Fanselow, J. L.; Vavrus, J. L.
ARCH, file archival system for DEC VAX, provides for easy offline storage and retrieval of arbitrary files on DEC VAX system. System designed to eliminate situations that tie up disk space and lead to confusion when different programers develop different versions of same programs and associated files.
Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.
The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.
4 KB of data is read or written, data is copied back and forth using trampoline buffers — pages that are shared during proxy initialization — because...in 2008. CIO Magazine. 104 · File system virtual appliances  Megiddo, N. and Modha, D. S. 2003. ARC: A Self-Tuning, Low Over- head Replacement
Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, Muhammad Ikram
An abstract file system is defined here as a partial function from (absolute) paths to data. Such a file system determines the set of valid paths. It allows the file system to be read and written at a valid path, and it allows the system to be modified by the Unix operations for creation, removal,
Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.
In this note, we define an abstract file system as a partial function from (absolute) paths to data. Such a file system determines the set of valid paths. It allows the file system to be read and written at a valid path, and it allows the system to be modified by the Unix operations for removal
Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David
Most current multiprocessor file systems are designed to use multiple disks in parallel, using the high aggregate bandwidth to meet the growing I/0 requirements of parallel scientific applications. Many multiprocessor file systems provide applications with a conventional Unix-like interface, allowing the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, increasing the ease of programmability, but making it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. In addition to providing an insufficient interface, most current multiprocessor file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic scientific multiprocessor workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as the performance advantages offered by that interface.
This thesis addresses the problem of implementing mixed-media storage systems. In this work a mixed-media file system is defined to be a system that stores both conventional (best-effort) file data and real-time continuous-media data. Continuous-media data is usually bulky, and servers storing and
Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.
In this paper we present our ongoing work on the Pegasus File System (PFS), a distributed and customizable file system that can be used for off-line file system experiments and on-line file system storage. PFS is best described as an object-oriented component library from which either a true file
Runnels, Tyson D.
This is a case study. It deals with the use of a 'virtual file system' (VFS) for Boeing's UNIX-based Product Standards Data System (PSDS). One of the objectives of PSDS is to store digital standards documents. The file-storage requirements are that the files must be rapidly accessible, stored for long periods of time - as though they were paper, protected from disaster, and accumulative to about 80 billion characters (80 gigabytes). This volume of data will be approached in the first two years of the project's operation. The approach chosen is to install a hierarchical file migration system using optical disk cartridges. Files are migrated from high-performance media to lower performance optical media based on a least-frequency-used algorithm. The optical media are less expensive per character stored and are removable. Vital statistics about the removable optical disk cartridges are maintained in a database. The assembly of hardware and software acts as a single virtual file system transparent to the PSDS user. The files are copied to 'backup-and-recover' media whose vital statistics are also stored in the database. Seventeen months into operation, PSDS is storing 49 gigabytes. A number of operational and performance problems were overcome. Costs are under control. New and/or alternative uses for the VFS are being considered.
Peterson, Larry L.; Rao, Herman C.
Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.
Rao, Herman C.; Peterson, Larry L.
Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.
Full Text Available We present the most interesting elements of the correctness specification of BilbyFs, a performant Linux flash file system. The BilbyFs specification supports asynchronous writes, a feature that has been overlooked by several file system verification projects, and has been used to verify the correctness of BilbyFs's fsync( C implementation. It makes use of nondeterminism to be concise and is shallowly-embedded in higher-order logic.
... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...
Contemporary file systems implement a set of abstractions and semantics that are suboptimal for many (if not most) purposes. The philosophy of using the simple mechanisms of the file system as the basis for a vast array of higher-level mechanisms leads to inefficient and incorrect implementations. We propose several extensions to the canonical file system model, including explicit support for lock files, indexed files, and resource forks, and the benefit of session semantics for write updates...
System interrogates and maintains user-definable data files from remote terminals, using English-like, free-form query language easily learned by persons not proficient in computer programming. System operates in asynchronous mode, allowing any number of inquiries within limitation of available core to be active concurrently.
Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.
In this paper we present our ongoing work on the Pegasus File System (PFS), a distributed and customizable file system that can be used for off-line file system experiments and on-line file system storage. PFS is best described as an object-oriented component library from which either a true file system or a file-system simulator can be constructed. Each of the components in the library is easily replaced by another implementation to accommodate a wide range of applications.
Molina-Estolano, E; Maltzahn, C; Brandt, S A; Bent, J
Parallel file systems are gaining in popularity in high-end computing centers as well as commercial data centers. High-end computing systems are expected to scale exponentially and to pose new challenges to their storage scalability in terms of cost and power. To address these challenges scientists and file system designers will need a thorough understanding of the design space of parallel file systems. Yet there exist few systematic studies of parallel file system behavior at petabyte- and exabyte scale. An important reason is the significant cost of getting access to large-scale hardware to test parallel file systems. To contribute to this understanding we are building a parallel file system simulator that can simulate parallel file systems at very large scale. Our goal is to simulate petabyte-scale parallel file systems on a small cluster or even a single machine in reasonable time and fidelity. With this simulator, file system experts will be able to tune existing file systems for specific workloads, scientists and file system deployment engineers will be able to better communicate workload requirements, file system designers and researchers will be able to try out design alternatives and innovations at scale, and instructors will be able to study very large-scale parallel file system behavior in the class room. In this paper we describe our approach and provide preliminary results that are encouraging both in terms of fidelity and simulation scalability.
Powers, Alan K.
The Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation Facility's (NAS) CRAY C916/1024 accesses a "virtual" on-line file system, which is expanding beyond a terabyte of information. This paper will present some options to fine tuning Data Migration Facility (DMF) to stretch the online disk capacity and explore the transitions to newer devices (STK 4490, ER90, RAID).
Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.
Clow, Daniel R.; And Others
Presents a group treatment model using Thought-Feeling-Action (TFA) Systems, an offense- and offender-specific group treatment for abusers. Describes use of TFA Systems in group of court-referred male spouse-abusers. Reviews evolution of TFA Systems, then focuses on TFA Systems treatment of spouse abusers. Notes that system can be adapted to other…
Hartman, John H.; Ousterhout, John K.
The design of Zebra, a striped network file system, is presented. Zebra applies ideas from log-structured file system (LFS) and RAID research to network file systems, resulting in a network file system that has scalable performance, uses its servers efficiently even when its applications are using small files, and provides high availability. Zebra stripes file data across multiple servers, so that the file transfer rate is not limited by the performance of a single server. High availability is achieved by maintaining parity information for the file system. If a server fails its contents can be reconstructed using the contents of the remaining servers and the parity information. Zebra differs from existing striped file systems in the way it stripes file data: Zebra does not stripe on a per-file basis; instead it stripes the stream of bytes written by each client. Clients write to the servers in units called stripe fragments, which are analogous to segments in an LFS. Stripe fragments contain file blocks that were written recently, without regard to which file they belong. This method of striping has numerous advantages over per-file striping, including increased server efficiency, efficient parity computation, and elimination of parity update.
Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.
We have implemented an integrated and configurable file system called the PFS and a trace-driven file-system simulator called Patsy. Patsy is used for off-line analysis of file-system algorithms, PFS is used for on-line file-system data storage. Algorithms are first analyzed in Patsy and when we are
... navigation Search form Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...
Nov 6, 2014 ... The result of the developed system shows a simple and effective graphic user interface ... business transactions, decision-making records and storage of .... Start. Input username and password. Access denied was login.
Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.
We have implemented an integrated and configurable file system called the Pegasus filesystem (PFS) and a trace-driven file-system simulator called Patsy. Patsy is used for off-line analysis of file-systemalgorithms, PFS is used for on-line file-systemdata storage. Algorithms are first analyzed in
Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C
Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.
Siegel, Alex; Birman, Kenneth; Marzullo, Keith
Deceit, a distributed file system (DFS) being developed at Cornell, focuses on flexible file semantics in relation to efficiency, scalability, and reliability. Deceit servers are interchangeable and collectively provide the illusion of a single, large server machine to any clients of the Deceit service. Non-volatile replicas of each file are stored on a subset of the file servers. The user is able to set parameters on a file to achieve different levels of availability, performance, and one-copy serializability. Deceit also supports a file version control mechanism. In contrast with many recent DFS efforts, Deceit can behave like a plain Sun Network File System (NFS) server and can be used by any NFS client without modifying any client software. The current Deceit prototype uses the ISIS Distributed Programming Environment for all communication and process group management, an approach that reduces system complexity and increases system robustness.
Kotz, David; Nieuwejaar, Nils
As we gain experience with parallel file systems, it becomes increasingly clear that a single solution does not suit all applications. For example, it appears to be impossible to find a single appropriate interface, caching policy, file structure, or disk-management strategy. Furthermore, the proliferation of file-system interfaces and abstractions make applications difficult to port. We propose that the traditional functionality of parallel file systems be separated into two components: a fixed core that is standard on all platforms, encapsulating only primitive abstractions and interfaces, and a set of high-level libraries to provide a variety of abstractions and application-programmer interfaces (API's). We present our current and next-generation file systems as examples of this structure. Their features, such as a three-dimensional file structure, strided read and write interfaces, and I/O-node programs, are specifically designed with the flexibility and performance necessary to support a wide range of applications.
The development of the communication series A emphasized new aspects of data exchange. The transfer of data, subject of my project of end of studies, consists in transferring from the files of a support of mass towards another via port USB. In first phase, I had like stain the realization of an embarked system allowing the communication between a key USB and final of communication such as a Pc. For this fact, I had to include/understand the operation of protocol USB and thus I could programmed a Peak to manage this communication. The second phase, will consist in extending this project towards a transmission de< donnees between two keys USB without intervention of a powerful machine equipped with an operating system pour rant to manage this transaction. (Author)
Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Zhang, Zhenhua; Grider, Gary
Improved techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using a list-based index to identify file replicas. A file and at least one replica of the file are stored in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. An index for the file comprises at least one list comprising a pointer to a storage location of the file and a storage location of the at least one replica of the file. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and one or more sub-files. The index may also comprise a checksum value for one or more of the file and the replica(s) of the file. The checksum value can be evaluated to validate the file and/or the file replica(s). A query can be processed using the list.
Bosch, H.G.P.; Jansen, P.G.; Mullender, Sape J.
This (short) paper presents the Clockwise, a mixed-media file system. The primary goal of the Clockwise is to provide a storage architecture that supports the storage and retrieval of best-effort and real-time file system data. Clockwise provides an abstraction called a dynamic partition that groups
Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Goodrich, Michael T.; Papamanthou, Charalampos
We study the problem of authenticated storage, where we wish to construct protocols that allow to outsource any complex file system to an untrusted server and yet ensure the file-system's integrity. We introduce Athos, a new, platform-independent and user-transparent architecture for authenticated...
Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon
This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.
The distributed file system landscape is scattered. Besides a plethora of research file systems, there is also a large number of production grade file systems with various strengths and weaknesses. The file system, as an abstraction of permanent storage, is appealing because it provides application portability and integration with legacy and third-party applications, including UNIX utilities. On the other hand, the general and simple file system interface makes it notoriously difficult for a distributed file system to perform well under a variety of different workloads. This contribution provides a taxonomy of commonly used distributed file systems and points out areas of research and development that are particularly important for high-energy physics.
Computer Security Team
The Windows Distributed File System (DFS) hosts user directories for all NICE users plus many more data. Files can be accessed from anywhere, via a dedicated web portal (http://cern.ch/dfs). Due to the ease of access to DFS with in CERN it is of utmost importance to properly protect access to sensitive data. As the use of DFS access control mechanisms is not obvious to all users, passwords, certificates or sensitive files might get exposed. At least this happened in past to the Andrews File System (AFS) - the Linux equivalent to DFS) - and led to bad publicity due to a journalist accessing supposedly "private" AFS folders (SonntagsZeitung 2009/11/08). This problem does not only affect the individual user but also has a bad impact on CERN's reputation when it comes to IT security. Therefore, all departments and LHC experiments agreed recently to apply more stringent protections to all DFS user folders. The goal of this data protection policy is to assist users in pro...
The Andrew File System is a world-wide distributed file system linking hundreds of universities and organizations, including CERN. Files can be accessed from anywhere, via dedicated AFS client programs or via web interfaces that export the file contents on the web. Due to the ease of access to AFS it is of utmost importance to properly protect access to sensitive data in AFS. As the use of AFS access control mechanisms is not obvious to all users, passwords, private SSH keys or certificates have been exposed in the past. In one specific instance, this also led to bad publicity due to a journalist accessing supposedly "private" AFS folders (SonntagsZeitung 2009/11/08). This problem does not only affect the individual user but also has a bad impact on CERN's reputation when it comes to IT security. Therefore, all departments and LHC experiments agreed in April 2010 to apply more stringent folder protections to all AFS user folders. The goal of this data protection policy is to assist users in...
Lee, Young Jai; Park, Sun Hee; Hwang, In Ah; Kim, Hee Kyung
In this technical report, we analyze NOS file structure for Cyber 170-875 and Cyber 960-31 computer system. We also describe functions, procedure and how-to-operate and how-to-use of VDS. VDS is used to manage large files effectively for Cyber computer system. The purpose of the VDS installation is to increase the virtual disk storage by utilizing magnetic tape, to assist the users of the computer system in managing their files, and to enhance the performance of KAERI Cyber computer system. (Author)
The NASA Work Unit System is a management information system for research tasks (i.e., work units) performed under NASA grants and contracts. It supplies profiles on research efforts and statistics on fund distribution. The file maintenance operator can add, delete and change records at a remote terminal or can submit punched cards to the computer room for batch update. The system is designed for file maintenance by a person with little or no knowledge of data processing techniques.
Andrey Vladimirovich Ostroukh
Full Text Available The article describes the most common Linux Kernel File Systems. The research was carried out on a personal computer, the characteristics of which are written in the article. The study was performed on a typical workstation running GNU/Linux with below characteristics. On a personal computer for measuring the file performance, has been installed the necessary software. Based on the results, conclusions and proposed recommendations for use of file systems. Identified and recommended by the best ways to store data.
National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...
Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Zhang, Jingwang
Techniques are provided for small file aggregation in a parallel computing system. An exemplary method for storing a plurality of files generated by a plurality of processes in a parallel computing system comprises aggregating the plurality of files into a single aggregated file; and generating metadata for the single aggregated file. The metadata comprises an offset and a length of each of the plurality of files in the single aggregated file. The metadata can be used to unpack one or more of the files from the single aggregated file.
... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...
Vesta Sergeevna Matveeva
Full Text Available All existing file browsers displays 3 timestamps for every file in file system NTFS. Nowadays there are a lot of utilities that can manipulate temporal attributes to conceal the traces of file using. However every file in NTFS has 8 timestamps that are stored in file record and used in detecting the fact of attributes substitution. The authors suggest a method of revealing original timestamps after replacement and automated variant of it in case of a set of files.
Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David
As the input/output (I/O) needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. Initial experiments, reported in this paper, indicate that Galley is capable of providing high-performance 1/O to applications the applications that rely on them. In Section 3 we describe that access data in patterns that have been observed to be common.
CERN. Geneva; Altman, Jeffrey
The talk will discuss the ten operational capabilities that have made AFS unique in the distributed file system space and how these capabilities are being expanded upon to meet the needs of the 21st century. Derrick Brashear and Jeffrey Altman will present a technical road map of new features and technical innovations that are under development by the OpenAFS community and Your File System, Inc. funded by a U.S. Department of Energy Small Business Innovative Research grant. The talk will end with a comparison of AFS to its modern days competitors.
I have recently developed DMFS, a Data Migration File System, for NetBSD. This file system provides kernel support for the data migration system being developed by my research group at NASA/Ames. The file system utilizes an underlying file store to provide the file backing, and coordinates user and system access to the files. It stores its internal metadata in a flat file, which resides on a separate file system. This paper will first describe our data migration system to provide a context for DMFS, then it will describe DMFS. It also will describe the changes to NetBSD needed to make DMFS work. Then it will give an overview of the file archival and restoration procedures, and describe how some typical user actions are modified by DMFS. Lastly, the paper will present simple performance measurements which indicate that there is little performance loss due to the use of the DMFS layer.
Shinde, Pravin; Van Hensbergen, Eric
A mechanism is provided for group communications using a MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system. A master application creates a multi-pipe synthetic file in the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system, the master application indicating a multi-pipe operation to be performed. The master application then writes a header-control block of the multi-pipe synthetic file specifying at least one of a multi-pipe synthetic file system name, a message type, a message size, a specific destination, or a specification of the multi-pipe operation. Any other application participating in the group communications then opens the same multi-pipe synthetic file. A MULTI-PIPE file system module then implements the multi-pipe operation as identified by the master application. The master application and the other applications then either read or write operation messages to the multi-pipe synthetic file and the MULTI-PIPE synthetic file system module performs appropriate actions.
... government; or (3) preempt tribal law. Therefore, a tribal summary impact statement is not required under... 0651-AC64 Fee for Filing a Patent Application Other Than by the Electronic Filing System AGENCY: United..., that is not filed by electronic means as prescribed by the Director of the United States Patent and...
The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron
A sparse file is stored without holes by storing a data portion of the sparse file using a parallel log-structured file system; and generating an index entry for the data portion, the index entry comprising a logical offset, physical offset and length of the data portion. The holes can be restored to the sparse file upon a reading of the sparse file. The data portion can be stored at a logical end of the sparse file. Additional storage efficiency can optionally be achieved by (i) detecting a write pattern for a plurality of the data portions and generating a single patterned index entry for the plurality of the patterned data portions; and/or (ii) storing the patterned index entries for a plurality of the sparse files in a single directory, wherein each entry in the single directory comprises an identifier of a corresponding sparse file.
Though the science of medicine subscribes to learning from best practices and the transmission of superior treatment regimens across national boundaries, the same ethos does not inform political debates surrounding health system reform. The Canadian and English health systems have been used - and, more frequently - abused by American politicians in their quest to support their own model of reform, or preserve the status quo.
The branch filing system collects research and study reports, translations, trip reports, literature searches and information on scientific and technical events in Czechoslovakia. The method is described of filing, processing and use of the materials. (M.D.)
Suhartono, Derwin; Setiawan, Erwin; Irwanto, Djon
The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.
Full Text Available The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.
CERN. Geneva; Altman, Jeffrey
Derrick Brashear and Jeffrey Altman will present a technical history of the evolution of Andrew File System starting with the early days of the Andrew Project at Carnegie Mellon through the commercialization by Transarc Corporation and IBM and a decade of OpenAFS. The talk will be technical with a focus on the various decisions and implementation trade-offs that were made over the course of AFS versions 1 through 4, the development of the Distributed Computing Environment Distributed File System (DCE DFS), and the course of the OpenAFS development community. The speakers will also discuss the various AFS branches developed at the University of Michigan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.
Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa
The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…
McDaniel, Garry L.
The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention project. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for achieving a coordinated service delivery system for…
Rao, Herman Chung-Hwa
File systems have long been the most important and most widely used form of shared permanent storage. File systems in traditional time-sharing systems, such as Unix, support a coherent sharing model for multiple users. Distributed file systems implement this sharing model in local area networks. However, most distributed file systems fail to scale from local area networks to an internet. Four characteristics of scalability were recognized: size, wide area, autonomy, and heterogeneity. Owing to size and wide area, techniques such as broadcasting, central control, and central resources, which are widely adopted by local area network file systems, are not adequate for an internet file system. An internet file system must also support the notion of autonomy because an internet is made up by a collection of independent organizations. Finally, heterogeneity is the nature of an internet file system, not only because of its size, but also because of the autonomy of the organizations in an internet. The Jade File System, which provides a uniform way to name and access files in the internet environment, is presented. Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Because of autonomy, Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file systems may not be modified. In order to avoid the complexity of maintaining an internet-wide, global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. In Jade's design, we pay careful attention to avoiding unnecessary network messages between clients and file servers in order to achieve acceptable performance. Jade's name space supports two novel features: (1) it allows multiple file systems to be mounted under one direction; and (2) it permits one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of Jade was implemented to examine and validate its
Spruin, E.; Alleyne, E.; Baker, R.; Papadaki, I.; Franz, A.
Purpose: Support service provisions for domestic abuse victims has typically focused on the immediate risk and etiological factors associated with abuse. Consequently, there is limited research exploring more persistent and pervasive factors involved in this cycle of abuse, such as subjective experiences and beliefs held by victims of domestic abuse. The current study is a preliminary exploration of the individual experience of domestic abuse including the belief systems of participants. Incr...
Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C
Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of user-defined file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and semantic metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, user-defined attributes, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS incorporates Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the de facto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.
Bowman, Mic; Camargo, Bill
Examines file sharing within corporations that use wide-area, distributed file systems. Applications and user interactions strongly suggest that the addition of services typically associated with digital libraries (content-based file location, strongly typed objects, representation of complex relationships between documents, and extrinsic…
Kotz, David F.; Ellis, Carla Schlatter
The question of whether prefetching blocks on the file into the block cache can effectively reduce overall execution time of a parallel computation, even under favorable assumptions, is considered. Experiments have been conducted with an interleaved file system testbed on the Butterfly Plus multiprocessor. Results of these experiments suggest that (1) the hit ratio, the accepted measure in traditional caching studies, may not be an adequate measure of performance when the workload consists of parallel computations and parallel file access patterns, (2) caching with prefetching can significantly improve the hit ratio and the average time to perform an I/O (input/output) operation, and (3) an improvement in overall execution time has been observed in most cases. In spite of these gains, prefetching sometimes results in increased execution times (a negative result, given the optimistic nature of the study). The authors explore why it is not trivial to translate savings on individual I/O requests into consistently better overall performance and identify the key problems that need to be addressed in order to improve the potential of prefetching techniques in the environment.
Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang
GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)
De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira
This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.
... Systems, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and Approving Use of the Traditional Licensing Process a. Type of Filing: Notice of Intent to File License...: November 11, 2012. d. Submitted by: Aquenergy Systems, Inc., a fully owned subsidiaries of Enel Green Power...
Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.
Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.
Miller, Ethan L.; Katz, Randy H.
This paper describes a file system design for massively parallel computers which makes very efficient use of a few disks per processor. This overcomes the traditional I/O bottleneck of massively parallel machines by storing the data on disks within the high-speed interconnection network. In addition, the file system, called RAMA, requires little inter-node synchronization, removing another common bottleneck in parallel processor file systems. Support for a large tertiary storage system can easily be integrated in lo the file system; in fact, RAMA runs most efficiently when tertiary storage is used.
Most of the software related to file system are written for conventional local file system, they are serialized and can't take advantage of the benefit of a large scale parallel file system. "pcircle" software builds on top of ubiquitous MPI in cluster computing environment and "work-stealing" pattern to provide a scalable, high-performance suite of file system tools. In particular - it implemented parallel data copy and parallel data checksumming, with advanced features such as async progress report, checkpoint and restart, as well as integrity checking.
The next generation of fusion experiments will use object-oriented technology creating the need for world wide sharing of an underlying hierarchical file-system. The Andrew file system (AFS) is a well known and widely spread global distributed file-system. Multiple-resident-AFS (MR-AFS) combines the features of AFS with hierarchical storage management systems. Files in MR-AFS therefore may be migrated on secondary storage, such as roboted tape libraries. MR-AFS is in use at IPP for the current experiments and data originating from super-computer applications. Experiences and scalability issues are discussed
Lambing, Steven J.; Reynolds, Sandra J.
The need for a more flexible and efficient data file management system for mission planning in the Mission Operations Laboratory (EO) at MSFC has spawned the development of Silvabase. Silvabase is a new data file structure based on a B+ tree data structure. This data organization allows for efficient forward and backward sequential reads, random searches, and appends to existing data. It also provides random insertions and deletions with reasonable efficiency, utilization of storage space well but not at the expense of speed, and performance of these functions on a large volume of data. Mission planners required that some data be keyed and manipulated in ways not found in a commercial product. Mission planning software is currently being converted to use Silvabase in the Spacelab and Space Station Mission Planning Systems. Silvabase runs on a Digital Equipment Corporation's popular VAX/VMS computers in VAX Fortran. Silvabase has unique features involving time histories and intervals such as in operations research. Because of its flexibility and unique capabilities, Silvabase could be used in almost any government or commercial application that requires efficient reads, searches, and appends in medium to large amounts of almost any kind of data.
Vosburg, Suzanne K; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Dart, Richard C; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Parrino, Mark W; Green, Jody L
Tapentadol, a Schedule II opioid with a combination of µ-opioid activity and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, is used for the management of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. Its dual mechanism of action is thought to reduce opioid-related side effects that can complicate pain management. Since approval, tapentadol has been tracked across multiple outcomes suggesting abuse liability, and a pattern of relatively low, although not absent, abuse liability has been found. This retrospective cohort study further details the abuse liability of tapentadol as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) when immediate-release as well as extended-release formulations were on the market together (fourth quarter of 2011 to second quarter of 2016). Tapentadol (API) was compared with tramadol, hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone across Poison Center, Drug Diversion, and Treatment Center Programs Combined data streams from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance system. Findings suggest the public health burden related to tapentadol to date is low, but present. Event rates of abuse per population-level denominators were significantly lower than all other opioids examined. However, when adjusted for drug availability, event rates of abuse were lower than most Schedule II opioids studied, but were not the lowest. Disentangling these 2 sets of findings further by examining various opioid formulations, such as extended-release and the role of abuse-deterrent formulations, is warranted. This article presents the results from an examination of tapentadol API across the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance System: a broad and carefully designed postmarketing mosaic. Data to date from Poison Center, Drug Diversion, and Treatment Centers combined suggest a low, but present public health burden related to tapentadol. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
...] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... with the Commission's Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS), Report and Order (Order). This notice is...: Pamela Arluk, Pricing Policy Division, Wireline Competition Bureau, at (202) 418-1520, or email: pamela...
EDFSRS: Evaluated Data Files Storage and Retrieval System has been developed, which is a complete service system for the evaluated nuclear data files compiled in the major three formats: ENDF/B, UKNDL and KEDAK. This system intends to give efficient loading and maintenance of evaluated nuclear data files to the data base administrators and efficient retrievals to their users not only with the easiness but with the best confidence. It can give users all of the information available in these major three formats. The system consists of more than fifteen independent programs and some 150 Mega byte data files and index files (data-base) of the loaded data. In addition it is designed to be operated in the on-line TSS (Time Sharing System) mode, so that users can get any information from their desk top terminals. This report is prepared as a reference manual of the EDFSRS. (author)
Brandt, Scott [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
The objective of this project, called DAMASC for “Data Management in Scientific Computing”, is to coalesce data management with parallel file system management to present a declarative interface to scientists for managing, querying, and analyzing extremely large data sets efficiently and predictably. Managing extremely large data sets is a key challenge of exascale computing. The overhead, energy, and cost of moving massive volumes of data demand designs where computation is close to storage. In current architectures, compute/analysis clusters access data in a physically separate parallel file system and largely leave it scientist to reduce data movement. Over the past decades the high-end computing community has adopted middleware with multiple layers of abstractions and specialized file formats such as NetCDF-4 and HDF5. These abstractions provide a limited set of high-level data processing functions, but have inherent functionality and performance limitations: middleware that provides access to the highly structured contents of scientific data files stored in the (unstructured) file systems can only optimize to the extent that file system interfaces permit; the highly structured formats of these files often impedes native file system performance optimizations. We are developing Damasc, an enhanced high-performance file system with native rich data management services. Damasc will enable efficient queries and updates over files stored in their native byte-stream format while retaining the inherent performance of file system data storage via declarative queries and updates over views of underlying files. Damasc has four key benefits for the development of data-intensive scientific code: (1) applications can use important data-management services, such as declarative queries, views, and provenance tracking, that are currently available only within database systems; (2) the use of these services becomes easier, as they are provided within a familiar file
Fujii, Minoru; Asai, Kiyoshi
A simple, effective file management system using magnetic disk, mass storage system (MSS) and magnetic tape is described. Following are the concepts and techniques introduced in this file management system. (1) File distribution and continuity character of file references are closely approximated by memory retention function. A density function using the memory retention function is thus defined. (2) A method of computing the cost/benefit lines for magnetic disk, MSS and magnetic tape is presented. (3) A decision process of an optimal organization of file facilities incorporating file demands distribution to respective file devices, is presented. (4) A method of simple, practical, effective, automatic file management, incorporating multi-level file management, space management and file migration control, is proposed. (author)
Bechta Dugan, Joanne; Ciardo, Gianfranco
A stochastic Petri-net model of a replicated file system is presented for a distributed environment where replicated files reside on different hosts and a voting algorithm is used to maintain consistency. Witnesses, which simply record the status of the file but contain no data, can be used in addition to or in place of files to reduce overhead. A model sufficiently detailed to include file status (current or out-of-date), as well as failure and repair of hosts where copies or witnesses reside, is presented. The number of copies and witnesses is a parameter of the model. Two different majority protocols are examined, one where a majority of all copies and witnesses is necessary to form a quorum, and the other where only a majority of the copies and witnesses on operational hosts is needed. The latter, known as adaptive voting, is shown to increase file availability in most cases.
Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chaarawi, Mohamad [Intel Corp. (United States); Koziol, Quincey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mainzer, John [The HDF Group (United States); Willmore, Frank [The HDF Group (United States)
Subfiling is a technique used on parallel file systems to reduce locking and contention issues when multiple compute nodes interact with the same storage target node. Subfiling provides a compromise between the single shared file approach that instigates the lock contention problems on parallel file systems and having one file per process, which results in generating a massive and unmanageable number of files. In this paper, we evaluate and tune the performance of recently implemented subfiling feature in HDF5. In specific, we explain the implementation strategy of subfiling feature in HDF5, provide examples of using the feature, and evaluate and tune parallel I/O performance of this feature with parallel file systems of the Cray XC40 system at NERSC (Cori) that include a burst buffer storage and a Lustre disk-based storage. We also evaluate I/O performance on the Cray XC30 system, Edison, at NERSC. Our results show performance benefits of 1.2X to 6X performance advantage with subfiling compared to writing a single shared HDF5 file. We present our exploration of configurations, such as the number of subfiles and the number of Lustre storage targets to storing files, as optimization parameters to obtain superior I/O performance. Based on this exploration, we discuss recommendations for achieving good I/O performance as well as limitations with using the subfiling feature.
Fujino, M A; Ikeda, M; Yamamoto, Y; Kinose, T; Tachikawa, H; Morozumi, A; Sano, S; Kojima, Y; Nakamura, T; Kawai, T
A new integrated filing system for endoscopic images has been developed, comprising a main image filing system and subsystems located at different stations. A hybrid filing system made up of both digital and analog filing devices was introduced to construct this system that combines the merits of the two filing methods. Each subsystem provided with a video processor, is equipped with a digital filing device, and routine images were recorded in the analog image filing device of the main system. The use of a multi-input adapter enabled simultaneous input of analog images from up to 8 video processors. Recorded magneto-optical disks make it possible to recall the digital images at any station in the hospital; the disks are copied without image degradation and also utilised for image processing. This system promises reliable storage and integrated, efficient management of endoscopic information. It also costs less to install than the so-called PACS (picture archiving and communication system), which connects all the stations of the hospital using optical fiber cables.
Since, the evolution of distributed operating system, distributed file system is come out to be important part in operating system. P2P is a reliable way in Distributed Operating System for file sharing. It was introduced in 1999, later it became a high research interest topic. Peer to Peer network is a type of network, where peers share network workload and other load related tasks. A P2P network can be a period of time connection, where a bunch of computers connected by a USB (Universal Serial Bus) port to transfer or enable disk sharing i.e. file sharing. Currently P2P requires special network that should be designed in P2P way. Nowadays, there is a big influence of browsers in our life. In this project we are going to study of file sharing mechanism in distributed operating system in web browsers, where we will try to find performance bottlenecks which our research will going to be an improvement in file sharing by performance and scalability in distributed file systems. Additionally, we will discuss the scope of Web Torrent file sharing and free-riding in peer to peer networks.
Long, Darrell E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Miller, Ethan L [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
This constitutes the final report for “Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage”. The ultimate goal of this project was to improve data management in scientific computing and high-end computing (HEC) applications, and to achieve this goal we proposed: to develop the first, HEC-targeted, file system featuring rich metadata and provenance collection, extreme scalability, and future storage hardware integration as core design goals, and to evaluate and develop a flexible non-hierarchical file system interface suitable for providing more powerful and intuitive data management interfaces to HEC and scientific computing users. Data management is swiftly becoming a serious problem in the scientific community – while copious amounts of data are good for obtaining results, finding the right data is often daunting and sometimes impossible. Scientists participating in a Department of Energy workshop noted that most of their time was spent “...finding, processing, organizing, and moving data and it’s going to get much worse”. Scientists should not be forced to become data mining experts in order to retrieve the data they want, nor should they be expected to remember the naming convention they used several years ago for a set of experiments they now wish to revisit. Ideally, locating the data you need would be as easy as browsing the web. Unfortunately, existing data management approaches are usually based on hierarchical naming, a 40 year-old technology designed to manage thousands of files, not exabytes of data. Today’s systems do not take advantage of the rich array of metadata that current high-end computing (HEC) file systems can gather, including content-based metadata and provenance1 information. As a result, current metadata search approaches are typically ad hoc and often work by providing a parallel management system to the “main” file system, as is done in Linux (the locate utility), personal computers, and enterprise search
Follen, Gregory J.
One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.
Schneider, K C; Dove, H G
A phenomenon well known to emergency room personnel is the high use of ER facilities by a small number of patients. In this study of 335 patients followed in outpatient specialty clinics at a university-affiliated VA medical center, 23% of the patients accounted for 73% of the ER visits. Although some patients may be abusing the system, the problem is difficult to correct because of congressional legislation that deters the VA from providing primary care. Thus, a small subset of patients with chronic medical problems who live close to the hospital are likely to continue to consume a disproportionate amount of ER resources.
van Lessen Kloeke, Koosje
For its investigation regarding the transfer of data after discharge of vulnerable elderly patients from hospital to nursing homes, care homes or home care, the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) demands access to patients' files, without their explicit consent. Doctors who do not cooperate run the risk of penalty payments. Since it concerns a limited number of patients per practice, it would not be unreasonably onerous for the Inspectorate to allow doctors to ask their patients' consent. Other reasons mentioned by the Inspectorate, such as possible "inappropriate correction" of data and the capability of vulnerable elderly patients to give their consent seem improper grounds to breach patients' right to privacy and to demand that doctors breach professional confidentiality. The legality of the Inspectorate's actions could be addressed in a test case and should be discussed more widely in light of the Inspectorate's work plan for 2014.
Garnier, J C; Cherukuwada, S S
LHCb aims to use its O(20000) CPU cores in the high level trigger (HLT) and its 120 TB Online storage system for data reprocessing during LHC shutdown periods. These periods can last a few days for technical maintenance or only a few hours during beam interfill gaps. These jobs run on files which are staged in from tape storage to the local storage buffer. The result are again one or more files. Efficient file writing and reading is essential for the performance of the system. Rather than using a traditional shared file-system such as NFS or CIFS we have implemented a custom, light-weight, non-Posix network file-system for the handling of these files. Streaming this file-system for the data-access allows to obtain high performance, while at the same time keep the resource consumption low and add nice features not found in NFS such as high-availability, transparent fail-over of the read and write service. The writing part of this streaming service is in successful use for the Online, real-time writing of the d...
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV against women slowly moved out of the private sphere and into the public realm in the United States in the early 1970’s. While progress has been made regarding psychological, physical, and sexual trauma related to IPV, it has been only in the last decade that attention about IPV has included an examination of the impact of economic abuse (EA. This is disturbing given that EA is one of the eight spokes on the Power and Control wheel (PCW and many women state that they are not able to leave or get away from the abusive relationship due to financial reasons. Using a multi-systems life course (MSLC perspective, this paper considers the importance of elevating EA as a form of IPV-related trauma. We examine EA’s differential impact among women, review current practices and policies, and conclude with implications for micro, mezzo, and macro levels of trauma-informed practice with survivors of EA.
Hayashida, Kohei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Nisawa, Yoshifumi.
A computer-assisted filing system for storing and processing data from cardiac pool scintigraphy and myocardial scintigraphy has been developed. Individual patient data are stored with his (her) identification number (ID) into floppy discs successively in order of receiving scintigraphy. Data for 900 patients can be stored per floppy disc. Scintigraphic findings can be outputted in a uniform file format, and can be used as a reporting format. Output or retrieval of filed individual patient data is possible according to each examination, disease code or ID. This system seems to be used for prospective study in patients with cardiovascular diseases. (Namekawa, K.)
"WisDOTs Bureau of Technical Services is interested in learning about the practices of other state departments of : transportation in developing and implementing an electronic document management system to manage highway : project files"
Glahn, C. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. Presented at Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and technological issues. 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. April, 10, 2008, Madrid, Spain.
Kolano, Paul Z.; Ciotti, Robert B.
Modern parallel file systems achieve high performance using a variety of techniques, such as striping files across multiple disks to increase aggregate I/O bandwidth and spreading disks across multiple servers to increase aggregate interconnect bandwidth. To achieve peak performance from such systems, it is typically necessary to utilize multiple concurrent readers/writers from multiple systems to overcome various singlesystem limitations, such as number of processors and network bandwidth. The standard cp and md5sum tools of GNU coreutils found on every modern Unix/Linux system, however, utilize a single execution thread on a single CPU core of a single system, and hence cannot take full advantage of the increased performance of clustered file systems. Mcp and msum are drop-in replacements for the standard cp and md5sum programs that utilize multiple types of parallelism and other optimizations to achieve maximum copy and checksum performance on clustered file systems. Multi-threading is used to ensure that nodes are kept as busy as possible. Read/write parallelism allows individual operations of a single copy to be overlapped using asynchronous I/O. Multinode cooperation allows different nodes to take part in the same copy/checksum. Split-file processing allows multiple threads to operate concurrently on the same file. Finally, hash trees allow inherently serial checksums to be performed in parallel. Mcp and msum provide significant performance improvements over standard cp and md5sum using multiple types of parallelism and other optimizations. The total speed-ups from all improvements are significant. Mcp improves cp performance over 27x, msum improves md5sum performance almost 19x, and the combination of mcp and msum improves verified copies via cp and md5sum by almost 22x. These improvements come in the form of drop-in replacements for cp and md5sum, so are easily used and are available for download as open source software at http://mutil.sourceforge.net.
Scott, P. J.
The function of the NASA ARCH system is to provide a permanent storage area for files that are infrequently accessed. The NASA ARCH routines were designed to provide a simple mechanism by which users can easily store and retrieve files. The user treats NASA ARCH as the interface to a black box where files are stored. There are only five NASA ARCH user commands, even though NASA ARCH employs standard VMS directives and the VAX BACKUP utility. Special care is taken to provide the security needed to insure file integrity over a period of years. The archived files may exist in any of three storage areas: a temporary buffer, the main buffer, and a magnetic tape library. When the main buffer fills up, it is transferred to permanent magnetic tape storage and deleted from disk. Files may be restored from any of the three storage areas. A single file, multiple files, or entire directories can be stored and retrieved. archived entities hold the same name, extension, version number, and VMS file protection scheme as they had in the user's account prior to archival. NASA ARCH is capable of handling up to 7 directory levels. Wildcards are supported. User commands include TEMPCOPY, DISKCOPY, DELETE, RESTORE, and DIRECTORY. The DIRECTORY command searches a directory of savesets covering all three archival areas, listing matches according to area, date, filename, or other criteria supplied by the user. The system manager commands include 1) ARCHIVE- to transfer the main buffer to duplicate magnetic tapes, 2) REPORTto determine when the main buffer is full enough to archive, 3) INCREMENT- to back up the partially filled main buffer, and 4) FULLBACKUP- to back up the entire main buffer. On-line help files are provided for all NASA ARCH commands. NASA ARCH is written in DEC VAX DCL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.X. This program was developed in 1985.
Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko
Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.
The approach has been to develop Parallel Virtual File System version 2 (PVFS2) , retaining the basic philosophy of the original file system but completely rewriting the code. It shows the architecture of the server and client components. BMI - BMI is the network abstraction layer. It is designed with a common driver and modules for each protocol supported. The interface is non-blocking, and provides mechanisms for optimizations including pinning user buffers. Currently TCP/IP and GM(Myrinet) modules have been implemented. Trove -Trove is the storage abstraction layer. It provides for storing both data spaces and name/value pairs. Trove can also be implemented using different underlying storage mechanisms including native files, raw disk partitions, SQL and other databases. The current implementation uses native files for data spaces and Berkeley db for name/value pairs.
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…
Description of program or function: SLIB77 is a source librarian program designed to maintain FORTRAN source code in a compressed form on magnetic disk. The program was prepared to meet program maintenance requirements for ongoing program development and continual improvement of very large programs involving many programmers from a number of different organizations. SLIB77 automatically maintains in one file the source of the current program as well as all previous modifications. Although written originally for FORTRAN programs, SLIB77 is suitable for use with data files, text files, operating systems, and other programming languages, such as Ada, C and COBOL. It can handle libraries with records of up to 160-characters. Records are grouped into DECKS and assigned deck names by the user. SLIB77 assigns a number to each record in each DECK. Records can be deleted or restored singly or as a group within each deck. Modification records are grouped and assigned modification identification names by the user. The program assigns numbers to each new record within the deck. The program has two modes of execution, BATCH and EDIT. The BATCH mode is controlled by an input file and is used to make changes permanent and create new library files. The EDIT mode is controlled by interactive terminal input and a built-in line editor is used for modification of single decks. Transferring of a library from one computer system to another is accomplished using a Portable Library File created by SLIB77 in a BATCH run
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.
Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…
Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa
Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…
Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Manzanares, Adam; Torres, Aaron
Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system based on a user-specified parser function. A plurality of files generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system are stored by obtaining a parser from the distributed application for processing the plurality of files prior to storage; and storing one or more of the plurality of files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system based on the processing by the parser. The plurality of files comprise one or more of a plurality of complete files and a plurality of sub-files. The parser can optionally store only those files that satisfy one or more semantic requirements of the parser. The parser can also extract metadata from one or more of the files and the extracted metadata can be stored with one or more of the plurality of files and used for searching for files.
The use of a data base management system (DBMS) as opposed to traditional data processing is discussed. The generalized file concept is viewed as an entry level step to the DBMS. The transition process from one system to the other is detailed. (SF)
Joan E. Lengel; John W. Koning
Research file data have been successfully retrieved at the Forest Products Laboratory through a high-speed cross-referencing system involving the computer program FAMULUS as modified by the Madison Academic Computing Center at the University of Wisconsin. The method of data input, transfer to computer storage, system utilization, and effectiveness are discussed....
Kotz, David; Nieuwejaar, Nils
Many scientific applications have intense computational and I/O requirements. Although multiprocessors have permitted astounding increases in computational performance, the formidable I/O needs of these applications cannot be met by current multiprocessors a their I/O subsystems. To prevent I/O subsystems from forever bottlenecking multiprocessors and limiting the range of feasible applications, new I/O subsystems must be designed. The successful design of computer systems (both hardware and software) depends on a thorough understanding of their intended use. A system designer optimizes the policies and mechanisms for the cases expected to most common in the user's workload. In the case of multiprocessor file systems, however, designers have been forced to build file systems based only on speculation about how they would be used, extrapolating from file-system characterizations of general-purpose workloads on uniprocessor and distributed systems or scientific workloads on vector supercomputers (see sidebar on related work). To help these system designers, in June 1993 we began the Charisma Project, so named because the project sought to characterize 1/0 in scientific multiprocessor applications from a variety of production parallel computing platforms and sites. The Charisma project is unique in recording individual read and write requests-in live, multiprogramming, parallel workloads (rather than from selected or nonparallel applications). In this article, we present the first results from the project: a characterization of the file-system workload an iPSC/860 multiprocessor running production, parallel scientific applications at NASA's Ames Research Center.
Camp, J M; Krakow, M; McCarty, D; Argeriou, M
There is increased interest in documenting the characteristics and treatment outcomes of clients served with Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Block Grant funds. The evolution of federal client-based management systems for substance abuse treatment services demonstrates that data collection systems are important but require continued support. A review of the Massachusetts substance abuse management information system illustrates the utility of a client-based data set. The development and implementation of a comprehensive information system require overcoming organizational barriers and project delays, fostering collaborative efforts among staff from diverse agencies, and employing considerable resources. In addition, the need to develop mechanisms for increasing the reliability of the data and ongoing training for the users is presented. Finally, three applications of the management information system's role in shaping policy are reviewed: developing services for special populations (communities of color, women, and pregnant substance abusers, and injection drug users), utilizing MIS data for evaluation purposes, and determining funding allocations.
Burt, Marvin R.; Balyeat, Ralph
A demonstration program of a system coordinating the wide variety of services provided for neglected and abused children in a metropolitan area has produced many gains in the handling of such cases: notably, avoidance of institutionalization. (Author/CS)
Ha, Jung-Hong; Kwak, Sang Won; Kim, Sung-Kyo; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol
The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum screw-in forces generated during the movement of various Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) file systems. Forty simulated canals in resin blocks were randomly divided into 4 groups for the following instruments: Mtwo size 25/0.07 (MTW, VDW GmbH), Reciproc R25 (RPR, VDW GmbH), ProTaper Universal F2 (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer), and ProTaper Next X2 (PTN, Dentsply Maillefer, n = 10). All the artificial canals were prepared to obtain a standardized lumen by using ProTaper Universal F1. Screw-in forces were measured using a custom-made experimental device (AEndoS- k , DMJ system) during instrumentation with each NiTi file system using the designated movement. The rotation speed was set at 350 rpm with an automatic 4 mm pecking motion at a speed of 1 mm/sec. The pecking depth was increased by 1 mm for each pecking motion until the file reach the working length. Forces were recorded during file movement, and the maximum force was extracted from the data. Maximum screw-in forces were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc comparison at a significance level of 95%. Reciproc and ProTaper Universal files generated the highest maximum screw-in forces among all the instruments while M-two and ProTaper Next showed the lowest ( p files with smaller cross-sectional area for higher flexibility is recommended.
Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Moghnieh, Ayman; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Stefanov, Krassen; Lemmers, Ruud; Koper, Rob
Glahn, C., Specht, M., Schoonenboom, J., Sligte, H., Moghnieh, A., Hernández-Leo, D. Stefanov, K., Lemmers, R., & Koper, R. (2008). Cross-system log file analysis for hypothesis testing. In H. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for
The CERN PS accelerator complex is composed of 9 interlinked accelerators for production and acceleration of various kinds of particles. The hardware is controlled through CAMAC, VME, G64, and GPIB modules, which in turn are controlled by more than 100 microprocessors in VME crates. To produce startup files for all these microprocessors, with the correct drivers, programs and parameters in each of them, is quite a challenge. The problem is solved by generating the startup files automatically from the description of the control system in a relational database. The generation process detects inconsistencies and incomplete information. Included in the startup files are data which are formally comments, but can be interpreted for run-time checking of interface modules and program activity.
The message file for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is discussed. The message file contains all the message and term explanations for the system. The data contained in the file can be broken down into three separate sections: (1) global terms, (2) local terms, and (3) system messages. The various terms are defined and their use within the system is explained.
The message file for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is discussed. The message file contains all the message and term explanations for the system. The data contained in the file can be broken down into three separate sections: (1) global terms, (2) local terms, and (3) system messages. The various terms are defined and their use within the system is explained.
Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert
This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…
Tien, Irene; Bauchner, Howard; Reece, Robert M
The objectives of this study were to describe the number of children with suspected abuse or neglect (CAN) cared for in selected children's hospitals, to determine how they are tracked and followed, and to better describe the composition, function, and financial support of child protection teams (CPTs). A self-administered survey was mailed to child abuse contact leaders at institutions that were members of the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions in 2001. Responses from rehabilitation hospitals and those that did not indicate whether a CPT was present were excluded. One hundred thirty-four of 157 leaders responded. One hundred twenty-two (91%) met study criteria. Eighty-eight hospitals (72%) had a CPT-54% were pediatric facilities, 59% had >100 beds, and 89% had a pediatric residency. Compared with institutions without a CPT, institutions with a CPT were less likely to be located in the South (28% vs 70%) and more likely to have >200 beds (26% vs 1%), a medical school affiliation (92% vs 74%), and a pediatric residency (98% vs 68%). Sixty-one percent of institutions cared for abuse or neglect (70%), providing quality assurance on CAN cases (63%), and filing reports with child protective services (61%). Twenty-four hour consultative coverage was provided by most CPTs (79%), for which 94% provided phone consultation and 81% provided in-person consultation when necessary. The institutions surveyed cared for many children suspected of abuse and neglect. Thirty-eight percent did >300 evaluations per year. In general, institutions with CPTs provided more comprehensive documentation and follow-up of children suspected of having been abused or neglected than institutions without CPTs. Whether this is associated with better outcomes for children suspected of abuse or neglect is unknown.
The Ceph file system (CephFS) is the POSIX-compatible distributed file system running on top of Ceph's powerful and stable object store. This presentation will give a general introduction of CephFS and detail the recent work the Ceph team has done to improve its stability and usability. In particular, we will cover directory fragmentation, multiple active metadata servers, and directory subtree pinning to metadata servers, features slated for stability in the imminent Luminous release. This talk will also give an overview of how we are measuring performance of multiple active metadata servers using large on-demand cloud deployments. The results will highlight how CephFS distributes metadata load across metadata servers to achieve scaling. About the speaker Patrick Donnelly is a software engineer at Red Hat, Inc. currently working on the Ceph distributed file system. In 2016 he completed his Ph.D. in computer science at the University of Notre Dame with a dissertation on the topic of file transfer management...
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peters, Andreas J.; Saiz, P.; Buncic, P.
Among the services offered by the AliEn (ALICE Environment http://alien.cern.ch) Grid framework there is a virtual file catalogue to allow transparent access to distributed data-sets using various file transfer protocols. $alienfs$ (AliEn File System) integrates the AliEn file catalogue as a new file system type into the Linux kernel using LUFS, a hybrid user space file system framework (Open Source http://lufs.sourceforge.net). LUFS uses a special kernel interface level called VFS (Virtual F...
... Employee Medical File System. 293.504 Section 293.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.504 Composition of, and access to, the Employee Medical File System. (a) All employee occupational medical records...
Web Operating Systems can be seen as an extension of traditional Operating Systems where the addresses used to manage files and execute programs (via the basic load/execution mechanism) are extended from local filesystem path-names to URLs. A first consequence is that, similarly as in traditional web technologies, executing a program at a given URL, can be done in two modalities: either the execution is performed client-side at the invoking machine (and relative URL addressing in the executed...
Treister, Roi; Trudeau, Jeremiah J; Van Inwegen, Richard; Jones, Judith K; Katz, Nathaniel P
Inappropriate use of analgesic drugs has become increasingly pervasive over the past decade. Currently, drug abuse potential is primarily assessed post-marketing; no validated tools are available to assess this potential in phase II and III clinical trials. This paper describes the development and feasibility testing of a Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion Drug Event Reporting System (MADDERS), which aims to identify potentially abuse-related events and classify them according to a recently developed classification scheme, allowing the quantification of these events in clinical trials. The system was initially conceived and designed with input from experts and patients, followed by field-testing to assess its feasibility and content validity in both completed and ongoing clinical trials. The results suggest that MADDERS is a feasible system with initial validity. It showed higher rates of the triggering events in subjects taking medications with known abuse potential than in patients taking medications without abuse potential. Additionally, experts agreed on the classification of most abuse-related events in MADDERS. MADDERS is a new systematic approach to collect information on potentially abuse-related events in clinical trials and classify them. The system has demonstrated feasibility for implementation. Additional research is ongoing to further evaluate its validity. Currently, there are no validated tools to assess drug abuse potential during clinical trials. Because of its ease of implementation, its systematic approach, and its preliminary validation results, MADDERS could provide such a tool for clinical trials. (Am J Addict 2016;25:641-651). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
The most frequent form of workplace aggression is not physical, it is emotional and psychological in nature. Known by many names, emotional abuse at work is rapidly becoming recognized as pervasive and costly both in individual and organizational terms. Most of the research to date on emotional abuse at work has utilized survey and other quantitative methodologies in an effort to document the presence, prevalence, and impact of these behaviors. However, these methodologies are based on researchers' definitions and theories of what constitutes emotional abuse rather than on the meaning given to these experiences by the targets of these behaviors. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon requires a scholarly appreciation of the target's experience. Taking "feeling abused" as the criterion variable, this study examined target's experiences based on interviews with people who self-identifed as having experienced difficulties with a boss, coworker, or subordinate. The interpersonal aspects of emotional abuse focused on the nature of behaviors exhibited and the respondents' labeling of their experience. Consistent with elements of researchers' definitions, behaviors were defined as abusive when they were repetitive, resulted in injury or harm to target, and were experienced as a lack of recognition of the individual's integrity. Judgments of violation of standards of conduct and unsolicited nature of the behaviors were also related to respondents' experiences. Relative power differential was also an important element. However, contrary to researchers' definitions, actor intent was not central in defining the experience as abusive. The systemic aspect of emotional abuse was illustrated in the nature of organizational responding to concerns raised by respondents. These responses were of critical importance in respondents' labeling of their experiences as abusive. The focus on the meaning of the behaviors for the respondents provides an enriched picture of key
This work describes clinical cases treated with a innovative single-use and single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) system used in continuous rotation. Nickel-titanium files are commonly used for root canal treatment but they tend to break because of bending stresses and torsional stresses. Today new instruments used only for one treatment have been introduced. They help the clinician to make the root canal shaping easier and safer because they do not require sterilization and after use have to be discarded. A new sterile instrument is used for each treatment in order to reduce the possibility of fracture inside the canal. The new One Shape NiTi single-file instrument belongs to this group. One Shape is used for complete shaping of root canal after an adequate preflaring. Its protocol is simple and some clinical cases are presented. It is helpful for easy cases and reliable for difficult canals. After 2 years of clinical practice, One Shape seems to be helpful for the treatment of most of the root canals, with low risk of separation. After each treatment, the instrument is discarded and not sterilized in autoclave or re-used. This single-use file simplifies the endodontic therapy, because only one instrument is required for canal shaping of many cases. The respect of clinical protocol guarantees predictable good results.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data was derived from the Health Care Information System (HCIS), which contains Medicare Part A (Inpatient, Skilled Nursing Facility, Home Health Agency (Part A...
... Investigative File System. 4902.11 Section 4902.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION... General Investigative File System. (a) Criminal Law Enforcement. (1) Exemption. Under the authority... Inspector General Investigative File System—PBGC” from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a (c)(3), (c)(4), (d)(1...
...' failure to file report. Any school system or district failing or refusing to file report EEO-5 when... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission's remedy for school systems' or districts' failure to file report. 1602.43 Section 1602.43 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...
Bénichou, Olivier; Démery, Vincent; Poncet, Alexis
Single-file transport, arising in quasi-one-dimensional geometries where particles cannot pass each other, is characterized by the anomalous dynamics of a probe, notably its response to an external force. In these systems, the motion of several probes submitted to different external forces, although relevant to mixtures of charged and neutral or active and passive objects, remains unexplored. Here, we determine how several probes respond to external forces. We rely on a hydrodynamic description of the symmetric exclusion process to obtain exact analytical results at long times. We show that the probes can either move as a whole, or separate into two groups moving away from each other. In between the two regimes, they separate with a different dynamical exponent, as t1 /4. This unbinding transition also occurs in several continuous single-file systems and is expected to be observable.
terminals, WORM Palo Alto, CA 94303 drives, optical jukeboxes, printers, scanners. Candi Technology Inc. Systems integrators providing 2354 Calle Del Mundo ...firms are using them to help design everything from parts to buildings. Auto makers use them to design new car moaels and even build the cars using
Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Minamitani, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Yoshimi, Masato
In this research, we propose a new distributed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) which is available to integrate several PACSs that exist in each medical institution. The conventional PACS controls DICOM file into one data-base. On the other hand, in the proposed system, DICOM file is separated into meta data and image data and those are stored individually. Using this mechanism, since file is not always accessed the entire data, some operations such as finding files, changing titles, and so on can be performed in high-speed. At the same time, as distributed file system is utilized, accessing image files can also achieve high-speed access and high fault tolerant. The introduced system has a more significant point. That is the simplicity to integrate several PACSs. In the proposed system, only the meta data servers are integrated and integrated system can be constructed. This system also has the scalability of file access with along to the number of file numbers and file sizes. On the other hand, because meta-data server is integrated, the meta data server is the weakness of this system. To solve this defect, hieratical meta data servers are introduced. Because of this mechanism, not only fault--tolerant ability is increased but scalability of file access is also increased. To discuss the proposed system, the prototype system using Gfarm was implemented. For evaluating the implemented system, file search operating time of Gfarm and NFS were compared.
Ming-Ling Lai; Kwai-Fatt Choong
Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing) system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i) to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii) to solicit their usage experience and (iii) to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals...
The objective of this research thesis was to design and to develop a set of software aimed at an efficient management of a document file system by using methods of selective access to information. Thus, the three main aspects of file processing (creation, modification, reorganisation) have been addressed. The author first presents the main problems related to the development of a comprehensive automatic documentation system, and their conventional solutions. Some future aspects, notably dealing with the development of peripheral computer technology, are also evoked. He presents the characteristics of INIS bibliographic records provided by the IAEA which have been used to create the files. In the second part, he briefly describes the file system general organisation. This system is based on the use of two main files: an inverse file which contains for each descriptor a list of of numbers of files indexed by this descriptor, and a dictionary of descriptor or input file which gives access to the inverse file. The organisation of these both files is then describes in a detailed way. Other related or associated files are created, and the overall architecture and mechanisms integrated into the file data input software are described, as well as various processing applied to these different files. Performance and possible development are finally discussed
Peron, M.; Grosbol, P.
The new and substantially upgraded version of the Table File System in MIDAS is presented as a scientific database system. MIDAS applications for performing database operations on tables are discussed, for instance, the exchange of the data to and from the TFS, the selection of objects, the uncertainty joins across tables, and the graphical representation of data. This upgraded version of the TFS is a full implementation of the binary table extension of the FITS format; in addition, it also supports arrays of strings. Different storage strategies for optimal access of very large data sets are implemented and are addressed in detail. As a simple relational database, the TFS may be used for the management of personal data files. This opens the way to intelligent pipeline processing of large amounts of data. One of the key features of the Table File System is to provide also an extensive set of tools for the analysis of the final results of a reduction process. Column operations using standard and special mathematical functions as well as statistical distributions can be carried out; commands for linear regression and model fitting using nonlinear least square methods and user-defined functions are available. Finally, statistical tests of hypothesis and multivariate methods can also operate on tables.
Yu, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Distributed burst buffers are a promising storage architecture for handling I/O workloads for exascale computing. As they are being deployed on more supercomputers, a file system that efficiently manages these burst buffers for fast I/O operations carries great consequence. Over the past year, FSU team has undertaken several efforts to design, prototype and evaluate distributed file systems for burst buffers on HPC systems. These include MetaKV: a Key-Value Store for Metadata Management of Distributed Burst Buffers, a user-level file system with multiple backends, and a specialized file system for large datasets of deep neural networks. Our progress for these respective efforts are elaborated further in this report.
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron
Improved techniques are provided for storing metadata associated with a plurality of sub-files associated with a single shared file in a parallel file system. The shared file is generated by a plurality of applications executing on a plurality of compute nodes. A compute node implements a Parallel Log Structured File System (PLFS) library to store at least one portion of the shared file generated by an application executing on the compute node and metadata for the at least one portion of the shared file on one or more object storage servers. The compute node is also configured to implement a partitioned data store for storing a partition of the metadata for the shared file, wherein the partitioned data store communicates with partitioned data stores on other compute nodes using a message passing interface. The partitioned data store can be implemented, for example, using Multidimensional Data Hashing Indexing Middleware (MDHIM).
Aydin, Ugur; Karataslioglu, Emrah
Canal transportation is a common sequel caused by rotary instruments. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the degree of transportation after the use of Reciproc single-file instruments with or without glide path files. Thirty resin blocks with L-shaped canals were divided into three groups ( n = 10). Group 1 - canals were prepared with Reciproc-25 file. Group 2 - glide path file-G1 was used before Reciproc. Group 3 - glide path files-G1 and G2 were used before Reciproc. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were superimposed under microscope, and resin removed from the inner and outer surfaces of the root canal was calculated throughout 10 points. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Dunn test. For coronal and middle one-thirds, there was no significant difference among groups ( P > 0.05). For apical section, transportation of Group 1 was significantly higher than other groups ( P files before Reciproc single-file system reduced the degree of apical canal transportation.
Belinfante, Axel; Guardiola, G.; Soriano, E.; Ballesteros, F.J.
We report on experiments that we did on Plan 9/Inferno to gain more experience with the file-system-as-tool-interface approach. We reimplemented functionality that we earlier worked on in Unix, trying to use Plan 9 file system interfaces. The application domain for those experiments was model-based
Zhu Haijun; Liu Dekang; Shen liren
File transfer protocol can help users transfer files between computers on internet. FTP can not fulfill the needs of users in special occasions, so it needs programmer define file transfer protocol himself based on users. The method or realization and application for user-defined file transfer protocol is introduced. (authors)
Full Text Available Marijuana is used for psychoactive and recreational purpose. We report a case of fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse who recovered following artificial support systems for acute liver failure. There is no published literature of management of marijuana intoxication with molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS. MARS is effective and safe in patients with fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana intoxication.
Gray, F. P., Jr. (Editor)
A complete catalog is presented for the random access files used by the ATLAS integrated structural analysis and design system. ATLAS consists of several technical computation modules which output data matrices to corresponding random access file. A description of the matrices written on these files is contained herein.
Cho, KyoungWoon; Ryu, YeonSeung; Won, Youjip; Koh, Kern
Legacy buffer cache management schemes for multimedia server are grounded at the assumption that the application sequentially accesses the multimedia file. However, user access pattern may not be sequential in some circumstances, for example, in distance learning application, where the user may exploit the VCR-like function(rewind and play) of the system and accesses the particular segments of video repeatedly in the middle of sequential playback. Such a looping reference can cause a significant performance degradation of interval-based caching algorithms. And thus an appropriate buffer cache management scheme is required in order to deliver desirable performance even under the workload that exhibits looping reference behavior. We propose Adaptive Buffer cache Management(ABM) scheme which intelligently adapts to the file access characteristics. For each opened file, ABM applies either the LRU replacement or the interval-based caching depending on the Looping Reference Indicator, which indicates that how strong temporally localized access pattern is. According to our experiment, ABM exhibits better buffer cache miss ratio than interval-based caching or LRU, especially when the workload exhibits not only sequential but also looping reference property.
Full Text Available Recently, the use of internet has become widespread, increasing the use of mobile phones, tablets, computers, Internet of Things (IoT devices and other digital sources. In the health sector with the help of new generation digital medical equipment, this digital world also has tended to grow in an unpredictable way in that it has nearly 10% of the global wide data itself and continues to keep grow beyond what the other sectors have. This progress has greatly enlarged the amount of produced data which cannot be resolved with conventional methods. In this work, an efficient model for the storage of medical images using a distributed file system structure has been developed. With this work, a robust, available, scalable, and serverless solution structure has been produced, especially for storing large amounts of data in the medical field. Furthermore, the security level of the system is extreme by use of static Internet protocol (IP, user credentials, and synchronously encrypted file contents. One of the most important key features of the system is high performance and easy scalability. In this way, the system can work with fewer hardware elements and be more robust than others that use name node architecture. According to the test results, it is seen that the performance of the designed system is better than 97% from a Not Only Structured Query Language (NoSQL system, 80% from a relational database management system (RDBMS, and 74% from an operating system (OS.
Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron
Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using different resolutions. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a sub-file. The method comprises the steps of obtaining semantic information related to the file; generating a plurality of replicas of the file with different resolutions based on the semantic information; and storing the file and the plurality of replicas of the file in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The different resolutions comprise, for example, a variable number of bits and/or a different sub-set of data elements from the file. A plurality of the sub-files can be merged to reproduce the file.
Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Zur, Shmuel; Lerner-Geva, Liat
The study compares the characteristics of children assessed as neglected, physically abused, or accident victims by a hospital child protection team (CPT) and identifies the information on which the CPT based its assessments. The comparison is based on content analysis of records of 414 children examined by the CPT in a major hospital in Israel between 1991 and 2006, of whom 130 (31.4%) were neglected, 54 (13.0%) were physically abused, and 230 (55.6%) were accident victims. Findings of three hierarchical logistic regressions show that the children classified as neglected had the most early development problems, but were the least likely to have received psychological treatment, and that that their families were the most likely to be receiving state financial support and to have had prior contact with the social services. They also show that the CPT had received the least information indicative of maltreatment about these children from the community and that their medical and physical examinations aroused the least suspicion. Finally, they show that the impressions the hospital staff and CPT had of the parents during the hospital visit had greater power to distinguish between the groups than the children's characteristics or the parents' socio-demographic background. The findings attest to the ability of the CPT to differentiate between neglect victims and physical abuse or accident victims. With this, they also point to ambiguities in the classification process that should be addressed by further research and training and to the need for detailed and thorough documentation of the information and observations on which the CPT's assessments are based. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hasegawa, Akira; Koyama, Kinji; Ido, Masaru; Hotta, Masakazu; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi
The code System PHOBINS developed for reference of photon production cross sections is described in detail. The system is intended to grasp the present status of photon production data and present the information of available data. It consists of four utility routines, CREA, UP-DT, REF and BACK, and data files. These utility routines are used for making an index file of the photon production cross sections, updating the index file, searching the index file and producing a back-up file of the index file. In the index file of the photon production cross sections, a data base system is employed for efficient data management in economical storage, ease of updating and efficient reference. The present report is a reference manual of PHOBINS. (author)
In computer systems today, speed and responsiveness is often determined by network and storage subsystem performance. Faster, more scalable networking interfaces like Fibre Channel and Gigabit Ethernet provide the scaffolding from which higher performance computer systems implementations may be constructed, but new thinking is required about how machines interact with network-enabled storage devices. In this paper we describe how we implemented journaling in the Global File System (GFS), a shared-disk, cluster file system for Linux. Our previous three papers on GFS at the Mass Storage Symposium discussed our first three GFS implementations, their performance, and the lessons learned. Our fourth paper describes, appropriately enough, the evolution of GFS version 3 to version 4, which supports journaling and recovery from client failures. In addition, GFS scalability tests extending to 8 machines accessing 8 4-disk enclosures were conducted: these tests showed good scaling. We describe the GFS cluster infrastructure, which is necessary for proper recovery from machine and disk failures in a collection of machines sharing disks using GFS. Finally, we discuss the suitability of Linux for handling the big data requirements of supercomputing centers.
Gravel, Caitlin Elizabeth
The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how does the file system of the Xbox One store data on its hard disk? This question is the main focus of the exploratory research and results sought. The research is focused on digital forensic investigators and experts. An out of the box Xbox One gaming console was used in the research. Three test cases were created as viable scenarios an investigator could come across in a search and seizure of evidence. The three test cases were then...
Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…
De Jong, Allan R.
Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...
Full Text Available In recent years drug abuse has been recognised as a growing problem in Northern Ireland. The following article examines the family backgrounds of a group of young children (n=388 who were looked-after by social services and looks specifically at a group (n=162 whose family lives have involved adults who misuse drugs. Children from drug-abusing families did not show greater levels of recorded abuse or neglect than the other children in the "looked after" population nor were they more likely to stay within the care system. However, the prevalence of heroin and cocaine use in this population was extremely small. Drug abuse in this population was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse, mental health problems and offending behaviour within the family. There was evidence of a reduction in drug abuse within families over a two year period of social work involvement.
Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Kovalenko, A P; Efimtsev, A Iu; Tarumov, D A; Petrov, A D; Lisianskiĭ, D A
Authors examined 60 female and male patients (average age 25.8±2.7 years) with confirmed diagnosis - drug abuse. Average duration of drug abuse was approximately 9±3.3 years. At the moment of examination patients had been fully in remission for 3 weeks. The following non-invasive procedures were undertaken: stimulation electroneuromyogrphy and brain MRI. Received results showed that drug abuse leads to diffuse lesion of the nervous system, which manifests itself as vegetative disorders, scattered neurological symptoms, polyneuropathy. Authors gave recommendations in the field of military examination with the aim of detection of nervous disorders caused by drug abuse.
Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron
Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using sub-files with semantically meaningful boundaries. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a plurality of sub-files. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a user specification of semantic information related to the file; providing the semantic information as a data structure description to a data formatting library write function; and storing the semantic information related to the file with one or more of the sub-files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The semantic information provides a description of data in the file. The sub-files can be replicated based on semantically meaningful boundaries.
E. Y. Ivanov
Full Text Available The article deals with characteristics and performance of interaction protocols between virtual file system and file system, their influence on processing power of microkernel operating systems. User mode implementation of ext2 file system for MINIX 3 OS is used to show that in microkernel operating systems file object identification time might increase up to 26 times in comparison with monolithic systems. Therefore, we present efficiency analysis of various hashing methods for file systems, running in user mode. Studies have shown that using hashing methods recommended in this paper it is possible to achieve competitive performance of the considered component of I/O stacks in microkernel and monolithic operating systems.
Russell, R D
This paper describes a simple technique for interfacing remote minicomputers used for real-time data acquisition into the file system of a central computer. Developed as part of the ORION system at CERN, this 'File Manager' subsystem enables a program in the minicomputer to access and manipulate files of any type as if they resided on a storage device attached to the minicomputer. Yet, completely transparent to the program, the files are accessed from disks on the central system via high-speed data links, with response times comparable to local storage devices. (6 refs).
The Electronic Licensing Filing System (ELFS) is a microcomputer-based integrated document search and retrieval system for the Nuclear Regulatory Affairs Division of Southern California Edison (SCE). ELFS allows the user access to the current licensing basis of a subject by providing an easily searchable electronic information data base consisting of regulatory correspondence, design-bases documentation, licensing documents [updated final safety and analysis report (UFSAR) and technical specifications], and regulatory guidance or directives [10CFR, generic letters, bulletins, notices, circulars, regulatory guides, policy statements, and selected US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations]. It is used in the preparation of correspondence and submittals to the NRC, 50.59 safety evaluations, design-bases reconstitution, and commitment tracking and management
VanMeter, Rodney; Hotz, Steve; Finn, Gregory
This paper presents the design of derived virtual devices (DVDs). DVDs are the mechanism used by the Netstation Project to provide secure shared access to network-attached peripherals distributed in an untrusted network environment. DVDs improve Input/Output efficiency by allowing user processes to perform I/O operations directly from devices without intermediate transfer through the controlling operating system kernel. The security enforced at the device through the DVD mechanism includes resource boundary checking, user authentication, and restricted operations, e.g., read-only access. To illustrate the application of DVDs, we present the interactions between a network-attached disk and a file system designed to exploit the DVD abstraction. We further discuss third-party transfer as a mechanism intended to provide for efficient data transfer in a typical NAP environment. We show how DVDs facilitate third-party transfer, and provide the security required in a more open network environment.
CERN. Geneva; MEUSEL, Rene
The CernVM-File System (CVMFS) delivers experiment software installations to thousands of globally distributed nodes in the WLCG and beyond. In recent years it became a mission-critical component for offline data processing of the LHC experiments and many other collaborations. From a software engineering perspective, CVMFS is a medium-sized C++ system-level project. Following the growth of the project, we introduced a number of measures to improve the code quality, testability, and maintainability. In particular, we found very useful code reviews through github pull requests and automated unit- and integration testing. We are also transitioning to a test-driven development for new features and bug fixes. These processes are supported by a number of tools, such as Google Test, Jenkins, Docker, and others. We would like to share our experience on problems we encountered and on which processes and tools worked well for us.
Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun
Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.
Neves, M A S; Rôças, I N; Siqueira, J F
To evaluate in vivo the antibacterial effectiveness of the self-adjusting file (SAF) using molecular methods. Root canals from single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis were instrumented using the SAF system under continuous irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl. DNA extracts from samples taken before and after instrumentation were subjected to quantitative analysis of total bacteria counts and levels of streptococci by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The reverse-capture checkerboard assay was also used to identify 28 bacterial taxa before (S1) and after (S2) SAF instrumentation. SAF was also compared with a conventional hand nickel-titanium instrumentation technique for total bacterial reduction. Data from qPCR were analysed statistically within groups using the Wilcoxon matched pairs test and between groups using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Fisher's exact test, with significance level set at P file significantly reduced the total bacterial counts from a mean number of 1.96 × 10(7) cells to 1.34 × 10(4) cells (P system was significantly superior to the 95.1% reduction obtained by hand instrumentation (P system succeeded in significantly reducing the streptococcal levels, but four cases still harboured these bacteria in S2. Checkerboard analysis revealed that not only streptococci but also some anaerobic and even as-yet-uncultivated bacteria may resist the effects of chemomechanical procedures. The SAF instrumentation system was highly effective in reducing bacterial populations from infected root canals and performed significantly better than hand instrumentation. However, because half of the samples still had detectable bacteria after preparation with SAF, supplementary disinfection is still required to maximize bacterial elimination. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Learn more about the Freedom of Information Act Request and Appeal File System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.
Learn about the EPA Personnel Emergency Contact Files System, including including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedure.
..., Raspberries, Rye, Seed crops, Sheep & Lambs, Silage, Sorghum Grain, Soybeans, Squash, Strawberries, Sugar....usda.gov ). Farm products covered by a State's central filing system are also identified through the GIPSA Web site. The Nebraska central filing system covers specified farm products. We originally...
Pieters, W.; Banescu, S.E.; Posea, S.
We know that several chemicals can be combined to form explosives. Therefore, we do not want these to end up in airplanes together. Similarly, in the architecture of complex systems, it is often possible to combine the results of several system services to acquire illegitimate benefits or disrupt
Özkocak, I; Taşkan, M M; Gökt Rk, H; Aytac, F; Karaarslan, E Şirin
The aim of this study is to evaluate increases in temperature on the external root surface during endodontic treatment with different rotary systems. Fifty human mandibular incisors with a single root canal were selected. All root canals were instrumented using a size 20 Hedstrom file, and the canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The samples were randomly divided into the following three groups of 15 teeth: Group 1: The OneShape Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 2: The Reciproc Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 3: The WaveOne Endodontic File no.: 25. During the preparation, the temperature changes were measured in the middle third of the roots using a noncontact infrared thermometer. The temperature data were transferred from the thermometer to the computer and were observed graphically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.05. The increases in temperature caused by the OneShape file system were lower than those of the other files (P file showed the highest temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use.
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(®)) System. Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all intentional exposures from 2007 through 2009 were used to describe adolescent prescription opioid (oxycodone, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol) and stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamines) exposures. A total of 16,209 intentional adolescent exposures to prescription drugs were identified, 68% to opioids and 32% to stimulants. The mean age was 16.6 years (SD ± 1.7 years). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of drug mentions involved females. The five most frequently misused or abused drugs were hydrocodone (32%), amphetamines (18%), oxycodone (15%), methylphenidate (14%), and tramadol (11%). Of all exposures, 38% were classified as suspected suicidal. Of adolescents who intentionally exposed themselves to prescription drugs, 30% were treated in a health care facility, 2,792 of whom were admitted to the hospital, including 1,293 to the intensive care unit. A total of 17.2% of intentional exposures were associated with no effect, 38.9% minor effects, 23.3% moderate effects, 3.6% major effects, and 0.1% were associated with death. Oxycodone and methadone were associated with the most deaths. No deaths were associated with exposures to stimulants. Prescription drug misuse and abuse poses an important health problem and results in thousands of hospitalizations of adolescents per year. Further work is needed to develop focused interventions and educational programs to prevent prescription drug abuse and misuse by adolescents. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
dos Santos, Marcelo; Fujino, Asa
Learning radiology requires systematic and comprehensive study of a large knowledge base of medical images. In this work is presented the development of a digital radiology teaching file system. The proposed system has been created in order to offer a set of customized services regarding to users' contexts and their informational needs. This has been done by means of an electronic infrastructure that provides easy and integrated access to all relevant patient data at the time of image interpretation, so that radiologists and researchers can examine all available data to reach well-informed conclusions, while protecting patient data privacy and security. The system is presented such as an environment which implements a distributed clinical database, including medical images, authoring tools, repository for multimedia documents, and also a peer-reviewed model which assures dataset quality. The current implementation has shown that creating clinical data repositories on networked computer environments points to be a good solution in terms of providing means to review information management practices in electronic environments and to create customized and contextbased tools for users connected to the system throughout electronic interfaces.
Masami, Mukai; Yutaka, Ando; Yasuo, Okuda; Naoto, Takahashi; Yoshihisa, Yoda; Hiroshi, Tsuji; Tadashi, Kamada
Our hospital started the charged particle therapy since 1996. New institutions for charged particle therapy are planned in the world. Our hospital are accepting many visitors from those newly planned medical institutions and having many opportunities to provide with the training to them. Based upon our experiences, we have developed the radiation oncology teaching files system for charged particle therapy. We adopted the PowerPoint of Microsoft as a basic framework of our teaching files system. By using our export function of the viewer any physician can create teaching files easily and effectively. Now our teaching file system has 33 cases for clinical and physics contents. We expect that we can improve the safety and accuracy of charged particle therapy by using our teaching files system substantially.
... composition requirements of our rules. This would ensure that all tariffs have a basic uniformity that will... transmittal: (1) A summary of the filing's basic rates, terms and conditions; (2) A statement concerning... filing, the basis of ratemaking employed, and economic information to support the changed or new matter...
Frauger, Elisabeth; Pochard, Liselotte; Boucherie, Quentin; Giocanti, Adeline; Chevallier, Cécile; Daveluy, Amélie; Gibaja, Valérie; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Eiden, Céline; Authier, Nicolas; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Guerlais, Marylène; Jouanjus, Émilie; Lepelley, Marion; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pain, Stéphanie; Richard, Nathalie; Micallef, Joëlle
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs. Among them, 77% received an opiate maintenance treatment: 68% methadone (half of them consumed capsule form) and 27% buprenorphine (39% consumed generic form). Brand-name buprenorphine is more often injected than generic buprenorphine (10% vs. 2%) and among methadone consumers 7% of methadone capsule consumers have illegally obtained methadone (vs. 9% for syrup form). The proportion of medications among psychoactive drugs injected is important (42%), with morphine representing 21% of the total psychoactive drugs injected and buprenorphine, 16%. OPPIDUM highlighted emergent behaviors of abuse with some analgesic opioids (like tramadol, oxycodone or fentanyl), pregabalin, or quetiapine. OPPIDUM highlighted variations of drugs use regarding geographic approaches or by drug dependence care centers (like in harm reduction centers). OPPIDUM clearly demonstrated that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible, these data have an interest at regional, national and international levels. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available River restoration is strongly focussed on in-channel initiatives driven by fisheries interests and a continued desire for river stability. This contrasts greatly with the inherently mobile nature of watercourses. What is often overlooked is the fact that many rivers have developed floodplain units that would naturally operate as integrated functional systems, moderating the effects of extreme floods by distributing flow energy and sediment transport capacity through out of bank flooding. Floodplain utilisation for farming activities and landowner intransigence when it comes to acknowledging that the floodplain is part of the river system, has resulted in floodplains being the most degraded fluvial morphologic unit, both in terms of loss of form and function and sheer levels of spatial impact. The degradation has been facilitated by the failure of regulatory mechanisms to adequately acknowledge floodplain form and function. This is testament to the ‘inward looking’ thinking behind national assessment strategies. This paper reviews the state of floodplain systems drawing on quantitative data from England and Wales to argue for greater consideration of the floodplain in relation to river management. The database is poor and must be improved, however it does reveal significant loss of watercourse-floodplain connectivity linked to direct flood alleviation measures and also to altered flood frequency as a result of river downcutting following river engineering. These latter effects have persisted along many watercourses despite the historic nature of the engineering interventions and will continue to exacerbate the risk of flooding to downstream communities. We also present several examples of the local and wider values of reinstating floodplain form and function, demonstrating major ecological gains, improvement to downstream flood reduction, elevation of water quality status and reductions in overall fine sediment loss from farmland. A re
Di Mauro, Alessio; Mei, Alessandro; Jajodia, Sushil
In this paper, we present a file allocation and caching scheme that guarantees high assurance, availability, and load balancing in a large-scale distributed file system that can support dynamic updates of authorization policies. The scheme uses fragmentation and replication to store files with hi......-balancing, and reducing delay of read operations. The system offers a trade-off-between performance and security that is dynamically tunable according to the current level of threat. We validate our mechanisms with extensive simulations in an Internet-like network.......In this paper, we present a file allocation and caching scheme that guarantees high assurance, availability, and load balancing in a large-scale distributed file system that can support dynamic updates of authorization policies. The scheme uses fragmentation and replication to store files with high...... security requirements in a system composed of a majority of low-security servers. We develop mechanisms to fragment files, to allocate them into multiple servers, and to cache them as close as possible to their readers while preserving the security requirement of the files, providing load...
behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.
Masilo, Daniel Tuelo
Children have the right to be brought up in safe environments. However, this right is often infringed by people who are supposed to provide love, care, and protection to children. These people can include biological fathers, step-fathers, brothers, cousins, aunts, mothers, and uncles. Violation of children takes place in a variety of ways, however, for the purpose of this paper, the focus is on child sexual abuse within the family system. A literature review is adopted as the methodology for the discussions in this paper. The purpose of this paper is firstly to demonstrate that child sexual abuse happens within the family system in South Africa, and secondly, to argue that the prevention of child sexual abuse should start within the family system and this can be achieved by conducting educational social group work sessions on child sexual abuse with the family members.
AFS(originally, Andrew File System) is a widely-deployed distributed file system product used by companies, universities, and laboratories world-wide. However, it is not trivial to operate: runing an AFS cell is a formidable task. It requires a team of dedicated and experienced system administratores who must manage a user base numbring in the thousands, rather than the smaller range of 10 to 500 faced by the typical system administrator.
De Meo, Federico; Viganò, Luca
Web applications require access to the file-system for many different tasks. When analyzing the security of a web application, secu- rity analysts should thus consider the impact that file-system operations have on the security of the whole application. Moreover, the analysis should take into consideration how file-system vulnerabilities might in- teract with other vulnerabilities leading an attacker to breach into the web application. In this paper, we first propose a classification of file-...
Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K
Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary
Improved techniques are provided for parallel writing of data to a shared object in a parallel computing system. A method is provided for storing data generated by a plurality of parallel processes to a shared object in a parallel computing system. The method is performed by at least one of the processes and comprises: dynamically determining a block size for storing the data; exchanging a determined amount of the data with at least one additional process to achieve a block of the data having the dynamically determined block size; and writing the block of the data having the dynamically determined block size to a file system. The determined block size comprises, e.g., a total amount of the data to be stored divided by the number of parallel processes. The file system comprises, for example, a log structured virtual parallel file system, such as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS).
Iannone, F.; Podda, S.; Bracco, G.; Manduchi, G.; Maslennikov, A.; Migliori, S.; Wolkersdorfer, K.
High I/O flow rates, up to 10 GB/s, are required in large fusion Tokamak experiments like ITER where hundreds of nodes store simultaneously large amounts of data acquired during the plasma discharges. Typical network topologies such as linear arrays (systolic), rings, meshes (2-D arrays), tori (3-D arrays), trees, butterfly, hypercube in combination with high speed data transports like Infiniband or 10G-Ethernet, are the main areas in which the effort to overcome the so-called parallel I/O bottlenecks is most focused. The high I/O flow rates were modelled in an emulated testbed based on the parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS, commonly used in High Performance Computing. The test runs on High Performance Computing–For Fusion (8640 cores) and ENEA CRESCO (3392 cores) supercomputers. Message Passing Interface based applications were developed to emulate parallel I/O on Lustre and GPFS using data archival and access solutions like MDSPLUS and Universal Access Layer. These methods of data storage organization are widely diffused in nuclear fusion experiments and are being developed within the EFDA Integrated Tokamak Modelling – Task Force; the authors tried to evaluate their behaviour in a realistic emulation setup.
Iannone, F., E-mail: email@example.com [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R.ENEA Frascati, via E.Fermi, 45 - 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Podda, S.; Bracco, G. [ENEA Information Communication Tecnologies, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy); Manduchi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 - 35127 Padua (Italy); Maslennikov, A. [CASPUR Inter-University Consortium for the Application of Super-Computing for Research, via dei Tizii, 6b - 00185 Rome (Italy); Migliori, S. [ENEA Information Communication Tecnologies, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy); Wolkersdorfer, K. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre-FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
High I/O flow rates, up to 10 GB/s, are required in large fusion Tokamak experiments like ITER where hundreds of nodes store simultaneously large amounts of data acquired during the plasma discharges. Typical network topologies such as linear arrays (systolic), rings, meshes (2-D arrays), tori (3-D arrays), trees, butterfly, hypercube in combination with high speed data transports like Infiniband or 10G-Ethernet, are the main areas in which the effort to overcome the so-called parallel I/O bottlenecks is most focused. The high I/O flow rates were modelled in an emulated testbed based on the parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS, commonly used in High Performance Computing. The test runs on High Performance Computing-For Fusion (8640 cores) and ENEA CRESCO (3392 cores) supercomputers. Message Passing Interface based applications were developed to emulate parallel I/O on Lustre and GPFS using data archival and access solutions like MDSPLUS and Universal Access Layer. These methods of data storage organization are widely diffused in nuclear fusion experiments and are being developed within the EFDA Integrated Tokamak Modelling - Task Force; the authors tried to evaluate their behaviour in a realistic emulation setup.
Walczak, Rafał; Krüger, Jan; Moynihan, Shane
In this paper, we describe a miniaturised image-based fluorescence detection system and demonstrate its viability as a highly sensitive tool for point-of-care-analysis of drugs of abuse in human sweat with a focus on monitor individuals for drugs of abuse. Investigations of miniaturised and low power optoelectronic configurations and methodologies for real-time image analysis were successfully carried out. The miniaturised fluorescence detection system was validated against a reference detection system under controlled laboratory conditions by analysing spiked sweat samples in dip stick and then strip with sample pad. As a result of the validation studies, a 1 ng mL-1 limit of detection of cocaine in sweat and full agreement of test results with the reference detection system can be reported. Results of the investigations open the way towards a detection system that integrates a hand-held fluorescence reader and a wearable skinpatch, and which can collect and in situ analyse sweat for the presence of cocaine at any point for up to tenths hours.
... Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nick Orsini, Chief, Foreign Trade Division... 0607-AA50 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments... approval of new information collection requirements. [[Page 67928
Seifert, Ethan; Stumpf, Simone; Herlocker, Jonathan; Wynn, Eleanor
Browsing is one of the methods used for finding and refinding information on the web or in the file local system and there are opportunities to avoid this, particularly if that information is revisited frequently...
Bradney, Jeremiah A
.... By enabling the use of WebDAV in MYSEA, this thesis provides a means for fulfilling the above requirement for secure remote access by creating a virtual web-based file system accessible from the MYSEA MLS network...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...
Social Security Administration — Several PSSVES request files are transmitted to SSA each year for processing in the State Verification and Exchange System (SVES). This is a first step in obtaining...
Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.
Full Text Available The file cutting edges are the most important parameter that influence the performance of the filing operation. The practice shows that the most efficient way of generating these cutting edges is by penetration, by blow, of a cutting tool, which creates a plastic deformation on the file body. The penetration depth is probably the most important factor of the final quality of a file. In the existing machines of files manufacturing, this depth is manually adjusted by the operator, using specific mechanism. This means that files are manufactured on an empirical basis, relying on subjective factors, that do not allow to keep constant quality level of the production. In a research work, being developed in the University of Minho, it is intended to eliminate the subjectivity factors by the means of the evolution of the present “all-mechanical” system to a “mechatronic” one. In this paper, which is related with that research work, it presented a study of a round files production machine, regarding the identification, as well as the categorisation, of the operating parameters that affect the cutting edges production. They are, as well, defined and quantified those factors that influence the final quality of a round file.
iOS operating system, which is developed by Apple Inc., is claimed to be the most secure product in the market. In the light of worsening human rights conditions, mainly concerning data privacy breaches performed on governmental level, the need to be reassured about the security of software that runs in our pockets is strengthened. This thesis is focused on researching on potential iOS security exploits and their abuse to access private information or perform malicious actions without user’s ...
Hick, Jason; Hules, John; Uselton, Andrew
The workshop on High Performance Computing (HPC) Best Practices on File Systems and Archives was the fifth in a series sponsored jointly by the Department Of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and DOE National Nuclear Security Administration. The workshop gathered technical and management experts for operations of HPC file systems and archives from around the world. Attendees identified and discussed best practices in use at their facilities, and documented findings for the DOE and HPC community in this report.
... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...
Saleh, Abdulrahman Mohammed; Vakili Gilani, Pouyan; Tavanafar, Saeid; Schäfer, Edgar
The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of 4 different single-file systems in simulated S-shaped canals. Sixty-four S-shaped canals in resin blocks were prepared to an apical size of 25 using Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), OneShape (Micro Méga, Besançon, France), and F360 (Komet Brasseler, Lemgo, Germany) (n = 16 canals/group) systems. Composite images were made from the superimposition of pre- and postinstrumentation images. The amount of resin removed by each system was measured by using a digital template and image analysis software. Canal aberrations and the preparation time were also recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance, Tukey, and chi-square tests. Canals prepared with the F360 and OneShape systems were better centered compared with the Reciproc and WaveOne systems. Reciproc and WaveOne files removed significantly greater amounts of resin from the inner side of both curvatures (P files was significantly faster compared with WaveOne and F360 files (P file instruments were safe to use and were able to prepare the canals efficiently. However, single-file systems that are less tapered seem to be more favorable when preparing S-shaped canals. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dillow, David A [ORNL; Fuller, Douglas [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL
The Spider system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is the world's largest scale Lustre parallel file system. Envisioned as a shared parallel file system capable of delivering both the bandwidth and capacity requirements of the OLCF's diverse computational environment, the project had a number of ambitious goals. To support the workloads of the OLCF's diverse computational platforms, the aggregate performance and storage capacity of Spider exceed that of our previously deployed systems by a factor of 6x - 240 GB/sec, and 17x - 10 Petabytes, respectively. Furthermore, Spider supports over 26,000 clients concurrently accessing the file system, which exceeds our previously deployed systems by nearly 4x. In addition to these scalability challenges, moving to a center-wide shared file system required dramatically improved resiliency and fault-tolerance mechanisms. This paper details our efforts in designing, deploying, and operating Spider. Through a phased approach of research and development, prototyping, deployment, and transition to operations, this work has resulted in a number of insights into large-scale parallel file system architectures, from both the design and the operational perspectives. We present in this paper our solutions to issues such as network congestion, performance baselining and evaluation, file system journaling overheads, and high availability in a system with tens of thousands of components. We also discuss areas of continued challenges, such as stressed metadata performance and the need for file system quality of service alongside with our efforts to address them. Finally, operational aspects of managing a system of this scale are discussed along with real-world data and observations.
Debrunner, Linda S.
The Engineering Analysis and Data System (EADS) was used from April 1986 to July 1993 to support large scale scientific and engineering computation (e.g. computational fluid dynamics) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The need for an updated system resulted in a RFP in June 1991, after which a contract was awarded to Cray Grumman. EADS II was installed in February 1993, and by July 1993 most users were migrated. EADS II is a network of heterogeneous computer systems supporting scientific and engineering applications. The Common File System (CFS) is a key component of this system. The CFS provides a seamless, integrated environment to the users of EADS II including both disk and tape storage. UniTree software is used to implement this hierarchical storage management system. The performance of the CFS suffered during the early months of the production system. Several of the performance problems were traced to software bugs which have been corrected. Other problems were associated with hardware. However, the use of NFS in UniTree UCFM software limits the performance of the system. The performance issues related to the CFS have led to a need to develop a greater understanding of the CFS organization. This paper will first describe the EADS II with emphasis on the CFS. Then, a discussion of mass storage systems will be presented, and methods of measuring the performance of the Common File System will be outlined. Finally, areas for further study will be identified and conclusions will be drawn.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...
Dykstra, D; Blomer, J
Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.
Dykstra, D.; Blomer, J.
Both the CernVM File System (CVMFS) and the Frontier Distributed Database Caching System (Frontier) distribute centrally updated data worldwide for LHC experiments using http proxy caches. Neither system provides privacy or access control on reading the data, but both control access to updates of the data and can guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data transferred to clients over the internet. CVMFS has since its early days required digital signatures and secure hashes on all distributed data, and recently Frontier has added X.509-based authenticity and integrity checking. In this paper we detail and compare the security models of CVMFS and Frontier.
Garnier, J-C; Cherukuwada, S S
LHCb aims to use its O(20000) CPU cores in the High Level Trigger (HLT) and its 120 TB Online storage system for data reprocessing during LHC shutdown periods. These periods can last between a few days and several weeks during the winter shutdown or even only a few hours during beam interfill gaps. These jobs run on files which are staged in from tape storage to the local storage buffer. The result are again one or more files. Efficient file writing and reading is essential for the performance of the system. Rather than using a traditional shared filesystem such as NFS or CIFS we have implemented a custom, light-weight, non-Posix file-system for the handling of these files. Streaming this filesystem for the data-access allows to obtain high performance, while at the same time keep the resource consumption low and add nice features not found in NFS such as high-availability, transparent failover of the read and write service. The writing part of this file-system is in successful use for the Online, real-time w...
This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 7521 and 5 CFR 1201.131, the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is providing notice of...
Kimura, Eizen; Ishihara, Ken
The Standardized Structured Medical Information Exchange (SS-MIX) is intended to be the standard repository for HL7 messages that depend on a local file system. However, its scalability is limited. We implemented a virtual file system using NoSQL to incorporate modern computing technology into SS-MIX and allow the system to integrate local patient IDs from different healthcare systems into a universal system. We discuss its implementation using the database MongoDB and describe its performance in a case study.
Full Text Available Background: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 is the most commonly used intracanal material; it needs to be removed in entirety before obturation. Several techniques have been used for the same including use of various hand and rotary files. Aim: This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Hand K files and single and multiple rotary file system in removal of Ca(OH2. Methodology: Distobuccal root of 45 maxillary molars were selected on the basis of specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were divided into three groups - Group 1 (H and K file, Group 2 (HERO Shaper, and Group 3 (One Shape. Biomechanical preparation (BMP was carried out as per the manufacturer's instructions; 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigant and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as the penultimate irrigant. Ca(OH2powder was mixed with normal saline to obtain a paste; canals were filled with this paste using a Lentulo spiral and were sealed. After 7 days, Ca(OH2was removed, using the same file system as that used for BMP. Samples were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the obtained data was carried out using one-way analysis of variance test. Results: HERO Shaper displayed better removal of Ca(OH2than One Shape and Hand K file. Moreover, removal was better in the middle third of canal than apical third. Conclusion: Multiple rotary file system (HERO Shaper is more effective in removal of Ca(OH2than the single file system (One Shape
Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.
The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.
Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures. This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative
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Kim, Jun-Sung; Whang, Kyu-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Yoon; Song, Il-Yeol
The relational DBMS (RDBMS) has been widely used since it supports various high-level functionalities such as SQL, schemas, indexes, and transactions that do not exist in the O/S file system. But, a recent advent of big data technology facilitates development of new systems that sacrifice the DBMS functionality in order to efficiently manage large-scale data. Those so-called NoSQL systems use a distributed file system, which support scalability and reliability. They support scalability of the...
The objective of this research thesis was to design and to develop a set of software aimed at an efficient management of a document file system by using methods of selective access to information. Thus, the three main aspects of file processing (creation, modification, reorganisation) have been addressed. The author first presents the main problems related to the development of a comprehensive automatic documentation system, and their conventional solutions. Some future aspects, notably dealing with the development of peripheral computer technology, are also evoked. He presents the characteristics of INIS bibliographic records provided by the IAEA which have been used to create the files. In the second part, he briefly describes the file system general organisation. This system is based on the use of two main files: an inverse file which contains for each descriptor a list of of numbers of files indexed by this descriptor, and a dictionary of descriptor or input file which gives access to the inverse file. The organisation of these both files is then describes in a detailed way. Other related or associated files are created, and the overall architecture and mechanisms integrated into the file data input software are described, as well as various processing applied to these different files. Performance and possible development are finally discussed.
Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).
Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Lawrence, Suzanne M; Hilton, Thomas F; Daley, Dennis C; Patkar, Ashwin A; McCarty, Dennis
There is a need to monitor patients receiving prescription opioids to detect possible signs of abuse. To address this need, we developed and calibrated an item bank for severity of abuse of prescription pain medication as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 5,310 items relevant to substance use and abuse, including abuse of prescription pain medication, from over 80 unique instruments. After qualitative item analysis (i.e., focus groups, cognitive interviewing, expert review, and item revision), 25 items for abuse of prescribed pain medication were included in field testing. Items were written in a first-person, past-tense format, with a three-month time frame and five response options reflecting frequency or severity. The calibration sample included 448 respondents, 367 from the general population (ascertained through an internet panel) and 81 from community treatment programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. A final bank of 22 items was calibrated using the two-parameter graded response model from item response theory. A seven-item static short form was also developed. The test information curve showed that the PROMIS ® item bank for abuse of prescription pain medication provided substantial information in a broad range of severity. The initial psychometric characteristics of the item bank support its use as a computerized adaptive test or short form, with either version providing a brief, precise, and efficient measure relevant to both clinical and community samples. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gulyaeva, N.D.; Markova, N.F.; Nikitina, V.I.; Tentyukova, G.N.
The structure and organization of files in the information bank for the first variant of a JINR material and technical supply subsystem are described. Automated system of equipment operative stock-taking on the base of the SDS-6200 computer is developed. Information is stored on magnetic discs. The arrangement of each file depends on its purpose and structure of data. Access to the files can be arbitrary or consecutive. The files are divided into groups: primary document files, long-term reference, information on items that may change as a result of administrative decision [ru
Ferreira, Claudia A.S. Velloso; Corcuera, Raquel A. Paviotti
This report presents a data information retrieval and merger system for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries, which can be run on personal computers under the Windows TM environment. The input is the name of an ENDF/B library, which can be chosen in a proper window. The system has a display function which allows the user to visualize the reaction data of a specific nuclide and to produce a printed copy of these data. The system allows the user to retrieve and/or combine evaluated data to create a single file of data in ENDF format, from a number of different files, each of which is in the ENDF format. The user can also create a mini-library from an ENDF/B library. This interactive and easy-to-handle system is a useful tool for Nuclear Data Centers and it is also of interest to nuclear and reactor physics researchers. (author)
Devale, Madhuri R; Mahesh, M C; Bhandary, Shreetha
Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files significantly more number of cracks were seen at WL than
Mahesh, MC; Bhandary, Shreetha
Introduction Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. Aim This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Results Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...
Shipley, Adam T; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Orfanakos, Vasiliki B; Wormack, Leah N; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I
The idea that addiction occurs when the brain is not able to differentiate whether specific reward circuits were triggered by adaptive natural rewards or falsely activated by addictive drugs exist in several models of drug addiction. The suitability of crayfish ( Orconectes rusticus ) for drug addiction research arises from developmental variation of growth, life span, reproduction, behavior and some quantitative traits, especially among isogenic mates reared in the same environment. This broad spectrum of traits makes it easier to analyze the effect of mammalian drugs of abuse in shaping behavioral phenotype. Moreover, the broad behavioral repertoire allows the investigation of self-reinforcing circuitries involving appetitive and exploratory motor behavior, while the step-wise alteration of the phenotype by metamorphosis allows accurate longitudinal analysis of different behavioral states. This paper reviews a series of recent experimental findings that evidence the suitability of crayfish as an invertebrate model system for the study of drug addiction. Results from these studies reveal that unconditioned exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse produces a variety of stereotyped behaviors. Moreover, if presented in the context of novelty, drugs directly stimulate exploration and appetitive motor patterns along with molecular processes for drug conditioned reward. Findings from these studies indicate the existence of drug sensitive circuitry in crayfish that facilitates exploratory behavior and appetitive motor patterns via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli or by increasing exploratory motor patterns. This work demonstrates the potential of crayfish as a model system for research into the neural mechanisms of addiction, by contributing an evolutionary, comparative context to our understanding of natural reward as an important life-sustaining process.
Adam T. Shipley
Full Text Available The idea that addiction occurs when the brain is not able to differentiate whether specific reward circuits were triggered by adaptive natural rewards or falsely activated by addictive drugs exist in several models of drug addiction. The suitability of crayfish (Orconectes rusticus for drug addiction research arises from developmental variation of growth, life span, reproduction, behavior and some quantitative traits, especially among isogenic mates reared in the same environment. This broad spectrum of traits makes it easier to analyze the effect of mammalian drugs of abuse in shaping behavioral phenotype. Moreover, the broad behavioral repertoire allows the investigation of self-reinforcing circuitries involving appetitive and exploratory motor behavior, while the step-wise alteration of the phenotype by metamorphosis allows accurate longitudinal analysis of different behavioral states. This paper reviews a series of recent experimental findings that evidence the suitability of crayfish as an invertebrate model system for the study of drug addiction. Results from these studies reveal that unconditioned exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse produces a variety of stereotyped behaviors. Moreover, if presented in the context of novelty, drugs directly stimulate exploration and appetitive motor patterns along with molecular processes for drug conditioned reward. Findings from these studies indicate the existence of drug sensitive circuitry in crayfish that facilitates exploratory behavior and appetitive motor patterns via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli or by increasing exploratory motor patterns. This work demonstrates the potential of crayfish as a model system for research into the neural mechanisms of addiction, by contributing an evolutionary, comparative context to our understanding of natural reward as an important life-sustaining process.
Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Vijaywargiya, Neelam; Saxena, Divya; Saha, Mainak Kanti; Bharadwaj, Anuj; Dubey, Sandeep
To evaluate the incidence of microcrack formation canal preparation with two rotary nickel-titanium systems Mtwo and ProTaper Next along with the self-adjusting file system. One hundred and twenty mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Standardized access cavities were prepared and the canals were manually prepared up to size 20 after coronal preflaring. The teeth were divided into three experimental groups and one control group ( n = 30). Group 1: The canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary files. Group 2: The canals were prepared with ProTaper Next files. Group 3: The canals were prepared with self-adjusting files. Group 4: The canals were unprepared and used as a control. The roots were sectioned horizontally 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and examined under a scanning electron microscope to check for the presence of microcracks. The Pearson's Chi-square test was applied. The highest incidence of microcracks were associated with the ProTaper Next group, 80% ( P = 0.00), followed by the Mtwo group, 70% ( P = 0.000), and the least number of microcracks was noted in the self-adjusting file group, 10% ( P = 0.068). No significant difference was found between the ProTaper Next and Mtwo groups ( P = 0.368) while a significant difference was observed between the ProTaper Next and self-adjusting file groups ( P = 0.000) as well as the Mtwo and self-adjusting file groups ( P = 0.000). All nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems were associated with microcracks. However, the self-adjusting file system had significantly fewer microcracks when compared with the Mtwo and ProTaper Next.
Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Junior
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique using Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges (RaCe system files in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were selected and separated into two groups (n = 20 according to instrumentation technique as follows: BioRaCe - chemomechanical preparation with K-type files #10 and #15; and files BioRaCe BR0, BR1, BR2, BR3, and BR4; HybTec - hybrid instrumentation technique with K-type files #10 and #15 in the working length, #20 at 2 mm, #25 at 3 mm, cervical preparation with Largo burs #1 and #2; apical preparation with K-type files #15, #20, and #25 and RaCe files #25.04 and #30.04. The root canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument. The specimens were histologically processed and photographed under light optical microscope. The images were inserted onto an integration grid to count the amount of debris present in the root canal. Results: BioRaCe presented the highest percentage of debris in the apical third, however, with no statistically significant difference for HybTec (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The hybrid technique presented similar cleaning capacity as the technique recommended by the manufacturer.
Full Text Available The present work deals with an optimization procedure developed in the full-f global GYrokinetic SEmi-LAgrangian code (GYSELA. Optimizing the writing of the restart files is necessary to reduce the computing impact of crashes. These files require a very large memory space, and particularly so for very large mesh sizes. The limited bandwidth of the data pipe between the comput- ing nodes and the storage system induces a non-scalable part in the GYSELA code, which increases with the mesh size. Indeed the transfer time of RAM to data depends linearly on the files size. The necessity of non synchronized writing-in-file procedure is therefore crucial. A new GYSELA module has been developed. This asynchronous procedure allows the frequent writ- ing of the restart files, whilst preventing a severe slowing down due to the limited writing bandwidth. This method has been improved to generate a checksum control of the restart files, and automatically rerun the code in case of a crash for any cause.
Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Razmi, Hasan; Nozari, Solmaz
Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system is an important step in endodontic therapy. New instruments incorporate new preparation techniques that can improve the efficacy of cleaning and shaping. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mtwo and RaCe rotary file systems in straightening the canal curvature using only one file or the conventional method. Sixty mesial roots of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared by RaCe and Mtwo nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files using the conventional and only one rotary file methods. The working length was 18 mm and the curvatures of the root canals were between 15-45°. By superimposing x-ray images before and after the instrumentation, deviation of the canals was assessed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Preparation time was recorded. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. There were no significant differences between RaCe and Mtwo or between the two root canal preparation methods in root canal deviation in buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs (P>0.05). Changes of root canal curvature in >35° subgroups were significantly more than in other subgroups with smaller canal curvatures. Preparation time was shorter in one file only technique. According to the results, the two rotary systems and the two root canal preparation methods had equal efficacy in straightening the canals; but the preparation time was shorter in one file only group.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…
...] Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web) Contingency Option AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office... contingency option when the primary portal to EFS-Web has an unscheduled outage. Previously, the entire EFS-Web system is not available to the users during such an outage. The contingency option in EFS-Web will...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1013-000] Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...
Current rotary file systems are effective tools. Nevertheless, they have two main shortcomings: They are unable to effectively clean and shape oval canals and depend too much on the irrigant to do the cleaning, which is an unrealistic illusionThey may jeopardize the long-term survival of the tooth via unnecessary, excessive removal of sound dentin and creation of micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new Self-adjusting File (SAF) technology uses a hollow, compressible NiTi file, with no central metal core, through which a continuous flow of irrigant is provided throughout the procedure. The SAF technology allows for effective cleaning of all root canals including oval canals, thus allowing for the effective disinfection and obturation of all canal morphologies. This technology uses a new concept of cleaning and shaping in which a uniform layer of dentin is removed from around the entire perimeter of the root canal, thus avoiding unnecessary excessive removal of sound dentin. Furthermore, the mode of action used by this file system does not apply the machining of all root canals to a circular bore, as do all other rotary file systems, and does not cause micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new SAF technology allows for a new concept in cleaning and shaping root canals: Minimally Invasive 3D Endodontics. PMID:25298639
Current rotary file systems are effective tools. Nevertheless, they have two main shortcomings: They are unable to effectively clean and shape oval canals and depend too much on the irrigant to do the cleaning, which is an unrealistic illusionThey may jeopardize the long-term survival of the tooth via unnecessary, excessive removal of sound dentin and creation of micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new Self-adjusting File (SAF) technology uses a hollow, compressible NiTi file, with no central metal core, through which a continuous flow of irrigant is provided throughout the procedure. The SAF technology allows for effective cleaning of all root canals including oval canals, thus allowing for the effective disinfection and obturation of all canal morphologies. This technology uses a new concept of cleaning and shaping in which a uniform layer of dentin is removed from around the entire perimeter of the root canal, thus avoiding unnecessary excessive removal of sound dentin. Furthermore, the mode of action used by this file system does not apply the machining of all root canals to a circular bore, as do all other rotary file systems, and does not cause micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new SAF technology allows for a new concept in cleaning and shaping root canals: Minimally Invasive 3D Endodontics.
Vilayannur, M.; Lang, S.; Ross, R.; Klundt, R.; Ward, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; VMWare, Inc.; SNL
The POSIX interface does not lend itself well to enabling good performance for high-end applications. Extensions are needed in the POSIX I/O interface so that high-concurrency HPC applications running on top of parallel file systems perform well. This paper presents the rationale, design, and evaluation of a reference implementation of a subset of the POSIX I/O interfaces on a widely used parallel file system (PVFS) on clusters. Experimental results on a set of micro-benchmarks confirm that the extensions to the POSIX interface greatly improve scalability and performance.
Wang, Peter Hor-Ching
Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly developing human-to-computer interface technology. VR can be considered as a three-dimensional computer-generated Virtual World (VW) which can sense particular aspects of a user's behavior, allow the user to manipulate the objects interactively, and render the VW at real-time accordingly. The user is totally immersed in the virtual world and feel the sense of transforming into that VW. NASA/MSFC Computer Application Virtual Environments (CAVE) has been developing the space-related VR applications since 1990. The VR systems in CAVE lab are based on VPL RB2 system which consists of a VPL RB2 control tower, an LX eyephone, an Isotrak polhemus sensor, two Fastrak polhemus sensors, a folk of Bird sensor, and two VPL DG2 DataGloves. A dynamics animator called Body Electric from VPL is used as the control system to interface with all the input/output devices and to provide the network communications as well as VR programming environment. The RB2 Swivel 3D is used as the modelling program to construct the VW's. A severe limitation of the VPL VR system is the use of RB2 Swivel 3D, which restricts the files to a maximum of 1020 objects and doesn't have the advanced graphics texture mapping. The other limitation is that the VPL VR system is a turn-key system which does not provide the flexibility for user to add new sensors and C language interface. Recently, NASA/MSFC CAVE lab provides VR systems built on Sense8 WorldToolKit (WTK) which is a C library for creating VR development environments. WTK provides device drivers for most of the sensors and eyephones available on the VR market. WTK accepts several CAD file formats, such as Sense8 Neutral File Format, AutoCAD DXF and 3D Studio file format, Wave Front OBJ file format, VideoScape GEO file format, Intergraph EMS stereolithographics and CATIA Stereolithographics STL file formats. WTK functions are object-oriented in their naming convention, are grouped into classes, and provide easy C
... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...
De-Deus, Gustavo André; Nogueira Leal Silva, Emmanuel João; Moreira, Edson Jorge; de Almeida Neves, Aline; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Tameirão, Michele
This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris by the Self-Adjusting-File system (SAF; ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). Hand and rotary instruments were used as references for comparison. Sixty mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented with hand files using a crown-down technique. The ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and SAF systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and the apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials and dried afterward. The mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test. Hand file instrumentation produced significantly more debris compared with the ProTaper and SAF systems (P system produced significantly more debris compared with the SAF system (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. SAF instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of hand and rotary files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P file sharing is one of key technologies for achieving attractive P2P multimedia social networking. In P2P file-sharing systems, file availability is improved by cooperative users who cache and share files. Note that file caching carries costs such as storage consumption and processing load. In addition, users have different degrees of cooperativity in file caching and they are in different surrounding environments arising from the topological structure of P2P networks. With evolutionary game theory, this paper evaluates the performance of P2P file sharing systems in such heterogeneous environments. Using micro-macro dynamics, we analyze the impact of the heterogeneity of user selfishness on the file availability and system stability. Further, through simulation experiments with agent-based dynamics, we reveal how other aspects, for example, synchronization among nodes and topological structure, affect the system performance. Both analytical and simulation results show that the environmental heterogeneity contributes to the file availability and system stability.
Clyman, R B
To discuss two systems-level changes in the organization and financing of mental health and child welfare services that will increasingly affect abused and neglected children: the implementation of managed care processes and the incorporation of accountability mechanisms in the management of mental health and child welfare services, particularly the use of systematic outcomes assessments. A central goal of the paper is to identify critical research questions which will help us to understand the impact of these changes on maltreated children. These two systems-level changes are described, and ways they may affect maltreated children are addressed. Both managed care and the growing focus on managing services by monitoring outcomes may positively or negatively affect maltreated children. Both of these trends are affecting the mental health and child welfare systems. It is likely that they will affect maltreated children's access to and the quality, cost, and outcomes of mental health and child welfare services. Systematic research on the impact of these large-scale changes can increase the likelihood that these changes will benefit maltreated children. A number of critical areas are identified for future research.
A program system for calculating group constants from several evaluated nuclear data files has been developed. These files are distributed by the Nuclear Data Section of IAEA. Our program system - FEDGROUP - has certain advantage over the well-known similar codes such as: 1. it requires only a medium sized computer />or approximately equal to 20000 words memory/, 2. it is easily adaptable to any type of computer, 3. it is flexible to the input evaluated nuclear data file and to the output group constant file. Nowadays, FEDGROUP calculates practically all types of group constants needed for reactor physics calculations by using the most frequent representations of evaluated data. (author)
Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda
Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)
Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.
... System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA Transit and Guaranteed Ride Home... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is deleting the systems of records for EPA Parking Control Office File... through the EPA Internet under the ``Federal Register'' listings at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/ . Dated...
Bürklein, Sebastian; Schäfer, Edgar
The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the 2 reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the 2 full-sequence rotary Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. The reciprocating files produced significantly more debris compared with both rotary systems (P rotary instruments (P > .05), the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared with all other instruments (P Instrumentation was significantly faster using Reciproc than with all other instrument (P rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available File systems and applications try to implement their own update protocols to guarantee data consistency, which is one of the most crucial aspects of computing systems. However, we found that the storage devices are substantially under‐utilized when preserving data consistency because they generate massive storage write traffic with many disk cache flush operations and force‐unit‐access (FUA commands. In this paper, we present DJFS (Delta‐Journaling File System that provides both a high level of performance and data consistency for different applications. We made three technical contributions to achieve our goal. First, to remove all storage accesses with disk cache flush operations and FUA commands, DJFS uses small‐sized NVRAM for a file system journal. Second, to reduce the access latency and space requirements of NVRAM, DJFS attempts to journal compress the differences in the modified blocks. Finally, to relieve explicit checkpointing overhead, DJFS aggressively reflects the checkpoint transactions to file system area in the unit of the specified region. Our evaluation on TPC‐C SQLite benchmark shows that, using our novel optimization schemes, DJFS outperforms Ext4 by up to 64.2 times with only 128 MB of NVRAM.
de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed
Butler, Gregory F.; Baird William P.; Lee, Rei C.; Tull, Craig E.; Welcome, Michael L.; Whitney Cary L.
The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center whose goal is to provide a scalable, high-performance, high-bandwidth, shared file system for all of the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make the scientific users more productive as they conduct advanced scientific research at NERSC by simplifying the scientists' data management tasks and maximizing storage and data availability. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is accessible by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. In order to successfully deploy a scalable high-performance shared file system with consolidated disk storage, three major emerging technologies must be brought together: (1) shared/cluster file systems software, (2) cost-effective, high-performance storage area network (SAN) fabrics, and (3) high-performance storage devices. Although they are evolving rapidly, these emerging technologies individually are not targeted towards the needs of scientific high-performance computing (HPC). The GUPFS project is in the process of assessing these emerging technologies to determine the best combination of solutions for a center-wide shared file system, to encourage the development of these technologies in directions needed for HPC, particularly at NERSC, and to then put them into service. With the development of an evaluation methodology and benchmark suites, and with the updating of the GUPFS testbed system, the project did a substantial number of investigations and evaluations during FY 2003. The investigations and evaluations involved many vendors and products. From our evaluation of these products, we have found that most vendors and many of the products are more focused on the commercial market. Most vendors
Penta, Virgil; Pirvu, Cristian; Demetrescu, Ioana
The main objective of the current paper is to show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could be a method for evaluating and predicting of ProTaper rotary file system clinical lifespan. This particular aspect of everyday use of the endodontic files is of great importance in each dental practice and has profound clinical implications. The method used for quantification resides in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy theory and has in its main focus the characteristics of the surface titanium oxide layer. This electrochemical technique has been adapted successfully to identify the quality of the Ni-Ti files oxide layer. The modification of this protective layer induces changes in corrosion behavior of the alloy modifying the impedance value of the file. In order to assess the method, 14 ProTaper sets utilized on different patients in a dental clinic have been submitted for testing using EIS. The information obtained in regard to the surface oxide layer has offered an indication of use and proves that the said layer evolves with each clinical application. The novelty of this research is related to an electrochemical technique successfully adapted for Ni-Ti file investigation and correlation with surface and clinical aspects.
Shin, M. J.; Kim, G. W.; Chun, T. J.; Ahn, W. H.; Baik, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. G.
For the systemic management and easy using of teaching file in radiology department, the authors tried to do the setup of a database management system of teaching file using personal computer. We used a personal computer (IBM PC compatible, 486DX2) including a image capture card(Window vision, Dooin Elect, Seoul, Korea) and video camera recorder (8mm, CCD-TR105, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) for the acquisition and storage of images. We developed the database program by using Foxpro for Window 2.6(Microsoft, Seattle, USA) executed in the Window 3.1 (Microsoft, Seattle, USA). Each datum consisted of hospital number, name, sex, age, examination date, keyword, radiologic examination modalities, final diagnosis, radiologic findings, references and representative images. The images were acquired and stored as bitmap format (8 bitmap, 540 X 390 ∼ 545 X 414, 256 gray scale) and displayed on the 17 inch-flat monitor(1024 X 768, Samtron, Seoul, Korea). Without special devices, the images acquisition and storage could be done on the reading viewbox, simply. The image quality on the computer's monitor was less than the one of original film on the viewbox, but generally the characteristics of each lesions could be differentiated. Easy retrieval of data was possible for the purpose of teaching file system. Without high cost appliances, we could consummate the image database system of teaching file using personal computer with relatively inexpensive method
This FMCSA-sponsored research investigated the claim that motor carriers have a substantial number of crashes in their own records that are not contained in the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) crash file. Based on the results of t...
Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.
The Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a collection of education and health data on more than 750,000 migrant children in grades K-12 in the United States (except Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and the outlying territories of Puerto Rico and the Mariana and Marshall Islands. The active file…
Full Text Available Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient’s case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management.
Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad
Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management.
Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin
Interactive requests are processed from users of log-in nodes. A metadata server node is provided for use in a file system shared by one or more interactive nodes and one or more batch nodes. The interactive nodes comprise interactive clients to execute interactive tasks and the batch nodes execute batch jobs for one or more batch clients. The metadata server node comprises a virtual machine monitor; an interactive client proxy to store metadata requests from the interactive clients in an interactive client queue; a batch client proxy to store metadata requests from the batch clients in a batch client queue; and a metadata server to store the metadata requests from the interactive client queue and the batch client queue in a metadata queue based on an allocation of resources by the virtual machine monitor. The metadata requests can be prioritized, for example, based on one or more of a predefined policy and predefined rules.
Liu, Rui; Hou, Ben Xiang; Wesselink, Paul R; Wu, Min-Kai; Shemesh, Hagay
The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of root cracks observed at the apical root surface and/or in the canal wall after canal instrumentation with 3 single-file systems and the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). One hundred mandibular incisors were selected. Twenty control teeth were coronally flared with Gates-Glidden drills (Dentsply Maillefer). No further preparation was made. The other 80 teeth were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. They were divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 20); the root canals were first coronally flared with Gates-Glidden drills and then instrumented to the full working length with the ProTaper, OneShape (Micro-Mega, Besancon, France), Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), or the Self-Adjusting File (ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). The apical root surface and horizontal sections 2, 4, and 6 mm from the apex were observed under a microscope. The presence of cracks was noted. The chi-square test was performed to compare the appearance of cracked roots between the experimental groups. No cracks were found in the control teeth and teeth instrumented with the Self-Adjusting File. Cracks were found in 10 of 20 (50%), 7 of 20 (35%), and 1 of 20 (5%) teeth after canal instrumentation with the ProTaper, OneShape, and Reciproc files, respectively. The difference between the experimental groups was statistically significant (P File and Reciproc files caused less cracks than the ProTaper and OneShape files. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kfir, Anda; Moza-Levi, Rotem; Herteanu, Moran; Weissman, Amir; Wigler, Ronald
The purpose of this study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of oval canals with either a rotary file system supplemented by the XP-endo Finisher file or a full-sequence self-adjusting file (SAF) system. Sixty mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: group A: stage 1-glide path preparation with Pre-SAF instruments. Stage 2-cleaning and shaping with SAF. Group B: stage 1-glide path preparation with ProGlider file. Stage 2-cleaning and shaping with ProTaper Next system. Stage 3-Final cleaning with XP-endo Finisher file. The debris extruded during each of the stages was collected, and the debris weights were compared between the groups and between the stages within the groups using t tests with a significance level set at P file followed by XP-endo Finisher file extruded significantly more debris than a full-sequence SAF system. Each stage, in either procedure, had its own contribution to the extrusion of debris. Final preparation with XP-endo Finisher file contributes to the total amount of extruded debris, but the clinical relevance of the relative difference in the amount of apically extruded debris remains unclear.
Çiçek, Ersan; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can
The type of instrument affects the amount of debris extruded. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of retreatment systems and supplementary file application on the amount of apical debris extrusion. Forty-eight extracted mandibular premolars with a single canal and similar length were selected. The root canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system with a torque-controlled engine. The root canals were dried and were obturated using Gutta-percha and sealer. The specimens were randomly divided into four equal groups according to the retreatment procedures (Group 1, Mtwo retreatment files; Group 2, Mtwo retreatment files + Mtwo rotary file #30 supplementary file; Group 3, ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR) files; and Group 4, PTUR files + ProTaper F3 supplementary file). The extruded debris during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of apically extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial weight of the tube from the final weight. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of apically extruded debris between Groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.590). A significant difference was observed between Groups 1 and 2 (P file significantly increased the amount of apically extruded debris.
Silverstein, Peter S; Shah, Ankit; Weemhoff, James; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, D P; Kumar, Anil
HIV-1 infection is a global public health problem with more than 34 million people living with HIV infection. Although great strides have been made in treating this epidemic with therapeutic agents, the increase in patient life span has been coincident with an increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND is thought to result from the neurotoxic effects of viral proteins that are shed from HIV-infected microglial cells. One of the primary neurotoxins responsible for this effect is the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. Exposure of neurons to gp120 has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in neurons, as well as numerous indirect effects such as an increase in inflammatory cytokines, an increase in oxidative stress, and an increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. In many patients, the use of drugs of abuse (DOA) exacerbates the neurotoxic effects of gp120. Cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine are three DOAs that are commonly used by those infected with HIV-1. All three of these DOAs have been demonstrated to increase oxidative stress in the CNS as well as to increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Numerous model systems have demonstrated that these DOAs have the capability of exacerbating the neurotoxic effects of gp120. This review will summarize the neurotoxic effects of gp120, the deleterious effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine on the CNS, and the combined effects of gp120 in the context of these drugs.
Meireles, Daniely Amorin; Bastos, Mariana Mena Barreto; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos
Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer) and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer) up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH) was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH) and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer), using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods.
Daniely Amorin Meireles
Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods.
Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S
Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.
Kumar, Santosh; Rao, P S S; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil
Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse.
Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Miró, Manuel
A lab-on-valve miniaturized system integrating on-line disposable micro-solid phase extraction has been interfaced with ion mobility spectrometry for the accurate and sensitive determination of cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester in oral fluids. The method is based on the automatic loading of 500μL of oral fluid along with the retention of target analytes and matrix clean-up by mixed-mode cationic/reversed-phase solid phase beads, followed by elution with 100μL of 2-propanol containing (3% v/v) ammonia, which are online injected into the IMS. The sorptive particles are automatically discarded after every individual assay inasmuch as the sorptive capacity of the sorbent material is proven to be dramatically deteriorated with reuse. The method provided a limit of detection of 0.3 and 0.14μgL -1 for cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester, respectively, with relative standard deviation values from 8 till 14% with a total analysis time per sample of 7.5min. Method trueness was evaluated by analyzing oral fluid samples spiked with cocaine at different concentration levels (1, 5 and 25μgL -1 ) affording relative recoveries within the range of 85±24%. Fifteen saliva samples were collected from volunteers and analysed following the proposed automatic procedure, showing a 40% cocaine occurrence with concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 97μgL -1 . Field saliva samples were also analysed by reference methods based on lateral flow immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The application of this procedure to the control of oral fluids of cocaine consumers represents a step forward towards the development of a point-of-care cocaine abuse sensing system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gergi, Richard; Rjeily, Joe Abou; Sader, Joseph; Naaman, Alfred
The purpose of this study was to compare canal transportation and centering ability of 2 rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems (Twisted Files [TF] and Pathfile-ProTaper [PP]) with conventional stainless steel K-files. Ninety root canals with severe curvature and short radius were selected. Canals were divided randomly into 3 groups of 30 each. After preparation with TF, PP, and stainless steel files, the amount of transportation that occurred was assessed by using computed tomography. Three sections from apical, mid-root, and coronal levels of the canal were recorded. Amount of transportation and centering ability were assessed. The 3 groups were statistically compared with analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Less transportation and better centering ability occurred with TF rotary instruments (P < .0001). K-files showed the highest transportation followed by PP system. PP system showed significant transportation when compared with TF (P < .0001). The TF system was found to be the best for all variables measured in this study. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
GAO Fuxiang; YAO Lan; BAO Shengfei; YU Ge
A dynamic Web application, which can help the departments of enterprise to collaborate with each other conveniently, is proposed. Several popular design solutions are introduced at first. Then, dynamic Web system is chosen for developing the file access and control system. Finally, the paper gives the detailed process of the design and implementation of the system, which includes some key problems such as solutions of document management and system security. Additionally, the limitations of the system as well as the suggestions of further improvement are also explained.
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...
There are upcoming non-volatile (NV) memory technologies that provide byte addressability and high performance. PCM, MRAM, and STT-RAM are such examples. Such NV memory can be used as storage because of its data persistency without power supply while it can be used as main memory because of its high performance that matches up with DRAM. There are a number of researches that investigated its uses for main memory and storage. They were, however, conducted independently. This paper presents the methods that enables the integration of the main memory and file system management for NV memory. Such integration makes NV memory simultaneously utilized as both main memory and storage. The presented methods use a file system as their basis for the NV memory management. We implemented the proposed methods in the Linux kernel, and performed the evaluation on the QEMU system emulator. The evaluation results show that 1) the proposed methods can perform comparably to the existing DRAM memory allocator and significantly better than the page swapping, 2) their performance is affected by the internal data structures of a file system, and 3) the data structures appropriate for traditional hard disk drives do not always work effectively for byte addressable NV memory. We also performed the evaluation of the effects caused by the longer access latency of NV memory by cycle-accurate full-system simulation. The results show that the effect on page allocation cost is limited if the increase of latency is moderate.
Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids
Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....
Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne
Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with
Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. The database...
C. F. Tan
Full Text Available This paper describes the development of Hole Recognition System (HRS for Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP using a neutral data format produced by CAD system. The geometrical data of holes is retrieved from STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP. Rule-based algorithm is used during recognising process. Current implementation of feature recognition is limited to simple hole feat ures. Test results are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the feature recognition algorithm.
The Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system (ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel) has been recently introduced for the simultaneous instrumentation and irrigation of root canals. The SAF is claimed to adapt itself three dimensionally to the root canal, including its cross-section. It is operated with a continuous flow of sodium hypochlorite that is delivered into the root canal through the hollow file and claimed to be activated by sonic agitation of the irrigant. Our aim was to present for the first time clinical cases prepared with the SAF system and to describe a clinical classification of canals, according to their difficulty, with recommendations for endodontic treatment sequences for each category. This report is based on the experience of a single endodontist, who used the system to treat more than 50 consecutive primary endodontic cases over the prior 8 months. A clinical classification was developed which enabled the operator to select a treatment protocol for easy and optimal glide path preparation to be effectively used with the SAF file in the various root canals encountered in the clinical environment. Clinical classification of canal difficulty makes root canal treatment sequences with the SAF simple and predictable. Many types of cases can be treated with the SAF system although a novice user is advised to advance slowly along the learning curve from simpler to more complicated canals. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verma, R. V.
The Archive Inventory Management System (AIMS) is a software package for understanding the distribution, characteristics, integrity, and nuances of files and directories in large file-based data archives on a continuous basis.
Due to the larger number of different types of files used in an image processing system, a mechanism for file management beyond the bounds of typical operating systems is necessary. The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) Catalog Manager was written to meet this need. Land Analysis System (LAS) users at the EROS Data Center (EDC) encountered some problems in using the TAE catalog manager, including catalog corruption, networking difficulties, and lack of a reliable tape storage and retrieval capability. These problems, coupled with the complexity of the TAE catalog manager, led to the decision to design a new file management system for LAS, tailored to the needs of the EDC user community. This design effort, which addressed catalog management, label services, associated data management, and enhancements to LAS applications, is described. The new file management design will provide many benefits including improved system integration, increased flexibility, enhanced reliability, enhanced portability, improved performance, and improved maintainability.
This article briefly describes our original radiological reporting system. This system was developed with the widely used database software FileMakerPro (ver 5.5). The reporting system can obtain information about patients and examinations from a radiology information system (RIS) by the Open DataBase Connectivity (ODBC) technique. By clicking the button on the reporting system, the corresponding Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images can be displayed on a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation monitor. Reference images in JPEG format can be easily moved from PACS to the reporting system. Reports produced by the reporting system are distributed to the hospital information system (HIS) in Portable Document Format (PDF), through another web server. By utilizing the capacity of FileMakerPro, the human-machine interface of the system has been able to be improved easily. In addition, cooperation with HIS, RIS, and PACS could be constructed. Therefore, this original system would contribute to increasing the efficiency of radiological diagnosis. (author)
It is shown that a coexistence of hierarchical and relational data bank structures in computer networks in a common data bank system is possible. This coexistence model, first established by NIJSSEN, regards the graph theory CODASYL approach and CODD's relational model as graph-oriented, or rather table-oriented, data file organisation as presented to the user of a common logical structure of the data bank. (WB) [de
C do Nascimento, Adriano; A F Marques, André; C Sponchiado-Júnior, Emílio; F R Garcia, Lucas; M A de Carvalho, Fredson
Taurodontism is a developmental tooth disorder characterized by lack of constriction in the cementoenamel junction and consequent vertical stretch of the pulp chamber, accompanied by apical displacement of the pulpal floor. The endodontic treatment of teeth with this type of morpho-anatomical anomaly is challenging. The purpose of this article is to report the successful endodontic treatment of a hypertaurodontic mandibular molar using a reciprocating single-file system.
Golpayegani, N.; Halem, M.; Tilmes, C.; Prathapan, S.; Earp, D. N.; Ashkar, J. S.
Long running Earth Science projects can span decades of architectural changes in both processing and storage environments. As storage architecture designs change over decades such projects need to adjust their tools, systems, and expertise to properly integrate such new technologies with their legacy systems. Traditional file systems lack the necessary support to accommodate such hybrid storage infrastructure resulting in more complex tool development to encompass all possible storage architectures used for the project. The MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) and the Level 1 and Atmospheres Archive and Distribution System (LAADS) is an example of a project spanning several decades which has evolved into a hybrid storage architecture. MODAPS/LAADS has developed the Lightweight Virtual File System (LVFS) which ensures a seamless integration of all the different storage architectures, including standard block based POSIX compliant storage disks, to object based architectures such as the S3 compliant HGST Active Archive System, and the Seagate Kinetic disks utilizing the Kinetic Protocol. With LVFS, all analysis and processing tools used for the project continue to function unmodified regardless of the underlying storage architecture enabling MODAPS/LAADS to easily integrate any new storage architecture without the costly need to modify existing tools to utilize such new systems. Most file systems are designed as a single application responsible for using metadata to organizing the data into a tree, determine the location for data storage, and a method of data retrieval. We will show how LVFS' unique approach of treating these components in a loosely coupled fashion enables it to merge different storage architectures into a single uniform storage system which bridges the underlying hybrid architecture.
Due to the historical arrangement between Church and State, the Irish State has always discharged its duty to provide for free primary education exclusively through the provision of funding to privately owned and managed schools. Consequently, in "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey," where a woman sued the State in respect of sex abuse she…
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel metadata management mechanism on the metadata server (MDS for parallel and distributed file systems. In this technique, the client file system backs up the sent metadata requests, which have been handled by the metadata server, so that the MDS does not need to log metadata changes to nonvolatile storage for achieving highly available metadata service, as well as better performance improvement in metadata processing. As the client file system backs up certain sent metadata requests in its memory, the overhead for handling these backup requests is much smaller than that brought by the metadata server, while it adopts logging or journaling to yield highly available metadata service. The experimental results show that this newly proposed mechanism can significantly improve the speed of metadata processing and render a better I/O data throughput, in contrast to conventional metadata management schemes, that is, logging or journaling on MDS. Besides, a complete metadata recovery can be achieved by replaying the backup logs cached by all involved clients, when the metadata server has crashed or gone into nonoperational state exceptionally.
Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically as well as the time needed for removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, MTwo, REndo NiTi rotary retreatment systems and hand files.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (sub-hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...
... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...
Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Chiba, Masaki; Kato, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Akira
A utility system, WinNRDF, is developed for charged particle nuclear reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the Windows interface. By using this system, we can easily search the experimental data of a charged particle nuclear reaction in NRDF than old retrieval systems on the mainframe and also see graphically the experimental data on GUI (Graphical User Interface). We adopted a mechanism of making a new index of keywords to put to practical use of the time dependent properties of the NRDF database. (author)
Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji
Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse.
Conclusions: Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.
Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita
Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome.
Suarez, Liza M; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Briggs, Ernestine C; Titus, Janet C
Adolescents are at high risk for violence exposure and initiation of drug use. Co-occurring substance use and trauma exposure are associated with increased risk of mental health disorders, school underachievement, and involvement with multiple systems of care. Coordination and integration of systems of care are of utmost importance for these vulnerable youth. This study delineates the negative sequelae and increased service utilization patterns of adolescents with a history of trauma, substance abuse, and co-occurring trauma and substance abuse to support the need for integrated mental health and substance abuse services for youth. Data from two national sources, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment demonstrate the increased clinical severity (measured by reports of emotional and behavioral problems), dysfunction, and service utilization patterns for youth with co-occurring trauma exposure and substance abuse. We conclude with recommendations for an integrated system of care that includes trauma-informed mental health treatment and substance abuse services aimed at reducing the morbidity and relapse probability of this high-risk group.
Full Text Available This purposes of this study is to analyze the influence of management effectiveness of e-taxation system to tax compliance in terms of reporting such as (e-filing. This research was conducted at the Tax Office Batu region in the tax year 2015. The research method uses a descriptive quantitative method. The results of this study explains that the management of e-filing for the realization of the Key Performance Index e-filing using point based on the rules of the Directorate General of Taxation number: PER-03 / PJ / 2015 has been effective. �
KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.
The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...
... Privacy Act of 1974; the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002; the Computer Fraud and Abuse... Security Management Act of 2002; the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986; the Health Insurance Portability... systems and data files necessary for compliance with Title XI, Part C of the Social Security Act because...
Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study compared maintenance of canal anatomy, occurrence of apical transportation, and working time observed after instrumentation with One Shape New Generation rotary system (Micro-Mega, with those observed after instrumentation with Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply-Maillefer reciprocating systems. Materials and methods: The mesial canals of 45 mandibular molars (curvature angles between 35Â° and 45Â° were selected. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and canal preparations were performed using One Shape, Reciproc, or WaveOne systems (size #25. A digital double radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation and change in angle of curvature. Also, working time and instrument failures were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: During preparation, no file fractured. No statistically significant differences were found among groups. No system showed a significantly faster preparation time than others (P>0.05. All instruments maintained the original canal curvature well and were safe to use. Conclusion: Both continuous rotary instrument and reciprocating systems did not have any influence on the presence of apical transportation or caused an alteration in angle of canal curvature. Keywords: canal curvature, canal straightening, endodontics, reciprocating motion, single file instrumentation
Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan A; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Dart, Richard C; Green, Jody L
The objectives were to examine the abuse prevalence and route-of-administration (ROA) profiles of sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone combination (BNX) film in comparison with the BNX tablet and to identify clinically-relevant subgroups of patients or geographic patterns. Between Q1 2015 through Q3 2015, data were collected from two major surveillance systems: (1) assessment of individuals in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment collected from the National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO®) ASI-MV® system and (2) intentional abuse/misuse exposures in the RADARS® System Poison Center Program. Poisson regression models were tailored to each system's data characteristics by population (all SUD treatment patients, US census) and adjusted for prescription volume. Effects of gender, race, age and US region as well as ROA profile were examined. For the ASI-MV study, 45,695 assessments of unique adults evaluated for substance use problems were collected. The abuse rate unadjusted for prescription volume of BNX tablet formulation was 2.64 cases/100 ASI-MV respondents versus 7.01 cases for the film formulation (RR=0.390, pfilm) (RR=1.25, pfilm abuse (0.0364) were greater than for tablet (0.0161), while prescription-adjusted rates were greater for tablet (0.2114) than for film (0.1703) per 100,000 prescriptions. ASI-MV ROA analyses indicated less abuse of the film by any alternate route, insufflation or injection than the tablet. Poison center data found more injection of tablets than film, although insufflation was not significantly different. On a prescription-adjusted basis, overall abuse of the BNX tablet is greater than that of the sublingual film formulation. For those who continue to abuse BNX, use by alternate ROAs was, in general, lower for the film. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The architecture of P2P file-sharing applications has been developing to meet the needs of large scale demands. The structured overlay network, also known as DHT, has been used in these applications to improve the scalability, and robustness of the system, and to make it free from single-point failure. We believe that the measurement study of the overlay network used in the real file-sharing P2P systems can provide guidance for the designing of such systems, and improve the performance of the system. In this paper, we perform the measurement in two different aspects. First, a modified client is designed to provide view to the overlay network from a single-user vision. Second, the instances of crawler programs deployed in many nodes managed to crawl the user information of the overlay network as much as possible. We also find a vulnerability in the overlay network, combined with the character of the DNS service, a more serious DDoS attack can be launched.
Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G
In permanent dentition, different rotary systems are used for canal cleaning and shaping. Rotary instrumentation in pediatric dentistry is an emerging concept. A very few studies have compared the efficiency of rotary instrumentation for canal preparation in primary teeth. Hence, this study was performed to compare the obturation quality and instrumentation time of two rotary files systems - Protaper, Mtwo with hand files in primary molars. Forty-five primary mandibular molars were randomly allotted to one of the three groups. Instrumentation was done using K-files in Group 1; Protaper in Group 2; and Mtwo in Group 3. Instrumentation time was recorded. The canal filling quality was assessed as underfill, optimal fill, and overfill. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square, ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test. No significant difference was observed in the quality of obturation among three groups. Intergroup comparison of the instrumentation time showed a statistically significant difference between the three groups. The use of rotary instrumentation in primary teeth results in marked reduction in the instrumentation time and improves the quality of obturation.
Zimmerman, R.A.; Ludwig, S.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Rafto, E.; Hackney, D.B.; Goldberg, H.I.; Grossman, R.I.
Six victims of child abuse with intracranial injury were examined by high-field MR (1.5-T). In comparison with CT, MR proved to be much more sensitive and accurate in the demonstration and anatomic localization of subacute and chronic hematomas and hemorrhagic contusions. Ischemic white matter changes in the young infant were more easily appreciated on serial CT examinations than on MR studies because of the variable signal intensity found in the myelinating white matter. Contusions represent a large component of the injuries seen in the whiplash infant. Because of its rapidity, CT remains the initial procedure for overall evaluation of injury and for exclusion of operable hematomas
Full Text Available Background. A performance measurement system – the Service Quality Measures (SQM initiative – has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA’s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. Objective. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. Methods. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Results. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63. In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df=3.70, p=0.015, awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001, leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001, resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001, openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001, and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001 and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001 were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. Conclusion. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.
Myers, B; Petersen Williams, P; Johnson, K; Govender, R; Manderscheid, R; Koch, J R
A performance measurement system - the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative - has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA)'s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63). In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df)=3.70), p=0.015), awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001), leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001), resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001), openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001), and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE) 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001) and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001) were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.
Fife, D.; Twarog, F.J.; Geha, R.S.
A computer file system was used in our pediatric allergy clinic to assess the value of chest roentgenograms and hemoglobin determinations used in the examination of patients and to correlate exposure to pets and forced hot air with the severity of asthma. Among 889 children with asthma, 20.7% had abnormal chest roentgenographic findings, excluding hyperinflation and peribronchial thickening, and 0.7% had abnormal hemoglobin values. Environmental exposure to pets or forced hot air was not associated with increased severity of asthma, as assessed by five measures of outcome: number of medications administered, requirement for corticosteroids, frequency of clinic visits, frequency of emergency room visits, and frequency of hospitalizations
... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus Briefs in the Matter of Larry L. Evans v. Department of Veterans Affairs, MSPB Docket Number AT-3330-09-0953- I-1. AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice...
... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs in the Matter of Hyginus U. Aguzie v. Office of Personnel Management, MSPB Docket Number DC-0731- 09-0261-R-1 AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice...
... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus Briefs in the Matters of Conyers v. Department of Defense, Docket No...: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On January 25, 2010, the MSPB published in the...
Kotler, R. S.
File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation...
Wang, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
We analyze the spatiotemporal behavior of species concentrations in a diffusion-mediated conversion reaction which occurs at catalytic sites within linear pores of nanometer diameter. A strict single-file (no passing) constraint occurs in the diffusion within such narrow pores. Both transient and steady-state behavior is precisely characterized by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a spatially discrete lattice–gas model for this reaction–diffusion process considering various distributions of catalytic sites. Exact hierarchical master equations can also be developed for this model. Their analysis, after application of mean-field type truncation approximations, produces discrete reaction–diffusion type equations (mf-RDE). For slowly varying concentrations, we further develop coarse-grained continuum hydrodynamic reaction–diffusion equations (h-RDE) incorporating a precise treatment of single-file diffusion (SFD) in this multispecies system. Noting the shortcomings of mf-RDE and h-RDE, we then develop a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) formulation of appropriate gh-RDE which incorporates an unconventional description of chemical diffusion in mixed-component quasi-single-file systems based on a refined picture of tracer diffusion for finite-length pores. The gh-RDE elucidate the non-exponential decay of the steady-state reactant concentration into the pore and the non-mean-field scaling of the reactant penetration depth. Then an extended model of a catalytic conversion reaction within a functionalized nanoporous material is developed to assess the effect of varying the reaction product – pore interior interaction from attractive to repulsive. The analysis is performed utilizing the generalized hydrodynamic formulation of the reaction-diffusion equations which can reliably capture the complex interplay between reaction and restricted transport for both irreversible and reversible reactions.
Jamleh, Ahmed; Alfouzan, Khalid
To evaluate the vertical load induced with the Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) system during canal shaping of extracted teeth by comparing it with the Twisted File (TF, SybronEndo), ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) systems. Fifty-two root canals were shaped using the TFA, TF, PTN, or PTU systems (n = 13 for each system). They were shaped gently according to the manufacturers' instructions. During canal shaping, vertical loads were recorded and shown in 2 directions, apically and coronally directed loads. The vertical peak loads of 3 instrumentation stages were used for comparison. The effects of rotary systems on the mean positive and negative peak loads were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at a confidence level of 95%. The overall pattern of the instantaneous loads appeared to increase with the use of successive instruments within the system. During canal shaping in all groups, the apically and coronally directed peak loads ranged from 0.84-7.55 N and 2.16-2.79 N, respectively. There were significant differences in both peak loads among the tested systems at each instrumentation stage. TFA had the lowest apically directed peak loads. In terms of coronally directed peak loads, the TFA and TF had a significantly lower amount of loads developed with their instruments than PTN and PTU. The choice of instrument system had an influence on the loads developed during canal shaping. TFA instruments were associated favorably with the lowest values of peak loads followed by TF, PTN, and PTU. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tinoco, J M; De-Deus, G; Tinoco, E M B; Saavedra, F; Fidel, R A S; Sassone, L M
To evaluate ex vivo, apical bacterial extrusion associated with two reciprocating single-file systems (WaveOne and Reciproc) compared with a conventional multifile rotary system (BioRace). Forty-five human single-rooted mandibular incisors were used. Endodontic access cavities were prepared, and root canals were contaminated with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension. Following incubation at 37 °C for thirty days, the contaminated teeth were divided into three groups of 15 specimens each (G1 - Reciproc, G2 - WaveOne and G3 - BioRace). Positive and negative controls consisted of 5 infected teeth and 3 uninfected incisors that were instrumented with one of the tested NiTi systems, respectively. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials containing 0.9% NaCl. The microbiological samples were taken from the vials and incubated in brain heart agar medium for 24 h. The resulting bacterial titre, in colony-forming units (CFU) per mL, was determined, and these data were analysed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. No significant difference was found in the number of CFU between the two reciprocating systems (P = 0.41). The conventional multifile rotary system group was associated with significantly higher CFU than both of the two reciprocating groups (P = 0.01). All instrumentation systems extruded bacteria beyond the foramen. However, both reciprocating single-file systems extruded fewer bacteria apically than the conventional multifile rotary system. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.
1 - Description of program or function: The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a modular computer code used for converting evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format into libraries useful for applications calculations. Because the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format is used all around the world (e.g., ENDF/B-VI in the US, JEF-2.2 in Europe, JENDL-3.2 in Japan, BROND-2.2 in Russia), NJOY gives its users access to a wide variety of the most up-to-date nuclear data. NJOY provides comprehensive capabilities for processing evaluated data, and it can serve applications ranging from continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MCNP), through deterministic transport codes (DANT, ANISN, DORT), to reactor lattice codes (WIMS, EPRI). NJOY handles a wide variety of nuclear effects, including resonances, Doppler broadening, heating (KERMA), radiation damage, thermal scattering (even cold moderators), gas production, neutrons and charged particles, photo-atomic interactions, self shielding, probability tables, photon production, and high-energy interactions (to 150 MeV). Output can include printed listings, special library files for applications, and Postscript graphics (plus color). More information on NJOY is available from the developer's home page at http://t2.lanl.gov/tour/tourbus.html. Follow the Tourbus section of the Tour area to find notes from the ICTP lectures held at Trieste in March 2000 on the ENDF format and on the NJOY code. NJOY contains the following modules: NJOY directs the flow of data through the other modules and contains a library of common functions and subroutines used by the other modules. RECONR reconstructs pointwise (energy-dependent) cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. BROADR Doppler broadens and thins pointwise cross sections. UNRESR computes effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections in the unresolved energy range. HEATR generates pointwise heat production cross sections (KERMA coefficients) and radiation
Zheng, Da; Burns, Randal; Szalay, Alexander S
We describe a storage system that removes I/O bottlenecks to achieve more than one million IOPS based on a user-space file abstraction for arrays of commodity SSDs. The file abstraction refactors I/O scheduling and placement for extreme parallelism and non-uniform memory and I/O. The system includes a set-associative, parallel page cache in the user space. We redesign page caching to eliminate CPU overhead and lock-contention in non-uniform memory architecture machines. We evaluate our design on a 32 core NUMA machine with four, eight-core processors. Experiments show that our design delivers 1.23 million 512-byte read IOPS. The page cache realizes the scalable IOPS of Linux asynchronous I/O (AIO) and increases user-perceived I/O performance linearly with cache hit rates. The parallel, set-associative cache matches the cache hit rates of the global Linux page cache under real workloads.
Han, Lin; Huang, Hao; Xie, Changsheng
Cloud storage technology has become a research hotspot in recent years, while the existing cloud storage services are mainly designed for data storage needs with stable high speed Internet connection. Mobile Internet connections are often unstable and the speed is relatively low. These native features of mobile Internet limit the use of cloud storage in portable consumer electronics. The Network Attached Flash File System (NAFFS) presented the idea of taking the portable device built-in NAND flash memory as the front-end cache of virtualized cloud storage device. Modern portable devices with Internet connection have built-in more than 1GB NAND Flash, which is quite enough for daily data storage. The data transfer rate of NAND flash device is much higher than mobile Internet connections, and its non-volatile feature makes it very suitable as the cache device of Internet cloud storage on portable device, which often have unstable power supply and intermittent Internet connection. In the present work, NAFFS is evaluated with several benchmarks, and its performance is compared with traditional network attached file systems, such as NFS. Our evaluation results indicate that the NAFFS achieves an average accessing speed of 3.38MB/s, which is about 3 times faster than directly accessing cloud storage by mobile Internet connection， and offers a more stable interface than that of directly using cloud storage API. Unstable Internet connection and sudden power off condition are tolerable, and no data in cache will be lost in such situation.
de Souza, Samir Noronha; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado-Júnior, EmÍlio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; da Frota, Matheus Franco; de Carvalho, Fredson Márcio Acris
The field of endodontics has become increasingly successful due to technological advances that allow clinicians to solve clinical cases that would have been problematic a few years ago. Despite such advances, endodontic treatment of teeth with internal root resorption remains challenging. This article presents a clinical case in which a reciprocating single-file system was used for endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of internal root resorption in the distobuccal root canal of the mandibular right first molar. A reciprocating single-file system was used for root canal instrumentation and final preparation, and filling was obtained through a thermal compaction technique. No painful symptoms or periapical lesions were observed in 12 months of follow-up. The results indicate that a reciprocating single-file system is an adequate alternative for root canal instrumentation, particularly in teeth with internal root resorption.
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2331-000] Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing documents with the Docket Management System (DMS) and sending documents to the administrative law judge and Assistant Chief Counsel for... Management System (DMS) and sending documents to the administrative law judge and Assistant Chief Counsel for...
Dhingra, Annil; Ruhal, Nidhi; Miglani, Anjali
Successful endodontic therapy depends on many factor, one of the most important step in any root canal treatment is root canal preparation. In addition, respecting the original shape of the canal is of the same importance; otherwise, canal aberrations such as transportation will be created. The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate Reciprocating WaveOne ,Reciproc and Rotary Oneshape Single File Instrumentation System On Cervical Dentin Thickness, Cross Sectional Area and Canal Transportation on First Mandibular Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Sixty Mandibular First Molars extracted due to periodontal reason was collected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial. Teeth were prepared using one rotary and two reciprocating single file system. Teeth were divided into 3 groups 20 teeth in each group. Pre instrumentation and Post instrumentation scans was done and evaluated for three parameters Canal Transportation, Cervical Dentinal Thickness, Cross-sectional Area. Results were analysed statistically using ANOVA, Post-Hoc Tukey analysis. The change in cross-sectional area after filing showed significant difference at 0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 7mm (pfile system over a distance of 7 mm (starting from 0mm and then evaluation at 1mm, 2mm, 3mm, 5mm and 7mm), the results showed a significant difference among the file systems at various lengths (p= 0.014, 0.046, 0.004, 0.028, 0.005 & 0.029 respectively). Mean value of cervical dentinal removal is maximum at all the levels for oneshape and minimum for waveone showing the better quality of waveone and reciproc over oneshape file system. Significant difference was found at 9mm, 11mm and 12mm between all the three file systems (p<0.001,< 0.001, <0.001). It was concluded that reciprocating motion is better than rotary motion in all the three parameters Canal Transportation, Cross-sectional Area, Cervical Dentinal Thickness.
Full Text Available The Modernization Plan decree was promulgated in early 2016 in order to renew electronic government efforts in Argentina. Some of its objectives include to transparent the management of government processes, to establish a digital schedule and to promote state efficiency. San Luis is among the pioneering provinces leading e-government in Argentina since its implementation as part of its agenda at the beginning of the 21st century. In fact, the province enabled one of the first management system of electronic court files in the country. This paper describes e-government in San Luis and focuses on the judicial electronic management system under the light of the Modernization Plan decree. This study uncovers improvement opportunities and it suggests a series of actions to be carried out.
Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M
This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.
Bürklein, S; Benten, S; Schäfer, E
To assess in a laboratory setting the amount of apically extruded debris associated with different single-file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems compared to one multiple-file rotary system. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc, the single-file rotary systems F360 and OneShape and the multiple-file rotary Mtwo instruments. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in pre-weighed glass vials. The amount of debris was assessed with a micro balance and statistically analysed using anova and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared to all other systems (P file rotary systems and the multiple-file rotary system (P > 0.05). Instrumentation with the three single-file systems was significantly faster than with Mtwo (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. Rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared to reciprocal instrumentation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
There is a growing call to introduce a European public notice filing system for security rights in movable goods comparable to the notice filing system of Art. 9 UCC. A proposal to this effect has been adopted in Book IX DCFR, which represents a comprehensive framework of rules for proprietary
Parkhurst, R.W.; Serbinowski, P.A.
Simultaneous superconductivity research activities by different entities have resulted in numerous US patent applications, some of which may claim identical inventions and thus likely will be involved in interference proceedings in the US Patent and Trademark Office to determine which inventors are entitled to priority of invention and the resulting US patent. The determination in an interference proceeding of what inventors were the first-to-invent a patentable invention is contrasted with the patent systems in the rest of the world where the first inventor to file his patent application automatically gains priority. This issue and other aspects of US patent law are the subjects of criticism of US patent law and practice in the current Uruguay round of talks on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Interesting aspects of each of these subjects will be discussed
de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Gonçalves, Leonardo Cantanhede de Oliveira; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Alves, Vanessa; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist
To compare cleaning effectiveness by histological analysis of a reciprocating single-file system with ProTaper rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted teeth. A total of 40 root canals with curvatures ranging between 20 - 40 degrees were divided into two groups of 20 canals. Canals were prepared to the following apical sizes: Reciproc size 25 (n=20); ProTaper: F2 (n=20). The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for the test (Mann-Whitney U test, P .05) between the two groups. The application of reciprocating motion during instrumentation did not result in increased debris when compared with continuous rotation motion, even in the apical part of curved canals. Both instruments resulted in debris in the canal lumen, irrespective of the movement kinematics applied.
Soares, Tiago S; Prado, Thiago C; Dantas, M A R; De Macedo, Douglas D J; Bauer, Michael A
Telemedicine is a very important area in medical field that is expanding daily motivated by many researchers interested in improving medical applications. In Brazil was started in 2005, in the State of Santa Catarina has a developed server called the CyclopsDCMServer, which the purpose to embrace the HDF for the manipulation of medical images (DICOM) using a distributed file system. Since then, many researches were initiated in order to seek better performance. Our approach for this server represents an additional parallel implementation in I/O operations since HDF version 5 has an essential feature for our work which supports parallel I/O, based upon the MPI paradigm. Early experiments using four parallel nodes, provide good performance when compare to the serial HDF implemented in the CyclopsDCMServer.
Cullen, B J; Smith, P H; Funk, J B; Haaf, R A
This study was undertaken to examine whether alleged child sexual abuse perpetrators are handled differently by the courts than other alleged felony perpetrators. Comparisons were made from the time of prosecutorial case acceptance through prosecution to sentencing, with emphasis on judicial and prosecutorial decision-making and plea-bargaining. Data were retrospectively abstracted on the entire defendant population of cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents (ages 2-17) over a 5-year period. Using a case-flow analysis, comparisons were made between a child sexual abuse cohort and a cohort of matched felony cases from a single jurisdiction. Three important findings emerged. First, compared to other felons, abuse perpetrators were employed, had been married, were mostly European American, and were older than 30 years of age. Second, in the abuse cohort, as many as 14% had a previous sexual or violent record compared to 2% in the comparison group. Third, similar percentages of perpetrators in both groups were released on their own recognizance, had the charges against them dropped, and were found guilty. As well, no differences between groups were found in the proportion of individuals sentenced to jail, probation, counseling, or work release. Although the treatment of perpetrators of child sexual abuse was similar to the treatment of perpetrators of other felonies, the profile of the child abuse perpetrator was quite different. Knowledge about this profile may impact prosecution or treatment and recidivism rates, to the extent that recidivism is related to characteristics of the abuse perpetrator.
Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.
Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet; Shetty, Shashit; Dahiya, Surya
Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20) were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One) and one rotary (One Shape) single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05). Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05). Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.
Zinge, Priyanka Ramdas; Patil, Jayaprakash
The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the effect of one shape, Neolix rotary single-file systems and WaveOne, Reciproc reciprocating single-file systems on pericervical dentin (PCD) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 40 freshly extracted mandibular premolars were collected and divided into two groups, namely, Group A - Rotary: A 1 - Neolix and A 2 - OneShape and Group B - Reciprocating: B 1 - WaveOne and B 2 - Reciproc. Preoperative scans of each were taken followed by conventional access cavity preparation and working length determination with 10-k file. Instrumentation of the canal was done according to the respective file system, and postinstrumentation CBCT scans of teeth were obtained. 90 μm thick slices were obtained 4 mm apical and coronal to the cementoenamel junction. The PCD thickness was calculated as the shortest distance from the canal outline to the closest adjacent root surface, which was measured in four surfaces, i.e., facial, lingual, mesial, and distal for all the groups in the two obtained scans. There was no significant difference found between rotary single-file systems and reciprocating single-file systems in their effect on PCD, but in Group B 2 , there was most significant loss of tooth structure in the mesial, lingual, and distal surface ( P file system removes more PCD as compared to other experimental groups, whereas Neolix single file system had the least effect on PCD.
Students' perceptions about both ease of use and usefulness are fundamental factors in determining their acceptance and successful use of technology in higher education. File sharing systems are one of these technologies and can be used to manage and deliver course materials and coordinate virtual teams. The aim of this study is to explore how…
Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Farhadi, Nastaran; Shokraneh, Ali
The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of using a patency file on apical transportation and curve straightening during canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotary system. Seventy permanent mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals, measuring 18-23 mm in length and with a 25-40° curvature (according to the Schneider method), were selected. The working lengths were determined and the teeth were mounted and divided into two experimental groups: (A) prepared by the ProTaper system without using a patency file (n = 35) and (B) prepared by the ProTaper system using a patency file (n = 35). Radiographs taken before and after the preparation were imported into Photoshop software and the apical transportation, and curve straightening were measured. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Partial correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the initial curvature, transportation, and curve straightening (α = 0.05). Using a patency file during canal preparation significantly decreased both apical transportation and curve straightening (P system.
Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M
Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina
Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.
... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...
Arora, Shashank; Kapoor, Ajay; Shen, Weixiang
Parasitic load, which describes electrical energy consumed by battery thermal management system (TMS), is an important design criterion for battery packs. Passive TMSs using phase change materials (PCMs) are thus generating much interest. However, PCMs suffer from low thermal conductivities. Most current thermal conductivity enhancement techniques involve addition of foreign particles to PCMs. Adding foreign particles increases effective thermal conductivity of PCM-systems but at expense of their latent heat capacity. This paper presents an alternate approach for improving thermal performance of PCM-based TMSs. The introduced technique involves placing battery cells in a vertically inverted position within the battery-pack. It is demonstrated through experiments that inverted cell-layout facilitates build-up of convection current in the pack, which in turn minimises thermal variations within the PCM matrix by enabling PCM mass transfer between the top and the bottom regions of the battery pack. The proposed system is found capable of maintaining tight control over battery cell temperature even during abusive usage, defined as high-rate repetitive cycling with minimal rest periods. In addition, this novel TMS can recover waste heat from PCM-matrix through thermoelectric devices, thereby resulting in a negative parasitic load for TMS.
Thakur, Bhagyashree; Pawar, Ajinkya M; Kfir, Anda; Neelakantan, Prasanna
To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during instrumentation of distal canals of extracted primary molars by three instrument systems [ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper NEXT (PTN), and self-adjusting file (SAF)] compared with conventional stainless steel hand K-files (HF, control). Primary mandibular molars (n = 120) with a single distal canal were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 30) for root canal instrumentation using group I, HF (to size 0.30/0.02 taper), group II, PTU (to size F3), group III, PTN (to size X3), and group IV, SAF. Debris extruded during instrumentation was collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes, stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days and then weighed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Turkey's post hoc test (p = 0.05). All the groups resulted in extrusion of debris. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in the debris extrusion between the three groups: HF (0.00133 ± 0.00012), PTU (0.00109 ± 0.00005), PTN (0.00052 ± 0.00008), and SAF (0.00026 ± 0.00004). Instrumentation with SAF resulted in the least debris extrusion when used for shaping root canals of primary molar teeth. Debris extrusion in primary teeth poses an adverse effect on the stem cells and may also alter the permanent dental germ. Debris extrusion is rarely reported for primary teeth and it is important for the clinician to know which endodontic instrumentation leads to less extrusion of debris.
Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…
Mohammad Javad Etesami
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.
Grace, Anthony A
The dopamine system is under multiple forms of regulation, and in turn provides effective modulation of system responses. Dopamine neurons are known to exist in several states of activity. The population activity, or the proportion of dopamine neurons firing spontaneously, is controlled by the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. In contrast, burst firing, which is proposed to be the behaviorally salient output of the dopamine system, is driven by the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg). When an animal is exposed to a behaviorally salient stimulus, the PPTg elicits a burst of action potentials in the dopamine neurons. However, this bursting only occurs in the portion of the dopamine neuron population that is firing spontaneously. This proportion is regulated by the ventral subiculum. Therefore, the ventral subiculum provides the gain, or the amplification factor, for the behaviorally salient stimulus. The ventral subiculum itself is proposed to carry information related to the environmental context. Thus, the ventral subiculum will adjust the responsivity of the dopamine system based on the needs of the organism and the characteristics of the environment. However, this finely tuned system can be disrupted in disease states. In schizophrenia, a disruption of interneuronal regulation of the ventral subiculum is proposed to lead to an overdrive of the dopamine system, rendering the system in a constant hypervigilant state. Moreover, amphetamine sensitization and stressors also appear to cause an abnormal dopaminergic drive. Such an interaction could underlie the risk factors of drug abuse and stress in the precipitation of a psychotic event. On the other hand, this could point to the ventral subiculum as an effective site of therapeutic intervention in the treatment or even the prevention of schizophrenia.
This study estimated a significant amount of underreporting to the MCMIS crash file by the States, for the carriers who cooperated in the study. For the study carriers, it appears that the MCMIS file contained about 66 percent of their reportable cra...
Kfir, A; Elkes, D; Pawar, A; Weissman, A; Tsesis, I
The objective of this study is to determine the potential for microcracks in the radicular dentin of first maxillary premolars using three different mechanized endodontic instrumentation systems. Eighty extracted maxillary first premolars with two root canals and no externally visible microcracks were selected. Root canal instrumentation was performed with either the ProTaper file system, the WaveOne primary file, or the self-adjusting file (SAF). Teeth with intact roots served as controls. The roots were cut into segments and examined with an intensive, small-diameter light source that was applied diagonally to the entire periphery of the root slice under ×20 magnification; the presence of microcracks and fractures was recorded. Pearson's chi-square method was used for statistical analysis, and significance was set at p systems, respectively, while no microcracks were present in the roots treated with the SAF (p = 0.008 and p = 0.035, respectively). Intact teeth presented with cracks in 5 % of the roots. The intensive, small-diameter light source revealed microcracks that could not be detected when using the microscope's light alone. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that mechanized root canal instrumentation with the ProTaper and WaveOne systems in maxillary first premolars causes microcracks in the radicular dentin, while the use of the SAF file causes no such microcracks. Rotary and reciprocating files with large tapers may cause microcracks in the radicular dentin of maxillary first premolars. Less aggressive methods should be considered for these teeth.
This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary
Checksum values are generated and used to verify the data integrity. A client executing in a parallel computing system stores a data chunk to a shared data object on a storage node in the parallel computing system. The client determines a checksum value for the data chunk; and provides the checksum value with the data chunk to the storage node that stores the shared object. The data chunk can be stored on the storage node with the corresponding checksum value as part of the shared object. The storage node may be part of a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS), and the client may comprise, for example, a Log-Structured File System client on a compute node or burst buffer. The checksum value can be evaluated when the data chunk is read from the storage node to verify the integrity of the data that is read.
A patient-filing and calling system is described which uses colour-coded data carriers and a special board. The system proved to be useful for stock display and handling of labelled activity ready for injection in patients. (orig.) [de
Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Shulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; London, Edythe; Friston, Karl; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H
It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stephanie A Kujawski
Full Text Available Abusive treatment of women during childbirth has been documented in low-resource countries and is a deterrent to facility utilization for delivery. Evidence for interventions to address women's poor experience is scant. We assessed a participatory community and health system intervention to reduce the prevalence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Tanzania.We used a comparative before-and-after evaluation design to test the combined intervention to reduce disrespect and abuse. Two hospitals in Tanga Region, Tanzania were included in the study, 1 randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Women who delivered at the study facilities were eligible to participate and were recruited upon discharge. Surveys were conducted at baseline (December 2011 through May 2012 and after the intervention (March through September 2015. The intervention consisted of a client service charter and a facility-based, quality-improvement process aimed to redefine norms and practices for respectful maternity care. The primary outcome was any self-reported experiences of disrespect and abuse during childbirth. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate a difference-in-difference model. At baseline, 2,085 women at the 2 study hospitals who had been discharged from the maternity ward after delivery were invited to participate in the survey. Of these, 1,388 (66.57% agreed to participate. At endline, 1,680 women participated in the survey (72.29% of those approached. The intervention was associated with a 66% reduced odds of a woman experiencing disrespect and abuse during childbirth (odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.21-0.58, p < 0.0001. The biggest reductions were for physical abuse (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.97, p = 0.045 and neglect (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19-0.71, p = 0.003. The study involved only 2 hospitals in Tanzania and is thus a proof-of-concept study. Future, larger-scale research should be undertaken to evaluate the applicability of this
Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, Emg
Pulp therapy in primary teeth has been performed using various instrumentation techniques. However, the conventional instrumentation technique used for root canal preparation in primary teeth is hand instrumentation. Various Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments are available to perform efficient root canal preparation in primary teeth. These Ni-Ti instruments has been designed to aid in better root canal preparation in permanent teeth but are rarely used in primary teeth. It is necessary to assess the feasibility of using these adult rotary files with a modified sequence in primary teeth. To compare the quality of obturation and instrumentation time during root canal preparation using hand files and modified rotary file systems in primary molars. Forty-five primary mandibular molars were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n=15). Group I was instrumented using k-hand files, Group II with S2 ProTaper universal file and Group III with 0.25 tip 4% taper K3 rotary file. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before and after root canal instrumentation. Root canal preparation time was also recorded. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was done using SPSS Software version 17.0. An intergroup comparison of the instrumentation time and the quality of obturation was done using ANOVA and Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. No significant differences were noted with regard to the quality of obturation (p=0.791). However, a statistically significant difference was noted in the instrumentation time between the three groups (pProTaper rotary system had significantly lesser instrumentation time when compared to that of K3 rotary system and hand file system. The hand files, S2 ProTaper Universal and K3 0.25 tip 4% taper files systems performed similarly with respect to the quality of obturation. There was a significant difference in instrumentation time with manual instrumentation compared to the modified rotary file systems in primary
Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A
The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek
We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...
Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H
To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.
Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano
This study compared the canal curvature and axis modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer). Thirty ISO 15, 0.02 taper, Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. In all specimens, the glide path was achieved with PathFile 1, 2, and 3 (Dentsply Maillefer) at the working length (WL). Specimens were then assigned to 1 of 2 groups for shaping: specimens in group 1 were shaped with ProTaper S1-S2-F1-F2 at the WL and specimens in group 2 were shaped with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files at the WL. Pre- and postinstrumentation digital images were superimposed and processed with Matlab r2010b (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA) software to analyze the curvature-radius ratio (CRr) and the relative axis error (rAe), representing canal curvature modification. Data were analyzed with one-way balanced analyses of variance at 2 levels (P < .05). The instrument factor was extremely significant for both the CRr parameter (F(1) = 9.59, P = .004) and the rAe parameter (F(1) = 13.55, P = .001). Canal modifications are reduced when the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system is used. Copyright Â© 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Carvalho, Guilherme Moreira; Sponchiado Junior, Emílio Carlos; Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Marques, André Augusto Franco
The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical transportation, the centering ability, and the cleaning effectiveness of a reciprocating single-file system associated to different glide path techniques. The mesial root canals of 52 mandibular molars were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 13) according to the different glide path techniques used before biomechanical preparation with Reciproc System (RS): KF/RS (sizes 10 and 15 K-files), NGP/RS (no glide path, only reciprocating system), PF/RS (sizes 13, 16, and 19 PathFile instruments), and NP (no preparation). Cone-beam computed tomography analysis was performed before and after instrumentation for apical third images acquisition. Apical transportation and its direction were evaluated by using the formula D = (X1 - X2) - (Y1 - Y2), and the centering ability was analyzed by the formula CC = (X1 - X2/Y1 - Y2 or Y1 - Y2/X1 - X2). The samples were submitted to histologic processing and analyzed under a digital microscope for debris quantification. The values were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis, the Dunn multiple comparisons test, P .05). Groups had a tendency toward transportation in the mesial direction. No technique had perfect centering ability (=1.0), with no significant difference among them. KF/RS had larger amount of debris, with statistically significant difference in comparison with NGP/RS (P > .05). The different glide path techniques promoted minimal apical transportation, and the reciprocating single-file system tested remained relatively centralized within the root canal. Also, the different techniques interfered in the cleaning effectiveness of the reciprocating system. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colombo, Marco; Bassi, Cristina; Beltrami, Riccardo; Vigorelli, Paolo; Spinelli, Antonio; Cavada, Andrea; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio
The aim of the present study was to evaluate radiographically the technical quality of root canal filling performed by postgraduate students with a new single-file Nickel-Titanium System (F6 Skytaper Komet) in clinical practice. Records of 74 patients who had received endodontic treatment by postgraduate students at the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pavia in the period between September 2015 and April 2016 were collected and examined: the final sample consisted 114 teeth and 204 root canals. The quality of endodontic treatment was evaluated by examining the length of the filling in relation to the radiographic apex, the density of the obturation according to the presence of voids and the taper of root canal filling. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine statistically significant differences between the technical quality of root fillings according to tooth's type, position and curvature. The results showed that 75,49%, 82,84% and 90,69% of root filled canals had adequate length, density and taper respectively. Overall, the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by postgraduates students was acceptable in 60,78% of the cases.
Chang, Janet; Rhee, Siyon; Weaver, Dale
This study examined the characteristics and patterns of child abuse among immigrant Korean families in Los Angeles and critical variables that contribute to the type of placement made by the child protective services (CPS) system. Data were obtained from reviewing and analyzing 170 active Korean case files maintained by the Asian Pacific Unit (APU) of the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (LAC-DCFS) during July through September, 2001. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the odds of children being kept in or removed from the home. Some of the major findings from this study include: (1) immigrant Korean families are more likely to be charged with physical abuse (49.4%) and less likely to be charged with neglect (20.6%) in comparison with all other groups in Los Angeles (13.2% and 27.1%, respectively); (2) the circumstance under which physical abuse occurred most frequently was corporal punishment used by Korean parents with an intention to discipline their children; and (3) the context under which emotional abuse occurred among the Korean families was likely to be children's witnessing domestic violence. In addition, the logistic regression showed that response status, referral source, living arrangement, victim's relationship to perpetrator, and chronicity of abuse were significant in predicting out-of-home placement. An analysis of Korean child abuse cases reported to child protective service revealed that culture and child rearing practices shaped the patterns of child maltreatment. A culturally sensitive approach is strongly suggested for effective child abuse prevention and intervention services with this group by CPS agencies.
Elkjaer, Henriette; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
This randomized prospective study examines durability of improvement in general symptomatology, psychosocial functioning and interpersonal problems, and compares the long-term efficacy of analytic and systemic group psychotherapy in women 1 year after completion of treatment for childhood sexual...
relationship with a 16-year old girl failed. The incident was captured by a New York City Police Department surveillance camera. Although the image...administrators stated that the images recorded were “…nothing more than images of a few bras and panties .”17 The use of CCTV surveillance systems for
1 - Description of program or function: The PUFF-IV code system processes ENDF/B-VI formatted nuclear cross section covariance data into multigroup covariance matrices. PUFF-IV is the newest release in this series of codes used to process ENDF uncertainty information and to generate the desired multi-group correlation matrix for the evaluation of interest. This version includes corrections and enhancements over previous versions. It is written in Fortran 90 and allows for a more modular design, thus facilitating future upgrades. PUFF-IV enhances support for resonance parameter covariance formats described in the ENDF standard and now handles almost all resonance parameter covariance information in the resolved region, with the exception of the long range covariance sub-subsections. PUFF-IV is normally used in conjunction with an AMPX master library containing group averaged cross section data. Two utility modules are included in this package to facilitate the data interface. The module SMILER allows one to use NJOY generated GENDF files containing group averaged cross section data in conjunction with PUFF-IV. The module COVCOMP allows one to compare two files written in COVERX format. 2 - Methods: Cross section and flux values on a 'super energy grid,' consisting of the union of the required energy group structure and the energy data points in the ENDF/B-V file, are interpolated from the input cross sections and fluxes. Covariance matrices are calculated for this grid and then collapsed to the required group structure. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PUFF-IV cannot process covariance information for energy and angular distributions of secondary particles. PUFF-IV does not process covariance information in Files 34 and 35; nor does it process covariance information in File 40. These new formats will be addressed in a future version of PUFF
Topçuoğlu, H S; Üstün, Y; Akpek, F; Aktı, A; Topçuoğlu, G
To evaluate the effect of coronal flaring on the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using the Reciproc, WaveOne (WO) and OneShape (OS) single-file systems. Ninety extracted single-rooted mandibular incisor teeth were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 15 for each group) for canal instrumentation. Endodontic access cavities were prepared in each tooth. In three of the six groups, coronal flaring was not performed; coronal flaring was performed with Gates-Glidden drills on all teeth in the remaining three groups. The canals were then instrumented with one or other of the following single-file instrument systems: Reciproc, WO and OS. Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests (P = 0.05). Reciproc and WO files without coronal flaring produced significantly more debris compared with the other groups (P 0.05). All single-file systems caused apical extrusion of debris. Performing coronal flaring prior to canal preparation reduced the amount of apically extruded debris when using Reciproc or WO systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...
Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob
An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237
Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone
To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.
Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G
Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer
Park, Jong Won; Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong
To compare three digital radiographic imaging sensors by evaluating the visibility of endodontic file tips with interobserver reproducibility and assessing subjectively the clarity of images in comparison with the x-ray film images. Forty-five extracted sound premolars were used for this study. Fifteen plaster blocks were made with three premolars each and 8, 10, 15 K-flexofiles were inserted into the root canal of premolars. They were radiographically exposed using periapical x-ray films (Kodak Insight Dental film, Eastmann Kodak company, Rochester, USA), Digora imaging plates (Soredex-Orion Co., Helsinki, Finland), CDX 2000HQ sensors (Biomedisys Co., Seoul, Korea), and CDR sensors (Schick Inc., Long Island, USA). The visibility of endodontic files was evaluated with interobserver reproducibility, which was calculated as the standard deviations of X, Y coordinated of endodontic file tips measured on digital images by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The clarity of images was assessed subjectively using 3 grades, i.e, plus, equal, and minus in comparison with the conventional x-ray film images. Interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tips was the highest in CDR sensor (p<0.05) only except at Y coordinates of 15 file. In the subjective assessment of the image clarity, the plus grade was the most frequent in CDR sensor at all size of endodontic file (p<0.05). CDR sensor was the most superior to the other sensors, CDX 2000HQ sensor and Digora imaging plate in the evaluation of interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tip and subjective assessment of image clarity.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (1-second sampling, sub-hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics...
Payne, Brian K.
Treated initially as a social problem, elder abuse has only recently been criminalized. The criminalization of elder abuse involves penalizing offenders for actively abusing offenders as well as for violating mandatory reporting laws. Mandatory reporting laws exist to encourage professionals to report suspected cases of elder abuse. In this study,…
Fields, Dail; Roman, Paul M; Blum, Terry C
To examine the relationships among general management systems, patient-focused quality management/continuous process improvement (TQM/CPI) processes, resource availability, and multiple dimensions of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Data are from a nationally representative sample of 221 SUD treatment centers through the National Treatment Center Study (NTCS). The design was a cross-sectional field study using latent variable structural equation models. The key variables are management practices, TQM/continuous quality improvement (CQI) practices, resource availability, and treatment center performance. Interviews and questionnaires provided data from treatment center administrative directors and clinical directors in 2007-2008. Patient-focused TQM/CQI practices fully mediated the relationship between internal management practices and performance. The effects of TQM/CQI on performance are significantly larger for treatment centers with higher levels of staff per patient. Internal management practices may create a setting that supports implementation of specific patient-focused practices and protocols inherent to TQM/CQI processes. However, the positive effects of internal management practices on treatment center performance occur through use of specific patient-focused TQM/CPI practices and have more impact when greater amounts of supporting resources are present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Muylaert, Bjorn; Beckers, Tom
In recent years, IT-based production and archiving of media has matured to a level which enables broadcasters to switch over from tape- or CD-based to file-based workflows for the production of their radio and television programs. This technology is essential for the future of broadcasters as it provides the flexibility and speed of execution the customer demands by enabling, among others, concurrent access and production, faster than real-time ingest, edit during ingest, centrally managed annotation and quality preservation of media. In terms of automation of program production, the radio department is the most advanced within the VRT, the Flemish broadcaster. Since a couple of years ago, the radio department has been working with digital equipment and producing its programs mainly on standard IT equipment. Historically, the shift from analogue to digital based production has been a step by step process initiated and coordinated by each radio station separately, resulting in a multitude of tools and metadata collections, some of them developed in-house, lacking integration. To make matters worse, each of those stations adopted a slightly different production methodology. The planned introduction of a company-wide Media Asset Management System allows a coordinated overhaul to a unified production architecture. Benefits include the centralized ingest and annotation of audio material and the uniform, integrated (in terms of IT infrastructure) workflow model. Needless to say, the ingest strategy, metadata management and integration with radio production systems play a major role in the level of success of any improvement effort. This paper presents a data model for audio-specific concepts relevant to radio production. It includes an investigation of ingest techniques and strategies. Cooperation with external, professional production tools is demonstrated through a use-case scenario: the integration of an existing, multi-track editing tool with a commercially available
Pal, Reshmi; Mendelson, John; Clavier, Odile; Baggott, Mathew J; Coyle, Jeremy; Galloway, Gantt P
In methamphetamine (MA) users, drug-induced neurocognitive deficits may help to determine treatment, monitor adherence, and predict relapse. To measure these relationships, we developed an iPhone app (Neurophone) to compare lab and field performance of N-Back, Stop Signal, and Stroop tasks that are sensitive to MA-induced deficits. Twenty healthy controls and 16 MA-dependent participants performed the tasks in-lab using a validated computerized platform and the Neurophone before taking the latter home and performing the tasks twice daily for two weeks. N-Back task: there were no clear differences in performance between computer-based vs. phone-based in-lab tests and phone-based in-lab vs. phone-based in-field tests. Stop-Signal task: difference in parameters prevented comparison of computer-based and phone-based versions. There was significant difference in phone performance between field and lab. Stroop task: response time measured by the speech recognition engine lacked precision to yield quantifiable results. There was no learning effect over time. On an average, each participant completed 84.3% of the in-field NBack tasks and 90.4% of the in-field Stop Signal tasks (MA-dependent participants: 74.8% and 84.3%; healthy controls: 91.4% and 95.0%, respectively). Participants rated Neurophone easy to use. Cognitive tasks performed in-field using Neurophone have the potential to yield results comparable to those obtained in a laboratory setting. Tasks need to be modified for use as the app's voice recognition system is not yet adequate for timed tests.
Carvalho, Maira de Souza; Junior, Emílio Carlos Sponchiado; Bitencourt Garrido, Angela Delfina; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Franco Marques, André Augusto
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning effectiveness achieved with two reciprocating single-file systems in severely curved root canals: Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-five mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly separated into two groups, according to the instrumentation system used. The negative control group consisted of five specimens that were not instrumented. The mesial canals (buccal and lingual) in Reciproc Group were instrumented with file R25 and the WaveOne group with the Primary file. The samples were submitted to histological processing and analyzed under a digital microscope. The WaveOne group presented a larger amount of debris than the Reciproc Group, however, without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). A larger amount of debris in the control group was observed, with statistically significant difference to Reciproc and WaveOne groups (P file instrumentation systems presented similar effectiveness for root canal cleaning.
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
Jorgensen, Ben; Williamson, Anne; Chu, Rene; Qian, Fang
This ex vivo study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of retreating GuttaCore (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and warm vertically condensed gutta-percha in moderately curved canals with 2 different systems: ProTaper Universal Retreatment (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) and WaveOne (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Eighty mesial roots of mandibular molars were used in this study. The mesiobuccal canals in each sample were prepared to length with the WaveOne Primary file (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). The canals were obturated with either a warm vertical approach or with GuttaCore and divided into 4 retreatment groups with the same mean root curvature: warm vertical retreated with ProTaper, warm vertical retreated with WaveOne, GuttaCore retreated with ProTaper, and GuttaCore retreated with WaveOne. The warm vertical groups were obturated using a continuous-wave technique of gutta-percha compaction, and the GuttaCore groups were obturated according to the manufacturer's instructions. After allowing sealer to set, each specimen was retreated with either the ProTaper Universal Retreatment files D1, D2, or D3 or with the WaveOne Primary file to the predetermined working length. The time taken to reach the working length was recorded. Instrument fatigue and failure were also evaluated. The post hoc 2-sample t tests showed that the overall mean total time taken to reach the working length for the warm vertical groups was significantly greater than that observed for the GuttaCore groups (mean = 87.11 vs 60.16 seconds, respectively), and the overall mean total time taken to reach the working length for WaveOne was significantly greater than that observed for ProTaper (99.09 vs 48.18 seconds, respectively). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant main effect for both the type of experiment groups (F 1,76 = 15.32, P = .0002) and the type of retreatments (F 1,76 = 54.67, P file underwent more separations than the ProTaper files. The WaveOne Primary file underwent
van Eijk, N.
‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural
Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele
ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Result...
The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…
Leonardo da Silva Boia
Full Text Available Purpose: A computational system was developed for this paper in the C++ programming language, to create a 125I radioactive seed entry file, based on the positioning of a virtual grid (template in voxel geometries, with the purpose of performing prostate cancer treatment simulations using the MCNPX code.Methods: The system is fed with information from the planning system with regard to each seed’s location and its depth, and an entry file is automatically created with all the cards (instructions for each seed regarding their cell blocks and surfaces spread out spatially in the 3D environment. The system provides with precision a reproduction of the clinical scenario for the MCNPX code’s simulation environment, thereby allowing the technique’s in-depth study.Results and Conclusion: The preliminary results from this study showed that the lateral penumbra of uniform scanning proton beams was less sensitive In order to validate the computational system, an entry file was created with 88 125I seeds that were inserted in the phantom’s MAX06 prostate region with initial activity determined for the seeds at the 0.27 mCi value. Isodose curves were obtained in all the prostate slices in 5 mm steps in the 7 to 10 cm interval, totaling 7 slices. Variance reduction techniques were applied in order to optimize computational time and the reduction of uncertainties such as photon and electron energy interruptions in 4 keV and forced collisions regarding cells of interest. Through the acquisition of isodose curves, the results obtained show that hot spots have values above 300 Gy, as anticipated in literature, stressing the importance of the sources’ correct positioning, in which the computational system developed provides, in order not to release excessive doses in adjacent risk organs. The 144 Gy prescription curve showed in the validation process that it covers perfectly a large percentage of the volume, at the same time that it demonstrates a large
Pawar, Ajinkya M; Pawar, Mansing G; Kokate, Sharad R
The vital steps in any endodontic treatment are thorough mechanical shaping and chemical cleaning followed by obtaining a fluid tight impervious seal by an inert obturating material. For the past two decades, introduction and use of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files have changed our concepts of endodontic treatment from conventional to contemporary. They have reported good success rates, but still have many drawbacks. The Self-Adjusting File (SAF) introduces a new era in endodontics by performing the vital steps of shaping and cleaning simultaneously. The SAF is a hollow file in design that adapts itself three-dimensionally to the root canal and is a single file system, made up of Ni-Ti lattice. The case series presented in the paper report the clinical experience, while treating primary endodontic cases with the SAF system in India.
Ajinkya M Pawar
Full Text Available The vital steps in any endodontic treatment are thorough mechanical shaping and chemical cleaning followed by obtaining a fluid tight impervious seal by an inert obturating material. For the past two decades, introduction and use of rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti files have changed our concepts of endodontic treatment from conventional to contemporary. They have reported good success rates, but still have many drawbacks. The Self-Adjusting File (SAF introduces a new era in endodontics by performing the vital steps of shaping and cleaning simultaneously. The SAF is a hollow file in design that adapts itself three-dimensionally to the root canal and is a single file system, made up of Ni-Ti lattice. The case series presented in the paper report the clinical experience, while treating primary endodontic cases with the SAF system in India.
Department of Veterans Affairs — This database is part of the National Medical Information System (NMIS). The Patient Treatment File (PTF) contains a record for each inpatient care episode provided...
Marceliano-Alves, M F V; Sousa-Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; Steier, L; Robinson, J P; Pécora, J D; Versiani, M A
To investigate changes in three-dimensional geometry, in various cross-sectional morphological parameters and in the centring ability of root canals prepared with different preparation systems using microcomputed tomographic imaging technology. Sixty-four mesial canals of mandibular molars were matched based on similar morphological dimensions using micro-CT evaluation and assigned to four experimental groups (n = 16), according to the canal preparation technique: Reciproc, WaveOne, Twisted File and HyFlex CM systems. Changes in several 2D (area, perimeter, form factor, roundness, minor and major diameter) and 3D [volume, surface area, structure model index (SMI)] morphological parameters, as well as canal transportation, were compared with preoperative values using Kruskal-Wallis and anovapost hoc Tukey's tests with the significance level set at 5%. Preparation significantly increased all tested parameters in the experimental groups. No significant differences were observed between groups regarding changes in volume, surface area, SMI, form factor and roundness of the root canal after preparation (P > 0.05). In the apical third, the Reciproc group had significantly greater changes in canal area, perimeter, major and minor diameters than the other groups (P File and HyFlex CM systems were associated with significantly less transportation than the reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne (P File and HyFlex CM systems were able to maintain the original canal anatomy with less canal transportation than Reciproc and WaveOne; however, these differences are unlikely to be of clinical significance. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E
The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS) regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance) during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.
Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Akpek, Firdevs
To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel titanium instrumentation systems and hand files in primary molar teeth. Sixty extracted primary first mandibular molar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Revo-S, Mtwo, ProTaper Next, and hand files. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. ProTaper Next files were associated with less apically extruded debris than the Mtwo, Revo-S, and hand files (P Hand files extruded more debris than Mtwo and Revo-S instruments (P 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. ProTaper Next files caused less debris extrusion compared to the other systems used. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
...: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff or via the E-Filing system, following the procedure set forth in 10 CFR 2.302. Filing by mail is complete upon deposit in the mail. Filing via the E-Filing system is completed... residence with some occupant of suitable age and discretion; (2) Following the requirements for E-Filing in...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...
... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...
... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
This bachelor's thesis consists of a Czech translation of an article Love and Stockholm Syndrome: The Mystery of Loving an Abuser written by an american author Joseph Carver, Ph.D., and a commentary on the translation. The commentary is divided into four parts: an analysis of the source text based on the model of Christiane Nord, the translation problems and their solutions, typology of the translation shifts based on the theory of Anton Popovič and the chosen translation method.
Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Balster, Robert L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Schuster, Charles R.; Anthony, James C.; Barthwell, Andrea G.; Coleman, John J.; Dart, Richard C.; Gorodetzky, Charles W.; O’Keeffe, Charles; Sellers, Edward M.; Vocci, Frank; Walsh, Sharon L.
The abuse and diversion of medications is a significant public health problem. This paper is part of a supplemental issue of Drug and Alcohol Dependence focused on the development of risk management plans and post-marketing surveillance related to minimizing this problem. The issue is based on a conference that was held in October, 2008. An Expert Panel was formed to provide a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the meeting involving drug abuse experts, regulators and other government agencies, pharmaceutical companies and professional and other non-governmental organizations. This paper provides a written report of this Expert Panel. Eleven conclusions and eleven recommendations emerged concerning the state of the art of this field of research, the regulatory and public health implications and recommendations for future directions. It is concluded that special surveillance tools are needed to detect the emergence of medication abuse in a timely manner and that risk management tools can be implemented to increase the benefit to risk ratio. The scientific basis for both the surveillance and risk management tools is in its infancy, yet progress needs to be made. It is also important that the unintended consequences of increased regulation and the imposition of risk management plans be minimized. PMID:19783383
Smith, A.B.; Chiba, S.; Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Howerton, R.J.
A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental indium is documented. This file, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format, and contains all neutron-induced processes necessary for the vast majority of neutronic applications. In addition, an evaluation of the 115 In(n,n') 116m In dosimetry reaction is presented as a separate file. Attention is given in quantitative values, with corresponding uncertainty information. These files have been submitted for consideration as a part of the ENDF/B-VI national evaluated-file system. 144 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Farrell, Caitlin A; Fleegler, Eric W; Monuteaux, Michael C; Wilson, Celeste R; Christian, Cindy W; Lee, Lois K
Child maltreatment remains a problem in the United States, and individual poverty is a recognized risk factor for abuse. Children in impoverished communities are at risk for negative health outcomes, but the relationship of community poverty to child abuse fatalities is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the association between county poverty concentration and rates of fatal child abuse. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of child abuse fatalities in US children 0 to 4 years of age from 1999 to 2014 by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Compressed Mortality Files. Population and poverty statistics were obtained from US Census data. National child abuse fatality rates were calculated for each category of community poverty concentration. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeling assessed the relationship between county poverty concentration and child abuse fatalities. From 1999 to 2014, 11 149 children 0 to 4 years old died of child abuse; 45% (5053) were poverty concentration had >3 times the rate of child abuse fatalities compared with counties with the lowest poverty concentration (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.79). Higher county poverty concentration is associated with increased rates of child abuse fatalities. This finding should inform public health officials in targeting high-risk areas for interventions and resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Toor, S; Eerola, P; Kraemer, O; Lindén, T; Osmani, L; Tarkoma, S; White, J
The challenge of providing a resilient and scalable computational and data management solution for massive scale research environments requires continuous exploration of new technologies and techniques. In this project the aim has been to design a scalable and resilient infrastructure for CERN HEP data analysis. The infrastructure is based on OpenStack components for structuring a private Cloud with the Gluster File System. We integrate the state-of-the-art Cloud technologies with the traditional Grid middleware infrastructure. Our test results show that the adopted approach provides a scalable and resilient solution for managing resources without compromising on performance and high availability.
Toor, S.; Osmani, L.; Eerola, P.; Kraemer, O.; Lindén, T.; Tarkoma, S.; White, J.
The challenge of providing a resilient and scalable computational and data management solution for massive scale research environments requires continuous exploration of new technologies and techniques. In this project the aim has been to design a scalable and resilient infrastructure for CERN HEP data analysis. The infrastructure is based on OpenStack components for structuring a private Cloud with the Gluster File System. We integrate the state-of-the-art Cloud technologies with the traditional Grid middleware infrastructure. Our test results show that the adopted approach provides a scalable and resilient solution for managing resources without compromising on performance and high availability.
Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…
Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.
The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)
Morino, Taichi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Toda, Takaki; Yokoyama, Takashi
Recently, the abuse of designer drugs has become a social problem. Designer drugs are created by modifying part of the chemical structure of drugs that have already been categorized as illegal, thereby creating a different chemical compound in order to evade Pharmaceutical Affairs Law regulations. The new comprehensive system for designating illegal drug components has been in effect since March 2013, and many designer drugs can now be regulated. We conducted an online questionnaire survey of people with a history of designer drug use to elucidate the effects of the new system on the abuse of designer drugs and to identify potential future problems. Over half the subjects obtained designer drugs only before the new system was implemented. Awareness of the system was significantly lower among subjects who obtained designer drugs for the first time after its introduction than those who obtained the drugs only before its implementation. Due to the new system, all methods of acquiring designer drugs saw decreases in activity. However, the ratio of the acquisition of designer drugs via the Internet increased. Since over 50% of the subjects never obtained designer drugs after the new system was introduced, goals that aimed to make drug procurement more difficult were achieved. However, awareness of the new system among subjects who obtained designer drugs after the new system was introduced was significantly low. Therefore, fostering greater public awareness of the new system is necessary. The results of the questionnaire also suggested that acquiring designer drugs through the Internet has hardly been affected by the new system. We strongly hope that there will be a greater push to restrict the sale of designer drugs on the Internet in the near future.
Wills, Russell; Ritchie, Miranda; Wilson, Mollie
To improve detection and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse within a health service. A formal organisational change approach was used to implement the New Zealand Family Violence Intervention Guidelines in a mid-sized regional health service. The approach includes obtaining senior management support, community collaboration, developing resources to support practice, research, evaluation and training. Formal pre-post evaluations were conducted of the training. Barriers and enablers of practice change were assessed through 85 interviews with 60 staff. More than 6000 clinical records were audited to assess rates of questioning for partner abuse. Identifications of partner abuse and referrals made were counted through the Family Violence Accessory File. Referrals to the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services (CYFS) were recorded routinely by the CYFS. Audits assessed quality of assessment of child and partner abuse, when identified. More than 700 staff were trained in dual assessment for child and partner abuse. Evaluations demonstrate improved confidence following training, though staff still need support. Barriers and enablers to asking about partner abuse were identified. Referrals from the health service to the CYFS increased from 10 per quarter to 70 per quarter. Identification of partner abuse increased from 30 to 80 per 6-month period. Routine questioning rates for partner abuse vary between services. Achieving and sustaining improved rates of identification and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse is possible with a formal organisational change approach.
Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan
Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murphy, John P.
Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)
In most large computer installations, files are moved between on-line disk and mass storage (tape, integrated mass storage device) either automatically by the system or specifically at the direction of the user. This is the first of two papers which study the selection of algorithms for the automatic migration of files between mass storage and disk. The use of the text editor data sets at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) computer installation is examined through the analysis of thirteen months of file reference data. Most files are used very few times. Of those that are used sufficiently frequently that their reference patterns may be examined, about a third show declining rates of reference during their lifetime; of the remainder, very few (about 5%) show correlated interreference intervals, and interreference intervals (in days) appear to be more skewed than would occur with the Bernoulli process. Thus, about two-thirds of all sufficiently active files appear to be referenced as a renewal process with a skewed interreference distribution. A large number of other file reference statistics (file lifetimes, interference distributions, moments, means, number of uses/file, file sizes, file rates of reference, etc.) are computed and presented. The results are applied in the following paper to the development and comparative evaluation of file migration algorithms. 17 figures, 13 tables
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Pedone, Jr., James M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Ionkov, Latchesar A.; Grider, Gary
A cluster file system is provided having a plurality of distributed metadata servers with shared access to one or more shared low latency persistent key-value metadata stores. A metadata server comprises an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one shared persistent key-value metadata store providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of key-value metadata. The software interface module provides the key-value metadata to the at least one shared persistent key-value metadata store in a key-value format. The shared persistent key-value metadata store is accessed by a plurality of metadata servers. A metadata request can be processed by a given metadata server independently of other metadata servers in the cluster file system. A distributed metadata storage environment is also disclosed that comprises a plurality of metadata servers having an abstract storage interface to at least one shared persistent key-value metadata store.
Genç Şen, Özgür; Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun
Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal.
Kurt F. Hauser
Full Text Available The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.
Topçuoğlu, H S; Düzgün, S; Akpek, F; Topçuoğlu, G; Aktı, A
To evaluate the effect of a glide path on the amount of apically extruded debris during canal preparation using single-file systems in curved canals. Ninety extracted mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 15 for each group) for canal instrumentation. Endodontic access cavities were prepared in each tooth. In three of the six groups, a glide path was not created whereas a glide path was created using PathFile instruments on the mesial canals of all teeth in the remaining three groups. The mesial canals of the teeth were then instrumented with the following single-file instrument systems: WaveOne, Reciproc and OneShape. Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. The OneShape file was associated with less debris extrusion than the Reciproc and WaveOne files when canal instrumentation was performed without a glide path (P files (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference amongst the OneShape, Reciproc and WaveOne files when a glide path was created before canal preparation in curved root canals (P > 0.05). All systems extruded significantly less debris in groups with a glide path than in groups without a glide path (P < 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. Creating a glide path prior to canal instrumentation reduced the amount of apically extruded debris in curved canals. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hwang, Young-Hye; Bae, Kwang-Shik; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, WooCheol; Shon, Won-Jun; Chang, Seok Woo
This study used micro-computed tomographic imaging to compare the shaping ability of Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany), a conventional nickel-titanium file system, and Reciproc (VDW), a reciprocating file system morphologically similar to Mtwo. Root canal shaping was performed on the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals of extracted maxillary molars. In the RR group (n = 15), Reciproc was used in a reciprocating motion (150° counterclockwise/30° clockwise, 300 rpm); in the MR group, Mtwo was used in a reciprocating motion (150° clockwise/30° counterclockwise, 300 rpm); and in the MC group, Mtwo was used in a continuous rotating motion (300 rpm). Micro-computed tomographic images taken before and after canal shaping were used to analyze canal volume change and the degree of transportation at the cervical, middle, and apical levels. The time required for canal shaping was recorded. Afterward, each file was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups in the time for canal shaping or canal volume change (P > .05). Transportation values of the RR and MR groups were not significantly different at any level. However, the transportation value of the MC group was significantly higher than both the RR and MR groups at the cervical and apical levels (P file deformation was observed for 1 file in group RR (1/15), 3 files in group MR (3/15), and 5 files in group MC (5/15). In terms of shaping ability, Mtwo used in a reciprocating motion was not significantly different from the Reciproc system. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tang, S; Ho, M; Chen, C; Mah, D [ProCure NJ, Somerset, NJ (United States); Rice, I; Doan, D; Mac Rae, B [IBA, Somerset, NJ (United States)
Purpose: The use of log files to perform patient specific quality assurance for both protons and IMRT has been established. Here, we extend that approach to a proprietary log file format and compare our results to measurements in phantom. Our goal was to generate a system that would permit gross errors to be found within 3 fractions until direct measurements. This approach could eventually replace direct measurements. Methods: Spot scanning protons pass through multi-wire ionization chambers which provide information about the charge, location, and size of each delivered spot. We have generated a program that calculates the dose in phantom from these log files and compares the measurements with the plan. The program has 3 different spot shape models: single Gaussian, double Gaussian and the ASTROID model. The program was benchmarked across different treatment sites for 23 patients and 74 fields. Results: The dose calculated from the log files were compared to those generate by the treatment planning system (Raystation). While the dual Gaussian model often gave better agreement, overall, the ASTROID model gave the most consistent results. Using a 5%–3 mm gamma with a 90% passing criteria and excluding doses below 20% of prescription all patient samples passed. However, the degree of agreement of the log file approach was slightly worse than that of the chamber array measurement approach. Operationally, this implies that if the beam passes the log file model, it should pass direct measurement. Conclusion: We have established and benchmarked a model for log file QA in an IBA proteus plus system. The choice of optimal spot model for a given class of patients may be affected by factors such as site, field size, and range shifter and will be investigated further.
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of filing publications. 61.14 Section 61...) TARIFFS Rules for Electronic Filing § 61.14 Method of filing publications. (a) Publications filed... date of a publication received by the Electronic Tariff Filing System will be determined by the date...
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
Weinberg, Lois A.
Interviews and review of case files investigated reasons for the common failure to meet the educational needs of abused and neglected children with disabilities in foster care. Agency dysfunctions which negatively affected appropriate educational provisions were identified in such categories as eligibility, timeline violation, inappropriate…
Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File C. File C includes the agency award information from the financial accounting system at...
Dhingra, Annil; Miglani, Anjali
Background Successful endodontic therapy depends on many factor, one of the most important step in any root canal treatment is root canal preparation. In addition, respecting the original shape of the canal is of the same importance; otherwise, canal aberrations such as transportation will be created. Aim The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate Reciprocating WaveOne ,Reciproc and Rotary Oneshape Single File Instrumentation System On Cervical Dentin Thickness, Cross Sectional Area and Canal Transportation on First Mandibular Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Materials and Methods Sixty Mandibular First Molars extracted due to periodontal reason was collected from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial. Teeth were prepared using one rotary and two reciprocating single file system. Teeth were divided into 3 groups 20 teeth in each group. Pre instrumentation and Post instrumentation scans was done and evaluated for three parameters Canal Transportation, Cervical Dentinal Thickness, Cross-sectional Area. Results were analysed statistically using ANOVA, Post-Hoc Tukey analysis. Results The change in cross-sectional area after filing showed significant difference at 0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 7mm (pfile system over a distance of 7 mm (starting from 0mm and then evaluation at 1mm, 2mm, 3mm, 5mm and 7mm), the results showed a significant difference among the file systems at various lengths (p= 0.014, 0.046, 0.004, 0.028, 0.005 & 0.029 respectively). Mean value of cervical dentinal removal is maximum at all the levels for oneshape and minimum for waveone showing the better quality of waveone and reciproc over oneshape file system. Significant difference was found at 9mm, 11mm and 12mm between all the three file systems (p<0.001,< 0.001, <0.001). Conclusion It was concluded that reciprocating motion is better than rotary motion in all the three parameters Canal Transportation, Cross-sectional Area, Cervical Dentinal Thickness. PMID:26023639
This page provides state comma separated value (CSV) files containing key information of all facilities and sites within the Facility Registry System (FRS). Each state zip file contains a single CSV file of key facility-level information.
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary
Techniques are provided for parallel compression of data chunks being written to a shared object. A client executing on a compute node or a burst buffer node in a parallel computing system stores a data chunk generated by the parallel computing system to a shared data object on a storage node by compressing the data chunk; and providing the data compressed data chunk to the storage node that stores the shared object. The client and storage node may employ Log-Structured File techniques. The compressed data chunk can be de-compressed by the client when the data chunk is read. A storage node stores a data chunk as part of a shared object by receiving a compressed version of the data chunk from a compute node; and storing the compressed version of the data chunk to the shared data object on the storage node.
Serefoglu, Burcu; Piskin, Beyser
The aim of this investigation was to compare the cleaning and shaping efficiency of Self-adjusting file and Protaper, and to assess the correlation between root canal curvature and working time in mandibular molars using micro-computed tomography. Twenty extracted mandibular molars instrumented with Protaper and Self-adjusting file and the total working time was measured in mesial canals. The changes in canal volume, surface area and structure model index, transportation, uninstrumented area and the correlation between working-time and the curvature were analyzed. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between two systems in distal canals (p>0.05), a significantly higher amount of removed dentin volume and lower uninstrumented area were provided by Protaper in mesial canals (p<0.0001). A correlation between working-time and the canal-curvature was also observed in mesial canals for both groups (SAFr 2 =0.792, p<0.0004, PTUr 2 =0.9098, p<0.0001).
Welington dos Santos Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Johnson, Kim; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy
In South Africa, concerns exist about the quality of substance abuse treatment. We developed a performance measurement system, known as the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative, to monitor the quality of treatment and assess efforts to improve quality of care. In 2014, the SQM system was implemented at six treatment sites to evaluate how implementation protocols could be improved in preparation for wider roll-out. To describe providers' perceptions of the feasibility and acceptability of implementing the SQM system, including barriers to and facilitators of implementation. We conducted 15 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with treatment providers from six treatment sites (two sites in KwaZulu-Natal and four in the Western Cape). Providers were asked about their experiences in implementing the system, the perceived feasibility of the system, and barriers to implementation. All IDIs were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Providers reported that the SQM system was feasible to implement and acceptable to patients and providers. Issues identified through the IDIs included a perceived lack of clarity about sequencing of key elements in the implementation of the SQM system, questions on integration of the system into clinical care pathways, difficulties in tracking patients through the system, and concerns about maximising patient participation in the process. Findings suggest that the SQM system is feasible to implement and acceptable to providers, but that some refinements to the implementation protocols are needed to maximise patient participation and the likelihood of sustained implementation.
Bronevetsky, G; Moody, A
In the race to PetaFLOP-speed supercomputing systems, the increase in computational capability has been accompanied by corresponding increases in CPU count, total RAM, and storage capacity. However, a proportional increase in storage bandwidth has lagged behind. In order to improve system reliability and to reduce maintenance effort for modern large-scale systems, system designers have opted to remove node-local storage from the compute nodes. Today's multi-TeraFLOP supercomputers are typically attached to parallel file systems that provide only tens of GBs/s of I/O bandwidth. As a result, such machines have access to much less than 1GB/s of I/O bandwidth per TeraFLOP of compute power, which is below the generally accepted limit required for a well-balanced system. In a many ways, the current I/O bottleneck limits the capabilities of modern supercomputers, specifically in terms of limiting their working sets and restricting fault tolerance techniques, which become critical on systems consisting of tens of thousands of components. This paper resolves the dilemma between high performance and high reliability by presenting an alternative system design which makes use of node-local storage to improve aggregate system I/O bandwidth. In this work, we focus on the checkpointing use-case and present an experimental evaluation of the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, a new adaptive checkpointing library that uses node-local storage to significantly improve the checkpointing performance of large-scale supercomputers. Experiments show that SCR achieves unprecedented write speeds, reaching a measured 700GB/s of aggregate bandwidth on 8,752 processors and an estimated 1TB/s for a similarly structured machine of 12,500 processors. This corresponds to a speedup of over 70x compared to the bandwidth provided by the 10GB/s parallel file system the cluster uses. Further, SCR can adapt to an environment in which there is wide variation in performance or capacity among
Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E
The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.
Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407
Young, Lisa M
Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... System (COALS) § 1.1704 Station files. Applications, notifications, correspondence, electronic filings... Television Relay Service (CARS) are maintained by the Commission in COALS and the Public Reference Room...
Mahanama, Sarith P.; Koster, Randal D.; Walker, Gregory K.; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Bin; Suarez, Max J.
The Earths land surface boundary conditions in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) modeling system were updated using recent high spatial and temporal resolution global data products. The updates include: (i) construction of a global 10-arcsec land-ocean lakes-ice mask; (ii) incorporation of a 10-arcsec Globcover 2009 land cover dataset; (iii) implementation of Level 12 Pfafstetter hydrologic catchments; (iv) use of hybridized SRTM global topography data; (v) construction of the HWSDv1.21-STATSGO2 merged global 30 arc second soil mineral and carbon data in conjunction with a highly-refined soil classification system; (vi) production of diffuse visible and near-infrared 8-day MODIS albedo climatologies at 30-arcsec from the period 2001-2011; and (vii) production of the GEOLAND2 and MODIS merged 8-day LAI climatology at 30-arcsec for GEOS-5. The global data sets were preprocessed and used to construct global raster data files for the software (mkCatchParam) that computes parameters on catchment-tiles for various atmospheric grids. The updates also include a few bug fixes in mkCatchParam, as well as changes (improvements in algorithms, etc.) to mkCatchParam that allow it to produce tile-space parameters efficiently for high resolution AGCM grids. The update process also includes the construction of data files describing the vegetation type fractions, soil background albedo, nitrogen deposition and mean annual 2m air temperature to be used with the future Catchment CN model and the global stream channel network to be used with the future global runoff routing model. This report provides detailed descriptions of the data production process and data file format of each updated data set.
Dincer, Asiye Nur; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara
This study was intended to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris following root canal preparation with three different instrumentation systems. Sixty mandibular incisor teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups ( n = 20/group) according to the instrumentation system used: the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), the Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), and the WaveOne Gold (WOG; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). All apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed glass vials. The mean weight of the apically extruded debris was obtained using a microbalance. The time for root canal preparation was also recorded. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. The mean weights of apically extruded debris were 0.00035 ± 0.00014 g (PTN); 0.00023 ± 0.0001 g (TFA); and 0.00019 ± 0.0001 g (WOG) ( P system extruded more debris than the TFA and WOG systems. The TFA and WOG systems were faster than the PTN system.
Choi, Dong-Min; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Kwak, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol
This study aimed to compare the vibration generated by several nickel-titanium (NiTi) file systems and transmitted to teeth under 2 different motions (continuous rotation motion and reciprocating motion). Sixty J-shaped resin blocks (Endo Training Bloc-J; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were trimmed to a root-shaped form and divided into 2 groups according to the types of electric motors: WaveOne motor (WOM, Dentsply Maillefer) and X-Smart Plus motor (XSM, Dentsply Maillefer). Each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups (n = 10 each) according to the designated file systems: ProTaper Next (PTN, Dentsply Maillefer), ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer), and WaveOne (WOP, Dentsply Maillefer) systems. Vibration was measured during the pecking motion using an accelerometer attached to a predetermined consistent position. The average vibration values were subjected to 2-way analysis of variance as well as the t test and Duncan test for post hoc comparison at the 95% confidence interval. Both motor types and instrument types produced significantly different ranges of average vibrations. Regardless of the instrument types, the WOM group generated greater vibration than the XSM group (P file system may generate greater vibration than the continuous rotation NiTi file systems. The motor type also has a significant effect to amplify the vibrations. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I
To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.
Hoogeman, Mischa; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Nuyttens, Joost; Poell, Johan; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben
Purpose: To quantify the clinical accuracy of the respiratory motion tracking system of the CyberKnife treatment device. Methods and Materials: Data in log files of 44 lung cancer patients treated with tumor tracking were analyzed. Errors in the correlation model, which relates the internal target motion with the external breathing motion, were quantified. The correlation model error was compared with the geometric error obtained when no respiratory tracking was used. Errors in the prediction method were calculated by subtracting the predicted position from the actual measured position after 192.5 ms (the time lag to prediction in our current system). The prediction error was also measured for a time lag of 115 ms and a new prediction method. Results: The mean correlation model errors were less than 0.3 mm. Standard deviations describing intrafraction variations around the whole-fraction mean error were 0.2 to 1.9 mm for cranio-caudal, 0.1 to 1.9 mm for left-right, and 0.2 to 2.5 mm for anterior-posterior directions. Without the use of respiratory tracking, these variations would have been 0.2 to 8.1 mm, 0.2 to 5.5 mm, and 0.2 to 4.4 mm. The overall mean prediction error was small (0.0 ± 0.0 mm) for all directions. The intrafraction standard deviation ranged from 0.0 to 2.9 mm for a time delay of 192.5 ms but was halved by using the new prediction method. Conclusions: Analyses of the log files of real clinical cases have shown that the geometric error caused by respiratory motion is substantially reduced by the application of respiratory motion tracking.
... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...
and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...
Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Results: Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Conclusion: Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ACONC files containing simulated ozone and PM2.5 fields that were used to create the model difference plots shown in the journal article. This dataset is associated...
Social Security Administration — SSA-831 file is a collection of initial and reconsideration adjudicative level DDS disability determinations. (A few hearing level cases are also present, but the...
Jamsek, Damir A.
A brief example of the use of formal methods techniques in the specification of a software system is presented. The report is part of a larger effort targeted at defining a formal methods pilot project for NASA. One possible application domain that may be used to demonstrate the effective use of formal methods techniques within the NASA environment is presented. It is not intended to provide a tutorial on either formal methods techniques or the application being addressed. It should, however, provide an indication that the application being considered is suitable for a formal methods by showing how such a task may be started. The particular system being addressed is the Structured File Services (SFS), which is a part of the Data Storage and Retrieval Subsystem (DSAR), which in turn is part of the Data Management System (DMS) onboard Spacestation Freedom. This is a software system that is currently under development for NASA. An informal mathematical development is presented. Section 3 contains the same development using Penelope (23), an Ada specification and verification system. The complete text of the English version Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is reproduced in Appendix A.
Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)
Ghogre, Priyanka; Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Agarwal, Manish; Singh, M P; Gurav, Sandeep; Ghogre, Rahul
The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of intracanal bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted, and hand K-file system. Seventy extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared and the teeth were mounted in glass vials. Root canals were then contaminated with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The contaminated roots were divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Group 1: ProTaper; Group 2: K3XF; Group 3: Twisted file; Group 4: Hand K-file; Group 5: Control group. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Colonies of bacteria were counted and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests. There was a significant difference between the rotary and hand instrumentation system related to the apically extruded intracanal bacteria. Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.
Agarwal, Jatin; Jain, Pradeep; Chandra, Anil
Background The ability of an endodontic instrument to remain centered in the root canal system is one of the most important characteristic influencing the clinical performance of a particular file system. Thus, it is important to assess the canal centering ability of newly introduced single file systems before they can be considered a viable replacement of full-sequence rotary file systems. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the canal transportation, centering ability, and time taken for preparation of curved root canals after instrumentation with single file systems One Shape and Wave One, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Sixty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 20o to 35o were divided into three groups of 20 samples each: ProTaper PT (group I) – full-sequence rotary control group, OneShape OS (group II)- single file continuous rotation, WaveOne WO – single file reciprocal motion (group III). Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CBCT images were obtained from root cross-sections at 3mm, 6mm and 9mm from the apex. Scanned images were then accessed to determine canal transportation and centering ability. The data collected were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. Results It was observed that there were no differences in the magnitude of transportation between the rotary instruments (p >0.05) at both 3mm as well as 6mm from the apex. At 9 mm from the apex, Group I PT showed significantly higher mean canal transportation and lower centering ability (0.19±0.08 and 0.39±0.16), as compared to Group II OS (0.12±0.07 and 0.54±0.24) and Group III WO (0.13±0.06 and 0.55±0.18) while the differences between OS and WO were not statistically significant Conclusion It was concluded that there was minor difference between the tested groups. Single file systems demonstrated average canal
Agarwal, Rolly S; Agarwal, Jatin; Jain, Pradeep; Chandra, Anil
The ability of an endodontic instrument to remain centered in the root canal system is one of the most important characteristic influencing the clinical performance of a particular file system. Thus, it is important to assess the canal centering ability of newly introduced single file systems before they can be considered a viable replacement of full-sequence rotary file systems. The aim of the study was to compare the canal transportation, centering ability, and time taken for preparation of curved root canals after instrumentation with single file systems One Shape and Wave One, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Sixty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 20(o) to 35(o) were divided into three groups of 20 samples each: ProTaper PT (group I) - full-sequence rotary control group, OneShape OS (group II)- single file continuous rotation, WaveOne WO - single file reciprocal motion (group III). Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CBCT images were obtained from root cross-sections at 3mm, 6mm and 9mm from the apex. Scanned images were then accessed to determine canal transportation and centering ability. The data collected were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's honestly significant difference test. It was observed that there were no differences in the magnitude of transportation between the rotary instruments (p >0.05) at both 3mm as well as 6mm from the apex. At 9 mm from the apex, Group I PT showed significantly higher mean canal transportation and lower centering ability (0.19±0.08 and 0.39±0.16), as compared to Group II OS (0.12±0.07 and 0.54±0.24) and Group III WO (0.13±0.06 and 0.55±0.18) while the differences between OS and WO were not statistically significant. It was concluded that there was minor difference between the tested groups. Single file systems demonstrated average canal transportation and centering ability comparable to full sequence
Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri
To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.
Takeda, Toshihiro; Ueda, Kanayo; Nakagawa, Akito; Manabe, Shirou; Okada, Katsuki; Mihara, Naoki; Matsumura, Yasushi
Electronic health record (EHR) systems are necessary for the sharing of medical information between care delivery organizations (CDOs). We developed a document-based EHR system in which all of the PDF documents that are stored in our electronic medical record system can be disclosed to selected target CDOs. An access control list (ACL) file was designed based on the HL7 CDA header to manage the information that is disclosed.
... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...
Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'
The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…
Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...
Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah
The aim of the present study was to compare the shaping ability of Reciproc (RPC; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent AG, Altstätten, Switzerland), and WaveOne GOLD (WOG; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) nickel-titanium (NiTi) files made of different NiTi alloys in S-shaped simulated canals. Sixty S-shaped canals in resin blocks were prepared to an apical size of 0.25 mm using RPC R25, WOG Primary, and HEDM OneFile (n = 20 canal/per group) systems. Composite images were made from the superimposition of pre- and postinstrumentation images. The amount of resin removed by each system was measured using a digital template and image analysis software in 22 different points. Canal aberrations were also recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn tests at the 5% level. NiTi file fracture was not observed during shaping of the simulated canals although a danger zone formation in 1 sample and a ledge in 1 sample were observed in the RPC group. There was no statistically significant difference between the WOG and HEDM groups' apical, medial, and coronal regions (P > .05). However, it was determined that the RPC group removed a statistically significantly higher amount of resin from all the canal regions when compared with the WOG and HEDM groups (P < .05). Within the limitation of the present study, it was determined that all of the tested NiTi files caused various levels of resin removal. However, WOG and HEDM NiTi files were found to cause a lower level of resin removal than RPC NiTi files. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.
This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.
Albertson, Timothy E
The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801
Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton
BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...
Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg
Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)
Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prabhakar, Attiguppe R; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Dixit, Kratika; Naik, Saraswathi V
Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. "Wave one" and "one shape" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49.
Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hill, Amanda; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia
The OCLC Research Report, "Registering Researchers in Authority Files", [Accessible in ERIC as ED564924] summarizes the results of the research conducted by the OCLC Research Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group in 2012-2014. Details of this research are in supplementary data sets: (1) "Supplement A: Use Cases. A…
Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.
In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…
... this part shall be electronically transmitted through the E-Filing system, unless the Commission or... all methods of filing have been completed. (e) For filings by electronic transmission, the filer must... digital ID certificates, the NRC permits participants in the proceeding to access the E-Filing system to...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings...-1064-000. Applicants: Venice Gathering System, L.L.C. Description: NAESB 2.0 Compliance Filing to be...
Khoshbin, Elham; Shokri, Abbas; Donyavi, Zakieh; Shahriari, Shahriar; Salehimehr, Golsa; Farhadian, Maryam; Kavandi, Zeinab
This study sought to compare the root canal debridement ability of Neolix, Reciproc and ProTaper rotary systems in long oval-shaped root canals. Eighty five extracted single-rooted human teeth with long oval-shaped single root canals were selected and divided into three experimental groups(n=25) and one control group (n= 10). Root canals were filled with Vitapex radiopaque contrast medium and prepared with Neolix, Reciproc or ProTaper systems. The control group only received irrigation. Digital radiographs were obtained at baseline and postoperatively and subjected to digital subtraction. The percentage of reduction in contrast medium was quantified at 0-5 mm and 5-10 mm distances from the apex. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and t-test. The mean percentage of the contrast medium removed was not significantly different in the 0-5mm segment among the three groups ( P =0.6). In the 5-10mm segment a significant difference was found in this regard among the ProTaper and Reciproc groups ( P =0.02) and the highest mean percentage of contrast medium was removed by ProTaper. But, difference between ProTaper and Neolix as well as Neolix and Reciproc was not significant. In Neolix ( P =0.024) and Reciproc ( P =0.002) systems, the mean percentage of the contrast medium removed from the 0-5mm segment was significantly greater than that in 5-10mm segment; however, this difference was not significant in ProTaper group ( P =0.069). Neolix single-file system may be a suitable alternative to ProTaper multiple-file system in debridement of long oval shaped canals. Key words: Root Canal Preparation, Debridement, Root Canal Therapy.
Wu, Chase Qishi [Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)
A number of Department of Energy (DOE) science applications, involving exascale computing systems and large experimental facilities, are expected to generate large volumes of data, in the range of petabytes to exabytes, which will be transported over wide-area networks for the purpose of storage, visualization, and analysis. To support such capabilities, significant progress has been made in various components including the deployment of 100 Gbps networks with future 1 Tbps bandwidth, increases in end-host capabilities with multiple cores and buses, capacity improvements in large disk arrays, and deployment of parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS. High-performance source-to-sink data flows must be composed of these component systems, which requires significant optimizations of the storage-to-host data and execution paths to match the edge and long-haul network connections. In particular, end systems are currently supported by 10-40 Gbps Network Interface Cards (NIC) and 8-32 Gbps storage Host Channel Adapters (HCAs), which carry the individual flows that collectively must reach network speeds of 100 Gbps and higher. Indeed, such data flows must be synthesized using multicore, multibus hosts connected to high-performance storage systems on one side and to the network on the other side. Current experimental results show that the constituent flows must be optimally composed and preserved from storage systems, across the hosts and the networks with minimal interference. Furthermore, such a capability must be made available transparently to the science users without placing undue demands on them to account for the details of underlying systems and networks. And, this task is expected to become even more complex in the future due to the increasing sophistication of hosts, storage systems, and networks that constitute the high-performance flows. The objectives of this proposal are to (1) develop and test the component technologies and their synthesis methods to
The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates.
The Server Project is to ensure that all TWRS supporting hardware (fileservers and workstations) will not cause a system failure because of the BIOS or Operating Systems cannot process Year 2000 dates
Krajczár, Károly; Tóth, Vilmos; Nyárády, Zoltán; Szabó, Gyula
The aim of the authors' study was to compare the remaining root canal wall thickness and the preparation time of root canals, prepared either with step-back technique, or with GT Rotary File, an engine driven nickel-titanium rotary instrument system. Twenty extracted molars were decoronated. Teeth were divided in two groups. In Group 1 root canals were prepared with step-back technique. In Group 2 GT Rotary File System was utilized. Preoperative vestibulo-oral X-ray pictures were taken from all teeth with radiovisiograph (RVG). The final preparations at the mesiobuccal canals (MB) were performed with size #30 and palatinal/distal canals with size #40 instruments. Postoperative RVG pictures were taken ensuring the preoperative positioning. The working time was measured in seconds during each preparation. The authors also assessed the remaining root canal wall thickness at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the radiological apex, comparing the width of the canal walls of the vestibulo-oral projections on pre- and postoperative RVG pictures both mesially and buccally. The ratios of the residual and preoperative root canal wall thickness were calculated and compared. The largest difference was found at the MB canals of the coronal and middle third level of the root, measured on the distal canal wall. The ratio of the remaining dentin wall thickness at the coronal and the middle level in the case of step-back preparation was 0.605 and 0.754, and 0.824 and 0.895 in the cases of GT files respectively. The preparation time needed for GT Rotary File System was altogether 68.7% (MB) and 52.5% (D/P canals) of corresponding step-back preparation times. The use of GT Rotary File with comparison of standard step-back method resulted in a shortened preparation time and excessive damage of the coronal part of the root canal could be avoided.
Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes
Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.
The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.
Sangaline, E; Lauret, J
The quantity of information produced in Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP) experiments necessitates the transmission and storage of data across diverse collections of computing resources. Robust solutions such as XRootD have been used in NPP, but as the usage of cloud resources grows, the difficulties in the dynamic configuration of these systems become a concern. Hadoop File System (HDFS) exists as a possible cloud storage solution with a proven track record in dynamic environments. Though currently not extensively used in NPP, HDFS is an attractive solution offering both elastic storage and rapid deployment. We will present the performance of HDFS in both canonical I/O tests and for a typical data analysis pattern within the RHIC/STAR experimental framework. These tests explore the scaling with different levels of redundancy and numbers of clients. Additionally, the performance of FUSE and NFS interfaces to HDFS were evaluated as a way to allow existing software to function without modification. Unfortunately, the complicated data structures in NPP are non-trivial to integrate with Hadoop and so many of the benefits of the MapReduce paradigm could not be directly realized. Despite this, our results indicate that using HDFS as a distributed filesystem offers reasonable performance and scalability and that it excels in its ease of configuration and deployment in a cloud environment
de Vries, A.P.
Stand-alone ranking systems based on highly optimized inverted file structures are generally considered ‘the’ solution for building search engines. Observing various developments in software and hardware, we argue however that IR research faces a complex engineering problem in the quest for more
Kaya, E; Elbay, M; Yiğit, D
The Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system has been recommended for use in permanent teeth since it offers more conservative and effective root-canal preparation when compared to traditional rotary systems. However, no study had evaluated the usage of SAF in primary teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of SAF, K file (manual instrumentation) and Profile (traditional rotary instrumentation) systems for primary-tooth root-canal preparation in terms of instrumentation time and amounts of dentin removed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) technology. Study Design: The study was conducted with 60 human primary mandibular second molar teeth divided into 3 groups according to instrumentation technique: Group I: SAF (n=20); Group II: K file (n=20); Group III; Profile (n=20). Teeth were embedded in acrylic blocks and scanned with a μCT scanner prior to instrumentation. All distal root canals were prepared up to size 30 for K file,.04/30 for Profile and 2 mm thickness, size 25 for SAF; instrumentation time was recorded for each tooth, and a second μCT scan was performed after instrumentation was complete. Amounts of dentin removed were measured using the three-dimensional images by calculating the difference in root-canal volume before and after preparation. Data was statistically analysed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Manual instrumentation (K file) resulted in significantly more dentin removal when compared to rotary instrumentation (Profile and SAF), while the SAF system generated significantly less dentin removal than both manual instrumentation (K file) and traditional rotary instrumentation (Profile) (psystems. Within the experimental conditions of the present study, the SAF seems as a useful system for root-canal instrumentation in primary molars because it removed less dentin than other systems, which is especially important for the relatively thin-walled canals of primary teeth, and because it involves less
Reinhart, Michael A.
Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)
Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume
Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...
... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...
Singbal, Kiran; Jain, Disha; Raja, Kranthi; Hoe, Tan Ming
Apical extrusion of debris during instrumentation is detrimental to the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris during root canal instrumentation using two single file rotary Ni-Ti systems. Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were sterilized and divided into two groups instrumented using: One Shape rotary Ni-Ti system with Endoflare orifice shaper (Group 1) and Neo-Niti rotary Ni-Ti system with C1 orifice shaper (Group 2). Preweighed Eppendorf tubes fitted for each tooth before instrumentation. During instrumentation, 1 mL of distilled water with a 30-gauge needle was used to irrigate after every instrument. Tips of the tooth were irrigated with 2 ml distilled water after removal from Eppendorf tubes. The total volume of irrigant in each group was the same 8 ml. All tubes were incubated at 68°C for 15 days and subsequently weighed. The difference between pre- and post-debris weights was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using independent t -test and level of significance was set at 0.05. The difference between pre- and post-weights was significantly greater for the One Shape system. The Neolix Niti single file was associated with less extrusion compared to One Shape single file system.
García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine
The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...
Full Text Available In article investigated the problem of violence and child abuse as a phenomenon of social life, considered the most popular practice areas of scientific research in the problem of violence and child abuse. Based on the conclusion that the problem of violence and child abuse is a complex problem whose solution is the most effective systemic cross-disciplinary approach, based on the interaction of specialists of different professional affiliation.
Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine
Piperno, Francesca; Di Biasi, Stefania; Levi, Gabriel
The aim of this study is to analyse the family drawings of two groups of physically and/or sexually abused children as compared to the drawings of non-abused children of a matched control group. The drawings by 12 physically abused, 12 sexually abused and 12 non-abused children, all aged between 5 years-old and 10 years-old, were assessed and compared. Family drawings were analysed using a specific Screening Inventory (FDI-Family Drawing Inventory). This Inventory takes into consideration such qualitative and quantitative variables as the quality of drawing, the children's perception of their family members and their own perception of themselves within the family system. The results have shown significant differences between the abused minors and the control group. Abused children are more likely to draw distorted bodies, the human figure is usually represented devoid of details, their drawings generally show clear signals of trauma and the majority of the abused children are likely to exclude their primary caregiver from the drawings. The "drawings of the family" of physically and/or sexually abused children significantly evidence a greater emotional distress then the drawings of the non-abused children of the matched control group.
This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...
The United States and European Union (EU) share many of the same transportation research issues, challenges, and goals. They also share a belief that cooperative vehicle (also termed connected vehicle) systems, based on vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle...
Krajczár, Károly; Varga, Enikő; Marada, Gyula; Jeges, Sára; Tóth, Vilmos
The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of working length control between hand instrumentation in comparison to engine driven Mtwo nickel-titanium rotary files. Forty extracted maxillary molars were selected and divided onto two parallel groups. The working lengths of the mesiobuccal root canals were estimated. The teeth were fixed in a phantom head. The root canal preparation was carried out group 1 (n=20) with hand K-files, (VDW, Munich, Germany) and group 2 (n=20) with Mtwo instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany). Vestibulo-oral and mesio-distal directional x-ray images were taken before the preparation with #10 K-file, inserted into the mesiobuccal root canal to the working length, and after preparation with #25, #30 and #40 files. Working lenght changes were detected with measurements between the radiological apex and the instrument tips. In the Mtwo group a difference in the working competency (protary files. Mtwo NiTi rotary file did therefore proved to be more accurate in comparison to the conventional hand instrumentation. Working length, Mtwo, nickel-titanium, hand preparation, engine driven preparation.
Muñoz, Estefanía; Forner, Leopoldo; Llena, Carmen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the operator's experience on the shaping of double-curvature simulated root canals with a nickel-titanium single-file reciprocating motion system. Sixty double-curvature root canals simulated in methacrylate blocks were prepared by 10 students without any experience in endodontics and by 10 professionals who had studied endodontics at the postgraduate level. The Reciproc-VDW system's R25 file was used in the root canal preparation. The blocks were photographed before and after the instrumentation, and the time of instrumentation was also evaluated. Changes in root canal dimensions were analyzed in 6 positions. Significant differences (P file reciprocating motion system Reciproc is not seen to be influenced by the operator's experience regarding the increase of the canal area. Previous training and the need to acquire experience are important in the use of this system, in spite of its apparent simplicity. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Altman, M.; Conlon, M.; Cristan, A.L.; Dawson, L.; Dunham, J.; Hickey, T.; Hook, D.; Horstmann, W.; MacEwan, A.; Schreur, P.; Smart, L.; Smith-Yoshimura, K.; Wacker, M.; Woutersen, S.
Registering researchers in some type of authority file or identifier system has become more compelling as both institutions and researchers recognize the need to compile their scholarly output. The report presents functional requirements and recommendations for six stakeholders: researchers,
... Project, LP; Southern Company--Florida LLC. Description: Report of Non-Material Change in Estimated Coal... Energy Ohio, Inc. submits tariff filing per 35: Compliance Filing to be effective 7/29/2010. Filed Date..., Inc. Description: Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. submits tariff filing per 35...
... found in the E-Filing Guidance and on the NRC Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/site-help/e-submittals.html... electronically to the E-Filing system. In addition, optical storage media (OSM) containing the entire filing must... document (e.g., motion to quash subpoena). (6) Filing is complete when the filer performs the last act that...
Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N
To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.
Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela
Child abuse and neglect play a causal role in many mental health problems. Knowing whether users of mental health services were abused or neglected as children could be considered essential for developing comprehensive formulations and effective treatment plans. In the present study we report the findings of a systematic review, using independent searches of three databases designed to discover how often mental health staff find out whether their clients were abused or neglected as children. Twenty-one relevant studies were identified. Most people who use mental health services are never asked about child abuse or neglect. The majority of cases of child abuse or neglect are not identified by mental health services. Only 28% of abuse or neglect cases identified by researchers are found in the clients' files: emotional abuse, 44%; physical abuse, 33%; sexual abuse, 30%; emotional neglect, 17%; and physical neglect, 10%. Between 0% and 22% of mental health service users report being asked about child abuse. Men and people diagnosed with psychotic disorders are asked less than other people. Male staff ask less often than female staff. Some improvement over time was found. Policies compelling routine enquiry, training, and trauma-informed services are required. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Lee, Chioun; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D
Guided by the stress process model and the life course perspective, we hypothesize: (1) that childhood abuse is concentrated, in terms of type and intensity, among socially disadvantaged individuals, and (2) that experiencing serious abuse contributes to poor biological profiles in multiple body systems in adulthood. Data came from the Biomarker subsample of Midlife in the United States (2004-2006). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct profiles of childhood abuse, each reflecting a combination of type and severity. Results indicate that disadvantaged groups, women, and those from disadvantaged families are at greater risk of experiencing more severe and multiple types of abuse. Those with more severe and multifaceted childhood abuse show greater physiological dysregulation. Childhood abuse experiences partially accounted for the social status differences in physiological profiles. Our findings underscore that differential exposure to serious childhood stressors plays a significant role in gender and class inequalities in adult health.
..., protect the environment, and enhance the marketing of agricultural products. The system of records covers... marketing data; Lease and transfer of allotments and quotas; Appeals; New grower applications; Conservation... boundaries and is recommended as the common location identifier for reporting acreage. Digital renditions of...
Belinfante, Axel; Mullender, Sape J.; Collyer, G.
We discuss a few simple scenarios of how we can design and develop a compositional synthetic ��?le server that gives access to external processes – in particular, in the context of testing, gives access to the system under test – such that certain parts of said synthethic ��?le server can be
Vali, Faisal S; Hsi, Alex; Cho, Paul; Parsai, Homayon; Garver, Elizabeth; Garza, Richard
... capability of electronically filing BSA reports through its system called BSA E-Filing. Effective August 2011... Accounts (FBAR) report. BSA E-Filing is a secure, web-based electronic filing system. It is a flexible... filing institutions or individuals, thereby providing a significant improvement in data quality. BSA E...
Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui
Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.
In JENDL-3,2, the data on all the reactions having significant cross section over the neutron energy from 0.01 meV to 20 MeV are given for 340 nuclides. The object range of application extends widely, such as the neutron engineering, shield and others of fast reactors, thermal neutron reactors and nuclear fusion reactors. This is a general purpose data file. On the contrary to this, the file in which only the data required for a specific application field are collected is called special purpose file. The file for dosimetry is a typical special purpose file. The Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is making ten kinds of JENDL special purpose files. The files, of which the working groups of Sigma Committee are in charge, are listed. As to the format of the files, ENDF format is used similarly to JENDL-3,2. Dosimetry file, activation cross section file, (α, n) reaction data file, fusion file, actinoid file, high energy data file, photonuclear data file, PKA/KERMA file, gas production cross section file and decay data file are described on their contents, the course of development and their verification. Dosimetry file and gas production cross section file have been completed already. As for the others, the expected time of completion is shown. When these files are completed, they are opened to the public. (K.I.)
Full Text Available Rahila Iftikhar,1 Razaz Tawfiq,2 Salem Barabie2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2General Practice Department, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background and objectives: Abuse occurs in all workplaces, including the medical field. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of perceived abuse among medical students, the types of abuse experienced during medical training, the source of abuse, and the perceived barriers to reporting abuse. Method: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2013 and January 2014 among medical graduates of King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. The survey questionnaire was designed to gather information regarding the frequency with which participants perceived themselves to have experienced abuse, the type of abuse, the source of abuse, and the reasons for nonreporting of perceived abuse. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Result: Of the 186 students enrolled in this study, 169 (90.9% reported perceiving some form of abuse during medical school training. Perceived abuse was most often verbal (86.6%, although academic abuse (73.1%, sex discrimination (38.7%, racial or ethnic discrimination (29.0%, physical abuse (18.8%, religious discrimination (15.1%, and sexual harassment (8.6% were also reported. Professors were most often cited as the sources of perceived abuse, followed by associate professors, demonstrators (or assistant teaching staff, and assistant professors. The Internal Medicine Department was the most frequently cited department where students perceived themselves to have experienced abuse. Only 14.8% of the students reported the abuse to a third party. Conclusion: The self-reported prevalence of medical student abuse at King Abdul Aziz University is high. A proper system for reporting abuse and for supporting victims of abuse should be set up, to promote a good learning environment. Keywords: maltreatment
Shiinoki, Takehiro; Hanazawa, Hideki; Yuasa, Yuki; Fujimoto, Koya; Uehara, Takuya; Shibuya, Keiko
A combined system comprising the TrueBeam linear accelerator and a new real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy system, SyncTraX, was installed at our institution. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images and a log file and to verify this treatment in clinical cases. Respiratory-gated radiotherapy was performed using TrueBeam and the SyncTraX system. Cine EPID images and a log file were acquired for a phantom and three patients during the course of the treatment. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were created for each treatment beam using a planning CT set. The cine EPID images, log file, and DRRs were analysed using a developed software. For the phantom case, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated to verify the respiratory-gated radiotherapy. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker used as an internal surrogate were calculated to evaluate the gating accuracy and set-up uncertainty in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and left-right (LR) directions. The proposed method achieved high accuracy for the phantom verification. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker were ⩽3 mm and ±3 mm in the SI, AP, and LR directions. We proposed a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine EPID images and a log file and showed that this treatment is performed with high accuracy in clinical cases. This work was partly presented at the 58th Annual meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Shiinoki, Takehiro; Hanazawa, Hideki; Yuasa, Yuki; Fujimoto, Koya; Uehara, Takuya; Shibuya, Keiko
A combined system comprising the TrueBeam linear accelerator and a new real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy system, SyncTraX, was installed at our institution. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images and a log file and to verify this treatment in clinical cases. Respiratory-gated radiotherapy was performed using TrueBeam and the SyncTraX system. Cine EPID images and a log file were acquired for a phantom and three patients during the course of the treatment. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were created for each treatment beam using a planning CT set. The cine EPID images, log file, and DRRs were analysed using a developed software. For the phantom case, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated to verify the respiratory-gated radiotherapy. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker used as an internal surrogate were calculated to evaluate the gating accuracy and set-up uncertainty in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and left-right (LR) directions. The proposed method achieved high accuracy for the phantom verification. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker were ⩽3 mm and ±3 mm in the SI, AP, and LR directions. We proposed a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine EPID images and a log file and showed that this treatment is performed with high accuracy in clinical cases.
LucenaG, Bioing Fabian M; Valdez D, Andres E; Gomez, Maria E; Nasisi, Oscar H
A method for the configuration of informatics systems that provide support to DICOM standards using XML files is proposed. The difference with other proposals is base on that this system does not code the information of a DICOM objects file, but codes the standard itself in an XML file. The development itself is the format for the XML files mentioned, in order that they can support what DICOM normalizes for multiple languages. In this way, the same configuration file (or files) can be use in different systems. Jointly the XML configuration file generated, we wrote also a set of CSS and XSL files. So the same file can be visualized in a standard browser, as a query system of DICOM standard, emerging use, that did not was a main objective but brings a great utility and versatility. We exposed also some uses examples of the configuration file mainly in relation with the load of DICOM information objects. Finally, at the conclusions we show the utility that the system has already provided when the edition of DICOM standard changes from 2006 to 2007
De Wild - Scholten, M.J.; Alsema, E.A.
The authors have assembled this LCI data set to the best of their knowledge and in their opinion it gives a reliable representation of the crystalline silicon module production technology in Western-Europe in the year 2005/2006 and Balance-of-System components of the year 2006. However, most of the data were provided to them by the companies that helped them. Although they have cross-checked the data from different sources they cannot guarantee that it does not contain any errors. Therefore they cannot accept any responsibility for the use of these data