustly metallic while the interior has already become insulating. We identify the coupling between the top and the bottom surface states that drives the two originally independent surface conducting channels into a single connected one. The properties of Bi(111) thin films realized could lead to promising applications in spintronics.

  9. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy study of reduced and oxidized nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, A.; Levakov, A.; Shapira, Y.; Ashkenasy, N.; Komem, Y.

    2003-06-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 films used for gas sensors have been studied by means of surface photovoltage spectroscopy and other analytical tools to investigate the oxygen chemisorption effect on the electrical properties of the films. The results show that the surface (and intergranular interface) band bending increases with oxygen exposure due to electron trapping at midgap states induced by chemisorption. The surface electronic structure is revealed by the measurements, allowing determination of the sensing mechanism of these important films. In addition, a photoinduced chemisorption of oxygen at room temperature is observed. This has important implications for low-temperature gas sensors.

  10. Critical surface phase of α2(2 × 4) reconstructed zig-zag chains on InAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiang [Department of Electronic Information Science and Technology, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550025 (China); Zhou, Xun [Department of Electronic Information Science and Technology, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550025 (China); School of Physics and Electronics Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550001 (China); Wang, Ji-Hong [Department of Electronic Information Science and Technology, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550025 (China); Luo, Zi-Jiang [Department of Electronic Information Science and Technology, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550025 (China); School of Education Administration, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guizhou, Guiyang 550004 (China); Zhou, Qing; Liu, Ke; Hu, Ming-Zhe [Department of Electronic Information Science and Technology, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550025 (China); Ding, Zhao, E-mail: zding@gzu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Science and Technology, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2014-07-01

    The critical condition for InAs(001) surface phase transition has been studied, the surface phase transition of InAs(001) showed discontinuity with hysteresis cycle as a function of substrate temperature. A mixed reconstruction surface and zig-zag chain α2(2 × 4) reconstruction surface have been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Considering the interaction and dynamics of surface arsenic atoms, the zig-zag chains of α2(2 × 4) reconstruction were found to be actually caused by the selective adsorption and desorption of surface arsenic dimers, they played a critical role in the surface phase transition between (2 × 4) and (4 × 2). - Highlights: • Discontinuous surface phase transition phenomena on the flat InAs(001) surface • Nanoscale InAs(001) surface observed by scanning tunneling microscopy • “Zig-Zag” chains of α2(2 × 4) reconstruction • Critical role in the surface phase transition between (2 × 4) and (4 × 2)

  11. Phase analysis for three-dimensional surface reconstruction of apples using structured-illumination reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Lu, Renfu

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is valuable for fruit quality evaluation. This study was aimed at developing phase analysis techniques for reconstruction of the 3-D surface of fruit from the pattern images acquired by a structuredillumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. Phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns, distorted by the fruit geometry, were acquired and processed through phase demodulation, phase unwrapping and other post-processing procedures to obtain phase difference maps relative to the phase of a reference plane. The phase maps were then transformed into height profiles and 3-D shapes in a world coordinate system based on phase-to-height and in-plane calibrations. A reference plane-based approach, coupled with the curve fitting technique using polynomials of order 3 or higher, was utilized for phase-to-height calibrations, which achieved superior accuracies with the root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.027- 0.033 mm for a height measurement range of 0-91 mm. The 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting technique was further tested on two reference blocks with known heights, resulting in relative errors of 3.75% and 4.16%. In-plane calibrations were performed by solving a linear system formed by a number of control points in a calibration object, which yielded a RMSE of 0.311 mm. Tests of the calibrated system for reconstructing the surface of apple samples showed that surface concavities (i.e., stem/calyx regions) could be easily discriminated from bruises from the phase difference maps, reconstructed height profiles and the 3-D shape of apples. This study has laid a foundation for using SIRI for 3-D shape measurement, and thus expanded the capability of the technique for quality evaluation of horticultural products. Further research is needed to utilize the phase analysis techniques for stem/calyx detection of apples, and optimize the phase demodulation and unwrapping algorithms for faster and more reliable detection.

  12. A particle filter to reconstruct a free-surface flow from a depth camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combés, Benoit; Heitz, Dominique; Guibert, Anthony; Mémin, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the combined use of a kinect depth sensor and of a stochastic data assimilation (DA) method to recover free-surface flows. More specifically, we use a weighted ensemble Kalman filter method to reconstruct the complete state of free-surface flows from a sequence of depth images only. This particle filter accounts for model and observations errors. This DA scheme is enhanced with the use of two observations instead of one classically. We evaluate the developed approach on two numerical test cases: a collapse of a water column as a toy-example and a flow in an suddenly expanding flume as a more realistic flow. The robustness of the method to depth data errors and also to initial and inflow conditions is considered. We illustrate the interest of using two observations instead of one observation into the correction step, especially for unknown inflow boundary conditions. Then, the performance of the Kinect sensor in capturing the temporal sequences of depth observations is investigated. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is qualified for a wave in a real rectangular flat bottomed tank. It is shown that for basic initial conditions, the particle filter rapidly and remarkably reconstructs the velocity and height of the free surface flow based on noisy measurements of the elevation alone.

  13. A particle filter to reconstruct a free-surface flow from a depth camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combés, Benoit; Heitz, Dominique; Guibert, Anthony [IRSTEA, UR TERE, 17 avenue de Cucillé, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Mémin, Etienne, E-mail: dominique.heitz@irstea.fr, E-mail: etienne.memin@inria.fr [INRIA, Fluminance group, Campus universitaire de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    We investigate the combined use of a kinect depth sensor and of a stochastic data assimilation (DA) method to recover free-surface flows. More specifically, we use a weighted ensemble Kalman filter method to reconstruct the complete state of free-surface flows from a sequence of depth images only. This particle filter accounts for model and observations errors. This DA scheme is enhanced with the use of two observations instead of one classically. We evaluate the developed approach on two numerical test cases: a collapse of a water column as a toy-example and a flow in an suddenly expanding flume as a more realistic flow. The robustness of the method to depth data errors and also to initial and inflow conditions is considered. We illustrate the interest of using two observations instead of one observation into the correction step, especially for unknown inflow boundary conditions. Then, the performance of the Kinect sensor in capturing the temporal sequences of depth observations is investigated. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is qualified for a wave in a real rectangular flat bottomed tank. It is shown that for basic initial conditions, the particle filter rapidly and remarkably reconstructs the velocity and height of the free surface flow based on noisy measurements of the elevation alone. (paper)

  14. Virtual three dimensions reconstruction and isoline analysis of human marks on the surface of animal fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XianZhu; WANG YunFu; PEI ShuWen; WU XiuJie

    2009-01-01

    Animal fossils in archaeological sites are closely related to human activities. The environment and human activities, such as hunting-selection, cook process, traditional culture and habits can be partly Inferred from the variety of fauna, fragmentation of the bones, and the human marks on bones' aur-faces. So far, researches about marks on fossils are few in China, and are mainly observed directly by eyes. Light Microscopes and Scanning Electron Microscopes are also applied to the observation abroad. These methods could provide us a lot of information, but are mainly confined to 2 dimensions. In this paper, we analyze human marks on the surface of animal fossils through three dimensions re-construction and isoline analysis, which enable us observe and measure in 3 dimensions. This method gives us a lot of information as follows: the formation of the marks, the tools that produced the marks, the cutting edge, movement and micro-abrasion of the tools. Through study of human marks on the surface of animal fossils unearthed from Bailongdong Cave in Yunxi, Hubei Province, we have got the characteristics of the marks, and further deepen cognition of the cutting edge, cutting orientation, cut-ting sequence, as well as micro-abrasion of tools during the formation of these marks. This is the first to use virtual three dimensions reconstruction in studying the human marks on the surface of animal fossils in China.

  15. Nanoscale cellulose films with different crystallinities and mesostructures--their surface properties and interaction with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulin, Christian; Ahola, Susanna; Josefsson, Peter; Nishino, Takashi; Hirose, Yasuo; Osterberg, Monika; Wågberg, Lars

    2009-07-07

    A systematic study of the degree of molecular ordering and swelling of different nanocellulose model films has been conducted. Crystalline cellulose II surfaces were prepared by spin-coating of the precursor cellulose solutions onto oxidized silicon wafers before regeneration in water or by using the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) technique. Amorphous cellulose films were also prepared by spin-coating of a precursor cellulose solution onto oxidized silicon wafers. Crystalline cellulose I surfaces were prepared by spin-coating wafers with aqueous suspensions of sulfate-stabilized cellulose I nanocrystals and low-charged microfibrillated cellulose (LC-MFC). In addition, a dispersion of high-charged MFC was used for the buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayers with polyetheyleneimine on silica with the aid of the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. These preparation methods produced smooth thin films on the nanometer scale suitable for X-ray diffraction and swelling measurements. The surface morphology and thickness of the cellulose films were characterized in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry measurements, respectively. To determine the surface energy of the cellulose surfaces, that is, their ability to engage in different interactions with different materials, they were characterized through contact angle measurements against water, glycerol, and methylene iodide. Small incidence angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the nanocrystal and MFC films exhibited a cellulose I crystal structure and that the films prepared from N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), LiCl/DMAc solutions, using the LS technique, possessed a cellulose II structure. The degree of crystalline ordering was highest in the nanocrystal films (approximately 87%), whereas the MFC, NMMO, and LS films exhibited a degree of crystallinity of about 60%. The N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl film possessed very low crystalline ordering (properties of the films, it was necessary to consider both the

  16. Fabrication of a molecular-level multilayer film on organic polymer surfaces via chemical bonding assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongchi; Yang, Peng; Deng, Jianping; Liu, Lianying; Zhu, Jianwu; Sui, Yuan; Lu, Jiaoming; Yang, Wantai

    2007-02-13

    A fresh multilayer film was fabricated on a molecular level and successfully tethered to the surface of a hydroxylated organic substrate via chemical bonding assembly (CBA). Sulfate anion groups (SO4-) were preintroduced onto the surface of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films via a reference method. Upon hydrolysis of the SO4- groups, hydroxyl groups (--OH) were formed that subsequently acted as initial reagents for a series of alternate reactions with terephthalyl chloride (TPC) and bisphenol A (BPA). A stable and well-defined multilayer film was thus fabricated via the CBA method. As a result of the nanoscale multilayer fresh film being abundant with reactive groups, it is believed that the film and its fabrication method should provide a fundamental platform for further surface functionalization and direct the design of advanced materials with desired properties.

  17. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2017-02-09

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  18. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yuki, E-mail: ynagao@jaist.ac.jp; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  19. Template-controlled mineralization: Determining film granularity and structure by surface functionality patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina J. Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a promising first example towards controlling the properties of a self-assembling mineral film by means of the functionality and polarity of a substrate template. In the presented case, a zinc oxide film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on a nearly topography-free template structure composed of a pattern of two self-assembled monolayers with different chemical functionality. We demonstrate the template-modulated morphological properties of the growing film, as the surface functionality dictates the granularity of the growing film. This, in turn, is a key property influencing other film properties such as conductivity, piezoelectric activity and the mechanical properties. A very pronounced contrast is observed between areas with an underlying fluorinated, low energy template surface, showing a much more (almost two orders of magnitude coarse-grained film with a typical agglomerate size of around 75 nm. In contrast, amino-functionalized surface areas induce the growth of a very smooth, fine-grained surface with a roughness of around 1 nm. The observed influence of the template on the resulting clear contrast in morphology of the growing film could be explained by a contrast in surface adhesion energies and surface diffusion rates of the nanoparticles, which nucleate in solution and subsequently deposit on the functionalized substrate.

  20. Surface morphology of titanium nitride thin films synthesized by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţǎlu Ştefan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of temperature on the 3-D surface morphology of titanium nitride (TiN thin films synthesized by DC reactive magnetron sputtering has been analyzed. The 3-D morphology variation of TiN thin films grown on p-type Si (100 wafers was investigated at four different deposition temperatures (473 K, 573 K, 673 K, 773 K in order to evaluate the relation among the 3-D micro-textured surfaces. The 3-D surface morphology of TiN thin films was characterized by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM and fractal analysis applied to the AFM data. The 3-D surface morphology revealed the fractal geometry of TiN thin films at nanometer scale. The global scale properties of 3-D surface geometry were quantitatively estimated using the fractal dimensions D, determined by the morphological envelopes method. The fractal dimension D increased with the substrate temperature variation from 2.36 (at 473 K to 2.66 (at 673 K and then decreased to 2.33 (at 773 K. The fractal analysis in correlation with the averaged power spectral density (surface yielded better quantitative results of morphological changes in the TiN thin films caused by substrate temperature variations, which were more precise, detailed, coherent and reproducible. It can be inferred that fractal analysis can be easily applied for the investigation of morphology evolution of different film/substrate interface phases obtained using different thin-film technologies.

  1. π-Donors microstructuring on surface of polymer film by their noncovalent interactions with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traven, Valerii F., E-mail: valerii.traven@gmail.com [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow 125047, Miusskaya sq., 9 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Ivan V.; Dolotov, Sergei M. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow 125047, Miusskaya sq., 9 (Russian Federation); Veciana, Jaume Miro; Lebedev, Victor S. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona–CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Shulga, Yurii M.; Khasanov, Salavat S. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Acad. N.N. Semenov Prosp., 1, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Medvedev, Michael G. [A. N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Vavilova str., 28 (Russian Federation); Laukhina, Elena E. [The Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, ICMAB-CSIC, Bellaterra, 08193 (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    Noncovalent (charge transfer) interaction between perylene and iodine in polycarbonate film provides formation of microstructured perylene layer on the polymer surface upon exposure of polymer film which contains dissolved perylene to solvent + iodine vapors. The prepared bilayer film possesses a sensing effect to iodine vapors which can be observed by both fluorescence and electrical conductivity changes. Similar bilayer films have been prepared also with anthracene and phenothiazine as π-donors with use of different polymer matrixes. Interaction of iodine with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has also been studied by the M06-2x DFT calculations for better understanding of phenomenon of π-donors microstructuring on surface of polymer film. - Highlights: • Preparation of bilayer polymer films with π-donors on surface for the first time. • π-Donor phase purity is confirmed by XRD, IR spectroscopy, SEM. • Perylene bilayer polymer films possess fluorescence. • Perylene bilayer polymer films loss fluorescence under iodine vapors. • Perylene bilayer polymer films possess electrical conductivity when treated by iodine vapors.

  2. Tsunami Lead Wave Reconstruction Based on Noisy Sea Surface Height Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kegen

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Tsunami lead wave reconstruction method using noisy sea surface height (SSH) measurements such as observed by a satellite-carried GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) sensor. It is proposed to utilize wavelet theory to mitigate the strong noise in the GNSS-R based SSH measurements. Through extracting the noise components by high-pass filters at decomposition stage and shrinking the noise by thresholding prior to reconstruction, the noise is greatly reduced. Real Tsunami data based simulation results demonstrate that in presence of SSH measurement error of standard deviation 50 cm the accuracy in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) of the lead wave height (true value 145.5 cm) and wavelength (true value 592.0 km) estimation is 21.5 cm and 56.2 km, respectively. The results also show that the proposed wavelet based method considerably outperforms the Kalman filter based method on average. The results demonstrate that the proposed wave reconstruction approach has the potential for Tsunami detection and parameter estimation to assist in achieving reliable Tsunami warning.

  3. TSUNAMI LEAD WAVE RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON NOISY SEA SURFACE HEIGHT MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Tsunami lead wave reconstruction method using noisy sea surface height (SSH measurements such as observed by a satellite-carried GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R sensor. It is proposed to utilize wavelet theory to mitigate the strong noise in the GNSS-R based SSH measurements. Through extracting the noise components by high-pass filters at decomposition stage and shrinking the noise by thresholding prior to reconstruction, the noise is greatly reduced. Real Tsunami data based simulation results demonstrate that in presence of SSH measurement error of standard deviation 50 cm the accuracy in terms of root mean square error (RMSE of the lead wave height (true value 145.5 cm and wavelength (true value 592.0 km estimation is 21.5 cm and 56.2 km, respectively. The results also show that the proposed wavelet based method considerably outperforms the Kalman filter based method on average. The results demonstrate that the proposed wave reconstruction approach has the potential for Tsunami detection and parameter estimation to assist in achieving reliable Tsunami warning.

  4. Iterative algorithm for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Fan; Hou, Xi

    2015-10-01

    New method for reconstructing rotationally asymmetric surface deviation with pixel-level spatial resolution is proposed. It is based on basic iterative scheme and accelerates the Gauss-Seidel method by introducing an acceleration parameter. This modified Successive Over-relaxation (SOR) is effective for solving the rotationally asymmetric components with pixel-level spatial resolution, without the usage of a fitting procedure. Compared to the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel method, the modified SOR method with an optimal relaxation factor converges much faster and saves more computational costs and memory space without reducing accuracy. It has been proved by real experimental results.

  5. Observation of a (√3x√3)R30° Reconstruction on O-Polar ZnO Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.; Parihar, S; Pradhan, K; Johnson-Steigelman, H; Lyman, P

    2008-01-01

    Low energy electron diffraction revealed a previously unreported (3x3)R30 reconstruction on clean, O-polar ZnO surfaces after in-situ preparation under conditions with an extremely low H background or after ex-situ tube-furnace annealing [1]. It has been proposed that unreconstructed, H-free, O-polar ZnO surfaces cannot be produced [2]. As the sample is prepared from the as-received surface, to a clean (1x1), and finally to the clean (3x3)R30 reconstruction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows decreasing intensity of the hydroxyl shoulder (located to the high-binding-energy side of the O1s peak). This reconstruction is stable against H2, N2, and air, although its formation is suppressed when preparation occurs under an intentional H2 background. A structural investigation of the reconstruction with LEED-IV is under way.

  6. Surface and tribological behaviors of the bioinspired polydopamine thin films under dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fut K; Han, Yougun; Gaikwad, Ravi; Leonenko, Zoya; Zhao, Boxin

    2013-02-11

    Dopamine is a "sticky" biomolecule containing the typical functional groups of mussel adhesive proteins. It can self-polymerize into a nanoscale thin film on various surfaces. We investigated the surface, adhesion, friction, and cracking properties of polydopamine (PDA) thin films for their effective transfer to functional devices and biocompatible coatings. A series of surface characterizations and mechanical tests were performed to reveal the static and dynamic properties of PDA films coated on glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and epoxy. We found that PDA films are highly hydrated under wet conditions because of their porous membrane-like nanostructures and hydrophilic functional groups. Upon dehydration, the films form cracks when they are coated on soft substrates due to internal stresses and the large mismatch in elastic modulus. The adhesive pull-off force or the effective work of adhesion increased with the contact time, suggesting dynamic interactions at the interface. A significant decrease in friction forces in water was observed on all three material surfaces coated with PDA; thus, the film might serve as a water-based lubrication coating. We attributed the different behavior of PDA films in air and in water to its hydration effects. These research findings provide insight into the stability, mechanical, and adhesive properties of the PDA films, which are critical for their applications.

  7. Diffraction radiation from an inhomogeneous dielectric film on the surface of a perfect conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryazanov, MI; Strikhanov, MN; Tishchenko, AA

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction radiation generated by a charged particle moving uniformly parallel to the surface of a perfect conductor coated with a dielectric film is considered; the thickness of the film is an arbitrary function of coordinates. A particular case is considered when this function is periodic in one

  8. Squeezing Molecularly thin Lubricant Films between curved Corrugated Surfaces with long range Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the ability of two nm thick lubrication films to stay in a contact and thereby to prevent excessive wear of the surfaces. At this thickness the film is no longer a fluid but it is the very important intermediate between the lubricated and the dry regimes, the latter ...

  9. Free Surface Thin Film Flow of a Sisko’s Fluid over a Surface Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a thin film down an inclined surface over topography is considered for the case of liquids with Sisko’s model viscosity. For the first time lubrication theory is used to reduce the governing equations to a non-linear evolution equation for a current of a Sisko’s model non-Newtonian fluid on an inclined plane under the action of gravity and the viscous stresses. This model is solved numerically using an efficient Full Approximation Storage (FAS multigrid algorithm. Free surface results are plotted and carefully examined near the topography for different values of power-law index np, viscosity parameter m, the aspect ratio A and for different inclination angle of the plane with the horizontal. Number of complications and additional physical effects are discussed that enrich real situations. It is observed that the flows into narrow trenches develop a capillary ridge just in front of the upstream edge of a trench followed by a small trough. For relatively small width trenches, the free surface is almost everywhere flat as the dimensional width of the trench is much smaller than the capillary length scale. In this region, surface tension dominates the solution and acts so as to stretch a membrane across the trench leading to smaller height deviations. The ridge originates from the topographic forcing which works to force fluid upstream immediately prior to the trench before helping to accelerate it over. The upstream forcing slows down the fluid locally and increases the layer thickness.

  10. Reconstructing extreme AMOC events through nudging of the ocean surface: a perfect model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Pablo; Guilyardi, Eric; Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Nguyen, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    While the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is thought to be a crucial component of the North Atlantic climate, past changes in its strength are challenging to quantify, and only limited information is available. In this study, we use a perfect model approach with the IPSL-CM5A-LR model to assess the performance of several surface nudging techniques in reconstructing the variability of the AMOC. Special attention is given to the reproducibility of an extreme positive AMOC peak from a preindustrial control simulation. Nudging includes standard relaxation techniques towards the sea surface temperature and salinity anomalies of this target control simulation, and/or the prescription of the wind-stress fields. Surface nudging approaches using standard fixed restoring terms succeed in reproducing most of the target AMOC variability, including the timing of the extreme event, but systematically underestimate its amplitude. A detailed analysis of the AMOC variability mechanisms reveals that the underestimation of the extreme AMOC maximum comes from a deficit in the formation of the dense water masses in the main convection region, located south of Iceland in the model. This issue is largely corrected after introducing a novel surface nudging approach, which uses a varying restoring coefficient that is proportional to the simulated mixed layer depth, which, in essence, keeps the restoring time scale constant. This new technique substantially improves water mass transformation in the regions of convection, and in particular, the formation of the densest waters, which are key for the representation of the AMOC extreme. It is therefore a promising strategy that may help to better constrain the AMOC variability and other ocean features in the models. As this restoring technique only uses surface data, for which better and longer observations are available, it opens up opportunities for improved reconstructions of the AMOC over the last few decades.

  11. Dissolution of materials in artificial skin surface film liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J

    2006-12-01

    The dissolution of chemical constituents from jewelry, textiles, cosmetics, drugs, industrial chemicals, and particles in direct and prolonged contact with human skin is often assessed in vitro using artificial skin surface film liquids (SSFL). To provide meaningful results, the composition of artificial SSFL should accurately mimic human sweat and sebum, and the conditions of the in vitro test system should accurately reflect in vivo skin conditions. We summarized the reported composition of human SSFL and compared it to 45 different formulations of artificial sweat and 18 formulations of artificial sebum (studies published from 1940 to 2005). Conditions of in vitro dissolution test systems were reviewed and compared to in vivo skin conditions. The concentrations of individual constituents and pH of artificial sweat and concentrations of artificial sebum constituents are not always within ranges reported for human SSFL. Nearly all artificial SSFL lack many of the constituents in human SSFL. To develop a comprehensive model SSFL, we propose a standard SSFL, modified from the two best published sweat and sebum formulations. Little is known concerning the influence of test system conditions on dissolution, including SSFL temperature, container material composition, agitation, and physicochemical properties of the test article on dissolution. Thus, both a need and an opportunity exist for standardizing the composition of artificial SSFL and in vitro dissolution test methodologies. To standardize in vitro dissolution test systems, we recommend: maintaining artificial SSFL at a biologically relevant temperature appropriate to the human activity being modeled, carefully selecting test and sample storage containers to avoid bias in dissolution measurements, accounting for friction between a test article and skin in a biologically plausible manner, and physicochemical characterization of the test article or material to better understand mechanisms of dissolution and

  12. Neutron reflectometry of soft films supported on electrified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, A.I. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemistry, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Vezvaie, M. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Burgess, I.J., E-mail: ian.burgess@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemistry, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The specular reflection of neutrons is a non-destructive, nuclear-based technique, sensitive to low atomic number elements, has a high penetration depth, and can distinguish between isotopes of the same element. This makes neutron reflectometry (NR) especially effective for the study of biological membranes, soft films and buried interfaces. Furthermore, commonly used NR substrates such as silicon and quartz single-crystals can be modified with thin metallic layers to form conductive supports allowing for the precise control of the electrical state of the interface. The coupling of NR with in-situ electrochemical control provides a powerful tool to study the composition of soft and/or buried interfaces under conditions that mimic, for example, transmembrane potentials or corrosion potentials. Here we report our recent efforts to perform in situ electrochemical NR studies and the previous experimental framework from which they were developed. The talk will address technical and infrastructure challenges but emphasize scientific highlights from our work with biomimetic phospholipid membranes. 'Isotopic variation has been applied to quantify the electroporation and distribution of water as a function of surface charge density in lipid bilayers. These studies have more recently been extended to study the location of redox-active ubiquinone (coenzyme Q{sub 10}) in biomimetic lipid bilayers as a function of potential and temperature. To probe the location of ubiquinone, a phospholipid bilayer was prepared on a gold coated solid substrate using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett and vesicle fusion techniques. The combination of these two methods allowed for the composition of the inner and outer membrane leaflets to be varied. Preliminary results show sensitivity to the location of a small biologically relevant molecule. (author)

  13. Superhydrophilic TiO2 thin film by nanometer scale surface roughness and dangling bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Bandna; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    A remarkable enhancement in the hydrophilic nature of titanium dioxide (TiO2) films is obtained by surface modification in DC-glow discharge plasma. Thin transparent TiO2 films were coated on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating method, and exposed in DC-glow discharge plasma. The plasma exposed TiO2 film exhibited a significant change in its wetting property contact angle, which is a representative of wetting property, has reduced to considerable limits 3.02° and 1.85° from its initial value 54.40° and 48.82° for deionized water and ethylene glycol, respectively. It is elucidated that the hydrophilic property of plasma exposed TiO2 films dependent mainly upon nanometer scale surface roughness. Variation, from 4.6 nm to 19.8 nm, in the film surface roughness with exposure time was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variation in the values of contact angle and surface roughness with increasing plasma exposure time reveal that the surface roughness is the main factor which makes the modified TiO2 film superhydrophilic. However, a contribution of change in the surface states, to the hydrophilic property, is also observed for small values of the plasma exposure time. Based upon nanometer scale surface roughness and dangling bonds, a variation in the surface energy of TiO2 film from 49.38 to 88.92 mJ/m2 is also observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show change in the surface states of titanium and oxygen. The observed antifogging properties are the direct results of the development of the superhydrophilic wetting characteristics to TiO2 films.

  14. Surface properties of diamond-like carbon films prepared by CVD and PVD methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dong-Ping; Liu Yan-Hong; Chen Bao-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been deposited using three different techniques: (a) electron cyclotron resonance-plasma source ion implantation, (b) low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge, (c) filtered-pulsed cathodic arc discharge. The surface and mechanical properties of these films are compared using atomic force microscopebased tests. The experimental results show that hydrogenated DLC films are covered with soft surface layers enriched with hydrogen and sp3 hybridized carbon while the soft surface layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have graphite-like structure. The formation of soft surface layers can be associated with the surface diffusion and growth induced by the low-energy deposition process. For typical CVD methods, the atomic hydrogen in the plasmas can contribute to the formation of hydrogen and sp3 hybridized carbon enriched surface layers. The high-energy ion implantation causes the rearrangement of atoms beneath the surface layer and leads to an increase in film density. The ta-C films can be deposited using the medium energy carbon ions in the highly-ionized plasma.

  15. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of 82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water.

  16. Study on the early surface films formed on Mg-Y molten alloy in different atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mirak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the non-isothermal early stages of surface oxidation of liquid Mg-1%Y alloy during casting were studied under UPH argon, dry air, and air mixed with protective fluorine-bearing gases. The chemistry and morphology of the surface films were characterized by SEM and EDX analyses. The results indicate a layer of smooth and tightly coherent oxidation film composed of MgO and Y2O3 formed on the molten Mg-Y alloy surface with 40–60 nm thickness under dry air. A dendritic/cellular microstructure is clearly visible with Y-rich second phases gathered in surface of the melt and precipitated along the grain/cell boundaries under all gas conditions. Under fluorine-bearing gas mixtures, the surface film was a mixed oxide and fluoride and more even; a flat and folded morphology can be seen under SF6 with oxide as dominated phase and under 1, 1, 1, 2-tetra-fluoroethane, a smooth and compact surface film uniformly covering the inner surface of the bubble with equal oxide and fluoride thickness, which results in a film without any major defects. MgF2 phase appears to be the key characteristic of a good protective film.

  17. Improvement of hemocompatibility of polycaprolactone film surfaces with zwitterionic polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Wang, X B; Li, C Y; Li, J S; Xu, F J; Mao, C; Yang, W T; Shen, J

    2011-09-20

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) has been widely adopted as a scaffold biomaterial, but further improvement of the hemocompatibility of a PCL film surface is still needed for wide biomedical applications. In this work, the PCL film surface was functionalized with zwitterionic poly(3-dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) (P(DMAPS)) brushes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for enhancing hemocompatibility. Kinetics study revealed an approximately linear increase in graft yield of the functional P(DMAPS) brushes with polymerization time. The blood compatibilities of the modified PCL film surfaces were studied by platelet adhesion tests of platelet-rich plasma and human whole blood, hemolysis assay, and plasma recalcification time (PRT) assay. The improvement of hemocompatibility is dependent on the coverage of the grafted P(DMAPS) brushes on the PCL film. Lower or no platelet and blood cell adhesion was observed on the P(DMAPS)-grafted film surfaces. The P(DMAPS) grafting can further decrease hemolysis and enhance the PRT of the PCL surface. With the versatility of surface-initiated ATRP and the excellent hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polymer brushes, PCL films with desirable blood properties can be readily tailored to cater to various biomedical applications.

  18. Surface enhanced second harmonic generation from macrocycle, catenane, and rotaxane thin films : Experiments and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfaoui, [No Value; Bermudez, [No Value; Bottari, G; De Nadai, C; Jalkanen, JP; Kajzar, F; Leigh, DA; Lubomska, M; Mendoza, SM; Niziol, J; Rudolf, P; Zerbetto, F; Arfaoui, Imad; Bermúdez, Verónica; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    Surface enhanced second harmonic generation (SE SHG) experiments on molecular structures, macrocycles, catenanes, and rotaxanes, deposited as monolayers and multilayers by vacuum sublimation on silver, are reported. The measurements show that the molecules form ordered thin films, where the highest

  19. Surface Scattering Effect and the Stripe Order in Films of the Superfluid 3He B Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kazushi

    2016-09-01

    Surface scattering effects in thin films of the superfluid 3He B phase have been theoretically investigated, with an emphasis on the stability of the stripe order with spontaneous broken translational symmetry in the film plane and quasiparticle excitations in this spatially inhomogeneous phase. Based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the weak coupling limit, we have shown that the stripe order, which was originally discussed for a film with two specular surfaces, can be stable in a film with one specular and one diffusive surfaces which should correspond to superfluid 3He on a substrate. It is also found by numerically solving the Eilenberger equation that due to the stripe structure, a midgap state distinct from the surface Andreev bound state emerges and its signature is reflected in the local density of states.

  20. Design of Highly Sensitive Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Using Planar Metallic Films Closely Coupled to Nanogratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Yan; XIE Wen-Chong; LIU De-Ming

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance(SPR)sensors using planar metallic films closely coupled to nanogratings.The strong coupling between localized surface plasmon resonances(LSPRs)presenting in metallic nanostructures and surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)propagating at the metallic film surface leads to changes of resonance reflection properties,resulting in enhanced sensitivity of SPR sensors.The effects of thickness of the metallic films,grating period and metal materials on the refractive index sensitivity of the device are investigated.The refractive index sensitivity of nanograting-based SPR sensors is predicted to be about 543 nm/RIU(refractive index unit)using optimized structure parameters.Our study on SPR sensors using planar metallic films closely coupled to nanogratings demonstrates the potential for significant improvement in refractive index sensitivity.

  1. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.

  2. Formation of mixed and patterned self-assembled films of alkylphosphonates on commercially pure titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzka, Katarzyna; Sanchez Treviño, Alda Y.; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A.

    2016-12-01

    Titanium is extensively employed in biomedical devices, in particular as implant. The self-assembly of alkylphosphonates on titanium surfaces enable the specific adsorption of biomolecules to adapt the implant response against external stimuli. In this work, chemically-tailored cpTi surfaces were prepared by self-assembly of alkylphosphonate molecules. By bringing together attributes of two grafting molecules, aqueous mixtures of two alkylphosphonates were used to obtain mixed self-assembled films. Single self-assembled films were also altered by laser abrasion to produce chemically patterned cpTi surfaces. Both mixed and patterned self-assembled films were confirmed by AFM, ESEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Water contact angle measurements also revealed the composition of the self-assembly films. Chemical functionalization with two grafting phosphonate molecules and laser surface engineering may be combined to guide the bone-like formation on cpTi, and the future biological response in the host.

  3. Surface morphology and magnetic property of wrinkled FeGa thin films fabricated on elastic polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuanglan; Zhan, Qingfeng; Yu, Ying; Liu, Luping; Li, Huihui; Yang, Huali; Xie, Yali; Wang, Baomin; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the surface morphology and the magnetic property of wrinkled Fe81Ga19 (FeGa) thin films fabricated in two different processes onto elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The films obtained by directly depositing Ta and FeGa layers on a pre-strained PDMS substrate display a sinusoidally wrinkled surface and a weak magnetic anisotropy. The wavelength and amplitude of the sinusoidal morphology linearly increase with the metallic layer thickness, while the magnetic anisotropy decreases with increasing FeGa thickness. The other films grown by depositing FeGa layer on a wrinkled Ta/PDMS surface show a remarkable uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The strength of magnetic anisotropy increases with increasing FeGa thickness. The magnetic anisotropy can be ascribed to the surface anisotropy, the magnetostrictive anisotropy, and the shape anisotropy caused, respectively, by the magnetic charges on wavy morphology, the residual mechanical stress, and the inhomogeneous thickness of FeGa films.

  4. Robust affine-invariant feature points matching for 3D surface reconstruction of complex landslide scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Allemand, Pascal; Skupinski, Grzegorz; Deseilligny, Marc-Pierrot

    2013-04-01

    Multi-view stereo surface reconstruction from dense terrestrial photographs is being increasingly applied for geoscience applications such as quantitative geomorphology, and a number of different software solution and processing streamlines have been suggested. For image matching, camera self-calibration and bundle block adjustment, most approaches make use of scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) to identify homologous points in multiple images. SIFT-like point matching is robust to apparent translation, rotation, and scaling of objects in multiple viewing geometries but the number of correctly identified matching points typically declines drastically with increasing angles between the viewpoints. For the application of multi-view stereo of complex landslide scenes, the viewing geometry is often constrained by the local topography and barriers such as rocks and vegetation occluding the target. Under such conditions it is not uncommon to encounter view angle differences of > 30% that hinder the image matching and eventually prohibit the joint estimation of the camera parameters from all views. Recently an affine invariant extension of the SIFT detector (ASIFT) has been demonstrated to provide more robust matches when large view-angle differences become an issue. In this study the ASIFT detector was adopted to detect homologous points in terrestrial photographs preceding 3D reconstruction of different parts (main scarp, toe) of the Super-Sauze landslide (Southern French Alps). 3D surface models for different time periods and different parts of the landslide were derived using the multi-view stereo framework implemented in MicMac (©IGN). The obtained 3D models were compared with reconstructions using the traditional SIFT detectors as well as alternative structure-from-motion implementations. An estimate of the absolute accuracy of the photogrammetric models was obtained through co-registration and comparison with high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR scans.

  5. Adenine adsorption on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes: Characterisation, surface reconstruction effects and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Cesar [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sevilla, c/ Prof. Garcia Gonzalez n 2, Sevilla 41012 (Spain); Prieto, Francisco [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sevilla, c/ Prof. Garcia Gonzalez n 2, Sevilla 41012 (Spain); Rueda, Manuela [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sevilla, c/ Prof. Garcia Gonzalez n 2, Sevilla 41012 (Spain)]. E-mail: marueda@us.es; Feliu, Juan [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Alicante, Apart 99, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Aldaz, Antonio [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Alicante, Apart 99, Alicante E-03080 (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Adsorption of adenine on Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 0 0) electrodes is studied by cyclic voltammetry, impedance and chronoamperometric measurements in 0.1 M and 0.01 M KClO{sub 4} and in 0.5 M NaF solutions. The experiments performed with flame-annealed electrodes at different contact potentials, scan potential limits and scan rates, suggest different adsorption behaviour on the unreconstructed and reconstructed surface domains. This is confirmed by comparing the results obtained with electrochemically annealed unreconstructed and with flame-annealed reconstructed surfaces. In both cases the initial electrode surface state is characterised by the E {sub pzc} values. The adsorption on reconstructed surfaces takes place at more positive potentials than on the unreconstructed surfaces and induces the lifting of the reconstruction. The thermodynamic analysis is performed on the chronoamperometric data for adenine desorption on well characterised unreconstructed Au(1 1 1) surfaces. To this end a new methodology of the chronoamperometric experiments is introduced. Quantitative thermodynamic adsorption parameters such as surface tension, Gibbs surface excess, Gibbs energy of adsorption, potential versus Gibbs excess slope and electrosorption valency are determined. Weak chemisorption of adenine is inferred with a molecular orientation independent on the coverage and on the electrode potential. It is proposed that adsorbed adenine molecules adopt a tilted orientation at the surface to facilitate the coordination to the gold atoms.

  6. Thin-film limit formalism applied to surface defect absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Holovsky, Jakub; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The thin-film limit is derived by a nonconventional approach and equations for transmittance, reflectance and absorptance are presented in highly versatile and accurate form. In the thin-film limit the optical properties do not depend on the absorption coefficient, thickness and refractive index individually, but only on their product. We show that this formalism is applicable to the problem of ultrathin defective layer e. g. on a top of a layer of amorphous silicon. We develop a new method o...

  7. Quantitative reconstruction of thermal and dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkii, Alexander; Kovtunov, Dmitry; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Tsepelev, Igor; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    We study a model of lava flow to determine its thermal and dynamic characteristics from thermal measurements of the lava at its surface. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. We develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem in the case of steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are prescribed at the upper surface of the model domain, we determine the flow characteristics in the entire model domain using a variational (adjoint) method. We have performed computations of model examples and showed that in the case of smooth input data the lava temperature and the flow velocity can be reconstructed with a high accuracy. As expected, a noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. Also we analyse the influence of optimization methods on the solution convergence rate. The proposed method for reconstruction of physical parameters of lava flows can also be applied to other problems in geophysical fluid flows.

  8. Low-cost surface reconstruction for aesthetic results assessment and prediction in breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Rene M; Hipwell, John H; Williams, Norman R; Keshtgar, Mohammed R S; Hawkes, David J; Stoyanov, Danail

    2015-08-01

    The high incidence and low mortality of breast cancer surgery has led to an increasing emphasis on the cosmetic outcome of surgical treatment. Advances in aesthetic evaluation, as well as surgical planning and outcome prediction, have been investigated by using geometrically precise 3D modelling of the breast surface prior to surgery and after the procedure. However, existing solutions are based on expensive site specific setups and remain weakly validated. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using low-cost RGBD cameras as an affordable and mobile system for breast surface reconstruction. The methodology relies on sensor calibration, uncertainty-driven point filtering, dense reconstruction and subsequent multi-view joint optimization to diffuse residual pose errors. Results from a phantom study, with ground truth obtained through commercially available scanners, indicate that the approach is promising with RMS errors in order of 2 mm. A clinical study shows the practical applicability of our method and compares favourably to high-end scanning solutions.

  9. A coral-based reconstruction of Atlantic sea surface temperature trends and variability since 1552 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, C. P.; Cohen, A. L.; Oppo, D.; Carilli, J.; Halley, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) variability can have a near global impact on climate. Observed variability has been described as a natural multidecadal (65-100 year) oscillation superimposed upon a linearly- increasing, externally-forced background warming. The multidecadal portion of this variability may be persistent, suggesting useful decadal climate predictions may soon be possible. However, our understanding of multidecadal Atlantic SST variability prior to the brief instrumental record relies almost exclusively on high latitude tree-ring proxies. No proxy SST reconstruction from the Atlantic itself has the resolution, dating accuracy and length needed to assess the behavior of multidecadal variability. We present the first absolutely dated and annually-resolved multi-centennial record of Atlantic sea surface temperature. Our 439-year coral-based reconstruction suggests western low-latitude Atlantic SSTs were nearly as warm as today from ~1552-1570 A.D., cooled by more than 1°C from ~1650-1730 A.D. and generally warmed to the present. Estimates of externally-forced background variability suggest that anthropogenic forcing can account for most of the warming since 1850 A.D. Multidecadal variations superimposed upon this background disappear prior to ~1730 A.D. in favor of interdecadal (15-20 year) variability. This suggests observed multidecadal variability is not persistent and may be difficult to predict.

  10. Static and dynamic buckling of reconstructions at triple steps on Si(111) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhachuk, R.; Teys, S.; Coutinho, J.; Rayson, M. J.; Briddon, P. R.

    2014-10-01

    Triple steps on Si(111) surfaces are popular building blocks for bottom-up nanostructure assembly, conferring size uniformity and precise positioning of growing nanostructures. In this work, we employ the Si(7 7 10) regular stepped surface as model system to study the triple steps by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and large-scale first-principles calculations. We find a surprising cohabitation of reconstruction elements at the step edge that either buckles statically or dynamically at room temperature. The driving force for the observed sequence of buckling patterns is traced back to Coulomb interactions involving charged adatoms and rest-atoms lying on a mini-terrace. These results reconcile the Si(111) triple step model with the experimental STM data.

  11. Static and dynamic buckling of reconstructions at triple steps on Si(111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhachuk, R., E-mail: zhachuk@gmail.com; Teys, S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentyeva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Coutinho, J. [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rayson, M. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Briddon, P. R. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-27

    Triple steps on Si(111) surfaces are popular building blocks for bottom-up nanostructure assembly, conferring size uniformity and precise positioning of growing nanostructures. In this work, we employ the Si(7 7 10) regular stepped surface as model system to study the triple steps by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and large-scale first-principles calculations. We find a surprising cohabitation of reconstruction elements at the step edge that either buckles statically or dynamically at room temperature. The driving force for the observed sequence of buckling patterns is traced back to Coulomb interactions involving charged adatoms and rest-atoms lying on a mini-terrace. These results reconcile the Si(111) triple step model with the experimental STM data.

  12. Synthesis and surface properties of polyamide-CuxSe composite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanauskas, R.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2013-01-01

    A study of copper selenide (CuxSe) thin film deposition on PA 6 polymer surface via adsorption/diffusion method and the resulting surface properties is presented. A two stage process used to deposit these thin films involves (a) selenization in 0.1 M K2SeS2O6 at pH 2.15 and 60 °C followed by (b) tre

  13. Surface characteristics of a self-polymerized dopamine coating deposited on hydrophobic polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhong; Zhu, Liping; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Baoku; Xu, Youyi

    2011-12-06

    This study aims to explore the fundamental surface characteristics of polydopamine (pDA)-coated hydrophobic polymer films. A poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was surface modified by dip coating in an aqueous solution of dopamine on the basis of its self-polymerization and strong adhesion feature. The self-polymerization and deposition rates of dopamine on film surfaces increased with increasing temperature as evaluated by both spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Changes in the surface morphologies of pDA-coated films as well as the size and shape of pDA particles in the solution were also investigated by SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface roughness and surface free energy of pDA-modified films were mainly affected by the reaction temperature and showed only a slight dependence on the reaction time and concentration of the dopamine solution. Additionally, three other typical hydrophobic polymer films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polyimide (PI) were also modified by the same procedure. The lyophilicity (liquid affinity) and surface free energy of these polymer films were enhanced significantly after being coated with pDA, as were those of PVDF films. It is indicated that the deposition behavior of pDA is not strongly dependent on the nature of the substrates. This information provides us with not only a better understanding of biologically inspired surface chemistry for pDA coatings but also effective strategies for exploiting the properties of dopamine to create novel functional polymer materials.

  14. Growth of crystalline ZnO films on the nitridated (0001) sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.; Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Kondratev, O. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Vasil’ev, A. L.; Rakova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Babaev, V. A.; Ismailov, A. M. [Dagestan State University (Russian Federation); Vovk, E. A.; Nizhankovsky, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Single Crystals (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    The surface morphology and structure of (0001) sapphire substrates subjected to thermochemical nitridation in a mixture of N{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2} gases are investigated by electron and probe microscopy and X-ray and electron diffraction. It is shown that an aluminum nitride layer is formed on the substrate surface and heteroepitaxial ZnO films deposited onto such substrates by magnetron sputtering have a higher quality when compared with films grown on sapphire.

  15. Practical approach in surface modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene films for gravure printability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntapichedkul, Boonchai; Tantayanon, Supawan; Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas

    2014-09-01

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is one of the most popularly used materials for the gravure printing process in flexible packaging industry. The skin layers of BOPP film were associated with 3-6 weight % of propylene-ethylene copolymer. These films were completely biaxial-oriented by sequential stretching process after which the film surfaces were subjected to corona treatment integrated in the production line. The FT-IR results exhibited that polar functional groups as carbonyl molecules were established on the corona-treated BOPP film. The contact angles of these BOPP films were measured; the surface free energies (SFE) were then calculated. AFM topographical images also agreed well with the SFE which increased as the contents of propylene-ethylene copolymer increased. An approximated 20% increased SFE was obtained for the BOPP film that was associated with 6% propylene-ethylene copolymer. The printing quality on BOPP films was tested by light microscope which confirmed that the chromatic resolution of the printed images improved down to even more smaller groove sizes, 10 or 5 dot%. This improvement was also examined and found to correspond well with the interfacial tensions and work of adhesion between the inks and the modified BOPP films.

  16. Use of surface plasmon resonance to investigate lateral wall deposition kinetics and properties of polydopamine films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Cui, Dafu; Cai, Haoyuan; Zhang, Lulu; Chen, Xing; Sun, Jianhai; Chao, Yapeng

    2013-03-15

    Dopamine (DA) is a particularly important neurotransmitter. Polydopamine (pDA) films have been demonstrated to be important materials for the immobilization of biomolecules onto almost any type of solid substrate. In this study, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based sensor system with the sensor chip surface parallel to the direction of gravity was used to investigate the lateral wall deposition kinetics and properties of pDA films. The deposition kinetics of pDA Films are limited by the oxidation process. The pDA film could not be removed from the sensor chip completely by a strongly alkaline solution, indicating that the pDA film was heterogeneous in the direction of deposition. The pDA film formed near the interior of the solution was less stable than the film formed near the gold-solution interface. Adsorption of proteins on pDA film was studied compared with that on bare gold and dextran sensor chip. The reduction of Au(111) cations by the pDA film, forming a layer of gold particles, was monitored using SPR.

  17. Refractive index dispersion of swift heavy ion irradiated BFO thin films using Surface Plasmon Resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Ayushi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sharma, Savita [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110075 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigated the optical properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films after irradiation using SPR. • Otto configuration has been used to excite the surface plasmons using gold metal thin film. • BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique. • Examined the refractive index dispersion of pristine and irradiated BFO thin film. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is an effective technique to induce defects for possible modifications in the material properties. There is growing interest in studying the optical properties of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films for optoelectronic applications. In the present work, BFO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and were irradiated using the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator with 100 MeV Au{sup 9+} ions at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}. The as-grown films became rough and porous on ion irradiation. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique has been identified as a highly sensitive and powerful technique for studying the optical properties of a dielectric material. Optical properties of BFO thin films, before and after irradiation were studied using SPR technique in Otto configuration. Refractive index is found to be decreasing from 2.27 to 2.14 on ion irradiation at a wavelength of 633 nm. Refractive index dispersion of BFO thin film (from 405 nm to 633 nm) before and after ion radiation was examined.

  18. Interpretation of friction and wear in DLC film: role of surface chemistry and test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaki, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Madapu, K.; Ganesan, K.; Krishna, N. G.; Srivastava, S. K.; Abhaya, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    In spite of the large amount of tribological work carried out to explain the friction and wear mechanism in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, some of the core issues relating to the evolution of reactive species across sliding interfaces and their role on the friction and wear mechanism remain unclear. The phase composition, film density and hydrogen content present in a DLC film can be tailored by substrate biasing during film deposition to achieve a nearly vanishing friction coefficient. Furthermore, nitrogen doping in DLC films significantly improves wear resistance, and sliding occurs in a nearly wearless regime. Undoped and nitrogen-doped DLC films exhibit a nearly frictionless value with ultra-low wear behavior when tests are performed in argon, nitrogen and methane atmospheres. The antifriction and antiwear properties of the DLC films were improved with the reduction of adsorbed oxygen impurities on the film surface. This behavior was understood by correlating the oxygen impurities present at the surface/subsurface region of the DLC film while using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and depth-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy.

  19. Chemical modification of chitosan film via surface grafting of citric acid molecular to promote the biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Shen, Xin; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Yingjun; Deng, Linhong

    2016-05-01

    We develop a novel chitosan-citric acid film (abbreviated as CS-CA) suitable for biomedical applications in this study. In this CS-CA film, the citric acid, which is a harmless organic acid has been extensively investigated as a modifying agent on carbohydrate polymers, was cross-linked by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto the surface of chitosan (CS) film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the graft copolymerization of the modified chitosan film (CS-CA). Surface wettability, moisturizing performance, the capacity of mineralization in vitro and biocompatibility of the films were characterized. After modification, this CS-CA film has good hydrophilicity. It is very evident that the citric acid grafting treatment significantly promotes the biomineralization of the chitosan based substrates. Cell experiments show that the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts can adhere and proliferate well on the surface of CS-CA film. This CS-CA film, which can be prepared in large quantities and at low cost, should have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  20. Studies on the Surface Morphology and Orientation of CeO2 Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develos, Katherine; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Ohshima, Shigetoshi

    1998-11-01

    We studied the surface morphology and orientation of CeO2 films grown by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) on r-cut (1\\=102) Al2O3 substrates and evaluated the effects of predeposition annealing conditions of Al2O3 and film thickness of CeO2. The annealing of Al2O3 substrates improves the smoothness of the surface and performing this in high vacuum leads to better crystallinity and orientation of deposited CeO2 films compared to those annealed in oxygen. A critical value of the film thickness was found beyond which the surface roughness increases abruptly. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that the surface of CeO2 films is characterized by a mazelike pattern. Increasing the film thickness leads to the formation of larger islands which cause the increase in the surface roughness of the films. The areal density and height of these islands increased with film thickness.

  1. Observation of second spin reorientation transition within ultrathin region in Fe films on Ag(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khim, T.-Y. [c-CCMR and Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, M.; Lee, H., E-mail: easyscan@sookmyung.ac.kr, E-mail: jhp@postech.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, B.-G. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.-H., E-mail: easyscan@sookmyung.ac.kr, E-mail: jhp@postech.ac.kr [c-CCMR and Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Advanced Materials Science, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Max Plank POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-21

    We acquired direct measurements for in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane magnetic moments of Fe films using an x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique with increase of the Fe thickness (up to 40 Å) on the Ag(001) surface. Epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) films were grown in situ with the thickness varying from 2 Å to 40 Å, and the magnetic anisotropy was carefully investigated as a function of the film thickness. We found re-entrance of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the Fe film in ultrathin region. The results manifest that the epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) film undergoes two distinct spin reorientation transitions from in-plane to out-of-plane at the film thickness t ≈ 9 Å and back to in-plane at t ≈ 18 Å as t increases.

  2. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-12-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection.

  3. Detection of surface cutting defect on magnet using Fourier image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福亮; 左博

    2016-01-01

    A magnet is an important component of a speaker, as it makes the coil move back forth, and it is commonly used in mobile information terminals. Defects may appear on the surface of the magnet while cutting it into smaller slices, and hence, automatic detection of surface cutting defect detection becomes an important task for magnet production. In this work, an image-based detection system for magnet surface defect was constructed, a Fourier image reconstruction based on the magnet surface image processing method was proposed. The Fourier transform was used to get the spectrum image of the magnet image, and the defect was shown as a bright line in it. The Hough transform was used to detect the angle of the bright line, and this line was removed to eliminate the defect from the original gray image;then the inverse Fourier transform was applied to get the background gray image. The defect region was obtained by evaluating the gray-level differences between the original image and the background gray image. Further, the effects of several parameters in this method were studied and the optimized values were obtained. Experiment results show that the proposed method can detect surface cutting defects in a magnet automatically and efficiently.

  4. MobileFusion: real-time volumetric surface reconstruction and dense tracking on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrúška, Peter; Kohli, Pushmeet; Izadi, Shahram

    2015-11-01

    We present the first pipeline for real-time volumetric surface reconstruction and dense 6DoF camera tracking running purely on standard, off-the-shelf mobile phones. Using only the embedded RGB camera, our system allows users to scan objects of varying shape, size, and appearance in seconds, with real-time feedback during the capture process. Unlike existing state of the art methods, which produce only point-based 3D models on the phone, or require cloud-based processing, our hybrid GPU/CPU pipeline is unique in that it creates a connected 3D surface model directly on the device at 25Hz. In each frame, we perform dense 6DoF tracking, which continuously registers the RGB input to the incrementally built 3D model, minimizing a noise aware photoconsistency error metric. This is followed by efficient key-frame selection, and dense per-frame stereo matching. These depth maps are fused volumetrically using a method akin to KinectFusion, producing compelling surface models. For each frame, the implicit surface is extracted for live user feedback and pose estimation. We demonstrate scans of a variety of objects, and compare to a Kinect-based baseline, showing on average ∼ 1.5cm error. We qualitatively compare to a state of the art point-based mobile phone method, demonstrating an order of magnitude faster scanning times, and fully connected surface models.

  5. Correlation of Gear Surface Fatigue Lives to Lambda Ratio (Specific Film Thickness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy Lewis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the lubrication regime on gear performance has been recognized, qualitatively, for decades. Often the lubrication regime is characterized by the specific film thickness being the ratio of lubricant film thickness to the composite surface roughness. Three studies done at NASA to investigate gearing pitting life are revisited in this work. All tests were done at a common load. In one study, ground gears were tested using a variety of lubricants that included a range of viscosities, and therefore the gears operated with differing film thicknesses. In a second and third study, the performance of gears with ground teeth and superfinished teeth were assessed. Thicker oil films provided longer lives as did improved surface finish. These datasets were combined into a common dataset using the concept of specific film thickness. This unique dataset of more 258 tests provides gear designers with some qualitative information to make gear design decisions.

  6. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  7. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yun [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Sam [School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gumhye [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Yong, E-mail: kchoi@postech.ac.kr [School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kon, E-mail: jkkim@postech.ac.kr [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF{sub 4} and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF{sub 4} plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ∼ 11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Highlights: ► New approach based on plasma treatment to independently control the surface topography and wettability ► The adhesion of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) was enhanced on a surface with an average roughness of ∼ 11 nm. ► The adhesion and proliferation of hFOB was maximized when nanotextured surface became highly hydrophilic.

  8. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  9. Study on the effect of subcooling on vapor film collapse on high temperature particle surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tochio, Daisuke; Yanagida, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    Thermal detonation model is proposed to describe vapor explosion. According to this model, vapor film on pre-mixed high temperature droplet surface is needed to be collapsed for the trigger of the vapor explosion. It is pointed out that the vapor film collapse behavior is significantly affected by the subcooling of low temperature liquid. However, the effect of subcooling on micro-mechanism of vapor film collapse behavior is not experimentally well identified. The objective of the present research is to experimentally investigate the effect of subcooling on micro-mechanism of film boiling collapse behavior. As the results, it is experimentally clarified that the vapor film collapse behavior in low subcooling condition is qualitatively different from the vapor film collapse behavior in high subcooling condition. In case of vapor film collapse by pressure pulse, homogeneous vapor generation occurred all over the surface of steel particle in low subcooling condition. On the other hand, heterogeneous vapor generation was observed for higher subcooling condition. In case of vapor film collapse spontaneously, fluctuation of the gas-liquid interface after quenching propagated from bottom to top of the steel particle heterogeneously in low subcooling condition. On the other hand, simultaneous vapor generation occurred for higher subcooling condition. And the time transient of pressure, particle surface temperature, water temperature and visual information were simultaneously measured in the vapor film collapse experiment by external pressure pulse. Film thickness was estimated by visual data processing technique with the pictures taken by the high-speed video camera. Temperature and heat flux at the vapor-liquid interface were estimated by solving the heat condition equation with the measured pressure, liquid temperature and vapor film thickness as boundary conditions. Movement of the vapor-liquid interface were estimated with the PIV technique with the visual observation

  10. Textured surface structures formed using new techniques on transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Miyata, Toshihiro, E-mail: tmiyata@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Uozaki, Ryousuke [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Sai, Hitoshi; Koida, Takashi [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Surface-textured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films formed using two new techniques based on magnetron sputtering deposition were developed by optimizing the light scattering properties to be suitable for transparent electrode applications in thin-film silicon solar cells. Scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films were prepared using a new texture formation technique that post-etched pyramidal surface-textured AZO films prepared under deposition conditions suppressing c-axis orientation. In addition, double surface-textured AZO films were prepared using another new texture formation technique that completely removed, by post-etching, the pyramidal surface-textured AZO films previously prepared onto the initially deposited low resistivity AZO films; simultaneously, the surface of the low resistivity films was slightly etched. However, the obtained very high haze value in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light in the scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films did not contribute significantly to the obtainable photovoltaic properties in the solar cells fabricated using the films. Significant light scattering properties as well as a low sheet resistance could be achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films. In addition, a significant improvement of external quantum efficiency in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light was achieved in superstrate-type n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells fabricated using a double surface-textured AZO film prepared under optimized conditions as the transparent electrode. - Highlights: • Double surface-textured AZO films prepared using a new texture formation technique • Extensive light scattering properties with low sheet resistance achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films • Improved external quantum efficiency of μc-Si:H solar cells using a double surface-textured AZO film.

  11. RESEARCH ON STABILITY OF LIQUID FILM ON HOT SOLID SURFACE IMPINGED BY SMALL DROPLETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jia-hong; DAI Shi-qiang

    2007-01-01

    A heat and mass transfer model was proposed for the thin liquid film on the hot solid surface cooled by the impinging small droplets, with consideration of the effect of the droplet impact, surface tension, thermocapillary, evaporation/condensation, and van der Waals attraction. The nondimensional equation for predicting the evolution of the interface of the thin liquid film was derived in the presented model with the relevant boundary conditions. The stability of the thin liquid film impacted by cool small droplets is discussed.

  12. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  13. Modes of silver nanoisland film growth on the surface of ion- exchanged glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskii, A.; Reduto, I.; Kobert, J.; Lipovskii, A.

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of silver nanoisland film growth on the surface of ion-exchanged glasses processed in the air and in hydrogen atmosphere is compared. The films grown in air degrade with the increase of processing time because of oxidizing. The growth of the film in hydrogen atmosphere tends to saturate with time due to the decrease in the flow of atomic silver towards the glass surface. This is because of the formation and growth of silver nanoparticles in the bulk of the glass, these nanoparticles being the preferable sink for silver atoms.

  14. Free surface entropic lattice Boltzmann simulations of film condensation on vertical hydrophilic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Karlin, Iliya; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A model for vapor condensation on vertical hydrophilic surfaces is developed using the entropic lattice Boltzmann method extended with a free surface formulation of the evaporation–condensation problem. The model is validated with the steady liquid film formation on a flat vertical wall....... It is shown that the model is in a good agreement with the classical Nusselt equations for the laminar flow regime. Comparisons of the present model with other empirical models also demonstrate good agreement beyond the laminar regime. This allows the film condensation modeling at high film Reynolds numbers...

  15. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Ultrathin Fe Films on Pt(001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Juan; HE Ke; JIA Jin-Feng; XUE Qi-Kun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Magnetic anisotropy evolution of ultrathin Fe films grown on Pt(001) single-crystal surface is investigated by UHVin situ surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE) measurement. After annealing at ~ 600 K, the magnetic anisotropy of Fe film switches from in-plane to perpendicular at low coverage, leading to a spin reorientationtransition (SRT). Meanwhile, in the range of 3-4 monolayer (ML) thickness, the coercivity of the Fe polar hysteresis loop decreases dramatically. Further scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) investigation correlates the magnetic properties with the film structures. We attribute this SRT to the formation of Fe-Pt ordered alloy.

  16. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  17. Enhancement of surface properties on commercial polymer packaging films using various surface treatment processes (fluorination and plasma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyroux, Jérémy, E-mail: jeremy.peyroux@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63171 Aubière (France); Dubois, Marc, E-mail: marc.dubois@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63171 Aubière (France); Tomasella, Eric, E-mail: eric.tomasella@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63171 Aubière (France); Petit, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.petit@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, F-63171 Aubière (France); Flahaut, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.flahaut@univ-pau.fr [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, IPREM/ECP (UMR 5254), Hélioparc, 2 av. Pierre Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two different surface treatment processes were investigated in this work. • Both processes drastically change the composition induced on the surfaces. • Direct fluorination is identified as an efficient way to adjust surface properties. • Plasma processes result in a specific enhancement of the surface properties. • The pristine polymer surface has been successfully improved. - Abstract: Before considering their combination on commercial packaging films, two surface treatments processes were investigated. Indeed, direct fluorination and plasma processes are currently recognized as effective processes to improve polymer surface properties. The aim of this first work is to elucidate mechanisms that occur on the treated surface. The modifications of the surface layer were characterized using various complementary spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) with {sup 19}F nucleus which are suitable to determine the nature of bonding and specific groups formed during the process. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was also achieved to extract the surface chemical compositions. In addition, surface properties of the treated films were studied by specific measurements of surface energy in order to reveal surface parameters such as rugosity and chemical composition which could be adjusted. All these results underline that the layer induced regardless of the two processes plays a key role in the enhancement of the surface properties.

  18. Influence of reconstruction water-bearing levels on surface displacement of post-mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Wojciech; Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of secondary deformation characteristic of the post-mining areas is not sufficiently recognized. For ground surfaces phenomenon may be continuous or discontinuous. There is no sufficient information that describes behavior of the rock mass in the long term after end of exploitation. It is considered that this phenomenon is gradually disappears with end of exploitation. Reliable quantitative data comes only from the analysis of direct measurements in selected areas: geodetic and satellites measurements. Analyzing current situation of operating mines can be said that in the near years, more centers will limit the mining of coal mining. This will contribute to separation further of post-mining areas, in which will be required to maintaining a permanent monitoring and making predictions on the impact of ended exploitation of the rock mass surface. This will be particularly important for highly urbanized areas. This study used finite element method (FEM) to describe phenomenon of reconstruction water-bearing levels and its impact on displacement on the ground surface. It was assumed that significant factors that influence the occurrence and size of secondary deformations are: reconstruction of water-bearing levels in the prior drainer rock mass, size of past exploitation, spatial distribution of coal seams and geological and tectonic structure has been assumed. The transversally isotropic model of six elastic constants: E1 = E2, E3, ν = ν12, ν13, G12, G13 has been assumed to describe of rock mass in the numerical calculations. Geometrical models used in the numerical calculations have been developed using GIS tools. For the study two-dimensional and three-dimensional models characterized by different geological conditions and different configuration of mining data have been developed. The results obtained displacements of the ground surface for the period of mining activity has been verified with the results based on the Knothe theory. The results of

  19. Surface critical behavior of thin Ising films at the ‘special point’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Najem; Bekhechi, Smaine

    2003-03-01

    The critical surface phenomena of a magnetic thin Ising film is studied using numerical Monte-Carlo method based on Wolff cluster algorithm. With varying the surface coupling, js= Js/ J, the phase diagram exhibits a special surface coupling jsp at which all the films have a unique critical temperature Tc for an arbitrary thickness n. In spite of this, the critical exponent of the surface magnetization at the special point is found to increase with n. Moreover, non-universal features as well as dimensionality crossover from two- to three-dimensional behavior are found at this point.

  20. Surface nanoscale imaging of collagen thin films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stylianou, Andreas, E-mail: styliand@mail.ntua.gr; Yova, Dido

    2013-07-01

    Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, due to its unique properties is widely used as biomaterial, scaffold and culture substrate for cell and tissue regeneration studies. Since the majority of biological reactions occur on surfaces and structures at the nanoscale level it is of great importance to image the nanostructural surface of collagen based materials. The aim of this paper was to characterize, with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), collagen thin films formed on different substrates (glass, mica, polystyrene latex particle surfaces) and correlate their morphology with the used substrates, formation methodologies (spin coating, hydrodynamic flow) and original collagen solution. The results demonstrated that, by altering a number of parameters, it was possible to control the formation of collagen nanostructured films consisting of naturally occurring fibrils. The spin coating procedure enabled the formation of films with random oriented fibrils, while substrates influenced the fibril packing and surface roughness. The hydrodynamic flow was used for guiding fibril major orientation, while adsorption time, rinsing with buffer and solution concentration influenced the fibril orientation. The clarification of the contribution that different parameters had on thin film formation will enable the design and control of collagen nanobiomaterials with pre-determined characteristics. Highlights: • Nanocharacterization of collagen thin films with AFM • Correlation of collagen thin film morphology with the characteristics of different substrates • Correlation of collagen thin film morphology with the formation methodologies • Formation of collagen nanostructure films consisting of natural occurring fibrils was achieved • Controlled surface characteristics and orientation of collagen fibrils on thin films were achieved.

  1. Surface modification of parylene-N films for the culture of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Usman; Ko, Hyuk; Suh, Hwal; Lee, Misu; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2016-08-01

    The influence of microenvironments on the culture of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) has been investigated using parylene films with different surfaces, such as parylene-N film, UV-modified parylene-N film, functional parylene film with amine groups (parylene-A), and UV-modified parylene-A film. In this work, parylene-N film was found to induce dramatic changes in cell adhesion and cell viability before and after UV-treatment with respect to the culture of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63). The influences of such a chemical environment on cell culture were investigated in relation to the cell proliferation (viability and proliferation rate) and the cell physiology (cell cycle, protein synthesis, and differentiation) of cells grown on parylene-N film, UV-modified parylene-N film, parylene-A film, and UV-modified parylene-A film in comparison with cells grown on a polystyrene surface.

  2. Effect of incident deposition angle on optical properties and surface roughness of TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yongqiang; Yang, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties, surface roughness and packing density of TiO2 thin films are studied by obliquely deposited on K9 glass by electron beam evaporation. The surface roughness of TiO2 thin films with different incident deposition angle is compared. The experimental results show that the transmittance increases and transmittance peak shifts to short wavelength with increasing incident deposition angle, the packing density of TiO2 thin films decrease from 0.80 to 0.34 with incident deposition angle increasing from 0° to 75°. The surface roughness of TiO2 thin films increase with increasing incident deposition angle. The surface roughness of TiO2 thin films is slightly bigger than the surface roughness of K9 substrate when the incident deposition angle is 75°. When the incident deposition angle is constant, TiO2 thin films surface roughness decrease with increase of film thickness.

  3. Surface chemistry and electronic structure of nonpolar and polar GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna, T.C. Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha; Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry and electronic structure of polar and nonpolar GaN is reported. • Influence of polarization on electron affinity of p & np GaN films is investigated. • Correlation between surface morphology and polarity has been deduced. - Abstract: Photoemission and microscopic analysis of nonpolar (a-GaN/r-Sapphire) and polar (c-GaN/c-Sapphire) epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) films grown via RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy is reported. The effect of polarization on surface properties like surface states, electronic structure, chemical bonding and morphology has been investigated and correlated. It was observed that polarization lead to shifts in core level (CL) as well as valence band (VB) spectra. Angle dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic analysis revealed higher surface oxide in polar GaN film compared to nonpolar GaN film. On varying the take off angle (TOA) from 0° to 60°, the Ga−O/Ga−N ratio varied from 0.11–0.23 for nonpolar and 0.17–0.36 for polar GaN film. The nonpolar film exhibited N-face polarity while Ga-face polarity was perceived in polar GaN film due to the inherent polarization effect. Polarization charge compensated surface states were observed on the polar GaN film and resulted in downward band bending. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic measurements revealed electron affinity and ionization energy of 3.4 ± 0.1 eV and 6.8 ± 0.1 eV for nonpolar GaN film and 3.8 ± 0.1 eV and 7.2 ± 0.1 eV for polar GaN film respectively. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements divulged smooth morphology with pits on polar GaN film. The nonpolar film on the other hand showed pyramidal structures having facets all over the surface.

  4. Glass-to-Rubber Transition of Polymer Thin Films and Their Surface Dynamical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.P.Wang; H.F.Zhang; Xudong Xiao; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2000-01-01

    @@ Glass-to-rubber transition temperature, Tg' of polystyrene(PS) (Mw=500K, Mw/Mn=1.03)thin films (thickness, d= 100 to 2000 A) deposited on Si with native oxide was determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry(VASE. We observed that the Tg of the polymer films decreased monotonically as the film thickness was decreased. It had previously been proposed that this was due to a highly mobile surface rubbery layer that existed even well below Tg' We used atomic force microscopic(AFM)adhesion measurement as a direct probe to investigate the surface dynamical properties of the PS samples and a thin film ofpoly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA) (Mw= 148K, Mw/Mn=17, and Tg bullk=50℃). By comparing the AFM results and those obtained from shear modulus measurements of a bulk sample, we found no enhancement in the molecular relaxation at the free surface of these samples.

  5. New insight into surface properties of LB film of an amphiphilic terpolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Li Yue; Fang Ma; Zhi Fei Dai; Meng Liu; Lei Xing; Hai Yan Fan; Zhan Wen Xing; Shao Qin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Amphiphilic terpolymer (TPR) exhibits good film-forming behavior on pure water observed by means of n-A isotherms. To gain insight into physical properties of TPR, the films have been deposited on silicon substrates at different surface pressure by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. It was found that the increase in peak intensities of stretching mode was due to orderly packing of the films. The contact angles increased with increasing surface pressure, indicating an increase in hydrophobicity due to dense packing of chains of TPR. The cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that TPR showed good current shielding effect for electron-transfer. In a word, LB films of TPR can produce a variety of structures with varied topography, enabling us to control not only the functionality of the surface, but also the interfacial transport characteristics.

  6. Silicon surface passivation using thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Jhuma; Vandana; Batra, Neha; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Singh, Rajbir; Maurya, K. K.; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is a potential material for equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling in microelectronics; however, its surface passivation properties particularly on silicon are not well explored. This paper reports investigation on passivation properties of thermally deposited thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition system (ALD) on silicon surface. As-deposited pristine film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with <100 cm/s surface recombination velocity (SRV) vis-à-vis thicker films. Further improvement in passivation quality is achieved with annealing at 400 °C for 10 min where the SRV reduces to ∼20 cm/s. Conductance measurements show that the interface defect density (Dit) increases with film thickness whereas its value decreases after annealing. XRR data corroborate with the observations made by FTIR and SRV data.

  7. Surface segregation in Nb-doped BaTiO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arveux, Emmanuel, E-mail: arveux@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [ICMCB-CNRS, University of Bordeaux, 87 Avenue, Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac 33608 (France); Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Payan, Sandrine; Maglione, Mario [ICMCB-CNRS, University of Bordeaux, 87 Avenue, Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac 33608 (France); Klein, Andreas [Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    We have used in situ photoemission spectroscopy to investigate Niobium doping in polycristalline BaTiO{sub 3}. The valence band maximum position progressively shifts from 2.5 eV for undoped to 2.84 eV for Nb-doped films. Ceramics and single crystal have been investigated for comparison with thin films. Nb-doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics and Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal show higher Fermi level position indicating that our doped films are less conducting regarding their bulk parents. This was confirmed by impedance spectroscopy under variable temperature. Large amount of niobium is clearly observable at surface but the amount of dopant is drastically reduced below the near-surface region, as evidenced by depth profile. Therefore, we provide evidence of surface segregation which would explain the contrasted resistivity values reported in literature for such donor-doped films.

  8. Surface Electromechanical Coupling on DLC Film with Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱守星; 丁建宁; 范真; 李长生; 蔡兰; 杨继昌

    2004-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film composed of microscopically insulation but microscopically a mixture of conducting (sp2) and insulating (spa) phases was discussed on the local modification with a conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM). Especially, a topographic change was observed when a direct current (DC) bias-voltage was applied to the DLC film. Experimental results show that a nanoscale pit on DLC surface was formed when applying a positive 25 V on DLC film. According to the interacting force between CoCr-coated microelectronic scanning probe (MESP) tip and DLC surface, as well as the Sondheimer oscillation theory, the "scalewing effect" of the pit was explained. Electromechanical coupling on DLC film suggested that the depth of pits increased with an increase of load applied to surface when the cantilever-deflected signal was less than a certain threshold voltage.

  9. Structure and Surface Analysis of SHI Irradiated Thin Films of Cadmium Telluride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Pahwa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium Telluride (CdTe thin films grown by thermal evaporation on quartz substrates were irradiated with swift (100 MeV Ni + 4 ions at various fluences in the range 1011 – 1013 cm – 2. The modification in structure and surface morphology has been analyzed as a function of fluence using XRD and AFM techniques. The XRD showed a reduction in peak intensity and grain size with increasing fluence. The AFM micrographs of irradiated thin films show small spherical nanostructures. In addition to direct imaging, AFM profile data enable to derive the Power Spectral Density (PSD of the surface roughness. In the present work PSD spectra computed from AFM data were used for studying the surface morphology of films. The PSD curves were fitted with an appropriate analytic function and characteristic parameters were deduced and discussed in order to compare film morphology with varying fluence levels.

  10. Surface states and photovoltaic effects in CdSe quantum dot films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronik, L.; Ashkenasy, N.; Leibovitch, M.; Fefer, E.; Shapira, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat-Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Electrical Engineering-Physical Electronics; Gorer, S.; Hodes, G. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces

    1998-05-01

    Photovoltaic effects in CdSe quantum dot (QD) films have been studied using surface photovoltage spectroscopy and complementary methods. The results show that, contrary to previous studies, nonnegligible electric fields can exist in QD films. As a result, driftlike currents must be considered, in addition to the well-known diffusion like currents. However, it is found that the specific case of photovoltage sign reversal, observed after etching highly quantized CdSe QD films, is governed by diffusion like transport. The latter is highly influenced by preferential trapping of one type of charge carrier. The preferential trapping is shown to be surface localized and is strongly ambient dependent. It is shown that the photovoltaic properties of these CdSe QD films are dominated by their surface state distribution.

  11. Numerical Modeling and Analysis of Grooved Surface Applied to Film Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Guo; Z. C. Liu; Y.Y.Yan; Z.W.Han

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of film cooling,numerical investigation was carried out to study the effects of different film-cooled plates on surface heat transfer.Both grooved and non-grooved surfaces were concerned.The modeling was performed using Fluent software with the adoption of Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-co model as the turbulence closure.The coolant was supplied by a single film cooling hole with an inclination angle of 30°.The Mach numbers for the coolant flow and the mainstream flow were fixed at 0 and 0.6,respectively.At three blowing ratios of 0.5,1.0 and 1.5,the aerodynamic behaviour of the mixing process as well as the heat transfer performance of the film cooling were presented.The numerical results were validated using experimental data extracted from a benchmark test.Good agreements between numerical results and the experimental data were observed.For the film cooling efficiency,it shows that both local and laterally averaged cooling effectiveness can be improved by the non-smooth surface at different blowing ratios.Using the grooved surface,the turbulence intensity upon the plate can be reduced notably,and the mixing between the two flows is weakened due to the reduced turbulence level.The results indicate that the cooling effectiveness of film cooling can be enhanced by applying the grooved surface.

  12. Effects of surface morphology on the anchoring and electrooptical dynamics of confined nanoscale liquid crystalline films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Alison R; Kwon, Hye J; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2002-12-18

    The orientation and dynamics of two 40-nm thick films of 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a nematic liquid crystal, have been studied using step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The films are confined in nanocavities bounded by an interdigitated electrode array (IDA) patterned on a zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrate. The effects of the ZnSe surface morphology (specifically, two variations of nanometer-scale corrugations obtained by mechanical polishing) on the initial ordering and reorientation dynamics of the electric-field-induced Freedericksz transition are presented here. The interaction of the 5CB with ZnSe surfaces bearing a spicular corrugation induces a homeotropic (surface normal) alignment of the film confined in the cavity. Alternately, when ZnSe is polished to generate fine grooves along the surface, a planar alignment is promoted in the liquid crystalline film. Time-resolved FTIR studies that enable the direct measurement of the rate constants for the electric-field-induced orientation and thermal relaxation reveal that the dynamic transitions of the two film structures are significantly different. These measurements quantitatively demonstrate the strong effects of surface morphology on the anchoring, order, and dynamics of liquid crystalline thin films.

  13. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2016-06-23

    While recent reports have demonstrated that oxide-derived Cu-based electrodes exhibit high selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential, the low catalytic current density (<2 mA/cm2 at -0.45 V vs. RHE) still largely limits its applications for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open frameworks, the resulting Cu foam electrodes prepared at higher temperatures exhibit enhanced electrochemically active surface area and distinct surface structures. In particular, the Cu foam electrode prepared at 500 °C exhibits an extremely high geometric current density of ~9.4 mA/cm2 in CO2-satrurated 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution and achieving ~39% CO and ~23% HCOOH Faradaic efficiencies at -0.45 V vs. RHE. The high activity and significant selectivity enhancement are attributable to the formation of abundant grain-boundary supported active sites and preferable (100) and (111) facets as a result of reconstruction of Cu surface facets. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of Cu foam with open 3D frameworks and the favorable surface structures is a promising strategy to develop an advanced Cu electrocatalyst that can operate at high current density and low overpotential for CO2 reduction.

  14. Metal-insulator transition and nanoscale phase separation in a hole-doped surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Daniel; Snijders, Paul; Weitering, Hanno

    2014-03-01

    Doping, the deliberate introduction of impurities to alter electronic or magnetic properties, has been a tremendously successful method to study and understand systems with multiple competing interactions, as reflected in both the widespread use of doped semiconductors and in the large number of emergent electronic phases in doping-dependent phase diagrams of e.g. complex oxides. In low dimensional systems, however, the perturbation to the crystal lattice by the dopant atoms can overwhelm a delicate balance of interactions in e.g. a ground state with coexisting phases. Here we introduce a modulation doping technique used to dope holes in a surface reconstruction of Sn on Si(111). Using variable and low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observe a doping-induced metal-insulator phase transition that is of a displacive nature, contrasting with the order-disorder nature of other surface phase transitions. Moreover, the transition leads to an intrinsic nanoscale phase coexistence at 5 K never before observed on semiconductor surfaces. Clearly, modulation doping allows us to study the delicate balance of interactions in the phase diagram of low-dimensional electronic surface systems that is otherwise experimentally inaccessible. Funded by NSF DMR.

  15. Surface evolution of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite thin films at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, D., E-mail: dnewby@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kuyyalil, J.; Laverock, J. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Ludwig, K.F. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Yu, Y.; Davis, J. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Gopalan, S.; Pal, U.B.; Basu, S. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, 110 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Smith, K.E. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); School of Chemical Sciences and The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-08-31

    The ultra-high vacuum surface preparation of heteroepitaxial lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite thin films has been studied using soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Specifically, the effect of annealing the films at low temperatures in low partial pressures of oxygen and argon has been investigated. We find that atmospheric surface carbon contamination of the films can be removed in select anneal temperature regimes in argon, but remains bound to the surface with oxygen annealing at any temperature. Irrespective of the gas used, an insulating phase transition occurs near 300 °C due to strontium segregation at the surface. The surface develops more insulating character if annealed with oxygen. Different species are proposed to be responsible for the discrepancy in insulating character.

  16. Effect of Solvent on Surface Ordering of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Minyu; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Bryan, Zachary J; Jasensky, Joshua; McNeil, Anne J; Chen, Zhan

    2015-05-12

    Enhancement of charge transport in organic polymer semiconductors is a crucial step in developing optimized devices. A variety of sample preparation conditions, such as film fabrication method, solvent species, and annealing, were found to influence the hole mobility of organic polymers. Despite the fact that many factors can influence their performance, it is believed that polymer surface ordering plays a key role in determining organic polymer function. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to nondestructively map the surface/interfacial ordering of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films prepared using different solvents; we believe that solvent interactions determine the degree of surface/interfacial ordering. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to supplement SFG to systematically study bulk crystallinity and surface morphology. We conclude that SFG is a powerful tool to elucidate the surface/interfacial structural information on polymer semiconducting films. We demonstrate that the solvent composition used to prepare P3HT thin films influences the resulting film surface morphology, surface/interfacial ordering, and bulk crystallinity.

  17. Rapid regional surface uplift of the northern Altiplano plateau revealed by multiproxy paleoclimate reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nandini; Garzione, Carmala N.; Jaramillo, Carlos; Shanahan, Timothy; Carlotto, Victor; Pullen, Alex; Moreno, Federico; Anderson, Veronica; Moreno, Enrique; Eiler, John

    2016-08-01

    The central Altiplano is inferred to have experienced ∼ 2.5 ± 1km surface uplift between ∼10 and 6 Ma, while the southern Altiplano experienced a similar magnitude of surface uplift that began earlier, between ∼16 and 9 Ma. To properly constrain the along strike timing of the Altiplano plateau surface uplift, it is necessary to know how and when the northernmost part of the Altiplano plateau evolved. We reconstruct the paleoclimate and infer the corresponding paleoelevation from the Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Descanso-Yauri basin (14-15°S) in the northernmost part of the Altiplano plateau using 4 different proxies, including carbonate clumped isotope composition (i.e., Δ47 values), carbonate δ18Oc, leaf wax δDwax and pollen assemblages from paleosol, lacustrine and palustrine carbonates and organic-rich sediments. The isotopic signatures reflect past climate conditions of mean annual air temperature (Δ47) and meteoric water isotope values (δ18Oc, δDwax). Our results show that the northernmost plateau remained at low elevation (0.9 ± 0.8 to 2.1 ± 0.9km) until late Miocene time (∼9 Ma) characterized by ∼15 °C warmer than modern temperature (mean annual air temperature of 23 ± 4 °C, 2σ), low elevation vegetation and precipitation signature with reconstructed □ δ18Omw (VSMOW) of - 8.3 ± 2.0 ‰ (2 σ) from carbonate (δ18Oc) and - 8.6 ± 1.8 ‰ (2 σ) from leaf wax (δDwax). Modern elevations of 4 km were not reached until 5.4 ± 1.0Ma, as indicated by a negative shift in δDwax (VSMOW) from - 143.4 ± 12.8 ‰ (2 σ) to - 209.2 ± 21.1 ‰ (2 σ) between 9.1 ± 0.7 and 5.4 ± 1.0Ma. The timing of surface uplift of the northernmost Altiplano is consistent with the evidence for late Miocene surface uplift of the central Altiplano (16-19°S) between 10 and 6 Ma, and indicates that regional scale uplift in the northern-central plateau significantly postdates the onset of surface uplift in the southern Altiplano (19-22°S) between ∼16

  18. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Irvine, T.F., Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  19. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Irvine, T.F., Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  20. Fabrication, Characterization, and Surface-Enhanced Raman Activity Study of Silver Coated Gold Nanoparticulate Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG,Jing-Huai; ZHONG,Chong-Gui; MU,Ren-Wang; SHI,Jian-Zhen; GE,Cun-Wang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the preparation of Ag-clad Au colloidal monolayer films by a combination of colloid self-assembly and liquid phase microwave high-pressure technique. Firstly, monodisperse Au nanoparticles prepared by microwave heating method were assembled onto a quartz slide. Then, these Au colloidal particles on the quartz surface acted as seeds for growing the Ag-clad Au composite particulate films. The obtained particulate films were characterized by UV-Vis spectra and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the thickness of the shell and thus the size of particles in the composite colloidal films could be controlled by deposition of Ag on the preformed Au colloidal particle film in the microwave reaction system, and such films significantly increased the surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement (SERS) ability compared with Au colloidal particle films. Their strong enhancement ability may mainly stem from relatively large particle consisting of Ag cladding as well as effective coupling among particles in the Ag-clad Au particle films.