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Sample records for filamentous fungus trichoderma

  1. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  2. Identification of microRNA-Like RNAs in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by solexa sequencing.

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    Kang Kang

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN and non-induction (CON were generated and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 726 and 631 sRNAs were obtained from the IN and CON samples, respectively. Global expression analysis showed an extensively differential expression of sRNAs in T. reesei under the two conditions. Thirteen predicted milRNAs were identified in T. reesei based on the short hairpin structure analysis. The milRNA profiles obtained in deep sequencing were further validated by RT-qPCR assay. Computational analysis predicted a number of potential targets relating to many processes including regulation of enzyme expression. The presence and differential expression of T. reesei milRNAs imply that milRNA might play a role in T. reesei growth and cellulase induction. This work lays foundation for further functional study of fungal milRNAs and their industrial application.

  3. Antagonism of Trichoderma isolates against Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Singer) Möller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Mariela Otoni; de Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Dos Santos, Gil Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Cléia Almeida; de Souza, Danival José

    2017-08-01

    Filamentous fungi from the genus Trichoderma are commonly found in soil. They are considered facultative mycoparasites, and are antagonists of other fungi such as the cultivar of leaf-cutting ants (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus). The aim of the present study was to bioprospect Trichoderma spp. from different soils collected from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, for antagonistic effects against the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants. To isolate filamentous fungi, samples were collected from six locations. Preliminarily, isolates were identified by morphological analysis as belonging to Trichoderma. Trichoderma spp. had their internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) sequenced to confirm species-level taxonomy. L. gongylophorus was isolated from a laboratory ant colony. Antagonistic properties of seven isolates of Trichoderma against L. gongylophorus were measured using paired disks in Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium (PDA). All Trichoderma isolates inhibited the growth of L. gongylophorus in Petri dishes. Isolate 2 of Trichoderma spirale group exhibited slow mycelial growth in the Petri dish, and a high rate of inhibition against L. gongylophorus. This isolate is a promising fungus for field tests of biological control methods for leaf-cutting ants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Molecular characteristics of fungus trichoderma viride irradiated gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL; Rika Heriyani; Almaida

    2016-01-01

    Information about the genetic changes due to irradiation on the fungus Trichoderma viride is indispensable in order to improve the ability of these isolates for the delignification of lignocellulose. This study aims to determine the molecular characteristics of isolates fungus Trichoderma viride after irradiation with gamma rays through an approach expression of protein profiles and molecular markers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Irradiation doses used in this study are 6 levels i.e 0; 75; 125; 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy with a dose rate of 0.21 kGy / hour. Protein and DNA extraction isolate is done using the method of extracting phosphate buffer pH 7 and CTAB- phenol-chloroform extraction. Protein in the supernatant was analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-gel polyacrylamide) to produce a protein fingerprint profile. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate the genetic variations between 7 isolates of irradiated Trichoderma viride which were RAPD reactions using 3 random primers. The results showed that protein profiles generated by irradiation isolates and the control (no irradiation) gave a different pattern, especially at doses of irradiation 250-750 Gy based dendrogram analysis. DNA-RAPD profile showed a high genetic variation between the isolates were irradiated at a dose of 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy and isolates the control (0 Gy); 75; 125 Gy with 5 cluster formation. Dendrogram analysis showed the coefficient of similarity between 0.62 to 0.68. (author)

  5. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

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    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A novel platform for heterologous gene expression in Trichoderma reesei (Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Skovlund, Dominique Aubert; Johannesen, Pia Francke

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools...

  7. Quantitative site-specific phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei signaling pathways upon induction of hydrolytic enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, E.V.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Haapaniemi, P.; Yadav, A.; Saloheimo, M.; Corthals, G.L.; Pakula, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation

  8. Unraveling Trichoderma species in the attine ant environment: description of three new taxa.

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    Montoya, Quimi Vidaurre; Meirelles, Lucas Andrade; Chaverri, Priscila; Rodrigues, Andre

    2016-05-01

    Fungus-growing "attine" ants forage diverse substrates to grow fungi for food. In addition to the mutualistic fungal partner, the colonies of these insects harbor a rich microbiome composed of bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Previous work reported some Trichoderma species in the fungus gardens of leafcutter ants. However, no studies systematically addressed the putative association of Trichoderma with attine ants, especially in non-leafcutter ants. Here, a total of 62 strains of Trichoderma were analyzed using three molecular markers (ITS, tef1 and rpb2). In addition, 30 out of 62 strains were also morphologically examined. The strains studied correspond to the largest sampling carried out so far for Trichoderma in the attine ant environment. Our results revealed the richness of Trichoderma in this environment, since we found 20 Trichoderma species, including three new taxa described in the present work (Trichoderma attinorum, Trichoderma texanum and Trichoderma longifialidicum spp. nov.) as well as a new phylogenetic taxon (LESF 545). Moreover, we show that all 62 strains grouped within different clades across the Trichoderma phylogeny, which are identical or closely related to strains derived from several other environments. This evidence supports the transient nature of the genus Trichoderma in the attine ant colonies. The discovery of three new species suggests that the dynamic foraging behavior of these insects might be responsible for accumulation of transient fungi into their colonies, which might hold additional fungal taxa still unknown to science.

  9. Phylogeny of the Clinically Relevant Species of the Emerging Fungus Trichoderma and Their Antifungal Susceptibilities

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    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Cano-Lira, José F.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins. PMID:24719448

  10. Effect of cobalt on the growth of Trichoderma viride and determination of its distribution using 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, V.; Lesny, J.; Babej, L.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and morphology of filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride grown in the presence of various Co concentrations were studied. Using 60 Co, the cobalt content in mycelium and conidia was determined. No influence of 60 Co-radiation on growth and morphology was observed. (author) 5 refs.; 4 figs

  11. The role of subsite +2 of the Trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase TrMan5A in hydrolysis and transglycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, Anna; Hägglund, Per; Anderson, Lars Steen

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal catalytic module of beta-mannanase TrMan5A from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is classified into family 5 of glycoside hydrolases. It is further classified in clan A with a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel configuration and has two catalytic glutamates (E169 and E276). It has at ...

  12. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

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    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  13. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

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    ELFITA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  14. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

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    Sabine Gruber

    Full Text Available Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12.

  15. Screening the Biosphere: The Fungicolous Fungus Trichoderma phellinicola, a Prolific Source of Hypophellins, New 17-, 18-, 19-, and 20-Residue Peptaibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röhrich, Christian René; Iversen, Anita; Jaklitsch, Walter Michael

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened a specimen of the fungicolous fungus Trichoderma phellinicola (syn. Hypocrea phellinicola) growing on its natural host Phellinus ferruginosus. Results revealed that a particular group...

  16. Gene expression analysis of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray.

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    Samolski, Ilanit; de Luis, Alberto; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Monte, Enrique; Suárez, M Belén

    2009-10-13

    It has recently been shown that the Trichoderma fungal species used for biocontrol of plant diseases are capable of interacting with plant roots directly, behaving as symbiotic microorganisms. With a view to providing further information at transcriptomic level about the early response of Trichoderma to a host plant, we developed a high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray encompassing 14,081 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-based transcripts from eight Trichoderma spp. and 9,121 genome-derived transcripts of T. reesei, and we have used this microarray to examine the gene expression of T. harzianum either alone or in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose. Global microarray analysis revealed 1,617 probe sets showing differential expression in T. harzianum mycelia under at least one of the culture conditions tested as compared with one another. Hierarchical clustering and heat map representation showed that the expression patterns obtained in glucose medium clustered separately from the expression patterns observed in the presence of tomato plants and chitin. Annotations using the Blast2GO suite identified 85 of the 257 transcripts whose probe sets afforded up-regulated expression in response to tomato plants. Some of these transcripts were predicted to encode proteins related to Trichoderma-host (fungus or plant) associations, such as Sm1/Elp1 protein, proteases P6281 and PRA1, enchochitinase CHIT42, or QID74 protein, although previously uncharacterized genes were also identified, including those responsible for the possible biosynthesis of nitric oxide, xenobiotic detoxification, mycelium development, or those related to the formation of infection structures in plant tissues. The effectiveness of the Trichoderma HDO microarray to detect different gene responses under different growth conditions in the fungus T. harzianum strongly indicates that this tool should be useful for further assays that include different stages of plant colonization, as well as

  17. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

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    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  18. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

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    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  19. β-Glucosidases from the Fungus Trichoderma: An Efficient Cellulase Machinery in Biotechnological Applications

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    Pragya Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases catalyze the selective cleavage of glucosidic linkages and are an important class of enzymes having significant prospects in industrial biotechnology. These are classified in family 1 and family 3 of glycosyl hydrolase family. β-glucosidases, particularly from the fungus Trichoderma, are widely recognized and used for the saccharification of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. With the rising trends in energy crisis and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative strategies for renewable energy sources need to be developed. However, the major limitation accounts for low production of β-glucosidases by the hyper secretory strains of Trichoderma. In accordance with the increasing significance of β-glucosidases in commercial applications, the present review provides a detailed insight of the enzyme family, their classification, structural parameters, properties, and studies at the genomics and proteomics levels. Furthermore, the paper discusses the enhancement strategies employed for their utilization in biofuel generation. Therefore, β-glucosidases are prospective toolbox in bioethanol production, and in the near future, it might be successful in meeting the requirements of alternative renewable sources of energy.

  20. Solubilization of animal bonechar by a filamentous fungus employed in solid state fermentation

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    Nikolay, Vassilev; Medina, A.; Gilberto, Mendes; Antonia, Galvez; Vanessa, Martos; Maria, Vassileva

    Abstract Experts are concerned by the scarcity of rock phosphate and the vulnerability of the modern agricultural systems which is highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. In this work, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

  1. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, László; Alcaraz, Luis D.; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocl...

  2. Massive lateral transfer of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes to the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma from its plant-associated hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenthamara, Komal; Zhang, Jian; Atanasova, Lea; Yang, Dongqing; Miao, Youzhi; Grujic, Marica; Pourmehdi, Shadi; Pretzer, Carina; Kopchinskiy, Alexey G.; Hundley, Hope; Wang, Mei; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Lipzen, Anna; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Shen, Qirong; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2018-01-01

    Unlike most other fungi, molds of the genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are aggressive parasites of other fungi and efficient decomposers of plant biomass. Although nutritional shifts are common among hypocrealean fungi, there are no examples of such broad substrate versatility as that observed in Trichoderma. A phylogenomic analysis of 23 hypocrealean fungi (including nine Trichoderma spp. and the related Escovopsis weberi) revealed that the genus Trichoderma has evolved from an ancestor with limited cellulolytic capability that fed on either fungi or arthropods. The evolutionary analysis of Trichoderma genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes and auxiliary proteins (pcwdCAZome, 122 gene families) based on a gene tree / species tree reconciliation demonstrated that the formation of the genus was accompanied by an unprecedented extent of lateral gene transfer (LGT). Nearly one-half of the genes in Trichoderma pcwdCAZome (41%) were obtained via LGT from plant-associated filamentous fungi belonging to different classes of Ascomycota, while no LGT was observed from other potential donors. In addition to the ability to feed on unrelated fungi (such as Basidiomycota), we also showed that Trichoderma is capable of endoparasitism on a broad range of Ascomycota, including extant LGT donors. This phenomenon was not observed in E. weberi and rarely in other mycoparasitic hypocrealean fungi. Thus, our study suggests that LGT is linked to the ability of Trichoderma to parasitize taxonomically related fungi (up to adelphoparasitism in strict sense). This may have allowed primarily mycotrophic Trichoderma fungi to evolve into decomposers of plant biomass. PMID:29630596

  3. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

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    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex

  4. Cyclodepsipeptides, sesquiterpenoids, and other cytotoxic metabolites from the filamentous fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-10-28

    Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine-derived fungus.

  5. Identification of loci and functional characterization of trichothecene biosynthesis genes in the filamentous fungus of the genus Trichoderma

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    Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by Trichoderma, Fusarium and at least four other genera in the fungal order Hypocreales. Fusarium has a trichothecene biosynthetic gene (TRI) cluster that encodes transport and regulatory proteins as well as most enzymes required for formation of the mycotoxin...

  6. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  7. Sm2, a paralog of the Trichoderma cerato-platanin elicitor Sm1, is also highly important for plant protection conferred by the fungal-root interaction of Trichoderma with maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaderer, Romana; Lamdan, Netta L; Frischmann, Alexa; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena

    2015-01-16

    The proteins Sm1 and Sm2 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens belong to the cerato-platanin protein family. Members of this family are small, secreted proteins that are abundantly produced by filamentous fungi with all types of life-styles. Some species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are considered as biocontrol fungi because they are mycoparasites and are also able to directly interact with plants, thereby stimulating plant defense responses. It was previously shown that the cerato-platanin protein Sm1 from T. virens - and to a lesser extent its homologue Epl1 from Trichoderma atroviride - induce plant defense responses. The plant protection potential of other members of the cerato-platanin protein family in Trichoderma, however, has not yet been investigated. In order to analyze the function of the cerato-platanin protein Sm2, sm1 and sm2 knockout strains were generated and characterized. The effect of the lack of Sm1 and Sm2 in T. virens on inducing systemic resistance in maize seedlings, challenged with the plant pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus, was tested. These plant experiments were also performed with T. atroviride epl1 and epl2 knockout strains. In our plant-pathogen system T. virens was a more effective plant protectant than T. atroviride and the results with both Trichoderma species showed concordantly that the level of plant protection was more strongly reduced in plants treated with the sm2/epl2 knockout strains than with sm1/epl1 knockout strains. Although the cerato-platanin genes sm1/epl1 are more abundantly expressed than sm2/epl2 during fungal growth, Sm2/Epl2 are, interestingly, more important than Sm1/Epl1 for the promotion of plant protection conferred by Trichoderma in the maize-C. heterostrophus pathosystem.

  8. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  9. Bioactive steroids and sorbicillinoids isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. Xy24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Lian; Zhang, Min; Liu, Ji-Mei; Tan, Zhen; Chen, Ri-Dao; Xie, Ke-Bo; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2017-10-01

    A new steroid glucoside (1), along with nine known steroids (2-10) and four known sorbicillinoids (11-14), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. Xy24. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with reported data. Compounds 3, 5-7, 9, 10, and 13 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on HIV-1 virus with IC 50 values ranging 1.9-9.3 μM; compounds 10, 13, and 14 showed potent inhibitory activity on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells with inhibitory rates of 108.2, 100, and 75.1% at 10 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 10 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against BCG823 and HePG2 cell lines with IC 50 values of 11.1 and 17.7 μM, respectively.

  10. Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions: advances in genetics of biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Zachow, Christin; Berg, Gabriele; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Trichoderma spp. are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. Understanding these mechanisms at the molecular level would help in developing strains with superior biocontrol properties. In this article, we review our current understanding of the genetics of interactions of Trichoderma with plants and plant pathogens.

  11. Optimization of nonribosomal peptides production by a psychrotrophic fungus: Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Singh, Varun P; Singh, Deepika; Yusuf, Farnaz; Kumar, Anil; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaubey, Asha

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma is an anamorphic filamentous fungal genus with immense potential for production of small valuable secondary metabolites with indispensable biological activities. Microbial dynamics of a psychrotrophic strain Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1, isolated from unexplored niches of the Shiwalik region, bestowed with rich biodiversity of microflora, was investigated for production of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) by metabolite profiling by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Being the first report on NRPs production by T. velutinum, studies on optimization of growth conditions by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for production of NRPs by ACR-P1 was carried out strategically. Multifold enhancement in the yield of NRPs belonging to subfamily SF4 with medium chain of amino acid residues having m/z 1437.9, 1453.9, and 1452.0 at pH 5.9 at 20 °C and of subfamily SF1 with long-chain amino acid residues having m/z 1770.2, 1784.2, 1800.1, 1802.1, and 1815.1 was achieved at pH 7.0 at 25 °C. Complexities of natural mixtures were thus considerably reduced under respective optimized culture conditions accelerating the production of novel microbial natural products by saving time and resources.

  12. Identification of a novel fungus, Trichoderma asperellum GDFS1009, and comprehensive evaluation of its biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ruiyan; Ni, Mi; Yu, Jia; Li, Yaqian; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Ren, Jianhong; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Due to its efficient broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, Trichoderma has been established as an internationally recognized biocontrol fungus. In this study, we found and identified a novel strain of Trichoderma asperellum, named GDFS1009. The mycelium of T. asperellum GDFS1009 exhibits a high growth rate, high sporulation capacity, and strong inhibitory effects against pathogens that cause cucumber fusarium wilt and corn stalk rot. T. asperellum GDFS1009 secretes chitinase, glucanase, and protease, which can degrade the cell walls of fungi and contribute to mycoparasitism. The secreted xylanases are good candidates for inducing plant resistance and enhancing plant immunity against pathogens. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that T. asperellum GDFS1009 produces primary metabolites that are precursors of antimicrobial compounds; it also produces a variety of antimicrobial secondary metabolites, including polyketides and alkanes. In addition, this study speculated the presence of six antimicrobial peptides via ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Future studies should focus on these antimicrobial metabolites for facilitating widespread application in the field of agricultural bio-control.

  13. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species. PMID:22070776

  14. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    are responsible for sustaining plant health and the fertility of the soil. ... Among beneficial microorganisms, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma is one of the most important ... Trichoderma appears to be a promising alternative to pesticides and ...

  16. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  17. Efficient degradation of Azo dyes by a newly isolated fungus Trichoderma tomentosum under non-sterile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Song, Chao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Lei; Han, Xin; Wei, Dong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    A fast-growing fungus with remarkable ability to degrade several azo dyes under non-sterile conditions was isolated and identified. This fungus was identified as Trichoderma tomentosum. Textile effluent of ten-fold dilution could be decolorized by 94.9% within 72h before optimization. Acid Red 3R model wastewater with a concentration of 85.5mgL -1 could be decolorized by 99.2% within the same time after optimization. High-level of manganese peroxidase and low-level of lignin peroxidase activities were detected during the process of decolorization from the culture supernatant, indicating the possible involvement of two enzymes in azo dye decolorization. No aromatic amine products were detected from the degradation products of Acid Red 3R by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, indicating the possible involvement of a special symmetrical oxidative degradation pathway. Phytotoxicity assay confirmed the lower toxicity toward the test plant seeds of the degradation products when compared to the original dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA; LEISE INÊS HECKLER; RICARDO FELICIANO DOS SANTOS; MIRIA ROSA DURIGO; ELENA BLUME

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP) and without white mold (SP), evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to ver...

  19. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. PMID:21501500

  20. BIOACTIVE METABOLITES FROM TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze is an important crop in the agriculturally based economy of Kenya. Many diseases affect the tea plant but the most prevalent is armillaria root rot caused by the fungus Armillaria mellea. Compounds from the fermentation of. Trichoderma species in different media ...

  1. Two-dimensional proteome reference maps for the human pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vödisch, Martin; Albrecht, Daniela; Lessing, Franziska; Schmidt, André D; Winkler, Robert; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2009-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most important airborne fungal pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. We established a 2-D reference map for A. fumigatus. Using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, we identified 381 spots representing 334 proteins. Proteins involved in cellular metabolism, protein synthesis, transport processes and cell cycle were most abundant. Furthermore, we established a protocol for the isolation of mitochondria of A. fumigatus and developed a mitochondrial proteome reference map. 147 proteins represented by 234 spots were identified.

  2. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M. Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  3. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  4. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Christian P; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A; Druzhinina, Irina S; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, László; Alcaraz, Luis D; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte G; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; von Döhren, Hans; Ebbole, Daniel J; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo U; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gómez-Rodríguez, Elida Y; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith E; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M; Kenerley, Charles M; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. © 2011 Kubicek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Secretome analysis of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum ALL 42 cultivated in different media supplemented with Fusarium solani cell wall or glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Bloch, Carlos; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2016-02-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus well known for its potential as a biocontrol agent against many fungal phytopathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteins secreted by T. harzianum ALL42 when its spores were inoculated and incubated for 48 h in culture media supplemented with glucose (GLU) or with cell walls from Fusarium solani (FSCW), a phytopathogen that causes severe losses in common bean and soy crops in Brazil, as well as other crop diseases around the world. Trichoderma harzianum was able to grow in Trichoderma Liquid Enzyme Production medium (TLE) and Minimal medium (MM) supplemented with FSCW and in TLE+GLU, but was unable to grow in MM+GLU medium. Protein quantification showed that TLE+FSCW and MM+FSCW had 45- and 30- fold, respectively, higher protein concentration on supernatant when compared to TLE+GLU, and this difference was observable on 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 94 out of 105 proteins excised from 2DE maps were identified. The only protein observed in all three conditions was epl1. In the media supplemented with FSCW, different hydrolases such as chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, glucoamylases, α-1,3-glucanases and proteases were identified, along with other proteins with no known functions in mycoparasitism, such as npp1 and cys. Trichoderma harzianum showed a complex and diverse arsenal of proteins that are secreted in response to the presence of FSCW, with novel proteins not previously described in mycoparasitic-related studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP and without white mold (SP, evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to verify the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma spp. microbi- olized lettuce seeds, growing in substrate infested with S. sclerotiorum . Trichoderma spp. isolates were obtained from areas with and without history of white mold or stored in water. Mycelial growth rate and sporu- lation of the Trichoderma spp. isolates and control of Trichoderma spp. versus S. sclerotiorum in the in vitro essays. For the in vivo essay, lettuce seeds were microbiolized with Trichoderma spp. and the substrate was infested with S. sclerotiorum . The native isolates of Trichoderma identified belong to T. koningiopsis and T. asperellum species. The CP isolates had higher mycelial growth rates when compared to the SP isolates and stored while the stored isolates showed better responses in confrontation. The application of Trichoderma spp. promoted higher seedlings quality compared to control, as well as good seedlings development in the presence of the pathogen.

  7. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

  8. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals mycoparasitism as the ancestoral life style of Trichoderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl, Verena; Crom, St& #233; phane Le; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, L& #225; szlo; Alcaraz, Luis David; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; D& #246; hren, Hans von; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Fekete, Erzs& #233; bet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hern& #225; ndez-O?ate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; L& #252; beck, Mette; L& #252; beck, Peter Stephensen; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Thon, Michael; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-04-29

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.

  9. Trichoderma spp.: a biocontrol agent for sustainable management of plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naher, L.; Ismail, A.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs. (author)

  10. Homologous expression of a mutated beta-tubulin gene does not confer benomyl resistance on Trichoderma virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, M; Hadar, R; Mukherjee, P K; Horwitz, B A

    2003-01-01

    To clone the beta-tubulins and to induce resistance to benzimidazoles in the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens through site-directed mutagenesis. Two beta-tubulin genes have been cloned using PCR amplification followed by the screening of a T. virens cDNA library. The full-length cDNA clones, coding for 445 and 446 amino acids, have been designated as T. virens tub1 and T. virens tub2. A sequence alignment of these two tubulins with tubulins from other filamentous fungi has shown the presence of some unique amino acid sequences not found in those positions in other beta-tubulins. Constitutive expression of the tub2 gene with a histidine to tyrosine substitution at position 6 (known to impart benomyl/methyl benzimadazol-2-yl carbamate resistance in other fungi), under the Pgpd promoter of Aspergillus nidulans, did not impart resistance to benomyl. The homologous expression of tub2 gene with a histidine to tyrosine mutation at position +6, which is known to impart benomyl tolerance in other fungi, does not impart resistance in T. virens. Unlike other Trichoderma spp., T. virens, has been difficult to mutate for benomyl tolerance. The present study, through site-directed mutagenesis, shows that a mutation known to impart benomyl tolerance in T. viride and other fungi does not impart resistance in this fungus. Understanding the mechanisms of this phenomenon will have a profound impact in plant-disease management, as many plant pathogenic fungi develop resistance to this group of fungicides forcing its withdrawal after a short period of use.

  11. Nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with Trichoderma harzianum expressing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amdS gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domínguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in T. harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by i enhanced growth, ii increased carbon and nitrogen levels and iii a

  12. Cloning, annotation and expression analysis of mycoparasitism-related genes in Trichoderma harzianum 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Yang, Qian; Song, Jinzhu; Tan, Chong; Guo, Changhong; Wang, Li; Qu, Lianhai; Wang, Yun

    2013-04-01

    Trichoderma harzianum 88, a filamentous soil fungus, is an effective biocontrol agent against several plant pathogens. High-throughput sequencing was used here to study the mycoparasitism mechanisms of T. harzianum 88. Plate confrontation tests of T. harzianum 88 against plant pathogens were conducted, and a cDNA library was constructed from T. harzianum 88 mycelia in the presence of plant pathogen cell walls. Randomly selected transcripts from the cDNA library were compared with eukaryotic plant and fungal genomes. Of the 1,386 transcripts sequenced, the most abundant Gene Ontology (GO) classification group was "physiological process". Differential expression of 19 genes was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR at different mycoparasitism stages against plant pathogens. Gene expression analysis revealed the transcription of various genes involved in mycoparasitism of T. harzianum 88. Our study provides helpful insights into the mechanisms of T. harzianum 88-plant pathogen interactions.

  13. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martínez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P

    2009-11-30

    Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  14. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2010-07-23

    BACKGROUND: Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. RESULTS: We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  15. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Estrella Alfredo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. Results We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. Conclusion The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  16. Development of a molecular approach to describe the composition of Trichoderma communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meincke, Remo; Weinert, Nicole; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia; Berg, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma and its teleomorphic stage Hypocrea play a key role for ecosystem functioning in terrestrial habitats. However, little is known about the ecology of the fungus. In this study we developed a novel Trichoderma-specific primer pair for diversity analysis. Based on a broad range master alignment, specific Trichoderma primers (ITSTrF/ITSTrR) were designed that comprise an approximate 650bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer region from all taxonomic clades of the genus Trichoderma. This amplicon is suitable for identification with TrichoKey and TrichoBLAST. Moreover, this primer system was successfully applied to study the Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of different potato genotypes grown at two field sites in Germany. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the specificity of the primer and revealed a site-dependent Trichoderma composition. Based on the new primer system a semi-nested approach was used to generate amplicons suitable for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and applied to analyse Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of potatoes. High field heterogeneity of Trichoderma communities was revealed by both DGGE. Furthermore, qPCR showed significantly different Trichoderma copy numbers between the sites. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Generation of Trichoderma atroviride mutants with constitutively activated G protein signaling by using geneticin resistance as selection marker

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    Gruber Sabine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are important industrial producers of cellulases and hemicellulases, but also widely used as biocontrol agents (BCAs in agriculture. In the latter function Trichoderma species stimulate plant growth, induce plant defense and directly antagonize plant pathogenic fungi through their mycoparasitic capabilities. The recent release of the genome sequences of four mycoparasitic Trichoderma species now forms the basis for large-scale genetic manipulations of these important BCAs. Thus far, only a limited number of dominant selection markers, including Hygromycin B resistance (hph and the acetamidase-encoding amdS gene, have been available for transformation of Trichoderma spp. For more extensive functional genomics studies the utilization of additional dominant markers will be essential. Results We established the Escherichia coli neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding nptII gene as a novel selectable marker for the transformation of Trichoderma atroviride conferring geneticin resistance. The nptII marker cassette was stably integrated into the fungal genome and transformants exhibited unaltered phenotypes compared to the wild-type. Co-transformation of T. atroviride with nptII and a constitutively activated version of the Gα subunit-encoding tga3 gene (tga3Q207L resulted in a high number of mitotically stable, geneticin-resistant transformants. Further analyses revealed a co-transformation frequency of 68% with 15 transformants having additionally integrated tga3Q207L into their genome. Constitutive activation of the Tga3-mediated signaling pathway resulted in increased vegetative growth and an enhanced ability to antagonize plant pathogenic host fungi. Conclusion The neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding nptII gene from Escherichia coli proved to be a valuable tool for conferring geneticin resistance to the filamentous fungus T. atroviride thereby contributing to an enhanced genetic

  18. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. dan Gliocladium sp. untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu (Fusarium oxysporum) pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhina, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Arie Ramadhina, 2012. The Use of Antagonism Fungus of Trichoderma sp and Gliocladium sp. for Controlling Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) in Red Onion Plants (Allium ascolanicum). Supervised by Lisnawita and Lahmuddin Lubis. The aim of the research was to know the effectiveness of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants. The research was performed in the green-house at the faculty of Agriculture, USU, from February until May, 2012. The researc...

  19. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2009-11-30

    Background: Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are effective mycoparasites an for this reason used as biocontrol agents agents plant pathogenic fungi. The ability to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill the prey are essential skills for this process. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. This study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride when being confronted with a potential prey. Results: T. atroviride was confronted with two fungal preys, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and cDNAs prepared from mycelia immediately before getting into physical contact with them (“onset of mycoparasitism”), and compared with such prepared from mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes each, were obtained from each of these three conditions. 65 genes, represented by 439 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof verified by expression analysis. They comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from those including posttranslational processing (159 from 183 ESTs), and amino acid metabolism (70 of 84 ESTs), respectively. Several heat shock factors and tRNA synthases were particularly abundant. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the amino acid biosynthesic and the lipid catabolic capacity. Conclusion: Analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions including strong stress response, sensing of nitrogen shortage and lipid catabolism. The data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for breeding of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  20. Xenobiotic Compounds Degradation by Heterologous Expression of a Trametes sanguineus Laccase in Trichoderma atroviride.

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    Edgar Balcázar-López

    Full Text Available Fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. In this work we were able to express a laccase from Trametes (Pycnoporus sanguineus in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. Although monosporic selection was still necessary, stable integration at the desired locus was achieved. The native signal peptide from T. sanguineus laccase was successful to secrete the recombinant protein into the culture medium. The purified, heterologously expressed laccase maintained similar properties to those observed in the native enzyme (Km and kcat and kcat/km values for ABTS, thermostability, substrate range, pH optimum, etc. To determine the bioremediation potential of this modified strain, the laccase-overexpressing Trichoderma strain was used to remove xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic compounds present in industrial wastewater and bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor from the culture medium were more efficiently removed by this modified strain than with the wild type. In addition, the heterologously expressed laccase was able to decolorize different dyes as well as remove benzo[α]pyrene and phenanthrene in vitro, showing its potential for xenobiotic compound degradation.

  1. Effectiveness of composts and Trichoderma strains for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato

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    Yousra TAGHDI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a major limiting disease in tomato production in Morocco. Commercial and locally produced Moroccan composts and peat were found to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato plants. We explored the presence of Trichoderma strains in these materials, and in six soils sampled in the North West of Morocco, where a low incidence of Fusarium wilt had been previously observed. The most abundant Trichoderma-like fungus was selected from each soil, compost or peat sample. Twelve Trichoderma strains were isolated and identified molecularly. Trichoderma asperellum CT9 and Trichoderma virens ST11 showed the greatest overall antagonistic activity against FOL, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pythium ultimum. The three strains evaluated in in planta tests, CT9, ST11 and T. virens ST10, reduced tomato Fusarium wilt, and strain ST11  also promoted growth of tomato plants.

  2. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

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    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  3. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Identification of effector-like proteins in Trichoderma spp. and role of a hydrophobin in the plant-fungus interaction and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Paulina; Alemán-Duarte, Mario Iván; Delaye, Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey

    2017-02-15

    Trichoderma spp. can establish beneficial interactions with plants by promoting plant growth and defense systems, as well as, antagonizing fungal phytopathogens in mycoparasitic interactions. Such interactions depend on signal exchange between both participants and can be mediated by effector proteins that alter the host cell structure and function, allowing the establishment of the relationship. The main purpose of this work was to identify, using computational methods, candidates of effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei, validate the expression of some of the genes during a beneficial interaction and mycoparasitism and to define the biological function for one of them. We defined a catalogue of putative effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. We further validated the expression of 16 genes encoding putative effector proteins from T. virens and T. atroviride during the interaction with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and with two anastomosis groups of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. We found genes which transcript levels are modified in response to the presence of both plant fungi, as well as genes that respond only to either a plant or a fungal host. Further, we show that overexpression of the gene tvhydii1, a Class II hydrophobin family member, enhances the antagonistic activity of T. virens against R. solani AG2. Further, deletion of tvhydii1 results in reduced colonization of plant roots, while its overexpression increases it. Our results show that Trichoderma is able to respond in different ways to the presence of a plant or a fungal host, and it can even distinguish between different strains of fungi of a given species. The putative effector proteins identified here may play roles in preventing perception of the fungus by its hosts, favoring host colonization or protecting it from the host's defense response. Finally, the novel effector protein TVHYDII1 plays a role in plant root colonization by T

  5. Trichoderma for climate resilient agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Pallavi; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Moreover, they can be used to produce bio-energy, facilitate plants for adaptation and mitigate adverse effect of climate change. The technological advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing and biotechnology provided deep insight into the complex and diverse biotic interactions established in nature by Trichoderma spp. and efforts are being made to translate this knowledge to enhance crop growth, resistance to disease and tolerance to abiotic stresses under field conditions. The discovery of several traits and genes that are involved in the beneficial effects of Trichoderma spp. has resulted in better understanding of the performance of bioinoculants in the field, and will lead to more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. The present mini-review is an effort to elucidate the molecular basis of plant growth promotion and defence activation by Trichoderma spp. to garner broad perspectives regarding their functioning and applicability for climate resilient agriculture.

  6. Biodegradation of sulfosulphuron in agricultural soil by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, U; Choudhury, P P

    2014-11-01

    Sulfosulphuron-degrading fungus was isolated by enrichment technique from the sulfosulphuron-contaminated soil of wheat rhizosphere. To assess the biodegradation potential of isolated Trichoderma sp., minimal potato dextrose agar broth with different levels of sulfosulphuron (up to 2 g l(-1) ) was evaluated in the growth and biotransformation experiments. ESI LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of degradation products 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (I) and 2-ethylsulfonyl imidazo{1,2-a} pyridine-3-sulfonamide-2-ethylsulfonyl imidazo{1,2-a} pyridine-3-sulfonamide (II) indicating the cleavage of the urea bridge and the presence of the by-product N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea (III) indicating the degradation of sulfonylamide linkage. Two other metabolites, N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N'-hydroxyurea (IV) and N, N'-bis(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea (V), were also identified. From the previous reports, it was found that the degradation of sulfonyl urea herbicides took place through the chemical degradation of the sulfonylurea bridge followed by microbial degradation. During this investigation, Trichoderma sp. grew well with and degraded sulfosulphuron via both the decarboxylation on the sulphonyl urea bridge and the hydrolytic cleavage of the sulfonylamide linkage as demonstrated by the formation of metabolites. Trichoderma is nonphytopathogenic in nature, and some species of it restrict the growth of soil-dwelling phytopathogens. Therefore, it is a promising candidate for the decontamination of soil from sulfosulphuron residues. The degradation of sulfosulphuron by any individual fungus is being reported for the first time. Trichoderma sp. isolated from wheat-rhizospheric soil could survive in minimal broth rich in sulfosulphuron. Previous reports have described the complete degradation of any sulfonyl urea herbicides by micro-organisms only after the pH-dependent chemical hydrolysis of the sulfonyl urea bridge of the herbicide. This study

  7. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

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    Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.

  8. Application of Trichoderma harziunum T22 as a biofertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum strain (T22) on the growth and development of maize (Zea mays) plants. T. harzianum was applied to the grains in two different treatments. The first one was performed by inoculating the soil with the air dried growth of the tested fungus in three ...

  9. Efficient formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuta; Jin, Feng Jie; Koyama, Yasuji; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Heterokaryon formation by hyphal fusion occurs during a sexual/parasexual cycle in filamentous fungi, and therefore, it is biotechnologically important for crossbreeding. In the industrial filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, a parasexual cycle has been reported, and it was recently suggested that sexual reproduction should be possible. However, as A. oryzae enters into hyphal fusion with a much lower frequency than Neurospora crassa, the process of heterokaryon formation has not been extensively characterized in A. oryzae. Here, we developed a detection system for heterokaryon formation by expressing red or green fluorescent proteins in nuclei and conferring uridine/uracil or adenine auxotrophy to MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 strains of A. oryzae. The heterokaryon formation of A. oryzae was investigated in paired culture using the genetically modified strains. No sclerotial formation was observed in the hyphal contact regions of the two strains with the same auxotrophy, whereas numerous sclerotia were formed between the strains with different auxotrophies. In most of the formed sclerotia, the uridine/uracil and adenine auxotrophies were complemented, and both red and green fluorescence were detected, indicating that heterokaryotic fusants were formed by hyphal fusion before or during sclerotial formation. Moreover, overexpressing the sclR gene, which encodes a transcription factor promoting sclerotial formation, increased the number of heterokaryotic sclerotia formed between the two auxotrophic strains. Notably, these effects in sclerotial formation of heterokaryotic fusants were observed independently of the mating type pairing combinations. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that paring of different auxotrophs and sclR overexpression promote the formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in A. oryzae.

  10. Identification and functional analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in a filamentous fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengkit, Anchalee; Jeon, Seong Sil; Son, Soo Ji; Shin, Jae Ho; Baik, Ku Yeon; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2016-07-18

    In spite of its prevalence in animals and plants, endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been rarely reported in fungi. We present here our observations on production of intracellular NO and its possible roles during development of Neurospora crassa, a model filamentous fungus. Intracellular NO was detected in hypha 8-16 hours after incubation in Vogel's minimal liquid media and conidiophores during conidiation using a fluorescent indicator (DAF-FM diacetate). Treatment with cPTIO, an NO scavenger, significantly reduced fluorescence levels and hindered hyphal growth in liquid media and conidiation, whereas exogenous NO enhanced hyphal extension on VM agar media and conidia formation. NO scavenging also dramatically diminished transcription of con-10 and con-13, genes preferentially expressed during conidiation. Our results suggest that intracellular NO is generated in young hypha growing in submerged culture and during conidia development and regulate mycelial development and conidia formation.

  11. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma virens strain TvSUT10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this current study, the beneficial filamentous fungi, Trichoderma virens, isolated from cassava field were investigated for antagonistic mode of action against Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of cassava stem rot in Thailand. In vitro screening using the dual culture technique was undertaken to assess the ...

  12. Prolinimines: N-Amino-l-Pro-methyl Ester (Hydrazine) Schiff Bases from a Fish Gastrointestinal Tract-Derived Fungus, Trichoderma sp. CMB-F563.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama G; Khalil, Zeinab G; Capon, Robert J

    2018-01-19

    A rice cultivation of a fish gastrointestinal tract-derived fungus, Trichoderma sp. CMB-F563, yielded natural products incorporating a rare hydrazine moiety, embedded within a Schiff base. Structures inclusive of absolute configurations were assigned to prolinimines A-D (1-4) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic and C 3 Marfey's analysis, as well as biosynthetic considerations, biomimetic total synthesis, and chemical transformations. Of note, monomeric 1 proved to be acid labile and, during isolation, underwent quantitative transformation to dimeric 3 and trimeric 4. Prolinimines are only the second reported natural products incorporating an N-amino-Pro residue, the first to include l-Pro, the first to occur as Schiff bases, and the first to be isolated from a microorganism.

  13. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40 gL(-1)). The 10 gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-species microarray hybridization to identify developmentally regulated genes in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. Several regulatory genes essential for fruiting body development were previously isolated by complementation of the sterile mutants pro1, pro11 and pro22. To establish the genetic relationships between these genes and to identify downstream targets, we have conducted cross-species microarray hybridizations using cDNA arrays derived from the closely related fungus Neurospora crassa and RNA probes prepared from wild-type S. macrospora and the three developmental mutants. Of the 1,420 genes which gave a signal with the probes from all the strains used, 172 (12%) were regulated differently in at least one of the three mutants compared to the wild type, and 17 (1.2%) were regulated differently in all three mutant strains. Microarray data were verified by Northern analysis or quantitative real time PCR. Among the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the mutant strains are genes encoding the pheromone precursors, enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis and a lectin-like protein. Analysis of gene expression in double mutants revealed a complex network of interaction between the pro gene products.

  15. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  16. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trichoderma harzianum: Inhibition of mycotoxin producing fungi and toxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H; Woitsch, L; Hetzer, B; Geisen, R; Zange, B; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2018-04-19

    A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, development of fungicide resistances has greatly impacted pre- and postharvest fungal diseases. Hence there is the need to develop alternative strategies to reduce fungal infestation and thus mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Such a strategy for natural competition of important plant-pathogenic and mycotoxin producing fungi could be Trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus. Especially in direct comparison to certain tested fungicides, the inhibition of different tested fungal species by T. harzianum was comparable, more sustainable and in some cases more effective, too. Besides substantially reduced growth rates, a transcriptional based inhibition of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the competed Aspergillus species could be shown. Furthermore it could be clearly observed by high-resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that T. harzianum actively attaches to the competitor species followed by subsequent enzymatic lysis of those mycelial filaments. The analyzed isolate of T. harzianum MRI349 is not known to produce mycotoxins. In this study it could be successfully proven that T. harzianum as a biological competitor is an effective complement to the use of fungicides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  19. Influence of Environmental Parameters on Trichoderma Strains with Biocontrol Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Antal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some important parameters to be considered are the effects of temperature, water potential and pH, and the presence of pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Most of the Trichoderma strains are mesophilic. Low temperatures in winter may cause a problem during biological control by influencing the activity of the biocontrol agents. Another problem emerging during the application of Trichoderma strains as biocontrol agents is that they cannot tolerate dry conditions, however, we may need biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi which are able to grow and cause disease even in dry soils. The pH characteristics of the soil also belong to the most important environmental parameters affecting the activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Within the frames of a complex integrated plant protection strategy, we may have to combine Trichoderma strains with chemical pesticides or metal compounds, therefore it is important to collect information about the effects of pesticides and metal ions on the biocontrol strains. Antagonistic soil bacteria may also have negative effects on the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma strains, therefore it may be advantageous if a biocontrol strain possesses bacterium- degrading abilities as well. This review will discuss the literature about the influence of temperature, water potential, pH, pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria on mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains including the results of our

  20. Kemampuan Ganoderma dan Trichoderma Mendekomposisi Serasah Acacia mangium (The Ability of Ganoderma and Trichoderma to Decompose Acacia mangium Litter)

    OpenAIRE

    SAMINGAN, Samingan

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition ability of fungi has an important role in forest floor ecosystem. The abilities of Ganoderma sp and Trichoderma sp to decompose Acacia mangium leaf litters at laboratory scale were observed. Litters from L and F layers in the field ca. 100 g were used as substrates in plastic bags. Each fungus was inoculating onto substrates and incubates at room temperature, then observed each month during six months. Weight losses (WL) of litter, lignin and cellulose contents during dec...

  1. An Ime2-like mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in cellulase expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Xiao-Yun; Qin, Li-Na; Huang, Zhen-Bang; Tao, Yong; Dong, Zhi-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play crucial roles in transducing environmental and developmental signals inside the cell and regulating gene expression, however, the roles of MAPKs remain largely unknown in Trichoderma reesei. T. reesei ime2 (TrIme2) encodes an Ime2-like MAPK in T. reesei. The deletion of the TrIme2 gene led to 90% increase in cellulase activity against filter paper during earlier period time of cellulase induction as well as the extracellular protein production. Compared to the parent strain, the transcriptional levels of the three major cellulase genes cbh1,cbh2, egl1 were increased by about 9 times, 4 times, 2 times, respectively, at 8 h after cellulase induction in the ΔTrIme2 mutant. In addition, the disruption of TrIme2 caused over 50% reduction of the transcript levels of cellulase transcriptional regulators cre1 and xyr1. TrIme2 functions in regulation of the expression of cellulase gene in T.reesei, and is a good candidate for genetically engineering of T. reesei for higher cellulase production.

  2. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  3. HFB7 - A novel orphan hydrophobin of the Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma, is involved in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylucka, Agnes; Akcapinar, Gunseli Bayram; Chenthamara, Komal; Cai, Feng; Grujic, Marica; Karpenko, Juriy; Livoi, Miriam; Shen, Qirong; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2017-05-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusively found in fungi. They are able to self-assemble in single molecular layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and can therefore be directly involved in establishment of fungi in their habitat. The genomes of filamentous mycotrophic fungi Trichoderma encode a rich diversity of hydrophobins, which are divided in several groups based on their structure and evolution. Here we describe a new member of class II hydrophobins, HFB7, that has a taxonomically restricted occurrence in Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma. Evolutionary analysis reveals that HFB7 proteins form a separate clade distinct from other Trichoderma class II hydrophobins and that genes encoding them evolve under positive selection pressure. Homology modelling of HFB7 structure in comparison to T. reesei HFB2 reveals that the two large hydrophobic patches on the surface of the protein are remarkably conserved between the two hydrophobins despite significant difference in their primary structures. Expression of hfb7 gene in T. virens increases at interactions with other fungi and a plant and in response to a diversity of abiotic stress conditions, and is also upregulated during formation of aerial mycelium in a standing liquid culture. This upregulation significantly exceeds that of expression of hfb7 under a strong constitutive promoter, and T. virens strains overexpressing hfb7 thus display only changes in traits characterized by low hfb7 expression, i.e. faster growth in submerged liquid culture. The hfb7 gene is not expressed in conidia. Our data allow to conclude that this protein is involved in defence of Trichoderma against a diversity of stress factors related to the oxidative stress. Moreover, HFB7 likely helps in the establishment of the fungus in wetlands or other conditions related to high humidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. AoAtg26, a putative sterol glucosyltransferase, is required for autophagic degradation of peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuma, Takashi; Tadokoro, Takayuki; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotic cells for degradation of cellular proteins and organelles. In filamentous fungi, autophagic degradation of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei occurs in basal cells after the prolonged culture, but its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we functionally analyzed the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae AoAtg26, an ortholog of the sterol glucosyltransferase PpAtg26 involved in pexophagy in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Deletion of Aoatg26 caused a severe decrease in conidiation and aerial hyphae formation, which is typically observed in the autophagy-deficient A. oryzae strains. In addition, cup-shaped AoAtg8-positive membrane structures were accumulated in the Aoatg26 deletion strain, indicating that autophagic process is impaired. Indeed, the Aoatg26 deletion strain was defective in the degradation of peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei. Taken together, AoAtg26 plays an important role for autophagic degradation of organelles in A. oryzae, which may physiologically contribute to the differentiation in filamentous fungi.

  6. Trichodiene production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-silenced strain provides evidence of the importance of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in inducing plant defense-related gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both ...

  7. Malachite green decolorization by the filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum--Mechanistic study and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Anna; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sip, Anna; Długoński, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    The filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum isolated from a dye-contaminated area was investigated in terms of its use for the treatment of Malachite green (MG). The mechanisms involved in this process were established. Peroxidases and cytochrome P-450 do not mediate MG elimination. The laccase of M. roridum IM 6482 was found to be responsible for the decolorization of 8-11% of MG. Thermostable low-molecular-weight factors (LMWF) resistant to sodium azide were found to be largely involved in dye decomposition. In addition, MG decolorization by M. roridum IM 6482 occurred in a non-toxic manner. Data from antimicrobial tests showed that MG toxicity decreased after decolorization. To optimize the MG decolorization process, the effects of operational parameters (such as the medium pH and composition, process temperature and culture agitation) were examined. The results demonstrate that M. roridum IM 6482 may be used effectively as an alternative to traditional decolorization agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Yield under Different Levels of Cadmium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma spp. on yield and yield components of wheat (cv. N81 under different levels of cadmium nitrate. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design with three replicates. Trichoderma harzianum at two levels (with and without inoculation and four levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 50, 100, 150 mg l-1 were the treatment. Results of ANOVA and mean comparisons showed that inoculation of Trichoderma increased biological yield (46% and straw yield (30% as compared to control. Cadmium pollution has led to significant decrease in harvest index, grain number per spike and partitioning coefficient up to 5, 20, 24 and 38 percent compared to control, respectively. Furthermore, cadmium and fungus interaction were significant in terms of spike number, grain weight per spike, grain yield and tolerance index. Maximum grain yield and tolerance index were recorded in Trichoderma inoculation under cadmium-free plots which nearly increased 65 and 53 percent, respectively. In conclusion, using Trichoderma under cadmium pollution could improve wheat growth, yield and tolerance index

  9. Trichoderma virens PDR-28: a heavy metal-tolerant and plant growth-promoting fungus for remediation and bioenergy crop production on mine tailing soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, A Giridhar; Shim, Jaehong; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A heavy metal-tolerant fungus, Trichoderma virens PDR-28, was isolated from rhizosphere soil and evaluated for use in remediating mine tailing soil and for plant biomass production. PDR-28 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, acid phosphatase and phytase activity, siderophore production, and P solubilization. HMs were more available in mine tailing soil inoculated soil with PDR-28 than in uninoculated soil; the order of HM bioleaching was Cd > As > Zn > Pb > Cu. PDR-28 effectively removed HMs in the order of Pb > Cd > As > Zn > Cu from liquid media containing 100 mg HM L(-1). Inoculating HM-contaminated mine tailing soil with the fungus significantly increased the dry biomass of maize roots (64%) and shoots (56%). Chlorophyll, total soluble sugars (reducible and nonreducible), starch, and protein contents increased by 46%, 28%, 30%, and 29%, respectively, compared to plants grown in uninoculated soil. Inoculation increased heavy metal concentrations in maize roots by 25% (Cu) to 62% (Cd) and in shoots by 35% (Cu) to 64% (Pb) compared to uninoculated plants. Results suggest that PDR-28 would be beneficial for phytostabilization and plant biomass production as a potential source of biofuel in the quest for renewable energy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens fungal extracts on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, Bianca Delgado Menezes; Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; Pötter, Luciana; Silveira, Andressa; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. The use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by Ancylostoma eggs and larvae. Nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different fungal extracts of Paecilomyces lilacinus (n=2), Trichoderma harzianum (n=1) and Trichoderma virens (n=1) isolates on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. Fungal extracts consisted of fungal broth culture supernatant without filtration (crude extract) and filtered broth (filtered extract), macerated mycelium (crude macerate), and macerated mycelium submitted to filtration (filtered macerate). The Ancylostoma eggs were obtained from the feces of naturally infected dogs. In vitro assays were performed in five replicates and consisted of four treatments and one control group. The activity of the fungal extracts of each evaluated fungus differed (p<0.05) from those of the control group, showing significant ovicidal activity. The hatching of the eggs suffered reduction percentages of 68.43% and 47.05% with P. lilacinus, and 56.43% with T. harzianum, when crude macerate extract was used. The reduction with the macerate extract of T. virens was slightly lower (52.25%) than that for the filtered macerate (53.64%). The results showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. The ovicidal effect observed is likely to have been caused by the action of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  12. A new and efficient approach for construction of uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khuyen Thi; Ho, Quynh Ngoc; Do, Loc Thi Binh Xuan; Mai, Linh Thi Dam; Pham, Duc-Ngoc; Tran, Huyen Thi Thanh; Le, Diep Hong; Nguyen, Huy Quang; Tran, Van-Tuan

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus widely used in food industry and as a microbial cell factory for recombinant protein production. Due to the inherent resistance of A. oryzae to common antifungal compounds, genetic transformation of this mold usually requires auxotrophic mutants. In this study, we show that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method is very efficient for deletion of the pyrG gene in different Aspergillus oryzae wild-type strains to generate uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants. Our data indicated that all the obtained uridine/uracil auxotrophic transformants, which are 5- fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) resistant, exist as the pyrG deletion mutants. Using these auxotrophic mutants and the pyrG selectable marker for genetic transformation via A. tumefaciens, we could get about 1060 transformants per 10 6 fungal spores. In addition, these A. oryzae mutants were also used successfully for expression of the DsRed fluorescent reporter gene under control of the A. oryzae amyB promoter by the ATMT method, which resulted in obvious red transformants on agar plates. Our work provides a new and effective approach for constructing the uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the importantly industrial fungus A. oryzae. This strategy appears to be applicable to other filamentous fungi to develop similar genetic transformation systems based on auxotrophic/nutritional markers for food-grade recombinant applications.

  13. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L"−"1. • At 200 g L"−"1 PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  14. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Jihen [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Loungou, Mouna [Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Ammar, Emna, E-mail: ammarenis@yahoo.fr [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L{sup −1}. • At 200 g L{sup −1} PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  15. Regulation of transcription of cellulases- and hemicellulases-encoding genes in Aspergillus niger and Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, A.R.; Mach, R.L.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) have been the subject of many studies investigating the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of hemicellulase- and cellulase-encoding genes. The transcriptional regulator XlnR that was initially identified in A.

  16. Functional analysis of AoAtg11 in selective autophagy in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Takayuki; Kikuma, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation process in eukaryotes and consists of both non-selective and selective types. Selective autophagic processes include pexophagy, mitophagy, and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway of yeast, in which particular vacuolar proteins, such as aminopeptidase I (Ape1), are selectively transported to vacuoles. Although selective autophagy has been mainly studied in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, there is evidence for selective autophagy in filamentous fungi; however, the details are poorly understood. In S. cerevisiae, Atg11 is a selective autophagy-specific protein that recognizes and transports substrates to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS). Here, we first identified an ATG11 homologue in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae and analyzed the localization of the corresponding protein, designated AoAtg11, fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Imaging analysis revealed that AoAtg11-EGFP was localized to PAS-like structures. We next constructed an Aoatg11 disruptant of A. oryzae and showed that AoAtg11 is involved in pexophagy and mitophagy. In addition, AoAtg11 was found to be dispensable for non-selective autophagy and for transporting AoApe1 to vacuoles. Taken together, these results suggest that AoAtg11 is a selective autophagy-specific protein in A. oryzae, and has distinct molecular functions from that of S. cerevisiae Atg11. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disruption of ten protease genes in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae highly improves production of heterologous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2011-02-01

    Proteolytic degradation by secreted proteases into the culture medium is one of the significant problems to be solved in heterologous protein production by filamentous fungi including Aspergillus oryzae. Double (tppA, and pepE) and quintuple (tppA, pepE, nptB, dppIV, and dppV) disruption of protease genes enhanced human lysozyme (HLY) and bovine chymosin (CHY) production by A. oryzae. In this study, we used a quintuple protease gene disruptant and performed successive rounds of disruption for five additional protease genes (alpA, pepA, AopepAa, AopepAd, and cpI), which were previously investigated by DNA microarray analyses for their expression. Gene disruption was performed by pyrG marker recycling with a highly efficient gene-targeting background (∆ligD) as previously reported. As a result, the maximum yields of recombinant CHY and HLY produced by a decuple protease gene disruptant were approximately 30% and 35%, respectively, higher than those produced by a quintuple protease gene disruptant. Thus, we successfully constructed a decuple protease gene disruptant possessing highly improved capability of heterologous protein production. This is the first report on decuple protease gene disruption that improved the levels of heterologous protein production by the filamentous fungus A. oryzae.

  18. Trichoderma harzianum might impact phosphorus transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Nathalie; de la Providencia, Ivan E; de Boulois, Hervé Dupré; Declerck, Stéphane

    2011-09-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a biocontrol agent active against plant pathogens via mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. Recently, it was demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum was able to parasitize the mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, thus affecting its viability. Here, we question whether this mycoparasitism may reduce the capacity of Glomus sp. to transport phosphorus ((33)P) to its host plant in an in vitro culture system. (33)P was measured in the plant and in the fungal mycelium in the presence/absence of T. harzianum. The viability and metabolic activity of the extraradical mycelium was measured via succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase staining. Our study demonstrated an increased uptake of (33)P by the AM fungus in the presence of T. harzianum, possibly related to a stress reaction caused by mycoparasitism. In addition, the disruption of AM extraradical hyphae in the presence of T. harzianum affected the (33)P translocation within the AM fungal mycelium and consequently the transfer of (33)P to the host plant. The effects of T. harzianum on Glomus sp. may thus impact the growth and function of AM fungi and also indirectly plant performance by influencing the source-sink relationship between the two partners of the symbiosis. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp.

  20. Exploring Trichoderma and Aspergillus secretomes: Proteomics approaches for the identification of enzymes of biotechnological interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologna, Nicholas de Mojana di; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Zanoelo, Fabiana Fonseca; Giannesi, Giovana Cristina; Guimarães, Nelciele Cavalieri de Alencar; Moreira, Leonora Rios de Souza; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2018-02-01

    Filamentous fungal secretomes comprise highly dynamic sets of proteins, including multiple carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) which are able to hydrolyze plant biomass polysaccharides into products of biotechnological interest such as fermentable sugars. In recent years, proteomics has been used to identify and quantify enzymatic and non-enzymatic polypeptides present in secretomes of several fungi species. The resulting data have widened the scientific understanding of the way filamentous fungi perform biomass degradation and offered novel perspectives for biotechnological applications. The present review discusses proteomics approaches that have been applied to the study of fungal secretomes, focusing on two of the most studied filamentous fungi genera: Trichoderma and Aspergillus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The novel ER membrane protein PRO41 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Frank, Sandra; Koers, Sandra; Strauch, Peter; Weitner, Thomas; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora develops complex fruiting bodies (perithecia) to propagate its sexual spores. Here, we present an analysis of the sterile mutant pro41 that is unable to produce mature fruiting bodies. The mutant carries a deletion of 4 kb and is complemented by the pro41 open reading frame that is contained within the region deleted in the mutant. In silico analyses predict PRO41 to be an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, and a PRO41-EGFP fusion protein colocalizes with ER-targeted DsRED. Furthermore, Western blot analysis shows that the PRO41-EGFP fusion protein is present in the membrane fraction. A fusion of the predicted N-terminal signal sequence of PRO41 with EGFP is secreted out of the cell, indicating that the signal sequence is functional. pro41 transcript levels are upregulated during sexual development. This increase in transcript levels was not observed in the sterile mutant pro1 that lacks a transcription factor gene. Moreover, microarray analysis of gene expression in the mutants pro1, pro41 and the pro1/41 double mutant showed that pro41 is partly epistatic to pro1. Taken together, these data show that PRO41 is a novel ER membrane protein essential for fruiting body formation in filamentous fungi.

  2. The Effect of Trichoderma on Heavy Metal Mobility and Uptake by Miscanthus giganteus, Salix sp., Phalaris arundinacea, and Panicum virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata J. Kacprzak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of land application of biomaterials based on two strains of Trichoderma fungus on phytoremediation processes was studied. Six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were analysed in soil and soil leachate as well as in plant tissues. The translocation index (Ti and metal bioconcentration factors (BCF calculated for the inoculated plants were increased compared to the noninoculated control, except for Pb and Salix sp. Simultaneously, the mobilisation of metals in soil solution as an effect of biomaterials was noted. The highest values of Ti—339% (for Cr, 190% (for Ni, and 110% (for Cu—were achieved for the combination Miscanteus giganteus and Trichoderma MSO1. The results indicated that the application of fungus has positive effects on increasing the biomass, soil parameters (C, N, and P, and solubility of heavy metals in soil and therefore in enhancing phytoextraction for Miscanthus giganteus L., Panicum virgatum L., Phalaris arundinacea L., and Salix sp.

  3. Antibiosis of Trichoderma spp strains native to northeastern Mexico against the pathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, José Luis Hernández; Pérez, María Isabel Sánchez; Prieto, Juan Manuel González; Velásquez, Jesús DiCarlo Quiroz; Olivares, Jesús Gerardo García; Langarica, Homar Rene Gill

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sampling of agricultural soils from the Mexican northeastern region was performed to detect Trichoderma spp., genetically characterize it, and assess its potential use as a biologic control agent against Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina is a phytopathogen that attacks over 500 species of cultivated plants and causes heavy losses in the regional sorghum crop. Sampling was performed immediately after sorghum or corn harvest in an area that was approximately 170 km from the Mexico-USA border. Sixteen isolates were obtained in total. Using colony morphology and sequencing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4 of 18S rDNA, 14 strains were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningiopsis and T. virens. Subsequently, their antagonistic activity against M. phaseolina was evaluated in vitro, and 11 isolates showed antagonism by competition and stopped M. phaseolina growth. In 4 of these isolates, the antibiosis phenomenon was observed through the formation of an intermediate band without growth between colonies. One strain, HTE808, was identified as Trichoderma koningiopsis and grew rapidly; when it came into contact with the M. phaseolina colony, it continued to grow and sporulated until it covered the entire petri dish. Microscopic examination confirmed that it has a high level of hyperparasitism and is thus considered to have high potential for use in the control of this phytopathogen. PMID:26691467

  4. Trichoderma virens as a biocontrol of Toxocara canis: In vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae M-4 strain with self-protection transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Li, Jianlong; Yao, Kai; Zhao, Nan; Zhou, Kang; Hu, Xinjie; Zou, Likou; Han, Xinfeng; Liu, Aiping; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-11-01

    A novel filamentous fungus M-4 strain was isolated from soy sauce koji and identified as Aspergillus oryzae (Collection number: CGMCC 11645) on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence. M-4 could degrade 80.62 % of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; 100 mg L -1 ) within 5 days. 3-PBA degradation occurred in accordance with first-order kinetics. The degradation metabolites of 3-PBA were identified through high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Relevant enzymatic activities and substrate utilization were also investigated, which indicated that M-4 could effectively degrade the intermediates of 3-PBA. Base on analysis of these metabolites, a novel biochemical pathway for the degradation of 3-PBA was proposed. There exists a mutual transformation between 3-phenoxy-benzyl alcohol and 3-PBA, which was firstly reported about the degradation of 3-PBA and may be attributed to self-protection transformation of M-4; subsequently, 3-PBA was gradually transformed into phenol, 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid. The safety of M-4 was evaluated via an acute toxicity test in vivo. The biodegradation ability of M-4 without toxic effects reveals that this fungus may be likely to be used for eliminating 3-PBA from contaminated environment or fermented foods.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana polyamine content is modified by the interaction with different Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Badillo, Fatima Berenice; Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; López-Gómez, Miguel; Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Plants are associated with a wide range of microorganisms throughout their life cycle, and some interactions result on plant benefits. Trichoderma species are plant beneficial fungi that enhance plant growth and development, contribute to plant nutrition and induce defense responses. Nevertheless, the molecules involved in these beneficial effects still need to be identify. Polyamines are ubiquitous molecules implicated in plant growth and development, and in the establishment of plant microbe interactions. In this study, we assessed the polyamine profile in Arabidopsis plants during the interaction with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride, using a system that allows direct plant-fungal contact or avoids their physical interaction (split system). The plantlets that grew in the split system exhibited higher biomass than the ones in direct contact with Trichoderma species. After 3 days of interaction, a significant decrease in Arabidopsis polyamine levels was observed in both systems (direct contact and split). After 5 days of interaction polyamine levels were increased. The highest levels were observed with T. atroviride (split system), and with T. virens (direct contact). The expression levels of Arabidopsis ADC1 and ADC2 genes during the interaction with the fungi were also assessed. We observed a time dependent regulation of ADC1 and ADC2 genes, which correlates with polyamine levels. Our data show an evident change in polyamine profile during Arabidopsis - Trichoderma interaction, accompanied by evident alterations in plant root architecture. Polyamines could be involved in the changes undergone by plant during the interaction with this beneficial fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  8. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  9. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Sabine; Omann, Markus; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2013-05-16

    Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These GPCRs consequently represent

  10. Mechanism of triphenylmethane Cresol Red degradation by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nurafifah Mohd; Hadibarata, Tony; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Lazim, Zainab Mat; Adnan, Liyana Amalina; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2015-11-01

    Cresol Red belongs to the triphenylmethane (TPM) class of dyes which are potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. However, very few studies on biodegradation of Cresol Red were investigated as compared to other type dyes such as azo and anthraquinone dye. The aim of this work is to evaluate triphenylmethane dye Cresol Red degradation by fungal strain isolated from the decayed wood in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Trichoderma species and designated as strain Trichoderma harzianum M06. In this study, Cresol Red was decolorized up to 88% within 30 days under agitation condition by Trichoderma harzianum M06. Data analysis revealed that a pH value of 3 yielded a highest degradation rate among pH concentrations (73%), salinity concentrations of 100 g/L (73%), and a volume of 0.1 mL of Tween 80 (79%). Induction in the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase indicates their involvement in Cresol Red removal. Various analytical studies such as Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the biotransformation of Cresol Red by the fungus. Two metabolites were identified in the treated medium: 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (t R 7.3 min and m/z 355) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (t R 8.6 min and m/z 267). Based on these products, a probable pathway has been proposed for the degradation of Cresol Red by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

  11. Morphological changes of the filamentous fungus Mucor mucedo and inhibition of chitin synthase activity induced by anethole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutani, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Yukie; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2011-11-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum with antimicrobial activity relatively weaker than those of well-known antibiotics, and significantly enhances the antifungal activity of polygodial and dodecanol against the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole is unresolved. Anethole demonstrated antifungal activity against the filamentous fungus, Mucor mucedo IFO 7684, accompanied by hyphal morphological changes such as swollen hyphae at the tips. Its minimum growth inhibitory concentration was 0.625 mM. A hyperosmotic condition (1.2 M sorbitol) restricted the induction of morphological changes, while hypoosmotic treatment (distilled water) induced bursting of hyphal tips and leakage of cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, anethole dose-dependently inhibited chitin synthase (CHS) activity in permeabilized hyphae in an uncompetitive manner. These results suggest that the morphological changes of M. mucedo could be explained by the fragility of cell walls caused by CHS inhibition. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. AoRim15 is involved in conidial stress tolerance, conidiation and sclerotia formation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Kikuma, Takashi; Jin, Feng Jie; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Rim15p is a master regulator of stress signaling and is required for stress tolerance and sexual sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in filamentous fungi that reproduce asexually via conidiation, the physiological function of Rim15p homologs has not been extensively analyzed. Here, we functionally characterized the protein homolog of Rim15p in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, by deleting and overexpressing the corresponding Aorim15 gene and examining the role of this protein in stress tolerance and development. Deletion of Aorim15 resulted in an increase in the sensitivity of conidia to oxidative and heat stresses, whereas conidia of the Aorim15 overexpressing strain were more resistant to these stresses. These results indicated that AoRim15 functions in stress tolerance, similar to S. cerevisiae Rim15p. Phenotypic analysis revealed that conidiation was markedly reduced by overexpression of Aorim15 in A. oryzae, and was completely abolished in the deletion strain. In addition, the formation of sclerotia, which is another type of developmental structure in filamentous fungi, was decreased by the deletion of Aorim15, whereas Aorim15 overexpression increased the number of sclerotia. These results indicated that AoRim15 is a positive regulator of sclerotia formation and that overexpression of AoRim15 shifts the developmental balance from conidiation towards sclerotia formation. Collectively, we demonstrated that AoRim15 is involved in the stress tolerance of conidia and differentially regulates between the two developmental fates of conidiation and sclerotia formation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. β-Carbonic Anhydrases Play a Role in Fruiting Body Development and Ascospore Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Sordaria macrospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO3 −) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ζ-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of β-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding β-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Δcas1, Δcas2, and Δcas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Δcas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Δcas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO2 levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and non-specific functions. PMID:19365544

  14. Beta-carbonic anhydrases play a role in fruiting body development and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

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    Skander Elleuche

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO(2 is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO(3 (- reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs. These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of beta-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria encoding beta-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Deltacas1, Deltacas2, and Deltacas3 as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Deltacas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Deltacas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO(2 levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of

  15. Beta-carbonic anhydrases play a role in fruiting body development and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO(3) (-)) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of beta-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding beta-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Deltacas1, Deltacas2, and Deltacas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Deltacas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Deltacas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO(2) levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and

  16. Antipathy of Trichoderma against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.: Evaluation of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymatic Activities and Molecular Diversity Analysis of Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, Harsukh P; Hirpara, Hitesh Z; Golakiya, Balubhai A

    2017-01-01

    The fungus Trichoderma is a teleomorph of the Hypocrea genus and associated with biological control of plant diseases. The microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Trichoderma was carried out and evaluated for in vitro antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot disease in groundnut. In total, 11 isolates of Trichoderma were examined for antagonism at 6 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Out of 11, T. virens NBAII Tvs12 evidenced the highest (87.91%) growth inhibition of the test pathogen followed by T. koningii MTCC 796 (67.03%), T. viride NBAII Tv23 (63.74%), and T. harzianum NBAII Th1 (60.44%). Strong mycoparasitism was observed in the best antagonist Tvs12 strain during 6-12 DAI. The specific activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes - chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase - was positively correlated with growth inhibition of the test pathogen. In total, 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms were reported to amplify 202 alleles across 11 Trichoderma isolates. The average polymorphism information content for SSR markers was found to be 0.80. The best antagonist Tvs 12 was identified with 7 unique SSR alleles amplified by 5 SSR markers. Clustering patterns of 11 Trichoderma strains showed the best antagonist T. virens NBAII Tvs 12 outgrouped with a minimum 3% similarity from the rest of Trichoderma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307 by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2

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    Liuhong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1 and C (2, and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4 and (3R-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5, together with one new natural product (6 and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17, were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM. The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins.

  18. Trichoderma G protein-coupled receptors: functional characterisation of a cAMP receptor-like protein from Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Kurt; Omann, Markus; Pucher, Marion E; Delic, Marizela; Lehner, Sylvia M; Domnanich, Patrick; Kratochwill, Klaus; Druzhinina, Irina; Denk, Dagmar; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2008-12-01

    Galpha subunits act to regulate vegetative growth, conidiation, and the mycoparasitic response in Trichoderma atroviride. To extend our knowledge on G protein signalling, we analysed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As the genome sequence of T. atroviride is not publicly available yet, we carried out an in silico exploration of the genome database of the close relative T. reesei. Twenty genes encoding putative GPCRs distributed over eight classes and additional 35 proteins similar to the Magnaporthe grisea PTH11 receptor were identified. Subsequently, four T. atroviride GPCR-encoding genes were isolated and affiliated to the cAMP receptor-like family by phylogenetic and topological analyses. All four genes showed lowest expression on glycerol and highest mRNA levels upon carbon starvation. Transcription of gpr3 and gpr4 responded to exogenously added cAMP and the shift from liquid to solid media. gpr3 mRNA levels also responded to the presence of fungal hyphae or cellulose membranes. Further characterisation of mutants bearing a gpr1-silencing construct revealed that Gpr1 is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and conidial germination. Four genes encoding the first GPCRs described in Trichoderma were isolated and their expression characterized. At least one of these GPCRs is important for several cellular processes, supporting the fundamental role of G protein signalling in this fungus.

  19. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EFIKASI ISOLAT TRICHODERMA TERPILIH DENGAN BAHAN ORGANIK UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG PADA LADA DI LAPANGAN

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    Cipta Ginting

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of selected Trichoderma isolate and organic matter to control foot rot of black pepper in the field. The objective of this experiment was to determine the efficacy of selected Trichoderma isolatand organic matter to control the disease. Dual culture method was used to select a Trichoderma isolate. The experiment to evaluate the efficacy of selected isolate consisted of control (no application of T. harzianum or organic matter, T. harzianum and rice straw, and T. harzianum and coffee husk. As starter, T. harzianum was grown in broken rice. Two liters of organic matter was infested with suspension of 10 g starter in 100 ml steril water and incubated for 2 weeks. The mixture was applied around the base of black pepper stem. The results showed that all plants treated with T. harzianum and organic matter did not show disease symptom. Ten percent of the control plants showed symptoms. However, statistical analysis showed that the occurrence of the disease was not significantly different between treatments. Applications ofT. harzianum and rice straw increased the density of Trichoderma for 1 and 2 months after application. T. harzianum and coffee husk increased the density of the fungus 1 month after application.

  1. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

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    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e

  2. Trichoderma ROLE IN AGROFORESTRY-CACAOTAL SYSTEMS AS AN ANTAGONAL AGENT

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    Úrsula del Carmen López-Ferrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and cocoa agroforestry systems are important for food production and biodiversity conservation. Among this diversity there is a group of fungi of the genus Trichoderma that present antagonistic effects against phytopathogens and this action can be used as a form of biological control of plant pathogens. In the agroforestry-cacao system the diseases with the highest frequency and with the greatest impact on cocoa production (Theobroma cacao are black rot (Phytophthora spp., Broom broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis of the main theoretical and practical aspects about the genus Trichoderma and its role in agriculture as an antagonistic agent. One of the microscopic features in the delimitation of the genus, especially by the presence of structures called phalid. The antagonistic mechanisms used by Trichoderma spp. Are described as competition, antibiosis and mycoparasitism. Mycoparasitism is having a relevance on the implications of extracellular enzymes such as chitinases, cellulases, β-1-3-glucanases and proteases that lyse or digest the walls of fungi, Moniliophthora roreri disease. This fungus can inhibit the growth of other fungi and bacteria by producing several volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. On the other hand, it participates in the production of regulators of growth and stimulation of the division, differentiation and cellular growth in the plant by the elicitor agent. Trichoderma species that are commercialized for biological control, growth promoter and biofertilizer are T. viride, T. polysporum and T. harzianum. The T. virens and T. harzianum species are most used for the antagonistic control of M. roreri, Phytophthora spp., and M. perniciosa in agroforestry-cacao systems (Theobroma cacao L. with optimal results to the inhibitory effect for these diseases.

  3. First Case of Trichoderma longibrachiatum CIED (Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device)-Associated Endocarditis in a Non-immunocompromised Host: Biofilm Removal and Diagnostic Problems in the Light of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Carlo; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Barletta, Valentina; Di Paolo, Antonello; Leonildi, Alessandro; Zucchelli, Giulio; Corte, Laura; Colabella, Claudia; Roscini, Luca; Consorte, Augusta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Menichetti, Francesco; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma species are saprophytic filamentous fungi producing localized and invasive infections that are cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients, causing up to 53% mortality. Non-immunocompromised patients, undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, are other targets of this fungus. Current molecular diagnostic tools, based on the barcode marker ITS, fail to discriminate these fungi at the species level, further increasing the difficulty associated with these infections and their generally poor prognosis. We report on the first case of endocarditis infection caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum in a 30-year-old man. This patient underwent the implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in 2006, replaced in 2012. Two years later, the patient developed fever, treated successfully with amoxicillin followed by ciprofloxacin, but an echocardiogram showed large vegetation onto the ventricular lead. After CIED extraction, the patient had high-grade fever. The culturing of the catheter tip was positive only in samples deriving from sonication according to the 2014 ESCMID guidelines, whereas the simple washing failed to remove the biofilm cells from the plastic surface. Subsequent molecular (ITS sequencing) and microbiological (macromorphology) analyses showed that the vegetation was due to T. longibrachiatum. This report showed that T. longibrachiatum is an effective threat and that sonication is necessary for the culturing of vegetations from plastic surfaces. Limitations of the current barcode marker ITS, and the long procedures required by a multistep approach, call for the development of rapid monophasic tests.

  4. Overexpression of erg1 gene in Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413: effect on the induction of tomato defence-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, R E; Malmierca, M G; Gutiérrez, S

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the overexpression of erg1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 (T34) on the Trichoderma-plant interactions and in the biocontrol ability of this fungus. Transformants of T34 strain overexpressing erg1 gene did not show effect on the ergosterol level, although a drastic decrease in the squalene level was observed in the transformants at 96 h of growth. During interaction with plants, the erg1 overexpression resulted in a reduction of the priming ability of several tomato defence-related genes belonging to the salicylate pathway, and also of the TomLoxA gene, which is related to the jasmonate pathway. Interestingly, other jasmonate-related genes, such as PINI and PINII, were slightly induced. The erg1 overexpressed transformants also showed a reduced ability to colonize tomato roots. The ergosterol biosynthetic pathway might play an important role in regulating Trichoderma-plant interactions, although this role does not seem to be restricted to the final product; instead, other intermediates such as squalene, whose role in the Trichoderma-plant interaction has not been characterized, would also play an important role. The functional analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of ergosterol could provide additional strategies to improve the ability of biocontrol of the Trichoderma strains and their interaction with plants. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices.

  6. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  7. Cellular Development Associated with Induced Mycotoxin Synthesis in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Jon; Weber, Jakob; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H. Corby

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often infests the grain with harmful trichothecene mycotoxins. Synthesis of these secondary metabolites is induced during plant infection or in culture in response to chemical signals. Our results show that trichothecene biosynthesis involves a complex developmental process that includes dynamic changes in cell morphology and the biogenesis of novel subcellular structures. Two cytochrome P-450 oxygenases (Tri4p and Tri1p) involved in early and late steps in trichothecene biosynthesis were tagged with fluorescent proteins and shown to co-localize to vesicles we provisionally call “toxisomes.” Toxisomes, the inferred site of trichothecene biosynthesis, dynamically interact with motile vesicles containing a predicted major facilitator superfamily protein (Tri12p) previously implicated in trichothecene export and tolerance. The immediate isoprenoid precursor of trichothecenes is the primary metabolite farnesyl pyrophosphate. Changes occur in the cellular localization of the isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase when cultures non-induced for trichothecene biosynthesis are transferred to trichothecene biosynthesis inducing medium. Initially localized in the cellular endomembrane system, HMG CoA reductase, upon induction of trichothecene biosynthesis, increasingly is targeted to toxisomes. Metabolic pathways of primary and secondary metabolism thus may be coordinated and co-localized under conditions when trichothecene biosynthesis occurs. PMID:23667578

  8. Development of a genome editing technique using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the industrial filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Takuya; Tanaka, Yuki; Okabe, Tomoya; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    To develop a genome editing method using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Aspergillus oryzae, the industrial filamentous fungus used in Japanese traditional fermentation and for the production of enzymes and heterologous proteins. To develop the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a genome editing technique for A. oryzae, we constructed plasmids expressing the gene encoding Cas9 nuclease and single guide RNAs for the mutagenesis of target genes. We introduced these into an A. oryzae strain and obtained transformants containing mutations within each target gene that exhibited expected phenotypes. The mutational rates ranged from 10 to 20 %, and 1 bp deletions or insertions were the most commonly induced mutations. We developed a functional and versatile genome editing method using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in A. oryzae. This technique will contribute to the use of efficient targeted mutagenesis in many A. oryzae industrial strains.

  9. Endophytic Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019: a promising biocontrol agent with hyperosmolar, mycoparasitism, and antagonistic activities of induced volatile organic compounds on root-rot pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng

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    Jin-Lian Chen

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the endophytic fungus T. gamsii YIM PH30019 may have a good potential as a biological control agent against notoginseng phytodiseases and can provide a clue to further illuminate the interactions between Trichoderma and phytopathogens.

  10. Characterization and Strain Improvement of a Hypercellulytic Variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by Genetic Engineering for Optimized Cellulase Production in Biomass Conversion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuanchao; Zhong, Lixia; Hou, Yunhua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhong, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG) activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL) activity than those of the others. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30.0% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65.0% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  11. Characterization and strain improvement of a hypercellulytic variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by genetic engineering for optimized cellulase production in biomass conversion improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yuanchao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL activity than those of QM9414 and RUT-C30. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  12. Hydrolysis of cellulose-containing materials by cellulase of the Trichoderma lignorum OM 534 fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, S L; Lobanok, A G

    1977-01-01

    Of the cellulose containing materials, hydrocellulose was most easily degraded while lignocellulose was hardest to break down with cellulase from T. lignorum grown on lactose or cellulose. Grinding and heat treatment (at 200/sup 0/) of lignocellulose enhanced its enzymic degradability. Hydrolysis was highest by cellulase from lactose-cultured Trichoderma. The hydrolysis products contained glucose, galactose, xylose, and mannose. Filtrates from T. lignorum grown on a lignocellulose were enzymically active after purification.

  13. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  14. Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Cargo Receptors for Improving Secretion of Carrier-Fused Heterologous Proteins in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy-Dung; Maruyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent hosts for industrial protein production due to their superior secretory capacity; however, the yield of heterologous eukaryotic proteins is generally lower than that of fungal or endogenous proteins. Although activating protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) improves the yield, the importance of intracellular transport machinery for heterologous protein secretion is poorly understood. Here, using Aspergillus oryzae as a model filamentous fungus, we studied the involvement of two putative lectin-like cargo receptors, A. oryzae Vip36 (AoVip36) and AoEmp47, in the secretion of heterologous proteins expressed in fusion with the endogenous enzyme α-amylase as the carrier. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that mDsRed-tagged AoVip36 localized in the Golgi compartment, whereas AoEmp47 showed localization in both the ER and the Golgi compartment. Deletion of AoVip36 and AoEmp47 improved heterologous protein secretion, but only AoVip36 deletion had a negative effect on the secretion of α-amylase. Analysis of ER-enriched cell fractions revealed that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 were involved in the retention of heterologous proteins in the ER. However, the overexpression of each cargo receptor had a different effect on heterologous protein secretion: AoVip36 enhanced the secretion, whereas AoEmp47 promoted the intracellular retention. Taken together, our data suggest that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 hinder the secretion of heterologous proteins by promoting their retention in the ER but that AoVip36 also promotes the secretion of heterologous proteins. Moreover, we found that genetic deletion of these putative ER-Golgi cargo receptors significantly improves heterologous protein production. The present study is the first to propose that ER-Golgi transport is a bottleneck for heterologous protein production in filamentous fungi. PMID:25362068

  15. The cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, Robbert A.

    2005-01-01

    Fungi are a very successful species and are distributed worldwide. However, the presence of fungi is not always desired. Filamentous fungi can grow on living or dead organic material and even inside the host. Current methods to prevent fungal growth are insufficient, causing fatality after fungal

  16. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination

  17. Review of Microalgae Harvesting via Co-Pelletization with Filamentous Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of microalgae to utilize CO2 and nutrients in the wastewater to generate biofuel products is a promising research objective. However, the process faces tremendous technical difficulties, especially the harvest of microalgae cells, an economically challenging step. Several researchers recently reported co-culturing of filamentous fungi with microalgae so that microalgae cells can be co-pelletized in order to facilitate the cell harvest. This algae pelletization via the filamentous fungi represents an innovative approach to address both the cost and sustainability issues in algae biofuel production and also has potential with direct commercial applications. This paper reviews the current research status in this area and some possible drawbacks of this method in order to provide some possible directions for the future research.

  18. Xylanase production by Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, D.J.; Mayers, P.R.; Saddler, J.N. (Fortintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biotechnology and Chemistry)

    1989-12-01

    Growth of Trichoderma harzianum E58 on hemicellulose-rich media, both in batch and fermentor cultures, resulted in independent profiles of the production of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes. Dramatic differences in the ratio of xylanase to endoglucanase activities were observed among cultures grown on cellulose-rich Solka Floc and xylan. These results indicated that the induction of xylanases and cellulases was likely to be under separate regulatory control. The specific activity and amount of xylanases produced were found to be dependent on the concentration of xylan in the growth media. Growth on oat spelts xylan or the hemicellulose-rich, watersoluble fraction from steam-treated aspenwood (SEA-WS) greatly enhanced the production of xylanases and xylosidase in the culture filtrates. Constitutive levels of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes were detected during growth of the fungus on glucose. (orig.).

  19. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  20. The influence of fungicides on the growth of Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, B; Aerts, R; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    Numbers of strains of Trichoderma asperellum are known as biological control agents of certain root pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The restricted use of fungicides is sometimes useful in combination with these biological control agents. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the growth of T. asperellum in the presence of fungicides as Previcur (active substance propamocarb) and Sumico (with the active substance carbendazim and diethofencarb). The influence of these fungicides was first examined in laboratory conditions. The fungus was brought on a potato dextrose agar where the fungicides Previcur, Sumico and carbendazim were added in a concentration of 0.1x, 1x and 10x the recommended dose. The growth of T. asperellum was totally inhibited by the three Sumico and carbendazim concentrations. T. asperellum knew a small but significant decrease of growth when the 10x dose of Previcur was added. Afterwards the influence of these fungicides on the fungus was tested in field conditions in the greenhouse. The fungus was applied to the roots of the tomato plant, which was grown on a rockwool medium. Previcur and Sumico were submitted to the plants using the normal procedure. The results of the tests showed that in field conditions there was no effect of the fungicide treatment on the presence of the fungus, although the laboratory tests showed the opposite for Sumico. To explain this contradiction two other experiments were conducted to follow the migration of the Sumico after treatment. A residue analysis showed that the highest concentration of Sumico was detected in the rockwool medium, and some residues were found in the drain water and the stems. Even with a 100x recommended dose of Sumico the fungus was still present the day after the treatment.

  1. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  2.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

    are important for risk assessment of MPCA and are the objectives of this project. Trichoderma spp. on tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses and on broccoli and celery leaf grown outdoors were quantified during a growth season. A MPCA with T. harzianum was applied in a greenhouse growing tomatoes...

  3. Cnidarian-derived filamentous fungi from Brazil: isolation, characterisation and RBBR decolourisation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, M; Passarini, M R Z; Bonugli, R C; Sette, L D

    2008-12-01

    Marine-derived fungi represent a valuable source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites of industrial interest. They also have drawn attention for their capacity to degrade several pollutants, including textile dyes, organochlorides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. The fungal tolerance to higher concentrations of salt might be considered an advantage for bioremediation processes in the marine environment. Therefore, filamentous fungi were isolated from cnidarians (scleractinian coral and zoanthids) collected from the north coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 144 filamentous fungi were morphologically and molecularly characterised. Among them there were several species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, in addition to Cladosporium spp., Eutypella sp., Fusarium spp., Khuskia sp., Mucor sp., Peacilomyces sp., Phoma sp. and Trichoderma spp. These fungi were tested regarding their decolourisation activity for Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), a textile dye used as an initial screening for PAH-degrading fungi. The most efficient fungi for RBBR decolourisation after 12 days were Penicillium citrinum CBMAI 853 (100%), Aspergillus sulphureus CBMAI 849 (95%), Cladosporium cladosporioides CBMAI 857 (93%) and Trichoderma sp. CBMAI 852 (89%). Besides its efficiency for dye decolourisation within liquid media, C. cladosporioides CBMAI 857 also decolourised dye on solid media, forming a decolourisation halo. Further research on the biotechnological potential, including studies on PAH metabolism, of these selected fungi are in progress.

  4. Omics Analyses of Trichoderma reesei CBS999.97 and QM6a Indicate the Relevance of Female Fertility to Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme and Transporter Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Doris; Pomraning, Kyle R; Collett, James R; Freitag, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chuang, Yu Chien; Schuster, Andre; Dattenböck, Christoph; Stappler, Eva; Sulyok, Michael; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Oberlerchner, Josua; Wang, Ting-Fang; Schmoll, Monika

    2017-11-15

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is found predominantly in the tropics but also in more temperate regions, such as Europe, and is widely known as a producer of large amounts of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the sexually competent isolate CBS999.97, which is phenotypically different from the female sterile strain QM6a but can cross sexually with QM6a. Transcriptome data for growth on cellulose showed that entire carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families are consistently differentially regulated between these strains. We evaluated backcrossed strains of both mating types, which acquired female fertility from CBS999.97 but maintained a mostly QM6a genetic background, and we could thereby distinguish between the effects of strain background and female fertility or mating type. We found clear regulatory differences associated with female fertility and female sterility, including regulation of CAZyme and transporter genes. Analysis of carbon source utilization, transcriptomes, and secondary metabolites in these strains revealed that only a few changes in gene regulation are consistently correlated with different mating types. Different strain backgrounds (QM6a versus CBS999.97) resulted in the most significant alterations in the transcriptomes and in carbon source utilization, with decreased growth of CBS999.97 on several amino acids (for example proline or alanine), which further correlated with the downregulation of genes involved in the respective pathways. In combination, our findings support a role of fertility-associated processes in physiology and gene regulation and are of high relevance for the use of sexual crossing in combining the characteristics of two compatible strains or quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. IMPORTANCE Trichoderma reesei is a filamentous fungus with a high potential for secretion of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the fully fertile field isolate CBS999.97 and

  5. isolated from Trichoderma harzianum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Chitinase gene from Trichoderma harzianum was cloned and hetrologously over expressed in ... used by Trichoderma to inhibit the growth of other fungi. ..... actinomycete isolates from niche habitats in Manipur for antibiotic.

  6. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  7. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  8. Cell wall modifications during conidial maturation of the human pathogenic fungus Pseudallescheria boydii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Rénier, Gilles; Saulnier, Patrick; Cuenot, Stéphane; Zykwinska, Agata; Dutilh, Bas E; Thornton, Christopher; Faure, Sébastien; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    Progress in extending the life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains jeopardized by the increasing incidence of fungal respiratory infections. Pseudallescheria boydii (P. boydii), an emerging pathogen of humans, is a filamentous fungus frequently isolated from the respiratory

  9. Cell Wall Modifications during Conidial Maturation of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pseudallescheria boydii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamrawi, S.; Renier, G.; Saulnier, P.; Cuenot, S.; Zykwinska, A.; Dutilh, B.E.; Thornton, C.; Faure, S.; Bouchara, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in extending the life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains jeopardized by the increasing incidence of fungal respiratory infections. Pseudallescheria boydii (P. boydii), an emerging pathogen of humans, is a filamentous fungus frequently isolated from the respiratory

  10. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  11. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De

    2017-03-01

    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  12. Trichoderma stromaticum and its overseas relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma stromaticum, T. rossicum and newly discovered species form a new lineage in Trichoderma. Phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity in Trichoderma stromaticum are examined in light of reported differences in ecological parameters and AFLP patterns. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis using 4 gen...

  13. Trichoderma-Induced Acidification Is an Early Trigger for Changes in Arabidopsis Root Growth and Determines Fungal Phytostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Esparza-Reynoso, Saraí; Garnica-Vergara, Amira; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are common rhizosphere inhabitants widely used as biological control agents and their role as plant growth promoting fungi has been established. Although soil pH influences several fungal and plant functional traits such as growth and nutrition, little is known about its influence in rhizospheric or mutualistic interactions. The role of pH in the Trichoderma–Arabidopsis interaction was studied by determining primary root growth and lateral root formation, root meristem status and cell viability, quiescent center (QC) integrity, and auxin inducible gene expression. Primary root growth phenotypes in wild type seedlings and STOP1 mutants allowed identification of a putative root pH sensing pathway likely operating in plant–fungus recognition. Acidification by Trichoderma induced auxin redistribution within Arabidopsis columella root cap cells, causing root tip bending and growth inhibition. Root growth stoppage correlated with decreased cell division and with the loss of QC integrity and cell viability, which were reversed by buffering the medium. In addition, stop1, an Arabidopsis mutant sensitive to low pH, was oversensitive to T. atroviride primary root growth repression, providing genetic evidence that a pH root sensing mechanism reprograms root architecture during the interaction. Our results indicate that root sensing of pH mediates the interaction of Trichoderma with plants. PMID:28567051

  14. The relationship between an endangered North American tree and an endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C; Yang, X; Schwartz, M; Strobel, G; Clardy, J

    1995-11-01

    The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) began a catastrophic decline in the late 1950s and is now the rarest tree in North America for which a full species designation has been established. The trees have common plant disease symptoms, but the reason for the decline has never been identified. T. taxifolia's imminent extinction gains special poignancy through its close relationship to the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), which produces the potent anticancer agent, taxol. An examination of the endophytic fungal communities of wild torreyas consistently found a filamentous fungus, Pestalotiopsis microspora, associated with diseased trees and also with most symptomless trees. P. microspora can be cultured in the laboratory, and when it is introduced into greenhouse-grown torreyas, it causes disease symptoms similar to those seen in the field. The fungus can then be reisolated from these deliberately infected trees. The phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone and pestaloside have been isolated and characterized from axenic fungal cultures, and both pestalopyrone and hydroxypestalopyrone can be isolated from artificially infected torreyas. In addition, pestaloside has antifungal activity against other fungal endophytes of T. taxifolia. The filamentous fungus, P. microspora, has an endophytic-pathologic relationship with T. taxifolia. The fungus resides in the inner bark of symptomless trees, and physiological or environmental factors could trigger its pathological activity. P. microspora produces the phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone, and pestaloside which give rise to the disease. Pestaloside, which also has antifungal activity, could reduce competition from other fungal endophytes within the host.

  15. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  16. Formation of Ramified Colony of Fungus Aspergillus Oryzae on Agar Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    Ramified colonies of fungus Aspergillus oryzae have been found to grow at a low growth rate on "liquid-like" agar media with low concentrations of agar and glucose. Box-counting fractal dimensions of the individual colony branches have been found to decrease with the time of incubation. Addition of glucose solution in the interior of branched colonies has brought about the production of the hyphal filaments almost only at the apical region of the colony branches. Active growth of the ramified colonies is localized in the peripheral zone, and this growth manner implies that the fungus is exhibiting a positive exploitation.

  17. Evaluation of Trichoderma Isolates for Biological Control of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Bean in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khodae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major pathogens causing root rot in the main bean-growing regions in Zanjan province. Under favorable conditions, yield losses in commercial bean fields due to Rhizoctonia root rot have exceeded 50 percent reduction in pod and seed numbers per plants. In 2012 most isolates of the pathogen from severely infected bean fields in Zanjan were assessed to AG-4. R. solani AG-4 can attack other commercial crops such as potato, alfalfa, barley, tomato, cabbage, etc. which are grown in rotation with bean in the area. Thus, the disease is unlikely to be controlled by crop rotation. Moreover, there is no registered resistant bean cultivar against the disease in Iran. Although soil treatment with fungicides is the only effective control method in the region, according to environmental and side effects of fungicides, alternative approaches such as biocontrol method using Trichoderma species is considered. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using five isolates of Trichoderma (T12-0, T12-N, T19, T6, T95 received from the Department of Plant Pathology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Dr. H. Rouhani and six isolates of Trichoderma (T36,T125, T131, T93, T89, T25 collected in 2011 from rhizosphere of bean plants in the commercial bean fields of Zanjan province (Table 1. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their potential to antagonize in vitro the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani using three different tests. In the first test, each isolate of Trichoderma was grown in a dual culture with R. solani AG-4 strain Rh7 on PDA and incubated at 25˚C. Radii of colony of R. solani were measured after 72 h. In the second test the ability of Trichoderma isolates to produce volatile inhibitors was measured. This experiment was conducted in two conditions involving the same time culturing of Trichoderma and Rhizoctonia and isolating 72 h early growing Trichoderma. For both tests the percentage of inhibition was

  18. Trichoderma as an endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma species have been studied for many years for their usefulness in plant disease management. For much of this time, studies focused on the attributes of Trichoderma as a soil saprophyte possessing abilities such as mycoparasitism and antibiosis that directly impact pathogens. The ability...

  19. Mycoparasitism studies of Trichoderma harzianum against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: evaluation of antagonism and expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troian, Rogério Fraga; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; Arruda, Walquiria; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma spp. are known for their biocontrol activity against several plant pathogens. A specific isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, 303/02, has the potential to inhibit the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an important agent involved in several crop diseases. In this study, the interaction between T. harzianum 303/02 and mycelia, sclerotia and apothecia of S. sclerotiorum was studied by scanning electron microscopy. RT-qPCR was used to examine the expression of 11 genes potentially involved in biocontrol. T. harzianum 303/02 parasitizes S. sclerotiorum by forming branches that coil around the hyphae. The fungus multiplied abundantly at the sclerotia and apothecia surface, forming a dense mycelium that penetrated the inner surface of these structures. The levels of gene expression varied according to the type of structure with which T. harzianum was interacting. The data also showed the presence of synergistic action between the cell-wall degrading enzymes.

  20. The gene for a lectin-like protein is transcriptionally activated during sexual development, but is not essential for fruiting body formation in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebula Patricia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies called perithecia that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. In previous microarray analyses, several genes have been identified that are downregulated in sterile mutants compared to the wild type. Among these genes was tap1 (transcript associated with perithecial development, a gene encoding a putative lectin homolog. Results Analysis of tap1 transcript levels in the wild type under conditions allowing only vegetative growth compared to conditions that lead to fruiting body development showed that tap1 is not only downregulated in developmental mutants but is also upregulated in the wild type during fruiting body development. We have cloned and sequenced a 3.2 kb fragment of genomic DNA containing the tap1 open reading frame and adjoining sequences. The genomic region comprising tap1 is syntenic to its homologous region in the closely related filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. To determine whether tap1 is involved in fruiting body development in S. macrospora, a knockout construct was generated in which the tap1 open reading frame was replaced by the hygromycin B resistance gene hph under the control of fungal regulatory regions. Transformation of the S. macrospora wild type with this construct resulted in a tap1 deletion strain where tap1 had been replaced by the hph cassette. The knockout strain displayed no phenotypic differences under conditions of vegetative growth and sexual development when compared to the wild type. Double mutants carrying the Δtap1 allele in several developmental mutant backgrounds were phenotypically similar to the corresponding developmental mutant strains. Conclusion The tap1 transcript is strongly upregulated during sexual development in S. macrospora; however, analysis of a tap1 knockout strain shows that tap1 is not essential for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora.

  1. The gene for a lectin-like protein is transcriptionally activated during sexual development, but is not essential for fruiting body formation in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Cebula, Patricia

    2005-11-03

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies called perithecia that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. In previous microarray analyses, several genes have been identified that are downregulated in sterile mutants compared to the wild type. Among these genes was tap1 (transcript associated with perithecial development), a gene encoding a putative lectin homolog. Analysis of tap1 transcript levels in the wild type under conditions allowing only vegetative growth compared to conditions that lead to fruiting body development showed that tap1 is not only downregulated in developmental mutants but is also upregulated in the wild type during fruiting body development. We have cloned and sequenced a 3.2 kb fragment of genomic DNA containing the tap1 open reading frame and adjoining sequences. The genomic region comprising tap1 is syntenic to its homologous region in the closely related filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. To determine whether tap1 is involved in fruiting body development in S. macrospora, a knockout construct was generated in which the tap1 open reading frame was replaced by the hygromycin B resistance gene hph under the control of fungal regulatory regions. Transformation of the S. macrospora wild type with this construct resulted in a tap1 deletion strain where tap1 had been replaced by the hph cassette. The knockout strain displayed no phenotypic differences under conditions of vegetative growth and sexual development when compared to the wild type. Double mutants carrying the Deltatap1 allele in several developmental mutant backgrounds were phenotypically similar to the corresponding developmental mutant strains. The tap1 transcript is strongly upregulated during sexual development in S. macrospora; however, analysis of a tap1 knockout strain shows that tap1 is not essential for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora.

  2. Investigations of the efficiency of enzyme production technologies using modelling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten Skov

    Growing markets and new innovative applications of industrial enzymes leads to increased interest in efficient production of these products. Most industrial enzymes are currently produced in traditional stirred tank reactors in submerged fed batch culture. The limiting parameter in such processes...... fermentations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in 550litre pilot scale stirred tank reactors for a range of process conditions. Based on the experimental data a process model has been created, which satisfactory simulates the effect of the changing process conditions: Aeration rate, agitation speed...

  3. Identificación de especies de cepas nativas de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus sp. y evaluación de su potencial antagonista in vitro frente al hongo fitopatógeno nativo Moniliophthora roreri en el departamento de Norte de Santander

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Yanet-Suárez; Claudia Patricia Cabrales

    2008-01-01

    The Molinasis is caused fungus Moniliophthora roreri. Which is the most seriuos disease which attacks cocoa, and appears in almost anywhere across the country, causing significant losses to farmers. The recognition of the six kind of fungus Trichoderma sp. Obtained from: El Zulia, El Tarra, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and Agua Clara has been realized, along with the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. Isolationed of Bucarasica, which were evaluated, in order to determinate their antagonic potential in front...

  4. Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Basińska-Barczak, Aneta; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Gromadzka, Karolina; Popiel, Delfina; Stępień, Łukasz

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.

  5. A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eZhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10 of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1. A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two mycelially incompatible Rosellinia necatrix strains. A biological comparison of the virus-free and -recipient isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnFV1 infects latently and thus has no potential as a virocontrol agent. The virus has an undivided positive-sense RNA genome of 6286 nucleotides excluding a poly (A tail. The genome possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs: a large ORF1 that encodes polypeptides with RNA replication functions and a smaller ORF2 that encodes polypeptides of unknown function. A lack of coat protein genes was suggested by the failure of virus particles from infected mycelia. No evidence was obtained by Northern analysis or classical 5'-RACE for the presence of subgenomic RNA for the downstream ORF. Sequence similarities were found in amino-acid sequence between RnFV1 putative proteins and counterparts of a previously reported mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1. Interestingly, several related sequences were detected by BLAST searches of independent transcriptome assembly databases one of which probably represents an entire virus genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that RnFV1, FgV1, and these similar sequences are grouped in a cluster distinct from distantly related hypoviruses. It is proposed that a new taxonomic family termed Fusariviridae be created to include RnFV1and FgV1.

  6. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  7. Uji Antagonisme Jamur Trichoderma koningii dan Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Penyakit Bidang Sadap Tanaman Karet Mouldy rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Marbun, Harif Nepen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research wasto test antagonism ability of Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumto control Ceratocystis fimbriatain laboratory. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Research Agency of Rubber, Sungei Putih from April to December 2015. It was done by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) non factorial with three treatments and eight replications. The results showed Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumpotential as biological agents to control Cerato...

  8. [Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment.

  9. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  10. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, Mónica G; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in HA biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (TD), a volatile organic compound (VOC), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. Expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 resulted in production of TD in parallel with a reduction of ergosterol biosynthesis and an unexpected increase in the level of squalene. Transformants expressing tri5 displayed low chitinase activity and induced expression of Botrytis cinerea BOT genes, although their total antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi was not reduced. VOCs released by the tri5-transformant induced expression of tomato defence genes related to salicylic acid (SA), and TD itself strongly induced the expression of SA-responsive genes and reduced the development of lateral roots. Together, these results suggest that TD acts as a signalling VOC in the interactions of Trichoderma with plants and other microorganisms by modulating the perception of this fungus to a given environment. Moreover, the TD ability to induce systemic defences indicates that complex trichothecene structures may not be necessary for inducing such responses. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defences on root colonization by Trichoderma harzianum T-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Appels, Freek V W; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-08-03

    We recently found that the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-78 primes tomato plants for salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. By using SA- and JA-impaired mutant lines and exogenous hormonal application, here we investigated whether the SA- and JA-pathways also have a role in T-78 root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endophytic colonization by T-78 was faster in the SA-impaired mutant sid2 than in the wild type. Moreover, elicitation of SA-dependent defenses by SA application reduced T-78 colonization, indicating that the SA-pathway affects T-78 endophytism. In contrast, elicitation of the JA-pathway, which antagonized SA-dependent defenses, resulted in enhanced endophytic colonization by T-78. These findings are in line with our previous observation that SA-dependent defenses are repressed by T-78, which likely aids colonization by the endophytic fungus.

  12. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  13. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some isolates are able to improve plant growth. In this study, the effects of three Trichoderma isolates including Trichoderma harzianum isolate T969, T. harzianum isolate T447 and Trichoderma sp. isolate T in tomato ...

  14. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  15. Analysis of genomic regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 related to biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes.

  16. Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Elida Yazmín; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Patrón-Soberano, Olga Araceli; Islas-Osuna, María Auxiliadora; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Riego-Ruiz, Lina; Rosales-Saavedra, María Teresa; Casas-Flores, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1), a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes histone acetylation, slightly affected T. atroviride and R. solani growth, but not the growth of the mycoparasite over R. solani. Application of TSA to the liquid medium induced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Expression analysis of the mycoparasitism-related genes ech-42 and prb-1, which encode an endochitinase and a proteinase, as well as the secondary metabolism-related genes pbs-1 and tps-1, which encode a peptaibol synthetase and a terpene synthase, respectively, showed that they were regulated by TSA. A T. atroviride strain harboring a deletion of tgf-1 gene showed slow growth, thinner and less branched hyphae than the wild-type strain, whereas its ability to coil around the R. solani hyphae was not affected. Δtgf-1 presented a diminished capacity to grow over R. solani, but the ability of its mycelium -free culture filtrates (MFCF) to inhibit the phytopathogen growth was enhanced. Intriguingly, addition of TSA to the culture medium reverted the enhanced inhibition growth of Δtgf-1 MFCF on R. solani at levels compared to the wild-type MFCF grown in medium amended with TSA. The presence of R. solani mycelium in the culture medium induced similar proteinase activity in a Δtgf-1 compared to the wild-type, whereas the chitinolytic activity was higher in a Δtgf-1 mutant in the absence of R. solani, compared to the parental strain. Expression of mycoparasitism

  17. Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Yazmín Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1, a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes histone acetylation, slightly affected T. atroviride and R. solani growth, but not the growth of the mycoparasite over R. solani. Application of TSA to the liquid medium induced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Expression analysis of the mycoparasitism-related genes ech-42 and prb-1, which encode an endochitinase and a proteinase, as well as the secondary metabolism-related genes pbs-1 and tps-1, which encode a peptaibol synthetase and a terpene synthase, respectively, showed that they were regulated by TSA. A T. atroviride strain harboring a deletion of tgf-1 gene showed slow growth, thinner and less branched hyphae than the wild-type strain, whereas its ability to coil around the R. solani hyphae was not affected. Δtgf-1 presented a diminished capacity to grow over R. solani, but the ability of its mycelium -free culture filtrates (MFCF to inhibit the phytopathogen growth was enhanced. Intriguingly, addition of TSA to the culture medium reverted the enhanced inhibition growth of Δtgf-1 MFCF on R. solani at levels compared to the wild-type MFCF grown in medium amended with TSA. The presence of R. solani mycelium in the culture medium induced similar proteinase activity in a Δtgf-1 compared to the wild-type, whereas the chitinolytic activity was higher in a Δtgf-1 mutant in the absence of R. solani, compared to the parental strain. Expression

  18. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  19. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  20. Molecular Identification, Enzyme Assay, and Metabolic Profiling of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo-Jung; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Jeon, Junhyun; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-06-28

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize selected Trichoderma isolates by metabolic profiling and enzyme assay for evaluation of their potential as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Trichoderma isolates were obtained from the Rural Development Administration Genebank Information Center (Wanju, Republic of Korea). Eleven Trichoderma isolates were re-identified using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. ITS sequence results showed new identification of Trichoderma isolates. In addition, metabolic profiling of the ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid cultures of five Trichoderma isolates that showed the best anti- Phytophthora activities was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiling revealed that Trichoderma isolates shared common metabolites with well-known antifungal activities. Enzyme assays indicated strong cell walldegrading enzyme activities of Trichoderma isolates. Overall, our results indicated that the selected Trichoderma isolates have great potential for use as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

  1. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons.

  2. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  3. Butanediol production from cellulose and hemicellulose by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in sequential coculture with Trichoderma harzianum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, E.K.C.; Deschatelets, L.; Louis-Seize, G.; Saddler, J.N.

    1985-10-01

    The bioconverison of cellulose and hemicellulose substrates to 2,3-butanediol by a sequential coculture approach was investigated with the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum E58 and the fermentative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Vogel medium optimal for the production of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of the fungus was found to be inhibitory to butanediol fermentation. This inhibition appeared to be due to a synergistic effect of various ingredients, particularly the salts, present in the fungal medium. The removal or replacement of such ingredients from Vogel medium led to the relief of fermentation inhibition, but the treatments also resulted in a significant decrease in fungal enzyme production. Resting cells of K. pneumoniae could be used for butanediol production in the fungal medium, indicating that the inhibitory effect on solvent production under such conditions was due to the indirect result of growing inhibition of the bacterial cells. The resting-cell approach could be combined with a fed-batch system for the direct conversion of 8 to 10% (wt/vol) of Solka-Floc or aspenwood xylan to butanediol at over 30% of the theoretical conversion efficiencies.

  4. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...... is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress...

  5. Is the High Cu Tolerance of Trichoderma atroviride Isolated from the Cu-Polluted Sediment Due to Adaptation? An In Vitro Toxicological Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C.K.; Yazdani, M.; Abdullah, F.; Tan, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance of Cu by Trichoderma atroviride, a tolerant fungus isolated from the drainage surface sediment of the Serdang Industrial Area was investigated under in vitro conditions. Only this fungus species can tolerate up to 600 mg/ L of Cu on solid medium Potato Dextrose Agar based on the isolation of the most tolerant fungus from the polluted sediment. Toxicity test performed on T. atroviride, showed a maximum tolerance at 300 mg/L of Cu concentration when grown in liquid medium Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB). The EC 50 value of the isolate was 287.73 mg/ L of Cu concentration in PDB. The Cu concentration in the drainage surface sediment, where the T. atroviride was isolated from, was 347.64 μg/ g while the geochemical distributions of the non-resistant and resistant fractions of Cu were 99.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. The sediment data indicated that the drainage had greatly received anthropogenic Cu from the nearby industries which are involved in the manufacturing of plastics and electronic products. The present findings indicate that the high Cu tolerance showed by T. atroviride could be due to the well adaptation of the fungus to the Cu polluted sediment. Therefore, T. atroviride could be a potential bioremediator of Cu pollution in the freshwater ecosystem. (author)

  6. Correlation of structure, function and protein dynamics in GH7 cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma atroviride, T. reesei and T. harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anna S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Jana, Suvamay; Badino, Silke F; Kari, Jeppe; Amore, Antonella; Karlsson, Magnus; Hansson, Henrik; Sandgren, Mats; Himmel, Michael E; Westh, Peter; Payne, Christina M; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) Tre Cel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride ( Tat Cel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum ( Tha Cel7A) show high sequence identity with Tre Cel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate. The Tat Cel7A, Tha Cel7A, and Tre Cel7A enzymes were characterized for comparison of function. The catalytic domain of Tat Cel7A was crystallized, and two structures were determined: without ligand and with thio-cellotriose in the active site. Initial hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose was faster with Tat Cel7A than either Tha Cel7A or Tre Cel7A. In synergistic saccharification of pretreated corn stover, both Tat Cel7A and Tha Cel7A were more efficient than Tre Cel7A, although Tat Cel7A was more sensitive to thermal inactivation. Structural analyses and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to elucidate important structure/function correlations. Moreover, reverse conservation analysis (RCA) of sequence diversity revealed divergent regions of interest located outside the cellulose-binding tunnel of Trichoderma spp. GH7 CBHs. We hypothesize that the combination of loop motifs is the main determinant for the observed differences in Cel7A activity on cellulosic substrates. Fine-tuning of the loop flexibility appears to be an important evolutionary target in Trichoderma spp., a conclusion supported by the RCA data. Our results indicate that, for industrial use, it would be beneficial to combine loop motifs from Tat Cel7A with the thermostability features of Tre Cel7A. Furthermore

  7. Quantification and characterisation of Trichoderma spp. from different ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariah, M; Choo, C W; Zakaria, H; Norihan, M S

    2005-01-01

    Basal stem rot of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense is of major economic importance. Observations of the low incidence of disease due to Ganoderma species in natural stands, suggest that the disease is kept under control by some biological means. Trichoderma spp. are saprophytic fungi with high antagonistic activities against soil-borne pathogens. However, their abundance and distribution are soil and crop specific. Trichoderma species have been found to be concentrated in the A1 (0-30 cm) and Be soil horizons (30-60 cm), although the abundance of Trichoderma was not significantly different between the oil palm and non-oil palm ecosystems. Characterisation of Trichoderma isolates based on cultural, morphological and DNA polymorphism showed that T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. longibrachiatum made up 72, 14, 10 and 4% of the total Trichoderma isolates isolated. As Trichoderma species are present in the oil palm ecosystem, but at lower numbers and in locations different from those desired, soil augmentation with antagonistic Trichoderma spp. can be developed as a strategy towards integrated management of basal stem rot of oil palm.

  8. Cellulase biosynthesis by trichoderma viride on soluble substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S B; Kitagawa, Y; Suga, K; Ichikawa, K

    1978-01-01

    Batch and continuous cultures of Trichoderma viride QM 6a were carried out using either glucose or cellobiose as the sole carbon source. From the data obtained in the continuous culture with glucose as substrate, growth parameters of this fungus ..mu../sub m/, K/sub s/, m and Y were identified. In the case of glucose as substrate, there were extremely low levels of cellobiase and no detectable cellulase activity in both batch and continuous cultures. The inducible cellobiase was an intracellular enzyme, produced in association with cell growth in batch culture on cellobiose as substrate. A kinetic model for cellobiose degradation and cell growth is proposed. A significant increase in the extracellular cellulase productivity was obtained in the range of low dilution rates from 0.025 h/sup -1/ to 0.2 h/sup -1/ in the continuous culture on cellobiose. From the results of these experiments, it was concluded that in continuous culture on cellobiose as substrate the cellulase activity was determined by the balance between induction and catabolite repression.

  9. Disruption of the Eng18B ENGase gene in the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride affects growth, conidiation and antagonistic ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh K Dubey

    Full Text Available The recently identified phylogenetic subgroup B5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase-type activity. Intracellular ENGase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. The present work is a functional study of the T. atroviride B5-group gene Eng18B, with emphasis on its role in fungal growth and antagonism. A homology model of T. atroviride Eng18B structure predicts a typical glycoside hydrolase family 18 (αβ(8 barrel architecture. Gene expression analysis shows that Eng18B is induced in dual cultures with the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, although a basal expression is observed in all growth conditions tested. Eng18B disruption strains had significantly reduced growth rates but higher conidiation rates compared to the wild-type strain. However, growth rates on abiotic stress media were significantly higher in Eng18B disruption strains compared to the wild-type strain. No difference in spore germination, germ-tube morphology or in hyphal branching was detected. Disruption strains produced less biomass in liquid cultures than the wild-type strain when grown with chitin as the sole carbon source. In addition, we determined that Eng18B is required for the antagonistic ability of T. atroviride against the grey mould fungus B. cinerea in dual cultures and that this reduction in antagonistic ability is partly connected to a secreted factor. The phenotypes were recovered by re-introduction of an intact Eng18B gene fragment in mutant strains. A putative role of Eng18B ENGase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway of endogenous

  10. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  12. Proteomics analysis of "Rovabiot Excel", a secreted protein cocktail from the filamentous fungus Penicillium funiculosum grown under industrial process fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guais, Olivier; Borderies, Gisèle; Pichereaux, Carole; Maestracci, Marc; Neugnot, Virginie; Rossignol, Michel; François, Jean Marie

    2008-12-01

    MS/MS techniques are well customized now for proteomic analysis, even for non-sequenced organisms, since peptide sequences obtained by these methods can be matched with those found in databases from closely related sequenced organisms. We used this approach to characterize the protein content of the "Rovabio Excel", an enzymatic cocktail produced by Penicillium funiculosum that is used as feed additive in animal nutrition. Protein separation by bi-dimensional electrophoresis yielded more than 100 spots, from which 37 proteins were unambiguously assigned from peptide sequences. By one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis, 34 proteins were identified among which 8 were not found in the 2-DE analysis. A third method, termed 'peptidic shotgun', which consists in a direct treatment of the cocktail by trypsin followed by separation of the peptides on two-dimensional liquid chromatography, resulted in the identification of two additional proteins not found by the two other methods. Altogether, more than 50 proteins, among which several glycosylhydrolytic, hemicellulolytic and proteolytic enzymes, were identified by combining three separation methods in this enzymatic cocktail. This work confirmed the power of proteome analysis to explore the genome expression of a non-sequenced fungus by taking advantage of sequences from phylogenetically related filamentous fungi and pave the way for further functional analysis of P. funiculosum.

  13. Bioaccumulation and biosorption of bismuth Bi (III) by filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus; Bioakumulacia a biosorpcia bizmutu Bi(III) mikroskopickou vlaknitou hubou Aspergillus clavatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriova, K.; Matus, P. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Ustav laboratorneho vyskumu geomaterialov, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Cernansky, S.; Bujdos, M. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra Katedra environmentalnej ekologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    In this work we focused on bismuth (III) biosorption and bioaccumulation. Prior the bioaccumulation experiments the 7-day-old conidia were collected from mycelia surface of filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus and used as inocula for 50 ml of nutrient media with different bismuth (III) concentrations. After 15-day cultivation under laboratory conditions (dark, 25 grad C) the bismuth concentration in grown fungal biomass was measured using ICP OES. Maximum achieved accumulation capacity of dry biomass was 112 {mu}mol.g{sup -1}. Batch biosorption experiments were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks with pelletized wet fungal biomass/solution ratio 1.8% and with various bismuth (III) concentrations. The equilibrium time was studied within the time interval of 0-240 min. The reaction kinetics were well described by both pseudo-first and pseudo-second order rate models, and equilibrium was reached after 50 min. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to represent equilibrium data, and the calculated maximum biosorption capacity of fungal biomass for bismuth(III) was 0.40 mmol.g{sup -1}. (authors)

  14. Carbon and nitrogen depletion-induced nucleophagy and selective autophagic sequestration of a whole nucleus in multinucleate cells of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuma, Takashi; Mitani, Takahiro; Kohara, Takahiro; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2017-05-12

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation process in eukaryotes, in which cytoplasmic components and organelles are digested in vacuoles/lysosomes. Recently, autophagic degradation of nuclear materials, termed "nucleophagy", has been reported. In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, a whole nucleus is degraded by nucleophagy after prolonged culture. While developing an H2B-EGFP processing assay for the evaluation of nucleophagy in A. oryzae, we found that nucleophagy is efficiently induced by carbon or nitrogen depletion. Microscopic observations in a carbon depletion condition clearly demonstrated that autophagosomes selectively sequester a particular nucleus, despite the presence of multiple nuclei in the same cell. Furthermore, AoNsp1, the A. oryzae homolog of the yeast nucleoporin Nsp1p, mainly localized at the nuclear periphery, but its localization was restricted to the opposite side of the autophagosome being formed around a nucleus. In contrast, the perinuclear ER visualized with the calnexin AoClxA was not morphologically affected by nucleophagy. The findings of nucleophagy-inducing conditions enabled us to characterize the morphological process of autophagic degradation of a whole nucleus in multinucleate cells.

  15. The Apoplastic Secretome of Trichoderma virens During Interaction With Maize Roots Shows an Inhibition of Plant Defence and Scavenging Oxidative Stress Secreted Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Nogueira-Lopez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Nature, almost every plant is colonized by fungi. Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol fungus which has the capacity to behave as an opportunistic plant endophyte. Even though many plants are colonized by this symbiont, the exact mechanisms by which Trichoderma masks its entrance into its plant host remain unknown, but likely involve the secretion of different families of proteins into the apoplast that may play crucial roles in the suppression of plant immune responses. In this study, we investigated T. virens colonization of maize roots under hydroponic conditions, evidencing inter- and intracellular colonization by the fungus and modifications in root morphology and coloration. Moreover, we show that upon host penetration, T. virens secretes into the apoplast an arsenal of proteins to facilitate inter- and intracellular colonization of maize root tissues. Using a gel-free shotgun proteomics approach, 95 and 43 secretory proteins were identified from maize and T. virens, respectively. A reduction in the maize secretome (36% was induced by T. virens, including two major groups, glycosyl hydrolases and peroxidases. Furthermore, T. virens secreted proteins were mainly involved in cell wall hydrolysis, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and secondary metabolism, as well as putative effector-like proteins. Levels of peroxidase activity were reduced in the inoculated roots, suggesting a strategy used by T. virens to manipulate host immune responses. The results provide an insight into the crosstalk in the apoplast which is essential to maintain the T. virens-plant interaction.

  16. Cloning and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase homologue from the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.W.; Wagemakers, L.; Schouten, A.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    A gene was cloned from Botrytis cinerea that encodes a protein homologous to glutathione S-transferase (GST). The gene, denominated Bcgst1, is present in a single copy and represents the first example of such a gene from a filamentous fungus. The biochemical function of GSTs is to conjugate toxic

  17. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  18. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  19. Maternal parentage influences spore production but not spore pigmentation in the anisogamous and hermaphroditic fungus Neurospora crassa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Kolea; Levitis, Daniel; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . In this fungus, pigmented spores are viable and unpigmented spores are inviable. These results show that while both parents influence all these traits, maternal influence is strongest on both fertility and mortality traits until the spores are physiologically independent of the maternal cytoplasm.......In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects on offspring production and quality are greater than paternal effects in both offspring number (fertility) and offspring viability (mortality). We used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. This fungus is anisogamous......, and various ascospore characteristics. Mixed effects models of these data show that the female parent accounts for the majority of variation in perithecial production, number of spores produced, and spore germination. Surprisingly, both sexes equally influence the percentage of spores that are pigmented...

  20. In vitro Antagonistic Mechanisms of Trichoderma spp. and Talaromyces flavus to Control Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici the Causal Agent of Wheat Take-all Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddighe Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheat take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici has recently been detected in different regions of Iran. With respect to biocontrol effect of Trichoderma spp. on many pathogenic fungi, seven isolates of Trichoderma and four isolates of Talaromyces were in vitro evaluated in terms of their biological control against the disease causal agent. In dual culture test the five isolates showed efficient competition for colonization against pathogenic fungus and the highest percentages of inhibition belonging to Talaromyces flavus 60 and Talaromyces flavus 136 were 59.52 and 57.61%, respectively. Microscopic investigations showed that in regions where antagonistic isolates and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici coincide, hyphal contact, penetration and fragmentation of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici were observed. Investigating the effect of volatile and non-volatile compounds at 10 ml concentration showed that the highest inhibition percentage on mycelium growth of the pathogen caused by T. harzianum (44.76% and T. longibrachiatum (52.38% respectively.

  1. Properties of uracil transport by the submerged mycelium of Trichoderma viride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, B.; Betina, V.; Simkovic, M.; Varecka, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the transport of uracil by the submerged mycelium of important mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma viride. transport of radioactively labelled uracil into the submerged mycelium of Trichoderma viride was measured by means of membrane filtration technique. The high-affinity transport was temperature depend with the optimum temperature at 35 grad C. From the Arrhenius plot of the temperature dependence its activation energy could be calculated (54 kJ/mol uracil). The measurement of pH dependence showed the optimum pH at pH 6.5. High-affinity transport was inhibited with 5-fluorouracil. 5-Br-uracil, adenine, xanthine, cytosine, 5-Br-cytosine, adenosine, uridine but not with CMP, thymidine. 14 C-5-fluorouracil was taken up by T. viride mycelium in a similar way but the influx was less by about 20%. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis, rifamycin and rifampicin 9(up to 10 μg/ml) did not inhibit the uracil uptake even after 2 h preincubation wit mycelium. The results suggest that the uptake of uracil is mediated by a carrier. The uptake at sub-millimolar uracil concentrations is almost exclusively driven by the electrochemical potential of protons. The inhibitory effects of other substances presumably taken up by the mycelium may be explained by the competition for the driving force rather than for the binding site of the transporter molecule. In presence of millimolar concentrations of uracil, its osmotic gradient could itself represent the driving force for the transport. (authors)

  2. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; de Azevedo, Rafael Ricci; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F; Ulhoa, Cirano José; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Cardoza, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2015-12-09

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants.

  3. A CRISPR-Cas9 System for Genetic Engineering of Filamentous Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Kogle, Martin Engelhard

    2015-01-01

    there is a demand for developing versatile methods that can be used to genetically manipulate non-model filamentous fungi. To facilitate this, we have developed a CRISPR-Cas9 based system adapted for use in filamentous fungi. The system is simple and versatile, as RNA guided mutagenesis can be achieved...... by transforming a target fungus with a single plasmid. The system currently contains four CRISPR- Cas9 vectors, which are equipped with commonly used fungal markers allowing for selection in a broad range of fungi. Moreover, we have developed a script that allows identification of protospacers that target gene...... used our CRISPR Cas9 system to generate a strain that contains an AACU_pyrG marker and demonstrated that the resulting strain can be used for iterative gene targeting....

  4. Three-dimensional image analysis of plugging at the septal pore by Woronin body during hypotonic shock inducing hyphal tip bursting in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Ishi, Kazutomo; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    We observed that the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, grown on agar media burst out cytoplasmic constituents from the hyphal tip soon after flooding with water. Woronin body is a specialized organelle known to plug the septal pore adjacent to the lysed compartment to prevent extensive loss of cytoplasm. A. oryzae Aohex1 gene homologous to Neurospora crassa HEX1 gene encoding a major protein in Woronin body was expressed as a fusion with DsRed2, resulting in visualization of Woronin body. Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of images visualized the septal pore as a dark region surrounded by green fluorescence of EGFP-fused secretory protein, RNase T1, on the septum. Dual fluorescent labeling revealed the plugging of the septal pores adjacent to the lysed apical compartments by Woronin bodies during hypotonic shock. Disruption of Aohex1 gene caused disappearance of Woronin bodies and the defect to prevent extensive loss of cytoplasm during hypotonic shock

  5. 77 FR 35331 - Trichoderma reesei; Proposed Significant New Use Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Trichoderma reesei; Proposed Significant New Use Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Control Act (TSCA) for the genetically modified microorganism identified generically as Trichoderma reesei...: Trichoderma reesei (MCAN J-10-2) (generic). Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: Not available...

  6. A New Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma Kongii in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Isolation and Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlYahya, F.A; ElHussieni, S.M; Ibrahim, A.A; Ibrahim, Y.E

    2007-01-01

    A total of 164 soil and root samples of different plant groups were collected from Abu-Arish governorate , Jazan province South West Saudi Arabia during the period of 2004-2005. Each sample contained feeder roots and approximately 250 g soil, taken from a depth of 20 cm of the soil surface. Samples were analyzed by two different media. Culture fungi on Malt Extract Agar identified by Biolog Systems and culture fungi on Potato Dextrose Agar medium containing chloramphenicol were identified by microscopic characterization. Results showed that, 11 different types of fungi isolated from tested samples, Fusarium spp (40%), Rhizoctonia solani,(12%) Trichoderma spp (12%), Macrophomina phaseoina. (7 %), Aspergillus spp (18 %) were the predominant fungal species. Helminthosporium spp (3%), Alternaria alternate (2%), Pythium spp (2%), Curviularia spp (2%), Cladsporium spp. (1%) and Mucor spp. (1%) were less frequent. (author)

  7. [Furfural degradation by filamentous fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Xiujuan; Bao, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Some degradation products from lignocellulose pretreatment strongly inhibit the activities of cellulolytic enzymes and ethanol fermentation strains, thus the efficient removal of the inhibitor substances ("detoxification") is the inevitable step for the biotransformation processes. In this study, the biological detoxification of furfural by a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was studied and the metabolic pathways of furfural degradation was analyzed. The metabolic pathway of furfural degradation in A. resinae ZN1 was described as follows: first, furfural was quickly converted into the low toxic furfuryl alcohol; then the furfuryl alcohol was gradually converted into furfural again but under the low concentration under aerobic condition, which was not lethal to the growth of the fungi; furfural continued to be oxidized to furoic acid by A. resinae ZN1. It is likely that furoic acid was further degraded in the TCA cycle to complete the biological degradation of furfural. The present study provided the important experimental basis for speeding up the biodetoxification of furfural by A. resinae ZN1 and the rate-limiting step in the lignocellulose biotransformation to ethanol.

  8. Transcriptome profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 induced by sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; Vicentini, Renato; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Laborda, Prianda; Crucello, Aline; Freitas, Sindélia; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; Polikarpov, Igor; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process.

  9. A nutrient-regulated, dual localization phospholipase A2 in the symbiotic fungus Tuber borchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Bolchi, Angelo; Balestrini, Raffaella; Gambaretto, Claudio; Percudani, Riccardo; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2001-01-01

    Important morphogenetic transitions in fungi are triggered by starvation-induced changes in the expression of structural surface proteins. Here, we report that nutrient deprivation causes a strong and reversible up-regulation of TbSP1, a surface-associated, Ca2+-dependent phospholipase from the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. TbSP1 is the first phospholipase A2 to be described in fungi and identifies a novel class of phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzymes. The TbSP1 phospholipase, which is synthesized initially as a pre-protein, is processed efficiently and secreted during the mycelial phase. The mature protein, however, also localizes to the inner cell wall layer, close to the plasma membrane, in both free-living and symbiosis-engaged hyphae. It thus appears that a dual localization phospholipase A2 is involved in the adaptation of a symbiotic fungus to conditions of persistent nutritional limitation. Moreover, the fact that TbSP1-related sequences are present in Streptomyces and Neurospora, and not in wholly sequenced non-filamentous microorganisms, points to a general role for TbSP1 phospholipases A2 in the organization of multicellular filamentous structures in bacteria and fungi. PMID:11566873

  10. Involvement of the Transcriptional Coactivator ThMBF1 in the Biocontrol Activity of Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Pardal, Alonso J; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 ( mbf1 ) homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO) and Botrytis cinerea (BC) in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control ( cpc1 ). Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the necrotic leaf

  11. Involvement of the Transcriptional Coactivator ThMBF1 in the Biocontrol Activity of Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Rubio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 (mbf1 homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO and Botrytis cinerea (BC in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control (cpc1. Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the

  12. In vitro antagonism of Thielaviopsis paradoxa by Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Vladimir; Rebolledo, Oscar; Picaso, Rosa M; Cárdenas, Elizabeth; Córdova, Jesús; González, Orfil; Samuels, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-nine Trichoderma strains were isolated from soil taken from 28 commercial plantations of Agave tequilana cv. 'Azul' in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Nine of these isolates produced nonvolatile metabolites that completely inhibited the growth of Thielaviopsis paradoxa on potato dextrose agar plates. These isolates were identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum on the basis of their morphology and DNA sequence analysis of two genes (ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha). Mycoparasitism of Th. paradoxa by T. longibrachiatum strains in dual cultures was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The Trichoderma hyphae grew alongside the Th. paradoxa hyphae, but penetration of Thielaviopsis hyphae by Trichoderma was no apparent. Aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa were parasitized by Trichoderma. Both hyphae and aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa lost turgor pressure, wrinkled, collapsed and finally disintegrated. In liquid cultures, all nine Trichoderma isolates produced proteases, beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases that would be responsible for the degradation of Thielaviopsis hyphae. These results demonstrate that the modes of action of T. longibrachiatum involved against Th. paradoxa in vitro experiments are mycoparasitism and the production of nonvolatile toxic metabolites.

  13. Purification, characterisation and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of LipG7 an enantioselective, cold-adapted lipase from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 with unusual thermostability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Tomasz; Daroch, Maurycy; Wilkinson, Mark Charles; Białkowska, Aneta; Bates, Andrew Derek; Turkiewicz, Marianna; Iwanejko, Lesley Ann

    2013-06-10

    A lipase, LipG7, has been purified from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 which was found to be cold-adapted and able to retain/regain its activity after heat denaturation. The LipG7 exhibits 100% residual activity following 1h incubation at 100°C whilst simultaneously showing kinetic adaptations to cold temperatures. LipG7 was also found to have industrial potential as an enantioselective biocatalyst as it is able to effectively catalyse the enantioselective transesterification of a secondary alcohol. The LipG7 coding sequence has been identified and cloned using 454 pyrosequencing of the transcriptome and inverse PCR. The LipG7 protein has been heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5465 and shown to exhibit the same characteristics as the native protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-α-oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: 3 H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, 3 H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and 3 H-leucine for protein synthesis

  15. Simultaneous silencing of multiple genes in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis, by expression of RNA with chimeric inverted repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, A.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Plummer, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    RNA-mediated gene silencing has been demonstrated in plants, animals, and more recently in filamentous fungi. Here, we report high frequency, RNA-mediated gene silencing in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was silenced in a GFP-expressing

  16. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  17. Tomato progeny inherit resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne javanica linked to plant growth induced by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Hugo Agripino de; Araújo Filho, Jerônimo Vieira de; Freitas, Leandro Grassi de; Castillo, Pablo; Rubio, María Belén; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2017-01-10

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%). The first generation (F1) of Ta-primed tomato plants inherited resistance to RKN; although, the induction of defenses occurred through different mechanisms, and in varying degrees, depending on the Ta-Mj interaction. Plant growth promotion induced by Ta was inherited without compromising the level of resistance to Mj, as the progeny of Ta-primed plants displayed increased size and resistance to Mj without fitness costs. Gene expression results from the defense inductions in the offspring of Ta-primed plants, suggested that an auxin-induced reactive oxygen species production promoted by Ta may act as a major defense strategy during plant growth.

  18. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples; Efeito da radiacao gama na frequencia de fungos toxigenicos em amostras de sene (Cassia angustifolia) e cha verde (Camellia sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Reis, T.A.; Zorzete, P.; Correa, B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Goncalez, E.; Rossi, M.H. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination.

  19. Snuffelen aan Trichoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Problemen met groene schimmel in champignon-compost blijven zich voor doen, ondanks alle genomen maatregelen. In een onderzoek van Plant Research International wordt nu getracht, via geurprofielen Trichoderma aggressivum al tijdens het doorgroeien aan te tonen.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1250 - Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum. 184.1250 Section 184.1250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1250 Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. (a) Cellulase enzyme preparation is derived from a nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum (formerly T...

  1. Comparative study of impact of Azotobacter and Trichoderma with other fertilizers on maize growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mahato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers may be a better eco-friendly option to maintain soil fertility. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Azotobacter and Trichoderma on the vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays L. plants. The experiment was carried out in medium sized pots, at IAAS, Lamjung (Feb 2017 - May 2017 in completely randomized design (CRD, consisting eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were namely T1 (control, T2 (Azotobacter, T3 (Trichoderma, T4 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma, T5 (NPK, T6 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM, T7 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM + NPK, T8 (FYM. Azotobacter showed a positive increase in plant height, stem girth, dry shoot weight, root length and width, and root weight while Trichoderma displayed either negative or minimal impact. Effect of FYM was lower than Azotobacter but considerably higher than Trichoderma. Trichoderma seriously inhibited the expression of Azotobacter when used together. Trichoderma even suppressed the outcome (except shoot weight of FYM when used together. Root length was the longest in Azotobacter inoculation. The highest number of leaves was in T7 followed by Azotobacter (T2 and NPK (T5. Unlike leaf width, Azotobacter showed a negligible increase in leaves length while Trichoderma wherever present showed the negative impact. Minimum chlorophyll content was found in Azotobacter or Trichoderma after 73 days. Azotobacter treatment showed early tasseling than Trichoderma. The association of Azotobacter and Trichoderma increased the biomass. Azotobacter has significant effects on growth parameters of maize and can supplement chemical fertilizer, while Trichoderma was found to inhibit most of the growth parameters.

  2. Genome-wide characterization of ISR induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma hamatum T382 against Botrytis cinerea infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janick eMathys

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime and after (ISR-boost additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance (SAR, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance towards secondary infections. Treatment with Trichoderma hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime, resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against Botrytis cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the Botrytis cinerea induced defense response (BIDR. Microarray results were confirmed for representative genes by qRT-PCR, by analysis of transgenic plants expressing relevant promoter-GUS constructs and by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in various defense-related pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach.

  3. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: /sup 3/H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and /sup 3/H-leucine for protein synthesis.

  4. Trichoderma (Hypocrea) species with green ascospores from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.X.; Zhuang, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stromata of Trichoderma species having green ascospores were collected in various regions of China. Based on morphology of the sexual and asexual morph, culture characteristics, and sequence analyses of rpb2 and tef1 genes, 17 species with green ascospores were identified. Among them, Trichoderma

  5. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  6. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André; Schmoll, Monika

    2010-07-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications.

  7. Effect of metabolites produced by Trichoderma species against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolites released from Trichoderma viride, T. polysporum, T. hamatum and T. aureoviride were tested in culture medium against Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds. The Trichoderma metabolites had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of C. paradoxa except those from T.

  8. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  9. Development of a multiplex Q-PCR to detect Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T22 in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivo R; van Rijn, Menno; Zwetsloot, Tom J J; Basmagi, Said; Dirks-Mulder, Anita; van Leeuwen, Willem B; Ravensberg, Willem J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The fungal species Trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. To verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with T. harzianum strain T22, a Q-PCR was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. To develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of T. harzianum could be distinguished. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing of the L-aminoacid oxidase gene (aox1) in T. harzianum was applied to determine the mutations differing between various strains isolated from the Trichoderma collection of Koppert Biological Systems. Based on the sequence information obtained, a set of hydrolysis probes was subsequently developed which discriminated T. harzianum T22 strains varying in only a single nucleotide. Probes designed for two strains uniquely recognized the respective strains in Q-PCR with a detection limit of 12,5ng DNA. Titration assays in which T. harzianum DNA from distinct strains was varied further underscored the specificity of the probes. Lastly, fungal DNA extracted from roots of greenhouse cultured tomato plants was analyzed using the probe-based assay. DNA from T. harzianum strain T22 could readily be identified on roots of greenhouse reared tomato plants inoculated with varying concentrations up to one week after treatment with a detection limit of 3e6 colony forming units of T. harzianum T22. We conclude that the Q-PCR method is a reliable and robust method for assessing the presence and quantity of T. harzianum strain T22 in manually inoculated plant material. Our method provides scope for the development of DNA based strain specific identification of additional strains of Trichoderma and other fungal biological control agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  11. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  12. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  13. Microbial conversion of curcumin into colorless hydroderivatives by the endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. associated with Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Shoji; Ikeda, Michiteru; Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Chinami; Nagoe, Tetsuro; Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Shibuya, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the microbial conversion of curcumin (1) using endophytic fungi associated with the rhizome of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). We found that Diaporthe sp., an endophytic filamentous fungus, converts curcumin (1) into four colorless derivatives, namely (3R,5R)-tetrahydrocurcumin (2), a novel (3R,5S)-hexahydrocurcumin (3) named neohexahydrocurcumin, (3S,5S)-octahydrocurcumin (4) and meso-octahydrocurcumin (5).

  14. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, plant extracts and bio-control agents against rice blast pathogen magnaporthe oryzae couch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajano, J.U.D.; Lodhi, M.; Pathan, M.A.; Khanzada, A.; Shah, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Among 5 fungicides viz., Thiophanate-methyl, Carbendazim, Fosetyl-aluminium, Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride, used against the Magnaporthe oryzae, only Mancozeb appeared as the highly effective fungicide that completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus. All other fungicides showed little effect at higher concentrations. The extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.) and calatropis (Calotropis procera L.) when used against M. oryzae by food poisoning method, only higher dose of garlic completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungus. Six bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma polysporum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces variotii and Paecilomyces lilacinus were used. Maximum mycelial inhibition of M. oryzae was provided by P. lilacinus followed by Trichoderma spp. (author)

  15. 77 FR 4903 - Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-0245- 0008;oldLink=false. 18. U.S. EPA. 2010a. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 Biopesticides... EPA consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National...

  16. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  17. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  18. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  19. Differential Selection by Nematodes on an Introduced Biocontrol Fungus vs. Indigenous Fungi in Nonsterile Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Knudsen, Guy R

    2018-03-15

    Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes.In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated.Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased.Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass ( p nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus when densely localized did.The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint onhyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.

  20. Symbiotic Effect of Trichoderma atroviride on Growth Characteristics and Yield of two Cultivars of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. in a Contaminated Soil Treated with Copper Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E TashakoriFard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils can be a threat to crop production due to plant toxicity. In the recent years, hyperaccumulator plants are cultivated to cleaning up the soils which contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals. However, the biomass of these plants is low and metal specific. Many studies have shown that microorganisms can be used to significantly reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the role of Trichoderma atroviride on the growth characteristics of tow cultivars of rapeseed in different levels on copper. Materials and Methods In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based completely randomized design with three replicates. Treatment were T. atroviride fungi at two levels of inoculated and non-inoculated plants, four levels of copper nitrate including 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg l-1 and two cultivars of rapeseed consist of Hayola 401 and Sarigol. Trichoderma atroviride was prepared from Mycology Lab of Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resource University. PDA medium (potato extract, dextrose and agar was kept for a week at 25˚C to propagation of fungal strain. The used medium was previously sterilized in autoclave for 30 minutes. So, this fungus propagated in Wheat's bran for five days. Healthy and uniform seeds of rapeseeds were separated from rogues and infertile ones. Seeds disinfected in hypochlorite sodium 0.5% for five minute and then washed with distilled water three times. After preparing fungus spore suspension of 108 CFU per ml water, 50 g wheat' bran mixed to the soil of each pot. Twenty sterilized seeds sown in 2 cm of soil depth in 25×30 cm pot with 10 kg capacity. Copper nitrate was used to pollute treated soil. During this experiment did not used any pesticides and herbicides and all weed controlled manually. Some growth and yield related parameters such as plant height, number of secondary branches

  1. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Collections of Trichoderma having hyaline ascospores from different areas of China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphological data, culture characters and phylogenetic information based on rDNA sequences of partial nuc translation elongation factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma applanatum produces continuous flat to pulvinate, white to cream stromata with dense orange or pale brown ostioles, and simple acremonium-like to verticillium-like conidiophores, belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is closely related to T. decipiens. Trichoderma oligosporum forms reddish brown stromata with a downy surface, hyaline conidia and gliocladium-like conidiophores, and is closely related to but distinct from T. crystalligenum in the Psychrophila clade. Trichoderma sinoluteum, as a member of the Polysporum clade, is characterized by pale yellow stromata, white pustulate conidiomata, pachybasium-like conidiophores, and hyaline conidia. Differences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in tRNA gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-04-10

    Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation and environmental factors on the production of extracellular cellulase enzyme by trichoderma Spp. using banana waste under solid state bio processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafey, H.M.; Matar, Z.A.I.; Ghanem, S.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal strains were isolated from degraded banana waste including leaves, pseudo stems and skins. Many isolated strains showed cellulolytic activities using the plate screening medium. The hyper cellulolytic isolates were selected on the basis of the diameter of the hydrolysis zone surrounding the colonies and identified to the genus level. The identified strains were found to belong to one of the genera Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Pleurotus or Penicillium. The strain with the larger diameter of the hydrolysis zone was found to belong to the genus Trichoderma. It was further identified to be Trichoderma harzianum, which was selected to be studied. Banana waste including leaves and pseudo stems were inoculated by the selected fungus and the production of the carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and filter paper cellulase (FPCase) was followed during changes of the growth conditions under solid state fermentation. It was found that the two enzymes shared the same incubation temperature (25 degree C) and incubation period (18 days) for the maximum enzyme production. The gamma radiation dose of 1.5 KGy increased the production of CMCase produced on leaves by 4.0% and on pseudo stems by 5.6% and the production of FPCase produced on leaves by 2.4% and on pseudo stems by 2.3%. The results also suggest that FPCase and CMCase enzymes produced on leaves were higher than those produced from pseudo stems and the level of CMCase enzyme produced was higher than that of FPCase

  4. [Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liu-yan; Jiang, Ni; Tang, Mei-qiong; Miao, Jian-hua; Li, Lin-xuan

    2011-04-01

    To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9(Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum), M6 (Trichoderma viride) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43-2.72 times and 1.43-1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak; the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82.35% respectively, even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their inhibition indexes were both reached class I. The inhibition index and inhibition rate of K1 was respectively 46.36% and class IV. The Trichoderma spp. could cause S9 mycelium to appear some phenomenon just like fracture, constriction reduced, digestion, etc. which were observed under the microscope. Trichoderma harsianum and Trichoderma viride showed the further develop prospects in the fight against soil-borne disease on Chinese herbal medicines.

  5. Combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of aspenwood using enzymes derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    Energy, Mines and Resources Canada supported a project with Forintek Canada Corp. directed toward the conversion of aspenwood to ethanol. This conversion is carried out through three sequential steps, steam explosion/extraction, hydrolysis and fermentation. This investigation involved study of the factors which governed the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis. The physical and chemical state of the material to be hydrolysed, enzyme concentation and adsorption onto residue, end-product characterization and inhibition, recycling of enzymes and cellulose, and growth media for the fungus were among the variables examined. The research demonstrated the interdependency between pretreatment, cellulose hydrolysis, hemicellulose fermentation and enzyme production. It was also determined that because of the amount of cellulose required for enzyme production and the difficulties encountered in recovering/recycling the celluloses, further work is required in order to commercialize an enzymatic hydrolysis process based on Trichoderma harzianum E58.

  6. One-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production using the whole solid-state fermentation medium of mixed filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Larissa; Pereira, Sandra C; Silva, Adilson J; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2018-02-01

    The efficient use of renewable lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain biofuels and other bioproducts is a key requirement for a sustainable biobased economy. This requires novel and effective strategies to reduce the cost contribution of the cellulolytic enzymatic cocktails needed to convert the carbohydrates into simple sugars, in order to make large-scale commercial processes economically competitive. Here, we propose the use of the whole solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium of mixed filamentous fungi as an integrated one-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. Ten different individual and mixed cultivations of commonly used industrial filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma reesei) were performed under SSF and the whole media (without the extraction step) were used in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The cocultivation of T. reesei with A. oryzae increased the amount of glucose released by around 50%, compared with individual cultivations. The release of glucose and reducing sugars achieved using the whole SSF medium was around 3-fold higher than obtained with the enzyme extract. The addition of soybean protein (0.5% w/w) during the hydrolysis reaction further significantly improved the saccharification performance by blocking the lignin and avoiding unproductive adsorption of enzymes. The results of the alcoholic fermentation validated the overall integrated process, with a volumetric ethanol productivity of 4.77 g/L.h, representing 83.5% of the theoretical yield. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed one-pot integrated strategy using the whole SSF medium of mixed filamentous fungi for on-site enzymes production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Biocontrol evaluation of wheat take-all disease by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat take-all disease, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici (Ggt), has been observed in different areas of Iran in recent years. Current biocontrol studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the. Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. In this study, biocontrol effects of Trichoderma isolates ...

  8. Biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) in Southern Europe and Macaronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Voglmayr, H.

    2015-01-01

    The first large-scale survey of sexual and asexual Trichoderma morphs collected from plant and fungal materials conducted in Southern Europe and Macaronesia including a few collections from French islands east of Africa yielded more than 650 specimens identified to the species level. Routine sequencing of tef1 revealed a genetic variation among these isolates that exceeds previous experience and ca. 90 species were recognized, of which 74 are named and 17 species newly described. Aphysiostroma stercorarium is combined in Trichoderma. For the first time a sexual morph is described for T. hamatum. The hitherto most complete phylogenetic tree is presented for the entire genus Trichoderma, based on rpb2 sequences. For the first time also a genus-wide phylogenetic tree based on acl1 sequences is shown. Detailed phylogenetic analyses using tef1 sequences are presented in four separate trees representing major clades of Trichoderma. Discussions involve species composition of clades and ecological and biogeographic considerations including distribution of species. PMID:26955191

  9. Filament heater current modulation for increased filament lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.D.; Williams, H.E. III.

    1996-01-01

    The surface conversion H-minus ion source employs two 60 mil tungsten filaments which are approximately 17 centimeters in length. These filaments are heated to approximately 2,800 degrees centigrade by 95--100 amperes of DC heater current. The arc is struck at a 120 hertz rate, for 800 microseconds and is generally run at 30 amperes peak current. Although sputtering is considered a contributing factor in the demise of the filament, evaporation is of greater concern. If the peak arc current can be maintained with less average heater current, the filament evaporation rate for this arc current will diminish. In the vacuum of an ion source, the authors expect the filaments to retain much of their heat throughout a 1 millisecond (12% duty) loss of heater current. A circuit to eliminate 100 ampere heater currents from filaments during the arc pulse was developed. The magnetic field due to the 100 ampere current tends to hold electrons to the filament, decreasing the arc current. By eliminating this magnetic field, the arc should be more efficient, allowing the filaments to run at a lower average heater current. This should extend the filament lifetime. The circuit development and preliminary filament results are discussed

  10. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-10-01

    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  11. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. strains for control yellowing pea caused by Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eraso Insuasty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellowing of pea caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is considered the most damaging disease of this crop. This study took place at the plant health laboratory and greenhouse of the Universidad de Nariño, and the experimental stage was conducted at the Granja experimental Botana. Its purpose was to evaluate the antagonistic ability of the fungi Trichoderma spp. to F. oxysporum. Isolation of F. oxysporum was made from diseased tissue; Trichoderma strains were obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy plants (collected in the towns of Potosi, Córdoba, Gualmatán, Ipiales and Puerres in the state of Nariño, Colombia, and a commercial strain from laboratory Perkins Ltda. In laboratory, unrestrictedly randomized design with 21 treatments (strains was used. Mycelial growth and inhibition zone were evaluated in dual plantings, which served as selection criteria for greenhouse test where plant height, root length, root dry matter and percentage of incidence were evaluated. In the field, a randomized block design was used to evaluate yield components, plant height and root length with the best strains. In the laboratory, C2 (Córdoba 2, C7 (Gualmatán 3, C14 (Puerres 2, C20 (Potosi 4 and C21 (Perkins Lab. showed antagonistic activity in the greenhouse, C7, C14 and C21 were the best; in field, significant differences between C14 and C21, compared to C7 and the control, were obtained. Strains C14 and C21 have consistent antagonistic capacity and can be used to control F. oxysporum in pea.

  12. Arsenic tolerant Trichoderma sp. reduces arsenic induced stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Srivastava, Suchi; Chauhan, Reshu; Awasthi, Surabhi; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Preeti; Kalra, Alok; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2017-04-01

    Toxic metalloids including arsenic (As) can neither be eliminated nor destroyed from environment; however, they can be converted from toxic to less/non-toxic forms. The form of As species and their concentration determines its toxicity in plants. Therefore, the microbe mediated biotransformation of As is crucial for its plant uptake and toxicity. In the present study the role of As tolerant Trichoderma in modulating As toxicity in chickpea plants was explored. Chickpea plants grown in arsenate spiked soil under green house conditions were inoculated with two plant growth promoting Trichoderma strains, M-35 (As tolerant) and PPLF-28 (As sensitive). Total As concentration in chickpea tissue was comparable in both the Trichoderma treatments, however, differences in levels of organic and inorganic As (iAs) species were observed. The shift in iAs to organic As species ratio in tolerant Trichoderma treatment correlated with enhanced plant growth and nutrient content. Arsenic stress amelioration in tolerant Trichoderma treatment was also evident through rhizospheric microbial community and anatomical studies of the stem morphology. Down regulation of abiotic stress responsive genes (MIPS, PGIP, CGG) in tolerant Trichoderma + As treatment as compared to As alone and sensitive Trichoderma + As treatment also revealed that tolerant strain enhanced the plant's potential to cope with As stress as compared to sensitive one. Considering the bioremediation and plant growth promotion potential, the tolerant Trichoderma may appear promising for its utilization in As affected fields for enhancing agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trichoderma harzianum enhances the production of nematicidal compounds in vitro and improves biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by Pseudomonas fluorescens in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S

    2004-01-01

    To determine the influence of soil-borne fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 against Meloidogyne javanica. Amendment of the culture filtrate (CF) or methanol extract of the CF of a T. harzianum strain Th6 to P. fluorescens growth medium enhanced the production of nematicidal compound(s) by bacterial inoculants in vitro. In addition, bacteria overwhelmingly expressed phl'-'lacZ reporter gene when the medium was amended with CF of T. harzianum. Pseudomonas fluorescens and T. harzianum applied together in unsterilized sandy loam soil caused greater reduction in nematode population densities in tomato roots. Trichoderma harzianum improves root-knot nematode biocontrol by the antagonistic rhizobacterium P. fluorescens both in vitro and under glasshouse conditions. The synergistic effect of T. harzianum on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol may improve the efficacy of biocontrol bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes. Considering the inconsistent performance of the biocontrol agents under field conditions, application of a mixture of compatible T. harzianum and P. fluorescens would more closely mimic the natural situation and might broaden the spectrum of biocontrol activity with enhanced efficacy and reliability of control.

  14. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-05-09

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  15. A two-dimensional proteome map of the aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechanova, Olga; Pechan, Tibor; Rodriguez, Jose M; Williams, W Paul; Brown, Ashli E

    2013-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic soil-borne pathogen that produces aflatoxins, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic compounds known. This work represents the first gel-based profiling analysis of A. flavus proteome and establishes a 2D proteome map. Using 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, we identified 538 mycelial proteins of the aflatoxigenic strain NRRL 3357, the majority of which were functionally annotated as related to various cellular metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Additionally, a few enzymes from the aflatoxin synthesis pathway were also identified. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz Ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract.

  17. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract. PMID:26691463

  18. Identification and characterization of Trichoderma species aggressive to Pleurotus in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Senatore M; Abadi K; Gigante S; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the late 1980's the development of a severe epidemic of green mold caused by Trichoderma spp.was noted in the commercial production of Agaricus bisporus (champignon) in the United Kingdom,North America, Spain and Holland, which caused extensive economic losses. The parasitic fungi isolated from the edible mushroom belonged to four biotypes, Thl, Th2, Th3 and Th4 of T.harzianum. However, among these biotypes, only Th2 (since classified as T. aggressivum f.europaeum) and Th4 (T. aggressivum f. aggressivum) were identified as the fungi causing problems in Agaricus production. In general, mushroom compost hosts both aggressive and innocuous isolates of Trichoderma, which are not morphologically distinguishable. About four years ago, a problem with green mold became apparent in the production of Pleurotus ostreatus in Northern Italy,which eventually developed to a crisis situation in the South two years later and threatened to seriously compromise the Pleurotus market. This study was initiated to: isolate and identify the aggressive fungi, then morphologically, physiologically and genetically characterize the isolates, determine the source and phases of infection, and study methods of control. Samples were obtained from different phases of compost preparation at the locality of a major producer and supplier of compost to the mushroom industry in Southern Italy, and microbial counts were conducted. Although the presence of Trichoderma was detected in the initial stages of composting, this value was reduced to zero from the phase of pasteurization to seeding with Pleurotus. Trichoderma infestations were noted in the packaged Pleurotus bales at various times during the incubation phase (7-15 days after seeding) and after shipping to the mushroom greenhouses, where the pathogen infestations greatly reduced the quality and quantity of the mushroom yield, as well as the number of potential harvest cycles.Preliminary results from the morphological and genetic

  19. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  20. Insect symbiosis: derivation of yeast-like endosymbionts within an entomopathogenic filamentous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, S O; Noda, H; Blackwell, M

    2001-06-01

    Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects often are restricted to specific hosts and are essential to the host's survival. For example, in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae), endosymbionts function in sterol utilization and nitrogen recycling for the hosts. Our study, designed to investigate evolutionary changes in the YLS lineage involved in the planthopper association, strongly suggests an origin of the YLSs from within the filamentous ascomycetes (Euascomycetes), not the true yeasts (Saccharomycetes), as their morphology might indicate. During divergence of the planthopper YLSs, dramatic changes would have occurred in the insect-fungus interaction and the fungal morphology that have previously been undescribed in filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees were based on individual and combined data sets of 2.6 kb of the nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes for YLSs from three rice planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera) compared with 56 other fungi. Parsimony analysis placed the planthopper YLSs within Cordyceps (Euascomycetes: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), a genus of filamentous insects and a few fungal pathogenic ascomycetes. Another YLS species restricted to the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci (Homoptera: Aphididae) was a sister taxon to the planthopper YLSS: Filamentous insect pathogens (Metarhizium and Beauveria) specific to the same species of insect hosts as the YLSs also formed lineages within the Clavicipitaceae, but these were distinct from the clade comprising YLS species. Trees constrained to include the YLSs in families of the Hypocreales other than the Clavicipitaceae were rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In addition, the results of this study support a hypothesis of two independent origins of insect-associated YLSs from among filamentous ascomycetes: the planthopper YLSs in the Clavicipitaceae and the YLSs associated with anobiid beetles (Symbiotaphrina species). Several lineages of

  1. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , Alternaria alternata , Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani ). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of tested pathogens but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a positive correlation between the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma isolates towards fungal pathogens and their lytic enzyme production. The Trichoderma isolates were initially sorted according to morphology and based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence similarity, the isolates were designated as Trichoderma harzianum , T. koningii , T. asperellum , T. virens and T. viride . PCA analysis explained 31.53, 61.95, 62.22 and 60.25% genetic variation among Trichoderma isolates based on RAPD, REP-, ERIC- and BOX element analysis, respectively. ERG - 1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase has been used for the first time for diversity analysis of antagonistic Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere. Phylogenetic analysis of ERG -1 gene sequences revealed close relatedness of ERG -1sequences with earlier reported sequences of Hypocrea lixii , T. arundinaceum and T. reesei. However, ERG -1 gene also showed heterogeneity among some antagonistic isolates and indicated the possibility of occurrence of squalene epoxidase driven triterpene biosynthesis as an alternative biocontrol mechanism in Trichoderma species.

  3. Fate and effects of nonylphenol in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikova, I.; Safronova, V.; Zaytseva, T.; Medvedeva, N.

    2017-07-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is the most abundant environmental pollutant that is classified as an endocrine disruptor, and it originates from the degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are widely used as industrial surfactants. It has been referred to in a list of substances of particular risk to the Baltic Sea, in a list of priority hazardous substances in the Water Frame Directive, and in the 3rd draft Working Document on Sludge, developed by the EU. In this study, the fate and effects of NP in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland were investigated in laboratory experiments. This strain was more tolerant to technical nonylphenol (tNP) compared to other types of aquatic organisms, such as fish, protozoa, and algae. The toxicity concentration values of tNP in Penicillium expansum were EC50 20 mg L- 1 and EC90 > 100 mg L- 1. The activity level of hydrolytic enzymes, cellulases and amylases decreased significantly in the tNP treatments. Given the significant role played by terrestrial fungi in the transformation of organic substrate into bottom sediment, such an effect from tNP on fungi could disturb the regulatory mechanisms and balance between the biosynthesis and biodegradation of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems as well as the formation of cenotic relations in aquatic biocenoses. Oxidative stress induced by tNP has been found to increase the synthesis of enzymatic protection factors, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and nonenzymatic factors (melanin-like pigments and extracellular polysaccharides). This research indicated that the malondialdehyde concentration (the biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation) in the cells of the fungus decreased with increasing antioxidation factors. Penicillium expansum was able to decrease the tNP concentration in the culture medium. The removal of tNP was mainly caused by fungal degradation rather than by simple sorption and

  4. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  5. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  6. Tolerance to chitosan by Trichoderma species is associated with low membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-González, Ernesto A; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Cruz-Valerio, Mayra; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on growth of Trichoderma spp., a cosmopolitan genus widely exploited for their biocontrol properties was evaluated. Based on genotypic (ITS of 18S rDNA) characters, four isolates of Trichoderma were identified as T. pseudokoningii FLM16, T. citrinoviride FLM17, T. harzianum EZG47, and T. koningiopsis VSL185. Chitosan reduces radial growth of Trichoderma isolates in concentration-wise manner. T. koningiopsis VSL185 was the most chitosan tolerant isolate in all culture media amended with chitosan (0.5-2.0 mg ml(-1) ). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined showing that T. koningiopsis VSL185 displays higher chitosan tolerance with MIC value >2000 μg ml(-1) while for other Trichoderma isolates MIC values were around 10 μg ml(-1) . Finally, free fatty acid composition reveals that T. koningiopsis VSL185, chitosan tolerant isolate, displays lower linolenic acid (C18:3) content than chitosan sensitive Trichoderma isolates. Our findings suggest that low membrane fluidity is associated with chitosan tolerance in Trichoderma spp. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Two new hyaline-ascospored species of Trichoderma and their phylogenetic positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W T; Zhuang, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Collections of hypocrealean fungi found on decaying wood in subtropical regions of China were examined. Two new species, Trichoderma confluens and T. hubeiense, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma confluens is characterized by its widely effuse to rarely pulvinate, yellow stromata with densely disposed yellowish brown ostioles, simple acremonium- to verticillium-like conidiophores, hyaline conidia and multiform chlamydospores. Trichoderma hubeiense has pulvinate, grayish yellow stromata with brownish ostioles, trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. The phylogenetic positions of the two fungi were investigated based on sequence analyses of RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1-α genes. The results indicate that T. confluens belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is associated with but clearly separated from T. applanatum and T. decipiens. Trichoderma hubeiense belongs to the Polysporum clade and related to T. bavaricum but obviously differs from other members of the clade in sequence data. Morphological distinctions between the new species and their close relatives are noted and discussed. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  9. Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahsavari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23 arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application. Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil.

  10. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE FUNGUS TRICHODERMA ON SECONDARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vaskova,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is the most commonly used pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In this process wood chips are chemically delignified using sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Delignification is usually followed by mechanical fiberization and a bleaching process of the resulting wood pulp. In addition to lignin-free wood pulp, this process also produces waste that contains residues of used chemicals, lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and small amounts of other wood components. Because of the worldwide large-scale production of paper, the sludge from paper mills contributes significantly to environmental pollution. Although there have been great efforts being made to utilize this lignin-rich material, sludge is mostly disposed in landfills or incinerated in a boiler. This research project used secondary sludge as a substrate for 7 wood-decay fungi taxonomically belonging to the genus Trichoderma. The examined fungi expressed the capability of consuming sludge components as a carbon source to produce extracellular proteins. The proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis. Before and after fungi cultivation, the sludge was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  11. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  12. Caracterización molecular y agronómica de aislados de Trichoderma spp nativos del noreste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández Mendoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Molecular and agronomic characterization of Trichoderma spp natives of northeastern Mexico  Resumen Trichoderma sp es un hongo frecuentemente usado en actividades agrícolas, pues actúa como antagonista de diversas especies de hongos fitopatógenos. En este estudio se realizó el aislamiento de cuatro cepas de Trichoderma sp nativas del noreste de México, las cuales fueron identificadas a nivel molecular mediante la secuenciación del ITS 1. Además se evaluó su capacidad antagonista en contra los hongos fitopatógenos Macrophomina phaseolina y Fusarium oxysporum, que afectan severamente cultivos de sorgo, maíz y fríjol en el noreste de México. La identificación se realizó de acuerdo al grado de concordancia con secuencias reportadas y corresponden a las especies T. hammatum (HK701;  T. koningiopsis (HK702; T. asperellum (HK703 y Trichoderma sp (HK704. Por otra parte, las pruebas de antagonismo muestran que los aislados HK701, HK703 y HK704 inhiben por competencia el crecimiento de M. phaseolina y F. oxysporum, mientras que HK702 tiene la capacidad para hiperparasitar dichos fitopatógenos. Finalmente, se evaluó la promoción de crecimiento de T. asperellum HK703, en maíz (Pionner 30P49®, usando para ello concentraciones de tratamiento de 1x10e2 hasta 1x10e6 esp/mL. En estos ensayos se midió la producción de biomasa. Los resultados muestran que en concentraciones intermedias se tiene el mayor incremento en altura de plantas y mayor producción de peso seco en follaje y raíz. Entre los parámetros antes mencionados existen diferencias significativas. Palabras clave: control biológico, antagonismo, biofertilizantes, Zea maiz, Sorghum bicolor. Abstract Trichoderma sp is a fungus often used in agricultural activities, because it acts as an antagonist of several species of plant pathogenic fungi. In this study four strains of Trichoderma sp was isolated from the northeastern Mexico, which were identified by

  13. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

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    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  14. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    that would enable pursuance of the primary objective. The developed molecular tools were assembled into an expression system for high-throughput construction of defined integrated T. reesei mutants and combined inactivation of the non-homologous end joining pathway that facilitates ectopic integration...... of exposed DNA fragments, and a color maker so that the mutants, in which the substrate had been integrated correct, could be identified by their phenotype. A new bidirectional selective marker system was developed based on the pyr2 gene, involved in the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, and was included...... essential for biosynthesis of the sorbicillinoids. Hence, genes involved in biosynthesis of this group of polyketides were identified for the first time. Comparative genomics was subsequently used to identify a highly similar polyketide synthase gene cluster in another well-known sorbicillinoid producer...

  15. Assessment of various parameters to improve MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra libraries constructed for the routine identification of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Cassagne, Carole; Ranque, Stéphane; L'ollivier, Coralie; Fourquet, Patrick; Roesems, Sam; Hendrickx, Marijke; Piarroux, Renaud

    2013-04-08

    The poor reproducibility of matrix-assisted desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra limits the effectiveness of the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of filamentous fungi with highly heterogeneous phenotypes in routine clinical laboratories. This study aimed to enhance the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of filamentous fungi by assessing several architectures of reference spectrum libraries. We established reference spectrum libraries that included 30 filamentous fungus species with various architectures characterized by distinct combinations of the following: i) technical replicates, i.e., the number of analyzed deposits for each culture used to build a reference meta-spectrum (RMS); ii) biological replicates, i.e., the number of RMS derived from the distinct subculture of each strain; and iii) the number of distinct strains of a given species. We then compared the effectiveness of each library in the identification of 200 prospectively collected clinical isolates, including 38 species in 28 genera.Identification effectiveness was improved by increasing the number of both RMS per strain (plibrary markedly improved the effectiveness of the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of clinical filamentous fungi.

  16. Isolation and functional analysis of Thmfs1, the first major facilitator superfamily transporter from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei Min

    2012-10-01

    A novel major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter gene, Thmfs1, was isolated from Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum). A Thmfs1 over-expressing mutant displayed enhanced antifungal activity and fungicide tolerance, while the Thmfs1 disruption mutant showed the opposite trend. Trichodermin production in Thmfs1 disruption group (185 mg l(-1)) was decreased by less than 17 % compared to the parental strain, suggesting that Thmfs1 is not mainly responsible for trichodermin secretion. Real-time PCR showed that Thmfs1 transcript level could be induced by a certain range of trichodermin concentrations, while expression of Tri5, encoding a trichodiene synthase, was strongly inhibited under these conditions. To our knowledge, Thmfs1 is the first MFS transporter gene identified in T. harzianum.

  17. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

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    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  18. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Brandler; Luan Junior Divensi; Rodrigo José Tonin; Thalita Pedrozo Pilla; Ines Rezendes; Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2017-01-01

    The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1) Control, only sterile substrate; T2) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4) Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated ...

  19. Comparative molecular evolution of Trichoderma chitinases in response to mycoparasitic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihrmark, Katarina; Asmail, Nashwan; Ubhayasekera, Wimal

    2010-01-01

    Certain species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites and are used for biological control of fungal diseases on agricultural crops. In Trichoderma, whole-genome sequencing reveal between 20 and 36 different genes encoding chitinases, hydrolytic enzymes that are involved...... in the mycoparasitic attack. Sequences of Trichoderma chitinase genes chi18-5, chi18-13, chi18-15 and chi18-17, which all exhibit specific expression during mycoparasitism-related conditions, were determined from up to 13 different taxa and studied with regard to their evolutionary patterns. Two of them, chi18......-usage and contains five codons that evolve under positive selection and three groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid variability are preferentially localized to substrate- or product side of the catalytic clefts. Differences in amino acid diversity/conservation patterns between different Trichoderma...

  20. Trichoderma Biofertilizer Links to Altered Soil Chemistry, Altered Microbial Communities, and Improved Grassland Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengge Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses. Grassland biomass significantly (p = 0.019 increased following amendment with 9,000 kg ha−1 of Trichoderma biofertilizer (composted cattle manure + inoculum compared with other assessed organic or biofertilizer rates, except for BOF3000 (fertilized with 3,000 kg ha−1 biofertilizer. This rate of Trichoderma biofertilizer treatment increased soil antifungal compounds that may suppress pathogenic fungi, potentially partially responsible for improved grassland biomass. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS revealed soil chemistry and fungal communities were all separated by different fertilization regime. Trichoderma biofertilizer (9,000 kg ha−1 increased relative abundances of Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while decreasing Ophiosphaerella. Trichoderma can improve grassland biomass, while Ophiosphaerella has the opposite effect as it may secrete metabolites causing grass necrosis. Correlations between soil properties and microbial genera showed plant-available phosphorus may influence grassland biomass by increasing Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while reducing Ophiosphaerella. According to our structural equation modeling (SEM, Trichoderma abundance was the primary contributor to aboveground grassland biomass. Our results suggest Trichoderma

  1. Trichoderma Biofertilizer Links to Altered Soil Chemistry, Altered Microbial Communities, and Improved Grassland Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Huo, Yunqian; Cobb, Adam B; Luo, Gongwen; Zhou, Jiqiong; Yang, Gaowen; Wilson, Gail W T; Zhang, Yingjun

    2018-01-01

    In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses. Grassland biomass significantly ( p = 0.019) increased following amendment with 9,000 kg ha -1 of Trichoderma biofertilizer (composted cattle manure + inoculum) compared with other assessed organic or biofertilizer rates, except for BOF3000 (fertilized with 3,000 kg ha -1 biofertilizer). This rate of Trichoderma biofertilizer treatment increased soil antifungal compounds that may suppress pathogenic fungi, potentially partially responsible for improved grassland biomass. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed soil chemistry and fungal communities were all separated by different fertilization regime. Trichoderma biofertilizer (9,000 kg ha -1 ) increased relative abundances of Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while decreasing Ophiosphaerella . Trichoderma can improve grassland biomass, while Ophiosphaerella has the opposite effect as it may secrete metabolites causing grass necrosis. Correlations between soil properties and microbial genera showed plant-available phosphorus may influence grassland biomass by increasing Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while reducing Ophiosphaerella . According to our structural equation modeling (SEM), Trichoderma abundance was the primary contributor to aboveground grassland biomass. Our results suggest Trichoderma

  2. Aislamiento e identificación de moniliophthora roreri causante de la moniliasis en municipios del nororiente colombiano y ensayos preliminares para su control biológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Yanet Suárez-Contreras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This proyect of researching defines the influence zones of the Moniliasis. In this project was isolated and identified the Moniliophthora roreri, the disease is caused by this fungus. 56 samples were goteen in Agua Clara, Tibú, Sardinata, El Tarra, Bucarasica, El Zulia, Teorama and Cúcuta in the Colombia Nororiente. The fungus was identified in a morphological level by means of microscopical test, the samples were conserved on the plates, added potato dextrose agar. Preliminary of antagonistic inhibition though the Igarashi technique, they were made on Trichoderma sp. El Zulia, Trichoderma sp. Iscalá, Trichoderma sp. of Cuba, where it was demonstrated that the controlling biological of phytopathogen Moniliophthora roreri. Finally, 55% of results were obtained from antagonistic inhibition. Also, the isolations of six new stocks of Trichoderma sp. were made, and a Bacillus sp. too.

  3. Isolamento de fungos filamentosos em água utilizada em uma unidade de hemodiálise Isolation of filamentous fungi from water used in a hemodialysis unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Dutra Varo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A despeito da relativa freqüência de infecções fúngicas oportunísticas em pacientes sob hemodiálise, os reservatórios ambientais destes permanecem desconhecidos, embora alguns estudos recentes tenham correlacionado o suprimento de água como fonte desses microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a qualidade micológica do sistema hídrico de uma Unidade de Hemodiálise, do interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período entre abril e julho de 2006. Foram coletadas amostras (15, de 1000mL em 7 pontos de distribuição de água empregando-se técnica da membrana filtrante (0,45µm. Foram isolados 116 fungos filamentosos, dos quais 47 (40,5% Trichoderma sp, 29 (25% Cladosporium sp, 16 (13,8% Aspergillus sp e 11 (9,5% Fusarium sp. Mediante os resultados, sugerimos que suprimentos de água para Unidades de Hemodiálise devam ser monitorados também quanto ao aspecto micológico, adotando-se medidas profiláticas eficazes que minimizem a exposição destes pacientes imunodeficientes a fontes aquáticas ambientais contaminadas.Despite the relative frequency of opportunistic fungal infections among hemodialysis patients, the reservoirs for these microorganisms in the environment remain unknown, although some recent studies have made correlations with the water supply as their source. The objective of the present study was to monitor the mycological quality of the water system of a hemodialysis unit in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, over the period from April to July 2006. Fifteen samples of 1000 ml were collected from seven water distribution points using the membrane filtration technique (0.45 µm. A total of 116 filamentous fungus specimens were isolated, including 47 Trichoderma sp (40.5%, 29 Cladosporium sp (25%, 16 Aspergillus sp (13.8% and 11 Fusarium sp (9.5%. The results suggest that the water supply for hemodialysis units should also be monitored for mycological contamination, and that effective

  4. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

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    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  5. Molecular identification and biodegradation of 3-chloropropionic acid (3CP by filamentous fungi-Mucor and Trichoderma species isolated from UTM agricultural land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvizpour, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to further characterize fungal species that could degrade 3-chloropropionic acid (3CPas sole source of carbon and energy. Methodology and Results: Both fungi were able to grow on 3CP after 10 days on solid minimal media. Based on sequencing of its segment of 18S rRNA these isolates were identified as Mucor sp. SP1 and Trichoderma sp. SP2. The isolated strains were not able to grow on media plates containing 10 mM of 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2DCP as sole source of carbon. 3CP degradation was observed in liquid minimal medium containing 10 mM 3CP after 18 days cultureperiod. The chloride ion released was detected in both growth medium containing Mucor sp. SP1 and Trichoderma sp. SP2. At least 80% of 10 mM 3CP was utilized in the growth medium. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Dehalogenase enzyme that can degrade α-chloro-substituted haloalkanoic acids for example 2,2DCP is well studied up to protein crystallization. Very few reports on the degradationof β-chloro-substituted haloalkanoic acids such as 3CP and none from fungi. This study is considered important because it can be compared to that of well-documented α-chloro-substituted haloalkanoic acids degradation. This is the first study to indicate fungal growth on 3CP as sole carbon and energy sources.

  6. Xylanase production from marine derived Trichoderma pleuroticola 08ÇK001 strain isolated from Mediterranean coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Melih N; Ozdemir, Sennur C; Uzel, Ataç

    2017-10-01

    Xylanases constitutes one the most important enzymes with diverse applications in different industries such as bioethanol production, animal feedstock production, production of xylo-oligosaccharides, baking industry, paper and pulp industry, xylitol production, fruit juice, and beer finishing, degumming, and agriculture. Currently, industrial xylanases are mainly produced by Aspergillus and Trichoderma members. Since the marine environments are less studied compared to terrestrial environments and harbors great microbial diversity we aimed to investigate the xylanase production of 88 marine-derived filamentous fungal strains. These strains are semi-quantitatively screened for their extracellular xylanase production and Trichoderma pleuroticola 08ÇK001 xylanase activity was further characterized. Optimum pH and temperature was determined as 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The enzyme preparation retained 53% of its activity at pH 5.0 after 1 h and have found resistant against several ions and compounds such as K + , Ba 2+ , Na + , β-mercaptoethanol, Triton X-100 and toluene. This study demonstrates that marine-derived fungal strains are prolific sources for xylanase production and presents the first report about the production and characterization of xylanase from a marine derived T. pleuroticola strain. The characteristics of T. pleuroticola 08ÇK001 xylanase activity indicate possible employment in some industrial processes such as animal feed, juice and wine industries or paper pulping applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in polyester foam beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.M.; Shemsi, A.M.; Akhtar, K.; Anwar, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanism of uranium biosorption by resting cells of Trichoderma harzianum was studied at pH 4.5. Time-dependent uptake of uranium by Trichoderma harzianum was also determined. Various cations (Na, K, Ca and Fe, etc.) were found to affect the adsorption capability of these cells. Different theoretical thermodynamic models governing the adsorption behavior of uranium were also tested and it was found to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The constants of Freundlich adsorption isotherm A and 1/n were found to be 1.5 x 10 -6 mole/g and 0.31 respectively. Dubinin Radushkevich equation was tested and the maximum adsorption capacity (X m ) of Trichoderma harzianum and sorption energy (E s ) for the ion exchange process computed. Data of uranium sorption were also examined using Weber Morris's equation. The upscaling of uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in commercial foam (polyesters) was carried out in glass columns. It was found to recover more than 85% of the total uranium present in bacterial leachate

  8. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  9. Characterization of Malaysian Trichoderma isolates using random amplified microsatellites (RAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Tan, Soon Guan; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Fatihah, Nur Hasan Nudin; Hasan, Md Mainul

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are commercially applied as biocontrol agents against numerous plant pathogenic fungi due to their production of antifungal metabolites, competition for nutrients and space, and mycoparasitism. However, currently the identification of Trichoderma species from throughout the world based on micro-morphological descriptions is tedious and prone to error. The correct identification of Trichoderma species is important as several traits are species-specific. The Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) analysis done using five primers in this study showed different degrees of the genetic similarity among 42 isolates of this genus. The genetic similarity values were found to be in the range of 12.50-85.11% based on a total of 76 bands scored in the Trichoderma isolates. Of these 76 bands, 96.05% were polymorphic, 3.95% were monomorphic and 16% were exclusive bands. Two bands (250 bp and 200 bp) produced by primer LR-5 and one band (250 bp) by primer P1A were present in all the Trichoderma isolates collected from healthy and infected oil palm plantation soils. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA of the RAMS marker data showed that T. harzianum, T. virens and T. longibrachiatum isolates were grouped into different clades and lineages. In this study we found that although T. aureoviride isolates were morphologically different when compared to T. harzianum isolates, the UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the majority isolates of T. aureoviride (seven from nine) were closely related to the isolates of T. harzianum.

  10. Effect of the edaphic factors and metal content in soil on the diversity of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racić, Gordana; Körmöczi, Péter; Kredics, László; Raičević, Vera; Mutavdžić, Beba; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Panković, Dejana

    2017-02-01

    Influence of edaphic factors and metal content on diversity of Trichoderma species at 14 different soil sampling locations, on two depths, was examined. Forty-one Trichoderma isolates from 14 sampling sites were determined as nine species based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Our results indicate that weakly alkaline soils are rich sources of Trichoderma strains. Also, higher contents of available K and P are connected with higher Trichoderma diversity. Increased metal content in soil was not inhibiting factor for Trichoderma species occurrence. Relationship between these factors was confirmed by locally weighted sequential smoothing (LOESS) nonparametric smoothing analysis. Trichoderma strain (Szeged Microbiology Collection (SZMC) 22669) from soil with concentrations of Cr and Ni above remediation values should be tested for its potential for bioremediation of these metals in polluted soils.

  11. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  12. KADAR GLUKOSA DARI HIDROLISIS SELULOSA PADA ECENG GONDOK MENGGUNAKAN Trichoderma viride DENGAN VARIASI TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbowatiningrum R Sarjono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah kita ketahui bahwa eceng gondok merupakan salah satu sumber selulosa yang melimpah di alam dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber karbon bagi jamur Trichoderma viride. Eceng gondok memiliki bobot kering selulosa 21,5%, hemiselulosa 33,9% dan lignin 7,01%. Trichoderma viride adalah jamur saprofit yang berpotensi memproduksi selulase yang mampu mendegradasi ikatan β-1,4-glikosida pada rantai selulosa untuk menghasilkan glukosa. Glukosa dapat dimanfaatkan dalam produksi sirup gula, asam organik dan bioetanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan Trichoderma viride yang mampu tumbuh pada media pertumbuhan hasil modifikasi eceng gondok serta memperoleh temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis eceng gondok dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dalam menghasilkan glukosa. Proses pertama adalah persiapan sampel enceng gondok meliputi delignifikasi, kurva pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride dibuat dalam media modifikasi eceng gondok untuk mengetahui waktu optimum pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride. Penentuan temperatur optimum dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dari aktivitas Trichoderma viride didasarkan pada glukosa yang dihasilkan dari hidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok menggunakan metode Nelson Somogyi. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa Trichoderma viride mampu tumbuh pada media modifikasi eceng gondok. Temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok adalah 35oC dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dihasilkannya glukosa pada jam ke-96 yaitu sebesar 1,3864 mg/L.

  13. 75 FR 9527 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0750; FRL-8800-9] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012. DATES: This regulation is effective March 3, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 8504 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0749; FRL-8799-4] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080. DATES: This regulation is effective February 25, 2010...

  15. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field.

  16. Utilization of palm oil processing effluents as substrates for microbial protein production by the fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Worgan, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae grew well on the effluents produced during the extraction of palm oil. Biomass yields of approximately 50 g/100 g organic matter were obtained which contained 40% crude protein and had BOD reductions of 85% and COD reductions of 75-80% in batch culture following optimization of growth conditions. Supplementation with an inorganic N source was necessary. The more resistant substrate constituents to biodegradation were water-soluble carbohydrate and nitrogenous material, possibly Maillard reaction products, and polyphenols.

  17. Construction and functional analysis of Trichoderma harzianum mutants that modulate maize resistance to the pathogen Curvularia lunata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lili; Fu, Kehe; Yu, Chuanjin; Ma, Jia; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to generate an insertional mutant library of the mycelial fungus Trichoderma harzianum. From a total of 450 mutants, six mutants that showed significant influence on maize resistance to C. lunata were analyzed in detail. Maize coated with these mutants was more susceptible to C. lunata compared with those coated with a wild-type (WT) strain. Similar to other fungal ATMT libraries, all six mutants were single copy integrations, which occurred preferentially in noncoding regions (except two mutants) and were frequently accompanied by the loss of border sequences. Two mutants (T66 and T312) that were linked to resistance were characterized further. Maize seeds coated with T66 and T312 were more susceptible to C. lunata than those treated with WT. Moreover, the mutants affected the resistance of maize to C. lunata by enhancing jasmonate-responsive gene expression. T66 and T312 induced maize resistance to C. lunata infection through a jasmonic acid-dependent pathway.

  18. Mutation-specific effects on thin filament length in thin filament myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Josine M de; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A; Pappas, Christopher T; Gregorio, Carol C; Stienen, Ger J M; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B; Engelen, Baziel G van; Voermans, Nicol C; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C G; Clarke, Nigel F; Beggs, Alan H; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2016-06-01

    Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force-sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin-thick filament overlap. These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. Ann Neurol 2016;79:959-969. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  19. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  20. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  1. The antagonistic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans filamentation, adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Anna; Murzyn, Anna; Dyjankiewicz, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Dziadkowiec, Dorota

    2009-12-01

    The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal flora residing in the intestinal tract of humans. In spite of this, under certain conditions it can induce both superficial and serious systemic diseases, as well as be the cause of gastrointestinal infections. Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast strain that has been shown to have applications in the prevention and treatment of intestinal infections caused by bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine whether S. boulardii affects the virulence factors of C. albicans. We demonstrate the inhibitory effect of live S. boulardii cells on the filamentation (hyphae and pseudohyphae formation) of C. albicans SC5314 strain proportional to the amount of S. boulardii added. An extract from S. boulardii culture has a similar effect. Live S. boulardii and the extract from S. boulardii culture filtrate diminish C. albicans adhesion to and subsequent biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions. This effect is very strong and requires lower doses of S. boulardii cells or concentrations of the extract than serum-induced filamentation tests. Saccharomyces boulardii has a strong negative effect on very important virulence factors of C. albicans, i.e. the ability to form filaments and to adhere and form biofilms on plastic surfaces.

  2. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    OpenAIRE

    Utami Sri Hastuti; Indriana Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, an...

  3. Trichoderma spp. NA EMERGÊNCIA E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CAMBARÁ (Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Franco Martins Machado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de isolados de Trichoderma spp. na emergência de plântulas e no crescimento de mudas de cambará (Gochnatia polymorpha. Utilizou-se, em casa de vegetação, substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado, sendo avaliados os efeitos de quatro isolados de trichoderma: TSM1 e TSM2 de Trichoderma viride, 2B2 e 2B22 de Trichoderma harzianum mais um mix preparado com a mistura desses quatro isolados, além de dois produtos comerciais à base de trichoderma. A análise dos dados permitiu concluir que os isolados de trichoderma testados não interferem na emergência das plântulas, mas os isolados 2B2 e 2B22 de T. harzianum apresentam potenciais como promotores de crescimento de mudas de cambará.

  4. Potency of six isolates of biocontrol agents endophytic Trichoderma against fusarium wilt on banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taribuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistance against fusarium wilt. Endophytic Trichoderma was obtained from healthy roots of banana from three regencies in Yogyakarta, namely Trichoderma harzianum.swn-1, T. harzianum.swn-2, T. harzianum.psr-1, T. asperrellum, T. gamsii, and T. koningiopsis. Research on induced resintance was conducted in the greenhouse with polybag using Completely Randomized Design with 14 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that the ability of Trichoderma gamsii antagonism against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was 60.61%. T. asperellum and T. harzianum.swn-2 could suppress this disease resulted in disease intensity of 8.33% which categorize as resistant. Trichoderma harzianum.psr-1 was significantly different in stimulating plant vegetative growth. Induced resistance by using endophytic Trichoderma spp. against  F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense showed increase in total phenolic compounds on the third and fourth weeks as well as peroxidase activity on the third, fourth and fifth weeks.  Observation of lignification on  the fifth week  showed that lignification occurred in root xylem

  5. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, W M; Samuels, G J; Ismaiel, A; Voglmayr, H

    2013-12-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13 phylogenetic species with little or no phenotypic differentiation. This is the first use of acl1 in Trichoderma phylogenetics. The typification of T. viridescens s.str. is clarified and Hypocrea viridescens is replaced by the new name T. paraviridescens. Besides these two species, eleven are phylogenetically recognised and T. olivascens, T. viridarium, T. virilente, T. trixiae, T. viridialbum, T. appalachiense, T. neosinense, T. composticola, T. nothescens and T. sempervirentis are formally described and illustrated. Several species produce yellow diffusing pigment on cornmeal dextrose agar, particularly after storage at 15 °C, while T. olivascens is characterised by the formation of an olivaceous pigment. The results are compared with earlier publications on this group of species.

  6. Metabolites of Trichoderma species isolated from damp building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Renaud, Justin B; Barasubiye, Tharcisse; Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

    2017-07-01

    Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores and spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mould exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride, and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T. citrinoviride. Trichoderma koningiopsis produced several koninginins (7-10), trikoningin KA V, and the 11-residue lipopeptaibols trikoningin KB I and trikoningin KB II. Trichoderma atroviride biosynthesized a mixture of 19-residue trichorzianine-like peptaibols, whereas T. harzianum produced 18-residue trichokindin-like peptaibols and the 11-residue harzianin HB I that was subsequently identified from the studied T. citrinoviride strain. Two α-pyrones, 6-pentyl-pyran-2-one (11) and an oxidized analog (12), were produced by both T. atroviride and T. harzianum. Aside from exposure to low molecular weight natural products, inhalation of Trichoderma spores and mycelial fragments may result in exposure to membrane-disrupting peptaibols. This investigation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the biologically active natural products produced by fungi commonly found in damp buildings.

  7. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Widyastuti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed to measure the distribution and intensity of root rot disease of Acacia spp. in the urban forest at the campus of Gadjah Mada University, to isolate and identify the causal organism and to select Trichoderma sp. as biological agent for controlling the disease. The pathogenicity of the causal organism was tested using Crotalaria juncea L. and trunk of A. mangium Willd. (10 cm diameter, 8 cm length as indicator plant. The ability of Trichoderma sp. as antagonist was tested in vitro. It was concluded that the pathogen of the root rot disease was Ganoderma philippii. The pathogen attacked for species of Acacia spp. in the location namely A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. oraria, and A. crassicarpa. Of the total individual trees of those species in the campus, as much as 38.6%, 22.2%, and 66.7% were attacked by the root rot pathogen respectively. Of the 20 Trichoderma spp. isolate capable to inhibit the pathogen in vitro, three isolates were found as promising agents for biological control of the pathogen. The promising isolates were T. resei/T23, T. koningii/T1, and T. koningii/T16 with inhibition effectivity of 94.58%; 93.66%; and 91.76% respectively. Key words: biological control, red root-rot disease, Trichoderma, acacia

  8. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF Trichoderma ISOLATES FOR VIRULENCE EFFICACY ON Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Otadoh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma has been widely studied for their biocontrol ability, but their use as biocontrol agents in agriculture is limited due to the unpredictable efficiency which is affected by biotic and abiotic factors in soil. Isolates of Trichoderma from Embu soils were evaluated for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli., in vitro and promote seedling growth in the greenhouse. Bioassays were run using dual cultures and diffusible compound production analysis. The Trichoderma isolates significantly (p

  10. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of extracellularly synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles by a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus Bipolaris tetramera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Faria; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam; Singh, Sarika; Priya, Shivam; Verma, Smita Rastogi

    2015-02-27

    Particulates of nanometers size have occupied a significant area in the field of medicinal and agricultural purposes due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and exceptional physicochemical, electronic and mechanical properties. Myconanotechnology, an interface between mycology and nanotechnology is budding nowadays for nanoparticle-fabrication using fungus or its metabolites. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus B. tetramera KF934408 from rhizospheric soil. This phosphatase releasing fungus was subjected to extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles by redox reaction. Silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The formulated AgNPs were irregular shaped with a size ranging between 54.78 nm to 73.49 nm whereas AuNPs were spherical or hexagonal, with a size of 58.4 and 261.73 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were assessed for their antibacterial and antifungal efficacy. The results showed effective antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aeroginosa and Trichoderma sp. at higher concentrations, however, AuNPs possessed only moderate antibacterial efficacy while they found no antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity analysis of nanoparticles on J774 and THP1 α cell lines revealed the dose dependence in case of AgNPs, while AuNPs were non-toxic at both low and high doses. Furthermore, significant elevation of intracellular ROS was observed after 4 h of incubation with both the nanoparticles. The capping of fungal proteins on the particulates might be involved in the activities demonstrated by these inert metal nanoparticles. In conclusion, the findings showed that the metal nanoparticles synthesized by fungus B. tetramera could be used as an antimicrobial agents as well as cost effective and nontoxic immunomodulatory delivery vehicle.

  11. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  12. The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora as a genetic model to study fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kück, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent experimental systems due to their short life cycles as well as easy and safe manipulation in the laboratory. They form three-dimensional structures with numerous different cell types and have a long tradition as genetic model organisms used to unravel basic mechanisms underlying eukaryotic cell differentiation. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is a model system for sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation. S. macrospora is homothallic, i.e., self-fertile, easily genetically tractable, and well suited for large-scale genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Specific features of its life cycle and the availability of a developmental mutant library make it an excellent system for studying cellular differentiation at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on recent developments in identifying gene and protein regulatory networks governing perithecia formation. A number of tools have been developed to genetically analyze developmental mutants and dissect transcriptional profiles at different developmental stages. Protein interaction studies allowed us to identify a highly conserved eukaryotic multisubunit protein complex, the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex and its role in sexual development. We have further identified a number of proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of fruiting body development. Furthermore, we review the involvement of metabolic processes from both primary and secondary metabolism, and the role of nutrient recycling by autophagy in perithecia formation. Our research has uncovered numerous players regulating multicellular development in S. macrospora. Future research will focus on mechanistically understanding how these players are orchestrated in this fungal model system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic analysis reveals diversity and genetic relationship among Trichoderma isolates from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Oweisi, Fatma A; Edwards, Simon G; Al-Nadabi, Hamed; Al-Fahdi, Ahmed M

    2015-07-28

    Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi in soil. However, little information is available concerning the diversity of Trichoderma in soil with no previous history of cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate the most common species and the level of genetic relatedness of Trichoderma species from uncultivated soil in relation to cultivated soil and potting media. A total of 24, 15 and 13 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from 84 potting media samples, 45 cultivated soil samples and 65 uncultivated soil samples, respectively. Analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the translation elongation factor gene (EF1) indicated the presence of 9 Trichoderma species: T. harzianum (16 isolates), T. asperellum (13), T. citrinoviride (9), T. orientalis (3), T. ghanense (3), T. hamatum (3), T. longibrachiatum (2), T. atroviride (2), and T. viride (1). All species were found to occur in potting media samples, while five Trichoderma species were recovered from the cultivated soils and four from the uncultivated soils. AFLP analysis of the 52 Trichoderma isolates produced 52 genotypes and 993 polymorphic loci. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were found within populations of Trichoderma species (H = 0.0780 to 0.2208). Analysis of Molecular Variance indicated the presence of very low levels of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.0002 to 0.0139) among populations of the same Trichoderma species obtained from the potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil. The study provides evidence for occurrence of Trichoderma isolates in soil with no previous history of cultivation. The lack of genetic differentiation among Trichoderma populations from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil suggests that some factors could have been responsible for moving Trichoderma propagules among the three substrates. The study reports for the first time the presence of 4 Trichoderma species in Oman: T

  14. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from the...

  15. Effect of infesting soil with Trichoderma harzianum and amendment with coffee pulp on survival of Armillaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Jeger, M.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Six isolates of Trichoderma were screened for antagonism to Armillaria in tea stem sections buried in the soil. The inability of Armillaria to invade Trichoderma-colonized stem sections and the reduction of its viability in the plant materials following invasion of these by Trichoderma were used as

  16. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Samuels, G.J.; Ismaiel, A.; Voglmayr, H.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13

  17. Aplikasi Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Hasil Tiga Varietas Kentang Di Dataran Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Rifqi; Maghfoer, Mochammad Dawam; Wardiyati, Tatik

    2013-01-01

    Faktor kelestarian lingkungan menyebabkan ekstensifikasi lahan pertanian kentang di dataran tinggi tidak dapat dilakukan, sehingga dataran medium menjadi alternatif eksplorasi lahan budidaya kentang. Untuk meningkatkan produktivitas kentang di dataran medium disamping pemilihan bibit yang tepat adalah dengan menggunakan Trichoderma harzianum. Trichoderma harzianum selain berperan antagonis terhadap pathogen, juga berperan dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman melalui produksi auksin dan pros...

  18. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Sri Hastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition.

  19. Genotoxicity of the cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitor sulindac sulfide in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Genotoxicidade de sulfeto de sulindaco em Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID with chemopreventive effect on human cancer cells. Due to the involvement of the somatic recombination in the carcinogenic process, sulindac sulfide's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by the Homozygotization Index (HI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The drug's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes from heterozygous diploid cells. Sulindac sulfide at 175 and 350 µM concentrations induced mitotic recombination in A. nidulans diploid cells, with HI values for genetic markers higher than 2.0, and significantly different from control HI values. The recombinogenic effect of NSAID was related to the induction of DNA strand breaks and cell cycle alterations. Sulindac sulfide's carcinogenic potential was also discussed.Sulfeto de sulindaco é um antiinflamatório não-esteroidal com efeitos quimiopreventivos em cânceres humanos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial recombinagênico do sulfeto de sulindaco em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans. O efeito recombinagênico da droga foi demonstrado através da homozigotização de genes recessivos, previamente presentes em heterozigose. Os valores de HI (Índice de Homozigotização para diferentes marcadores genéticos apresentaram-se maiores do que 2,0 e significativamente diferentes dos valores obtidos em sulfeto de sulindaco ausência da droga (controle. O potencial recombinagênico do sulfeto de sulindaco foi associado à indução de quebras na molécula do DNA e a alterações no ciclo celular. O potencial carcinogênico do sulfeto de sulindaco foi discutido no presente trabalho.

  20. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  1. Isolation and expression of two polyketide synthase genes from Trichoderma harzianum 88 during mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Tan, Chong; Song, Jinzhu; Yang, Qian; Yu, Lijie; Li, Xinling

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete sequence analysis in formation of pksT-1 (5669bp) and pksT-2 (7901bp) suggests that pksT-1 exhibited features of a non-reducing type I fungal PKS, whereas pksT-2 exhibited features of a highly reducing type I fungal PKS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the isolated genes are differentially regulated in Trichoderma harzianum 88 during challenge with three fungal plant pathogens, which suggests that they participate in the response of Trichoderma harzianum 88 to fungal plant pathogens. Furthermore, disruption of the pksT-2 encoding ketosynthase-acyltransferase domains through Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation indicated that pksT-2 is a key factor for conidial pigmentation in Trichoderma harzianum 88. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement of...

  3. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling wilt disease of pistachio caused by Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotoohiyan Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio.

  4. Visualization of the endocytic pathway in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using an EGFP-fused plasma membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Nakahama, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Jun-ya; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Endocytosis is an important process for cellular activities. However, in filamentous fungi, the existence of endocytosis has been so far elusive. In this study, we used AoUapC-EGFP, the fusion protein of a putative uric acid-xanthine permease with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Aspergillus oryzae, to examine whether the endocytic process occurs or not. Upon the addition of ammonium into the medium the fusion protein was internalized from the plasma membrane. The internalization of AoUapC-EGFP was completely blocked by sodium azide, cold, and cytochalasin A treatments, suggesting that the internalization possesses the general features of endocytosis. These results demonstrate the occurrence of endocytosis in filamentous fungi. Moreover, we discovered that the endosomal compartments appeared upon the induction of endocytosis and moved in a microtubule-dependent manner

  5. The Anti-Fasciolasis Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Trichoderma harzianum and Their Improvement of the Anti-Fasciolasis Drug Triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelElah A. Banaja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The ability to uncover the structure and function of biosystems at the nanoscale, stimulates research leading to improvement in biology, biotechnology, medicine and healthcare. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Therefore, this work aimed to isolate fungal strains from Taif soil samples, which have the ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum, when challenged with silver nitrate solution, accumulated silver nanoparticles (AgNBs on the surface of its cell wall in 72 h. These nanoparticles, dislodged by ultrasonication, showed an absorption peak at 420 nm in a UV-visible spectrum, corresponding to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron micrographs of dislodged nanoparticles in aqueous solution showed the production of reasonably monodisperse silver nanoparticles (average particle size: 4.66 nm by the fungus. The percentage of non hatching eggs treated with the Triclabendazole drug was 69.67%, while this percentage increased to 89.67% in combination with drug and AgNPs.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1201 - Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1201 Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 is exempt from the requirement of a...

  7. Biocontrol efficacy of different isolates of Trichoderma against soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol abilities of water-soluble and volatile metabolites of three different isolates of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and Trichoderma spp.) against soil borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed for the first time that mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was 74.4-67.8% with water-soluble metabolites as compared to 15.3-10.6% with volatile metabolites in vitro. In vivo antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was evaluated on bean plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We observed that T. asperellum was more effective and consistent, lowering disease incidence up to 19.3% in laboratory and 30.5% in green house conditions. These results showed that three isolates of Trichoderma could be used as effective biocontrol agents against R. solani.

  8. Potential of Trichoderma species on Helminthosporium causing leaf spot on cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2008-01-01

    The cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is one among the plant material of the export industries in Sri Lanka. The export quality of C. lutescens was declined due to the repeated occurrence of a leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium. Widespread occurrence of the leaf spot affected the cane palm production and succumb it to a huge setback in the floriculture industry in Sri Lanka. Being an export industry eco-friendly means of disease control was the prime focus for a better management of such vulnerable disease. Trichoderma is a potential bio agent, which has definite role in suppressing the inoculum of Helminthosporium sp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control naturally established leaf spot in cane palm under field conditions. Three isolates of T. viride and two isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated. All the Trichoderma species performed significantly in reducing the disease incidence. T. viride + T. harzianum combination (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) was the best compared to chemical in decreasing the mean disease severity index and improving the frequency of healthy plants. The colour of the leaves regained due to the application of Trichoderma sp. The results revealed that leaf spot incidence was lowered significantly in cane palms treated with Trichoderma species followed by treatment with combination of Trichoderma sp. and fungicides. The fungicide mixture (hexaconozole 50 g/l + Isoprothiolane 400 g/l) failed to lower the disease incidence and had no effect in suppressing the inocula of Helminthosporium, although recommended. Mixing of Trichoderma species with fungicide did not exhibit any additive effect. The combination of different species of Trichoderma would target species of Helminthosporium that exist as a complex group under field conditions. The results also proved that the existence of heterogeneity in Helminthosporium that could be tackled and effectively controlled by a combination of different species of the bio

  9. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ricardo

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
    del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interacción entre alqunos
    de los aislamientos de T. harzianum y T. hamatum y el patógéno R. solani rnanifestado por el enrollamiento, penetración, fragmentación y lisis de las hifas del patoqeno.
    Los aislamientos de Trichoderma causaron un retraso en la aparición de los síntomas, una reducción en la severidad de la
    enfermedad. y un menor número de plantas enfermas ocasionadas por F. oxysporum f. sp, cucumerinum en pepino cohombro, y su efecto fue superior en todos los casos a la
    aplicación del fungicida benomil. Los aislamientos del antagonista aumentaron la qerminación de las semillas, la emergencia y el tamaño de las plántulas y redujeron la severidad de la enfermedad ocasionada por R. solani en fríjol.Several experiments were conducted to study the antagonism of 17 isolates of Trichoderma from Colombian soils with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. In "in vitro" tests, a high antagonism between colonies was found being greater the antagonism of Trichoderma with R. solani. At the microscopic level it was observed a great interaction between T. harzianum and T. hamatum with R. solani in such a way that the hyphae of the pathogen showed coiling, penetration, fragmentation and lysis. The Trichoderma isolates caused reduction in the disease severity, in the incubation period and a lower number of diseased cucumber plants when they were inoeulated with F. oxysporum f. sp, cucumerinum and these effects were better than Benomyl

  10. Ecological plasticity of Trichoderma fungi in leached chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistova, I. D.; Senchakova, T. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    The autecological properties of Trichoderma fungi ecotypes isolated from the leached chernozem of the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia have been studied. We were the first who carried out the complex study of the synecological relations of micromycetes of such kinds in a system including the soil, microbial community, and plants, i.e., their relations with soil saprotrophic fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, plants, and pathogenic fungi. It was shown that the ecological plasticity of the Trichoderma genus in the soil of this zone is determined by its growth rate, the optimum pH and temperature, the biosynthesis of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, the biological action of mycotoxins, and the ability for parasitism. The efficiency of the introduction of Trichoderma species typical and atypical for the leached chernozem into this soil and their influence on the structure of the microbial community were evaluated. The T. pseudokoningii ecotype, which produces cellulolytic enzymes, is very promising for industrial biotechnology, and the T. harzianum ecotype can be used in soil biotechnology for the biocontrol of chernozem. The addition of a commercial trichodermin preparation into the chernozem damages the structure of its microbial community.

  11. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  12. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; Li Manman; Deng Shengsong; Hu Huajia; Wang Huai; Li Fenghe

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  13. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe

    2012-04-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  14. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-04-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar(™)) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment.

  15. New insights into the organization and regulation of trichothecene biosynthetic genes in Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, species of the genus Trichoderma can produce numerous structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SM). This ability is conferred by the presence of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes. Species of Trichoderma in the Brevicompactum clade are able to produce trichothecenes, a f...

  16. Sorghum bagasse as substrate for cellulase production by submerged and solid-state cultures of Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintilă

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum bagasse was used as cellulosic substrate in submerged and solid-state cultures of Trichoderma for cellulase production. Submerged liquid cultures (SLC were obtained by inoculation of Mandels media containing 1% cellulose with spores suspension of Trichoderma. Solid-state cultures (SSC were carried out in Erlenmayer flasks, where the substrate was distributed 1 cm layers. Comparing the yields of cellulases produced by Trichoderma strains in the systems applied in this study, using as substrate sorghum bagasse, we found the solid-state cultures as the system to produce the highest cellulase yields. The local strain of T. viride CMIT3.5. express high productivity in SSC system in laboratory conditions. The cellulolytic enzymes have maximum activity at 50oC, pH 4,8. The results recommend solid-state cultures of Trichoderma on sorghum bagasse as systems for producing cellulolytic products with higher activity than submerged cultures of Trichoderma on the same substrate.

  17. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  18. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  19. Massive Changes in Genome Architecture Accompany the Transition to Self-Fertility in the filamentous Fungus Neurospora tetrasperma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Christoper; Stajich, Jason; Jacobson, David; Nativ, Donald; Lapidus, Alla; Foster, Brian; Aerts, Andrea; Riley, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor; Taylor, John

    2011-05-16

    A large region of suppressed recombination surrounds the sex-determining locus of the self-fertile fungus Neurospora tetrasperma. This region encompasses nearly one-fifth of the N. tetrasperma genome and suppression of recombination is necessary for self-fertility. The similarity of the N. tetrasperma mating chromosome to plant and animal sex chromosomes and its recent origin (5 MYA), combined with a long history of genetic and cytological research, make this fungus an ideal model for studying the evolutionary consequences of suppressed recombination. Here we compare genome sequences from two N. tetrasperma strains of opposite mating type to determine whether structural rearrangements are associated with the nonrecombining region and to examine the effect of suppressed recombination for the evolution of the genes within it. We find a series of three inversions encompassing the majority of the region of suppressed recombination and provide evidence for two different types of rearrangement mechanisms: the recently proposed mechanism of inversion via staggered single-strand breaks as well as ectopic recombination between transposable elements. In addition, we show that the N. tetrasperma mat a mating-type region appears to be accumulating deleterious substitutions at a faster rate than the other mating type (mat A) and thus may be in the early stages of degeneration.

  20. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  1. Pengaruh Penggunaan Fungisida Sintetis Dan Trichoderma SP. Secara Tunggal Atau Gabungan Terhadap Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Daun Padi Effect of Synthetic Fungicidal Application Alone or Mixed with Trichoderma SP. on Sheat Blight of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Pambudi; Soesanto, Loekas; Wachjadi, Muljo

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed at knowing the application effect of synthetic fungicide tebuconazole 25% alone or mixed with Trichoderma sp. on sheath blight disease and rice yield. The research was carried out at the Plant Disease Laboratory and the experimental field, the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Jenderal Soedirman. Split Plot Design was used with Trichoderma sp. as main factor consisted of without and with antagonistic Trichoderma sp. applied on rice at 15, 30, and 45 and 55 days aft...

  2. Identification of Trichoderma Species Using Partial Sequencing of nrRNA and tef1α Genes with Report of Trichoderma capillare in Iran Mycoflore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi Mehrabi-Koushki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichoderma is monophyletic (16, with teleomorphs in the genus Hypocrea. Some cryptic Trichoderma species are hidden within morphological species complexes and can only be elucidated by in-depth molecular studies. The genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR using several non-linked genes are needed to give accurate identification of Trichoderma spp. (6. Although the ITS region has been successfully used for species delimitation of Trichoderma and Hypocrea (5, but, it is not sufficient for accurate identification of some species. Translation elongation factor 1α gene (tef1α is a reliable barcode for Fusarium (9, Trichoderma and Hypocrea (5. Here, ITS and tef1α genes were selected as candidate DNA barcodes to identify Trichoderma isolates. Material and methods: 40 Trichoderma isolates used in this study were from a fungal collection archived in the plant pathology laboratory in the Department of Plant Protection at the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Spore suspension (105/ml prepared from single spore cultures of each Trichoderma isolates was added into flasks containing PDB medium. The flasks were shaken at 180 rpm for 10-15 days at 28ºC and the biomass was harvested by passing through sterilized filter papers. The mycelia were freeze-dried (Freeze-Dryer, Alpha 1-2LD Plus, Christ and powdered in the mortar containing liquid nitrogen by pestle. The genomic DNA was isolated according to modified method established by Raeder and Broda (21. The universal primers (ITS1–F; 5'-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3' and ITS4-R; 5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3' were employed for amplifying around 700bp from 18s, ITS1, 5.8s, ITS2 and 28s rDNA regions (27. The specific primers (tef1α71-f; 5'-CAAAATGGGTAAGGAGGASAAGAC-3' and tef1997-R; 5'-CAGTACCGGCRGCRATRATSAG-3' were employed for amplifying around 950bp from tef1α gene (24. PCR products were purified through ethanol-precipitation method and then sequenced using forward and

  3. Biocontrol with Trichoderma species for the management of postharvest crown rot of banana

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    G. Sangeetha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae cause the postharvest crown rot disease complex of banana. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. from the soil of organic banana orchards (‘native isolates’ and eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. from culture collections (‘introduced isolates’ on the two pathogens. The native and introduced Trichoderma spp. had varied antagonistic effects against the two pathogens. Eight Trichoderma spp. isolates effective in the in vitro assays were evaluated singly on fruits both at room temperature and in cold storage. Single antagonists did not satisfactorily control crown rot on the fruits as compared with the fungicide carbendazim. However, two isolates of T. viride, one of T. harzianum and one of T. koningii performed well when applied singly, and these were selected for evaluation in isolate mixtures. There was very little antagonism between these isolates. Of 11 two-way, three-way and four-way mixtures of these isolates, the four-way and a three-way mixtures reduced crown rot incidence, both at room temperature and in cold storage, giving better control than carbendazim. The study identified consortia of compatible Trichoderma antagonists with superior biocontrol potential for the management of the postharvest crown rot complex of banana.

  4. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  5. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  6. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

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    Prachy Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. RESULTS: Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for

  7. Transient disruption of non-homologous end-joining facilitates targeted genome manipulations in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2008-01-01

    influences subsequent analyses of the manipulated strain. Our system will facilitate construction of large numbers of defined mutations in A. nidulans. Moreover, as the system can likely be adapted to other filamentous fungi, we expect it will be particularly beneficial in species where NHEJ cannot...... be restored by sexual crossing. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  8. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  9. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  10. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn, 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates, T. asperellum (425, T. hamatum (397, T. virens (340, T. koningiopsis (248, T. brevicompactum (73, T. atroviride (73, T. fertile (26, T. longibrachiatum (22, T. pleuroticola (16, T. erinaceum (16, T. oblongisporum (2, T. polysporum (2, T. spirale (2, T. capillare (2, T. velutinum (2, and T. saturnisporum (1. T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14 and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46. We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province, not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  11. The Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Cadmium on Tolerance Index and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, as a bioabsorbant to ameliorate the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety ‘Sahra’, a factorial pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. Trichoderma harzianum withtwo levels (with and without inoculation and cadmium nitrate with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L-1 were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed that there was a significant interaction between Trichoderma and cadmium nitrate in terms of biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, spike number per plant and seed number per spike. Mean comparisons showed that Trichoderma inoculation at all Cd levels significantly improved both biological and straw yields. Trichoderma at 50 and 100 mg.L-1 of Cd also increased the spike number per plant (up to 120 and 66%, respectively significantly. Increasing Cd levels decreased seed yield (19%, 1000 seed weight (18%, partitioning coefficient (57% and tolerance index (23% significantly. Inoculation of Trichoderma into growth medium had a significant effect on seed yield and tolerance index (up to 17 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, Trichoderma harzianum inoculation at lower concentrations of Cd (50 and 100 mg.L-1 could be effective to improve growth parameters of barley plant.

  12. Ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Thomas; Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-03-12

    Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels. In aerobic conditions it was shown that both the biomass production and the specific growth rate were affected by the presence of ethanol. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration, above which cells could not grow, was predicted to be 72 g/L. Under limited aeration conditions the ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 50 g/L ethanol. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities were affected to a lesser extent by the presence of ethanol, while the ethanol inhibitory effect appears to be more severe at elevated temperatures. Moreover, when the produced ethanol was partially removed from the broth, it led to an increase in fermenting ability of the fungus up to 22.5%. The addition of F. oxysporum's system was shown to increase the fermentation of pretreated wheat straw by 11%, in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assessment of ethanol tolerance levels of F. oxysporum on aerobic growth, on lignocellulolytic activities and on fermentative performance confirmed its biotechnological potential for the production of bioethanol. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of this fungus could be exploited within the biorefinery concept as their ethanol resistance is similar to that of the commercial enzymes broadly used in large scale fermentations and therefore, may substantially contribute to a rational design of a bioconversion process involving F. oxysporum. The SSCF experiments on liquefied wheat straw rich in hemicellulose indicated that the

  13. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  14. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  15. Regulation of morphogenesis and biocontrol properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET protein, Vel1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2010-04-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species.

  16. Antagonism of Trichoderma species on Cladosporium herbarum and their enzimatic characterization Antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma sobre Cladosporium herbarum e suas caracterização enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The verrucose caused by Cladosporium herbarum reduces production and quality of Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims., a largely consumed tropical fruit. This work aimed to investigate the antagonism of Trichoderma species (T. polysporum, T. koningii, T. viride and T. harzianum against Cladosporium herbarum, and to study the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by the pathogen and the antagonists. The results showed considerable antagonistic potential for the biocontrol of C. herbarum isolates by all Trichoderma species, except T. koningii. The most distinguished effect was observed for T. polysporum. In relation to the pattern of esterase obtained by electrophoresis in poliacrylamyde gel, the major activity presented by the isolates was observed after five days of incubation. The C. herbarum isolates produced extracellular enzymes, lipase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease, all possibly related to the infection process. Amylase excretion, not known to be associated with phytopathogens, was detected in Trichoderma species, but not in C. herbarum. In addition to amylase, all Trichoderma species tested produced also extracellular cellulase and pectinase, except T. koningii in relation to the latter enzyme. The demonstration of various esterase isoenzymes in zymograms of the Trichoderma species and C. herbarum isolates was markedly improved by washing the mycelia with detergents or EDTA. This fact suggested that a major fraction of extracelular enzymes may remain attached to outside fungal cell wall after being excreted.O maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims., um fruto tropical amplamente consumido, tem sua produção e a qualidade dos seus frutos reduzidos pela verrugose causada por Cladosporium herbarum. Este trabalho objetivou investigar o antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma (T. polysporum, T.koningii, T. viride e T. harzianum contra C. herbarum, e estudar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares pelo fitopatógeno e

  17. Dual Functions of Lip6 and Its Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in the Oleaginous Fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Song, Yuanda

    2018-03-21

    Although multiple roles of lipases have been reported in yeasts and microalgae, the functions of lipases have not been studied in oleaginous filamentous fungi. Lipase Lip6 has been reported in the oleaginous filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides with the consensus lipase motif GXSXG and the typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4 -D. To demonstrate that Lip6 might play dual roles as a lipase and an acyltransferase, we performed site-directed mutagenesis in the lipase motif and the acyltransferase motif of Lip6. Mutation in the lipase motif increased cell biomass by 12%-18% and promoted lipid accumulation by 9%-24%, while mutation in the acyltransferase motif induced lipid degradation. In vitro, purified Lip6 had a slight lipase activity but had a stronger phospholipid:DAG acyltransferase activity. Enzyme activity assays in vivo and phospholipid synthesis pathway analysis suggested that phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl ethanolamine can be the supplier of a fatty acyl moiety to form TAG in M. circinelloides.

  18. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species for diversity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites provide an ideal molecular markers system to screen, characterize and evaluate genetic diversity of several fungal species. Currently, there is very limited information on the genetic diversity of antagonistic Trichoderma species as determined using a range of molecular markers. In this study, expressed and whole genome sequences available in public database were used to investigate the occurrence, relative abundance and relative density of SSRs in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species: Trichoderma atroviride, T. harzianum, T. reesei, T. virens and T. asperellum. Fifteen SSRs loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of twenty isolates of Trichoderma spp. from different geographical regions of India. Results indicated that relative abundance and relative density of SSRs were higher in T. asperellum followed by T. reesei and T. atroviride. Tri-nucleotide repeats (80.2%) were invariably the most abundant in all species. The abundance and relative density of SSRs were not influenced by the genome sizes and GC content. Out of eighteen primer sets, only 15 primer pairs showed successful amplification in all the test species. A total of 24 alleles were detected and five loci were highly informative with polymorphism information content values greater than 0.40, these markers provide useful information on genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which, in turn, can exploit for establishing conservation strategy for antagonistic Trichoderma isolates.

  19. Trichoderma asperellum reconsidered: two cryptic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of a world-wide collection of strains of Trichoderma asperellum using multilocus genealogies of four genomic regions (tef1, rbp2, act, ITS1, 2, 5.8s), sequence polymorphism-derived (SPD) markers, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ...

  20. REKLAMASI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG DENGAN PENANAMAN LCC DAN AGEN HAYATI TRICHODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With this reclamation  is expected that the land will be well and restore its function, so that the productivity of the soil can increase, resulting in added value for the environment and create thins are better.  The purpose of this research is to utilize  Centrosoma pubescens (Cp (LCC and Trichoderma as media to improve physical and chemical properties of soil by way of reclamation in former coal mine area. This research has been done on reclaimed damaged and poor nutrient land in 2015, with LCC planting and the Tricoderma biological agents to improve soil physical and chemical properties. Planting of  LCC and giving of trichoderma biological agent with duration of 6 months observation (deadly LCC plant after composting is done analysis of physical and chemical properties of soil after treatment to see the change then compared with data of laboratory result before being treated in the field the result obtained is analyzed with using the complete randomized and Least Significance Different test. Based on the results of the study, LCC and Trichoderma have a very significant effect on the variables of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, C Organic, H +, P2O5, K2O, Total N, C/N ratio, CEC and significantly unaffected pH soil, physical properties of soil such as Bulk Density, Porosity, Water content, texture, consistency and soil stabilization.  Giving LCC and Trichoderma improves soil chemical properties such as; Ca, Mg, Na, K2O, C / N Ratio. Giving LCC improves chemical properties such as total N and C / N ratio while Trichoderma improves soil chemical properties of Al, C Organic, H +, C / N Ratio and CEC. Reklamasi dilakukan untuk menjaga lahan agar tidak labil dan lebih produktif. Dengan reklamasi ini diharapkan tanah menjadi baik dan mengembalikan fungsinya sehingga produktifitas tanah dapat meningkat,  menghasilkan nilai tambah bagi lingkungan dan menciptakan keadaan yang jauh lebih baik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memanfaatkan tanaman LCC dan

  1. Trichoderma theobromicola and T. paucisporum: two new species isolated from cacao in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Suarez, Carmen; Solis, Karina; Holmes, Keith A; Thomas, Sarah E; Ismaiel, Adnan; Evans, Harry C

    2006-04-01

    Trichoderma theobromicola and T. paucisporum spp. nov. are described. Trichoderma theobromicola was isolated as an endophyte from the trunk of a healthy cacao tree (Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae) in Amazonian Peru; it sporulates profusely on common mycological media. Trichoderma paucisporum is represented by two cultures that were obtained in Ecuador from cacao pods partially infected with frosty pod rot, Moniliophthora roreri; it sporulates sporadically and most cultures remain sterile on common media and autoclaved rice. It sporulates more reliably on synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) but produces few conidia. Trichoderma theobromicola was reintroduced into cacao seedlings through shoot inoculation and was recovered from stems but not from leaves, indicating that it is an endophytic species. Both produced a volatile/diffusable antibiotic that inhibited development of M. roreri in vitro and on-pod trials. Neither species demonstrated significant direct in vitro mycoparasitic activity against M. roreri.

  2. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  3. Mycoparasitism studies of Trichoderma species against three phytopathogenic fungi: evaluation of antagonism and hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualhato, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Brandão, Renata Silva; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2013-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are used for biocontrol of several plant pathogens. However, their efficient interaction with the host needs to be accompanied by production of secondary metabolites and cell wall-degrading enzymes. Three parameters were evaluated after interaction between four Trichoderma species and plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum were the most effective antagonists against the pathogens. Most of the Trichoderma species produced toxic volatile metabolites, having significant effects on growth and development of the plant pathogens. When these species were grown in liquid cultures with cell walls from these plant pathogens, they produced and secreted β-1,3-glucanase, NAGAse, chitinase, acid phosphatase, acid proteases and alginate lyase.

  4. Trichoderma asperelloides Spores Downregulate dectin1/2 and TLR2 Receptors of Mice Macrophages and Decrease Candida parapsilosis Phagocytosis Independent of the M1/M2 Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa G. dos Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of pesticides to control pests in agriculture has promoted several issues relating to environment. As chemical pesticides remain controversial, biocontrol agents originating from fungi could be an alternative. Among them, we highlight biocontrol agents derived from the fungi genus Trichoderma, which have been documented in limiting the growth of other phytopathogenic fungus in the roots and leaves of several plant species. An important member of this genus is Trichoderma asperelloides, whose biocontrol agents have been used to promote plant growth while also treating soil diseases caused by microorganisms in both greenhouses and outdoor crops. To evaluate the safety of fungal biological agents for human health, tests to detect potentially adverse effects, such as allergenicity, toxicity, infectivity and pathogenicity, are crucial. In addition, identifying possible immunomodulating properties of fungal biocontrol agents merits further investigation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of T. asperelloides spores in the internalization of Candida parapsilosis yeast by mice phagocytes, in order to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism of this interaction, as a model to understand possible in vivo effects of this fungus. For this, mice were exposed to a fungal spore suspension through-intraperitoneal injection, euthanized and cells from the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity were collected for functional, quantitative and phenotypic analysis, throughout analysis of membrane receptors gene expression, phagocytosis ability and cells immunophenotyping M1 (CCR7 and CD86 and M2 (CCR2 and CD206. Our analyses showed that phagocytes exposed to fungal spores had reduced phagocytic capacity, as well as a decrease in the quantity of neutrophils and monocytes in the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity. Moreover, macrophages exposed to T. asperelloides spores did not display the phenotypic profile M1/M2, and

  5. Manipulation of nitrogen leaching from tea field soil using a Trichoderma viride biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Zhou, Sining; Ma, Shuanglong; Jiang, Cancan; Wu, Shanghua; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing use of chemical fertilizers, negative environmental impacts have greatly increased as a result from agricultural fields. The fungus Trichoderma viride used as a biofertilizer can efficiently reduce nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from subtropical tea fields in southern China. In this paper, it was further found that T. viride biofertilizer could alleviate nitrogen (N) leaching in tea fields. Gross N leaching was 1.51 kg ha -1  year -1 with no external fertilizer input, but when 225 kg N ha -1  year -1 was applied, it increased to 12.38 kg ha -1  year -1 using T. viride biofertilizer but 53.46 kg ha -1  year -1 using urea. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified the factors responsible for N leaching to be soil nitrate concentration and soil interflow, simulated here using the water balance simulation model (WaSiM-ETH). Finally, mass-scale production of T. viride biofertilizer from waste reutilization using sweet potato starch wastewater and rice straw was found to be cost-effective and feasible. These procedures could be considered a best management practice to reduce N leaching from tea fields in subtropical areas of central China and to reduce pollution from other agricultural waste products.

  6. Effectiveness of biological control of Phytophthora capsici in pepper by Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem SEGARRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., one of the most widely grown vegetables worldwide, is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Many biocides have recently been banned in Europe because of human health and environmental concerns. Integrated pest management is a European priority, where biological control together with other agronomic practices should replace pesticide management of plant diseases in the future. Application of different concentrations of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 (the in T34 Biocontrol® on incidence of disease caused by P. capsici in pepper was studied. Different methods of application of the microbial control agent and inoculation of the pathogen were examined. T34 and etridiazole (Terrazole® were compared for their ability to suppress P. capsici. T34 reduced disease in most of the assayed situations (up to 71% disease reduction, while etridiazole was effective only when applied at the same time as the pathogen. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the different modes of action of T34 and etridiazole. T34 is a useful biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici in pepper.

  7. Effect of the Filamentous Fungus Mucor circinelloides On The Development of Eggs of the Rumen Fluke Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Fabián; Hernández, José A; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Pedreira, José; Sanchís, Jaime; Romasanta, Ángel; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Arias, María S

    2017-06-01

    Ruminants infected by Paramphistomidae flukes shed eggs in the feces, which pass through different stages in the environment until the infective stages (metacercariae) are reached. The activity of the soil fungus Mucor circinelloides on the development of eggs of the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi was presently tested with 3 probes, i.e., in petri plates, feces, and an aqueous environment (tubes). The effect of the fungus was assessed by recording the numbers of undeveloped, nonviable, and embryonated eggs. Nonviable eggs were considered when vacuolization occurred, the inner structures were not clearly observed, the eggshell was broken, or the embryo inside was destroyed. By considering the ability of hyphae of M. circinelloides to develop in the presence of C. daubneyi eggs, attach to their surface, and penetrate and destroy the inner embryo, this ovicidal effect was classified as type 3. After a period of 50 days, the percentage of undeveloped eggs in the feces of infected cattle was 40%; furthermore, 27% of the eggs were nonviable, and 33% were embryonated (1 miracidium inside). The addition of 4 doses of M. circinelloides spores directly onto the feces resulted in 9-31% undeveloped eggs, 38-60% nonviable eggs, and 9-21% embryonated eggs, and no statistical significances were obtained among the different doses. Placing the eggs of C. daubneyi into an aqueous solution containing 10 7 spores of M. circinelloides/ml for 29 days resulted in 43% undeveloped eggs, 40% nonviable eggs, and 17% embryonated eggs, whereas in the controls, the percentages were 48%, 12%, and 40%, respectively. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the spores of the fungus M. circinelloides in limiting the development of the eggs of the trematode C. daubneyi.

  8. Linking Hydrolysis Performance to Trichoderma reesei Cellulolytic Enzyme Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Petersen, Nanna; I. Jørgensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, e.g. by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study a multivariate...... approach, partial least squares regression, was used to see if it could help explain the correlation between enzyme profile and hydrolysis performance. Diverse enzyme mixtures were produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by exploiting various fermentation conditions and used for hydrolysis of washed...

  9. Mekanisme Parasitisme Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Fusarium Oxysporum Pada Semai Acacia Mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Tasik, Susanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Harjono

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) T. harzianum was used as bioc...

  10. Antagonist potential of Trichoderma indigenous isolates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... the severity of insects and pathogens attacks especially .... After 30-days of incubation at 26°C, the isolation of Trichoderma ... Percentage inhibition (I) of colony growth of P. palmivora was ..... In fact, our success in isolating.

  11. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (Bion® as resistance inducers in garlic (Allium sativum L. agains white rot Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez María A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inducers of biotic and abiotic resistance emerge as an alternative for the management of garlic white rot caused by the fungus Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. To evaluate the effect of these inducers on crop yield variables, final disease incidence (DI, the area under the curve of disease progress (AUDPC and variables associated with plant growth and yield of garlic, and experiment was set, using the fungi Trichoderma harzianum and T. koningiopsis with Bion® under field conditions in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications were incorporated. The treatments were conformed as follows: control, Trichoderma harzianum under commercial formulas Tricobiol® (Tri, Subiol® (S, T. koningiopsis (Tk, Bion® (B, T. koningiopsis + Bion (Tk+ B, Subiol Bion (S+B and Bion +Tricobiol (Tri+ B. The higher yields and growth variables correspond to those plants treated with Tk+ B treatment and coincided with some of the lowest AUDPC. The lower (DI was observed when applied Tk, Tk +B and Tri. These results indicated that the greatest protection against the disease was achieved with the combination of the antagonist with the chemical reflected in a decrease of AUDPC and a delay in the peak of infection. The total yield of garlic increased in the treatments in which both inducers and that stimulated plant productivity and thus the development and defense.

  12. Extraction and Identification of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Trichoderma atroviridae (6022 and Evaluating of their Antifungal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahiri Tabarestani

    2017-08-01

    . According to mass spectra library, 61 compounds such as some alkanes, alkenes, phenolic, alcoholic, terpenoid and aromatic compounds have been detected by 4 processes that among them, alkanes had the highest frequency. Many important compounds with the antifungal effect such as iso-amyl-alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 1-pentanol, stearic acid, palmitic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate have been identified. So, inhibitory effects of isolate 6022 are related to these compounds. Conclusions: Secondary metabolites of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma have been involved in different biological processes such as biocontrol or communication between fungi and their living environment. These fungi have antibiotic activity against plant pathogenic fungi, so the requirement for monitoring Trichoderma VOCs profiles has been offered. The results showed that isolate 6022 has the potential for controlling above mentioned pathogens so it can be the suitable alternative for chemical toxins. This method is simple for extraction of the secondary metabolites, under laboratory conditions and studied in Iran for the first time.

  13. Filament Substructures and their Interrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Martin, S. F.; Engvold, O.

    The main structural components of solar filaments, their spines, barbs, and legs at the extreme ends of the spine, are illustrated from recent high-resolution observations. The thread-like structures appear to be present in filaments everywhere and at all times. They are the fundamental elements of solar filaments. The interrelation of the spines, barbs and legs are discussed. From observations, we present a conceptual model of the magnetic field of a filament. We suggest that only a single physical model is needed to explain filaments in a continuous spectrum represented by active region filaments at one end and quiescent filaments at the other end.

  14. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis: from inhibition to protection against phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwaly eRamadan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defence pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defence-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin, camalexin, and increased expression of defence related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence.The prominent headspace volatile of T. asperellum IsmT5 was identified to be 6-pentyl-α-pyrone, which was solely applied to A. thaliana to verify the growth and defence reactions. Most noticeable is that A. thaliana preexposed to 6PP showed significantly reduced symptoms when challenged with Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola, indicating that defence-activated plants subsequently became more resistant to pathogen attack. Together, these results support that products that are based on Trichoderma volatiles have the potential being a useful biocontrol agent in agriculture.

  15. A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Tmk3 Participates in High Osmolarity Resistance, Cell Wall Integrity Maintenance and Cellulase Production Regulation in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Zhao, Qiushuang; Yang, Jinghua; Jiang, Baojie; Wang, Fangzhong; Liu, Kuimei; Fang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, ‘budded’ hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest that T. reesei

  16. A mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance, cell wall integrity maintenance and cellulase production regulation in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Wang

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, 'budded' hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest

  17. Cytotoxic xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers from an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2012-01-01

    Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Two known related compounds, acremonidin A (4) and acremonidin C (3) were also isolated, as was a known benzophenone, moniliphenone (1). The structures of these isolates were determined via extensive use of spectroscopic and spectrometric tools in conjunction with comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1-5) were evaluated against a suite of biological assays, including those for cytotoxicity, inhibition of the 20S proteasome, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and nuclear factor-κB.

  18. Respuesta fisiológica de miembros del género Trichoderma a hidrocarburos poliaromáticos.

    OpenAIRE

    Argumedo Delira, Rosalba

    2011-01-01

    Las especies del género Trichoderma representan un grupo de hongos filamentosos que pertenecen al Reino Mycetae (Fungi), División Eumycota, Subdivisión Ascomycotina, Clase Euascomycetes, Orden Hypocreales, Familia Hypocraceae y Género Trichoderma e Hypocrea. Estos hongos se caracterizan por predominar en los ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Los miembros del género Trichoderma tienen el potencial de sintetizar y liberar diversas enzimas que se han aprovechado en procesos industriales. Adem...

  19. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Ricardo; Arcos Omar; Arbelaez Germán

    1989-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
    del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interac...

  20. Influence of organic nitrogen amendment, containing amino acids on the cellulase and xylanase, produced by Trichoderma spp. isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draganova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cellulases and hemicellulases are amount the main hydrolytic enzymes, involved in the bioconversion of lignocellulose material by microorganisms. Filamentous fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most studied and good producer of cellulases and hemicellulases. The nutrients balance, especially carbon to nitrogen ratio, is one of the main factors of the biodegradation. The ability of 37 local isolates of Trichoderma sp. to produce cellulases and xylanase were tested in solid state cultivation on wheat straw as a substrate whit two variants: 1. the straw was only moistured with destilated water (CN 80:1; 2. the C:N ratio of the straw was adjusted to 30:1 using organic nitrogen amendment. There is a significant difference in the enzymatic activity of the isolates in their cultivation on straw with CN 80 and CN 30. The highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity at CN 80 showed T1T (110.19U/ml, and in the variant at CN 30 - TD (369.07U/ml. The highest β-glucosidase activity on both variants CN 80 and CN 30 was established for TG (2743.1U/ml - 12679.9U/ml. The highest xylanase activity at CN 80 and CN 30 was measured on T4I (21311.5U/ml – 47937.5U/ml. After ONA addition, all enzymes activities have increased several times, indicating the enhancing effect of the additive. The average activity of CMCase increased 6.1 times, the average β - glucosidase activity increased 5.1 times, while the xylanase activity increased 4.9 times for all tested isolates. The increase in activity of the investigated enzymes showed different patterns.

  1. Optimization of mutanase production by Trichoderma harzianum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The highest enzyme activity (0.747 U/mL) was reached in shaken flask cultures ... increase in the production of mutanase compared with the culture before optimization. ... Keywords: Mutanase, Trichoderma harzianum, response surface methodology (RSM), bioreactors, ...

  2. Diversity and effect of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease on Lentinula edodes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangzheng; Cao, Xiantao; Ma, Xiaolong; Guo, Mengpei; Liu, Changhao; Yan, Lianlian; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most important edible mushrooms in China, is affected heavily by the infection of green mold that overgrows mushroom mycelia. We collected the diseased samples from main L. edodes cultivation regions in China to characterize the pathogen and to study the effect of Trichoderma spp. on L. edodes species. We identified six Trichoderma species, that is, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. oblongisporum based on the internal transcribed spacer or tef1-α sequences and morphology characteristics. In confrontation cultures on Petri plates or in tubes, and in L. edodes cultures in a medium containing Trichoderma metabolites, L. edodes mycelia were not only distorted and swollen, but also inhibited by Trichoderma isolates. It is not possible that adjusting pH value or temperature is used for controlling L. edodes green disease, because the growth of most of Trichoderma isolates and L. edodes shared similar pH and temperature conditions. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of Trichoderma on horticultural seedlings' growth promotion depending on inoculum and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, J I; Rodríguez-Romera, P; Lupión-Rodríguez, B; Camacho-Ferre, F; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2016-10-01

    The biostimulant effect of Trichoderma spp. on horticultural crops are highly variable. Thus, practical use of Trichoderma sp. requires feasible formulated products and suitable substrates. This study evaluates the survival and the growth-promotion effect of a Trichoderma saturnisporum rice formulation compared with a nonformulated conidia suspension (seven treatments in total), on tomato, pepper and cucumber seedlings grown in two substrates: (i) rich in organic matter (OM) and (ii) mineral substrate without OM. The results showed beneficial effects on seedling growth in the OM-rich substrate when T. saturnisporum rice formulation (mainly at maximum concentration) was applied, but the effects were opposite when the mineral substrate without OM was used. The effects were closely linked to the level of inoculum in the substrate, which was greater upon application of the formulated inoculum as opposed to the nonformulated one. The use of rice to prepare the inoculum of T. saturnisporum seems to be promising for seedling growth in the nursery when it is applied in a substrate that is rich in organic matter, but it must be considered that under certain conditions of food shortage, Trichoderma sp. could show pathogenicity to seedlings. This study provides evidence of the complexity inherent in the use of micro-organisms in agriculture, while also confirming that the activity of the biofertilizers based on Trichoderma depends on the type of inoculum and its concentration, as well as the properties of the medium in which the fungi develop. Further studies assessing the effectiveness or possible pathogenicity of Trichoderma in different soils under greenhouse conditions must be addressed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. TRICHODERMA SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH ACROMYRMEX ANT NESTS FROM ARGENTINA AND FIRST REPORT OF TRICHODERMA LENTIFORME FOR THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Armando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la identificación morfológica y molecular de cinco especies de Trichoderma asociadas con los nidos de hormigas cortadoras de hojas del género Acromyrmex presentes en Argentina. Las especies identificadas fueron: T. lentiforme, T. inhamatum, T. virens, T. koningiopsis y T. aff. neotropicale resultando éste el primer registro de T. lentiforme y T. inhamatum asociados a hormigas cortadoras de hojas Acromyrmex, en particular Acromyrmex lobicornis y Acromyrmex lundii para el primero y de A. lobicornis para el segundo. Además T. lentiforme representa el primer registro para la Argentina. En este trabajo se amplían medidas del conidióforo y conidios y se aportan datos adicionales sobre la distribución de las especies de Trichoderma en el país. Se ilustran con fotografías los conidióforos, células conidiógenas, conidios y el fenotipo de la colonia para cada especie.

  5. Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hasanloo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Silymarin is a unique flavonoid complex with documented hepatoprotective properties. Silybum  marianum hairy root culture as a source for producing silymarin has been an important strategy for study the cell signaling pathway. In the present investigation Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions have been studied. Methods: The effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ 50 mL culture in 6 different exposure times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h have been investigated on flavonolignans production. The flavonolignans were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method. Cell signaling pathway was evaluated by determination of H2O2 content, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Results:The elicitation effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 were examined on flavonolignans accumulation and the activation of cell defense system in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results indicated that the highest silymarin accumulation (0.45 and 0.33 mg/g DW was obtained in media elicited with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of T. harzianum Strains (KHB and G46-3, respectively after 120 h. Feeding time experiments indicated that a significant higher content of silymarin production was achieved after 120 and 72 h in media treated with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of KHB and G46-3, respectively. Our results showed that S. marianum treated by KHB strain, increased taxifolin, silychristin, isosilybin and silydianin productions significantly. The H2O2 content in the control hairy root cultures remained lower than the treated cultures. There was significant enhancement in both peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in treated hairy roots reaching a peak after 72 h. Conclusion: These findings suggested that some Trichoderma strains are positive elicitors for promoting silymarin accumulation in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results also suggested the presence

  6. Biological control of Meloidogyne incognita by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita was proven to occur in tomato, Solanum lycopersicom, soil-drenched with different isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and a commercial suspension of Serratia marcescens (Nemaless). The potential of such biocontrol agents to trigger plant defense ...

  7. In vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asran-Amal, A; Moustafa-Mahmoud, S M; Sabet, K K; El Banna, O H

    2010-04-01

    The antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. T. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. In vitro screening of 5 isolates of T. harzinum, one isolate of Chaetomium globosum and one isolate of Conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani on PDA medium, significantly. The inhibition percentage ranged from 77.9 % to 55.9% for M. phaseolina and 59.2% to 40.4% for R. solani by T. harzinum and C. mentance, respectively. Inhibition for F. solani ranged from 76.5% to 55.7% by T. harzinum and C. globosum, respectively. Isozyme gel electrophoresis was used to assess chitinase activity secreted by selected isolates of T. harzinum under different pH degrees and temperatures. Obtained results indicated that activity of chitinase isozyme produced at 30 °C was higher than 15-20 °C for all tested isolates and activity of chitinase produced by isolates No. 4 and 5 of T. harzinum at pH (7-7.5) was higher than at pH 6, respectively.

  8. Plant uptake of phosphorus from sparingly available P- sources as affected by Trichoderma asperellum T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Garcia-Lopez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Trichoderma asperellum T34 to the plant uptake of phosphorus (P from sparingly phytoavailable forms such as insoluble calcium (Ca phosphates and phytates was studied. Two experiments with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. on siliceous sand were performed involving two factors, namely: (i P source, viz., KH2PO4, phytate (Ins6P, and phosphate rock (PR, and (ii inoculation with T34. Liquid pure cultures of T34 were also used. T34 increased the total content in P of cucumber roots irrespective of the particular P form and enhanced total P uptake by plants with P supplied as Ins6P or PR. The increased phytase activity observed with T34 contributes to explain its favourable influence on the uptake of P supplied as Ins6P. Solubilization of Ca phosphates from PR was favoured by the slightly acidifying effect and the increased organic anion concentration promoted by the fungus in the plant growth media. It can be concluded that T34 can improve P nutrition in plants grown on media containing phytates or insoluble Ca phosphates as dominant P forms.

  9. SYMPATHETIC SOLAR FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-10

    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  10. Modern filaments for composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivelli-Viskonti, I.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of modern state and ways to improve properties of different filaments for the forecast of the filament application in composite materials has been conducted. In the near future as before the greatest attention will be paid to fibre glass, as this material is widely used in the reinforcing of organic matrices. Carbon and kevlar filaments are the most prospective ones. For the service at medium, high or superhigh temperatures selection of matrix material is more significant than selection of filament. Organic matrices can not be used at temperatures > 250 deg C: this is already the range of metal matrix application. Though at temperatures above room one many filaments can be used, boron filaments and metal wire are the only reinforcing materials, inspite of the fact that carbon filaments are successfully used for metal matrix reinforcing. At very high temperatures only carbon filaments or silicon carbide ones can be used, but their cost is very high and besides economical problems there are many difficulties of technical character

  11. Potential of Trichoderma spp. strains for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pesántez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi species can degrade xenobiotic compounds contaminating the soil, including hydrocarbons. The objective of this work was to determine the potential of three strains of Trichoderma, isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum, for bioremediation. Trichoderma harzianum CCECH-Te1, Trichoderma viride CCECH-Te2 and Trichoderma psedokoningii CCECH-Te3 were included in one assay with each independent strain. The inoculum was adjusted to a concentration of 1x1010 conidia ml-1 which was applied to soil contaminated by an oil spill. After 96 days of inoculation, soil samples were taken at 10 and 15 cm depth. The content of total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel and lead were determined. With the data, it was calculated the percentage of removal of the analyzed compounds by each strain. At 10 cm and 15 cm depth, it was observed the removal of the compounds in percentages that reached between 47 and 69.1% in the hydrocarbons and up to 53.72% in the heavy metals. It which denoted the potential of the three strains for bioremediation in contaminated soils.   Keywords: heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, xenobiotic compounds

  12. Allium White Rot Suppression with Composts and Trichoderma viride in Relation to Sclerotia Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, E; Noble, R; Mead, A; Marin, F R; Perez, J A; Whipps, J M

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Allium white rot (AWR) is a serious disease of Allium spp. caused by the sclerotium-forming fungus Sclerotium cepivorum. This work has examined the effects of onion waste compost (OWC) and spent mushroom compost (SMC), with and without Trichoderma viride S17A, on sclerotia viability and AWR in glasshouse and field experiments. Incorporation of OWC into soil reduced the viability of sclerotia and the incidence of AWR on onion plants in glasshouse pot bioassays, whereas SMC or T. viride S17A only reduced incidence of AWR. In two field trials, OWC reduced sclerotia viability and was as effective in reducing AWR as a fungicide (Folicur, a.i. tebuconazole). Field application of SMC had no effect on sclerotia viability and did not control AWR. However, the addition of T. viride S17A to SMC facilitated proliferation of T. viride S17A in the soil and increased the healthy onion bulb yield. The results indicate two mechanisms for the suppression of AWR: (i) reduction in the soil population of viable sclerotia, which may be due to volatile sulfur compounds detected in OWC but absent in SMC, and (ii) prevention of infection of onion plants from sclerotia following amendment of soil with OWC, SMC, or T. viride S17A.

  13. Fungal and plant gene expression during the colonization of cacao seedlings by endophytic isolates of four Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B A; Bae, H; Strem, M D; Roberts, D P; Thomas, S E; Crozier, J; Samuels, G J; Choi, Ik-Young; Holmes, K A

    2006-11-01

    Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species are being considered as biocontrol agents for diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao). Gene expression was studied during the interaction between cacao seedlings and four endophytic Trichoderma isolates, T. ovalisporum-DIS 70a, T. hamatum-DIS 219b, T. harzianum-DIS 219f, and Trichoderma sp.-DIS 172ai. Isolates DIS 70a, DIS 219b, and DIS 219f were mycoparasitic on the pathogen Moniliophthora roreri, and DIS 172ai produced metabolites that inhibited growth of M. roreri in culture. ESTs (116) responsive to endophytic colonization of cacao were identified using differential display and their expression analyzed using macroarrays. Nineteen cacao ESTs and 17 Trichoderma ESTs were chosen for real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Seven cacao ESTs were induced during colonization by the Trichoderma isolates. These included putative genes for ornithine decarboxylase (P1), GST-like proteins (P4), zinc finger protein (P13), wound-induced protein (P26), EF-calcium-binding protein (P29), carbohydrate oxidase (P59), and an unknown protein (U4). Two plant ESTs, extensin-like protein (P12) and major intrinsic protein (P31), were repressed due to colonization. The plant gene expression profile was dependent on the Trichoderma isolate colonizing the cacao seedling. The fungal ESTs induced in colonized cacao seedlings also varied with the Trichoderma isolate used. The most highly induced fungal ESTs were putative glucosyl hydrolase family 2 (F3), glucosyl hydrolase family 7 (F7), serine protease (F11), and alcohol oxidase (F19). The pattern of altered gene expression suggests a complex system of genetic cross talk occurs between the cacao tree and Trichoderma isolates during the establishment of the endophytic association.

  14. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  15. Proteomic response of the biological control fungus Trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, Jasmine; Hunt, Sybille; McKay, Matthew; Herbert, Ben R; Nevalainen, Helena

    2005-06-01

    Trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of T. atroviride (T. harzianum P1) grown on media containing either glucose or R. solani cell walls. Protein profiles were compared to identify T. atroviride proteins up-regulated in the presence of the R. solani cell walls. Twenty-four protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Identified up-regulated proteins include known fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase and 42-kDa endochitinase. Three novel proteases of T. atroviride were identified, containing sequence similarity to vacuolar serine protease, vacuolar protease A and a trypsin-like protease from known fungal proteins. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a, superoxide dismutase and a hypothetical protein from Neurospora crassa were also up-regulated as a response to R. solani cell walls. Several cell wall-degrading enzymes were identified from the T. atroviride culture supernatant, providing further evidence that a cellular response indicative of biological control had occurred.

  16. Biocontrol genes from Trichoderma species: A review | Sharma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pest, drought, decreased soil fertility due to use of hazardous chemical pesticides, ... Among them, fungal genus Trichoderma plays a major role in controlling the ... like cell wall degradation, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, hyphal growth, ...

  17. Recombinant Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase I (Cel7B) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Serpa, Viviane Isabel; Godoy, Andre S; Camilo, Cesar M; Bernardes, Amanda; Rezende, Camila A; Junior, Nei Pereira; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Squina, Fabio M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. Previous studies demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. However, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from T. harzianum are scarce. This work reports biochemical characterization of the recombinant endoglucanase I from T. harzianum, ThCel7B, and its catalytic core domain. The constructs display optimum activity at 55 °C and a surprisingly acidic pH optimum of 3.0. The full-length enzyme is able to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, with high specific activity: 75 U/mg for β-glucan, 46 U/mg toward xyloglucan, 39 U/mg for lichenan, 26 U/mg for carboxymethyl cellulose, 18 U/mg for 4-nitrophenyl β-D-cellobioside, 16 U/mg for rye arabinoxylan, and 12 U/mg toward xylan. The enzyme also hydrolyzed filter paper, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Sigmacell 20, Avicel PH-101, and cellulose, albeit with lower efficiency. The ThCel7B catalytic domain displays similar substrate diversity. Fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that thermal stability is highest at pH 5.0. We determined kinetic parameters and analyzed a pattern of oligosaccharide substrates hydrolysis, revealing cellobiose as a final product of C6 degradation. Finally, we visualized effects of ThCel7B on oat spelt using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrating the morphological changes of the substrate during the hydrolysis. The acidic behavior of ThCel7B and its considerable thermostability hold a promise of its industrial applications and other biotechnological uses under extremely acidic conditions.

  18. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Laccases from Trichoderma: A Bioinformatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-García, Saila Viridiana; Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Ma. Soledad; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Trichoderma includes species of great biotechnological value, both for their mycoparasitic activities and for their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Although activity of extracellular laccase has previously been reported in Trichoderma spp., the possible number of isoenzymes is still unknown, as are the structural and functional characteristics of both the genes and the putative proteins. In this study, the system of laccases sensu stricto in the Trichoderma species, the genomes of which are publicly available, were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The intron/exon structure of the genes and the identification of specific motifs in the sequence of amino acids of the proteins generated in silico allow for clear differentiation between extracellular and intracellular enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the common ancestor of the genus possessed a functional gene for each one of these enzymes, which is a characteristic preserved in T. atroviride and T. virens. This analysis also reveals that T. harzianum and T. reesei only retained the intracellular activity, whereas T. asperellum added an extracellular isoenzyme acquired through horizontal gene transfer during the mycoparasitic process. The evolutionary analysis shows that in general, extracellular laccases are subjected to purifying selection, and intracellular laccases show neutral evolution. The data provided by the present study will enable the generation of experimental approximations to better understand the physiological role of laccases in the genus Trichoderma and to increase their biotechnological potential. PMID:23383142

  19. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity

  20. Study on the Biocontrol Activities of Trichoderma species in Greengram with Infected Fungal Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May Waine Wityi Htun; Myat Thu; Saw Sandar Maw

    2011-12-01

    Seven species of Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soil sources and studied by cultural morphology and microscopic examinations. In dual plate assay, antifungal effects of seven Trichoderma strains were screened against three plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) on PDA medium and T-5 isolate showed a wide percentage of inhibitory effects on target pathogens with PIRG value. All Trichoderma strains exhibited a clear zone formation on minimal synthetic medium supplemented with 1% colloidal chitin. T-2 and T-5 were the best chitinase producer strains. In vitro screening for protease activity, the highest protease producing activity of Trichoderma isolate (T-2) were observed in pH indicator medium after 7 days incubation. In pot trial experiment, only T-5 strain exhibited more fungal suppression efficiency on green gram plant than commercial fungicide, Trisan and the other strains. So, it can be said that the effective strain was T-5 strain only which have been more antifungal producing power on three fungal pathogens than Trisan and the resting strains.

  1. Rce1, a novel transcriptional repressor, regulates cellulase gene expression by antagonizing the transactivator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanli; Zheng, Fanglin; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Guolei; Chen, Guanjun; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Weifeng

    2017-07-01

    Cellulase gene expression in the model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei is supposed to be controlled by an intricate regulatory network involving multiple transcription factors. Here, we identified a novel transcriptional repressor of cellulase gene expression, Rce1. Disruption of the rce1 gene not only facilitated the induced expression of cellulase genes but also led to a significant delay in terminating the induction process. However, Rce1 did not participate in Cre1-mediated catabolite repression. Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting assays in combination with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that Rce1 could bind directly to a cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase 1-encoding) gene promoter region containing a cluster of Xyr1 binding sites. Furthermore, competitive binding assays revealed that Rce1 antagonized Xyr1 from binding to the cbh1 promoter. These results indicate that intricate interactions exist between a variety of transcription factors to ensure tight and energy-efficient regulation of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. This study also provides important clues regarding increased cellulase production in T. reesei. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative growth of trichoderma strains in different nutritional sources, using bioscreen c automated system Crescimento de linhagens de Trichoderma em diferentes fontes nutricionais, empregando o sistema automatizado Bioscreen C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Caroline Rossi-Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma is one of the fungi genera that produce important metabolites for industry. The growth of these organisms is a consequence of the nutritional sources used as also of the physical conditions employed to cultivate them. In this work, the automated Bioscreen C system was used to evaluate the influence of different nutritional sources on the growth of Trichoderma strains (T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. viride, and T. longibrachiatum isolated from the soil in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station (JIES, São Paulo State - Brazil.The cultures were grown in liquid culture media containing different carbon- (2%; w/v and nitrogen (1%; w/v sources at 28ºC, pH 6.5, and agitated at 150 rpm for 72 h. The results showed, as expected, that glucose is superior to sucrose as a growth-stimulating carbon source in the Trichoderma strains studied, while yeast extract and tryptone were good growth-stimulating nitrogen sources in the cultivation of T. hamatum and T. harzianum.Trichoderma é um dos gêneros de fungos produtores de metabólitos de interesse industrial. O crescimento destes organismos é conseqüência das fontes nutricionais utilizadas, juntamente com as condições físicas de cultivo. Neste trabalho, o sistema automatizado Bioscreen C foi utilizado para avaliar a influência de diferentes fontes nutricionais sobre o crescimento de linhagens de Trichoderma (T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. viride e T. longibrachiatum isoladas do solo da Estação Ecológica da Juréia-Itatins (JIES, São Paulo - Brasil. Os cultivos foram feitos em meios líquidos de cultura contendo diferentes fontes de carbono (2%; w / v e nitrogênio (1%; w / v a 28ºC, pH 6,5 e agitados a 150 rpm durante 72 h. Os resultados mostraram, conforme esperado, que a glicose é melhor do que a sacarose como fonte de carbono indutora de crescimento das linhagens de Trichoderma testadas, enquanto que, o extrato de leveduras e a triptona foram boas fontes de nitrogênio indutoras de

  3. Regulation of Morphogenesis and Biocontrol Properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET Protein, Vel1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Kenerley, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species. PMID:20154111

  4. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  5. PENGUJIAN TRICHODERMA SP. SEBAGAI PENGENDALI HAWAR DAUN BIBIT KAKAO YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH PHYTHOPTHORA PALMIVORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysist for Trichoderma sp. as the controller of the cocoa seedlings leaf blight which caused by Phythopthora palmivora. This study aims to determine: survival and ability to live of Trichoderma sp. isolates TCN-Klp supported by predisposing wounding or without wounding the leaves as well as the ability to suppress P. palmivora inoculated on the leaves of cocoa seedlings with and without wounding the leaves before inoculation. The research conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory and Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo on March-July 2015. There were two kinds of experiments: inoculation without wounding the leaves (1st experiment and inoculation with wounding leaves (2nd experiment. Both of them were done by inoculation treatment: pathogens, Trichoderma, pathogens and Trichoderma simultaneously, then pathogens and incubated for 2x24 hours then inoculated. Both kinds of experiments were arranged in a complete randomize design (CRD with 3 times of replication for 1st experiment and 4 times of replication for 2nd experiment. The data of result was analyzed by ANOVA followed by 5% test level of Duncan test. The results showed that the isolates TCN-Klp of Trichoderma sp: (i had own survival and ability to live well in the leaf surface without injury, and (ii was able to suppress pathogens by inoculation simultaneously, which was preceded and precede the pathogens with a gap of 24 hours on with and without wounding leaves at 10 days after inoculation.

  6. The Ecological Genomics of Fungi: Repeated Elements in Filamentous Fungi with a Focus on Wood-Decay Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Payen, Thibaut [INRA, Nancy, France; Petitpierre, Denis [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the genome of several dozen filamentous fungi have been sequenced. Interestingly, vast diversity in genome size was observed (Fig. 2.1) with 14-fold differences between the 9 Mb of the human pathogenic dandruff fungus (Malassezia globosa; Xu, Saunders, et al., 2007) and the 125 Mb of the ectomycorrhizal black truffle of P rigord (Tuber melanosporum; Martin, Kohler, et al., 2010). Recently, Raffaele and Kamoun (2012) highlighted that the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansion. Indeed, repeated elements are ubiquitous in all prokaryote and eukaryote genomes; however, their frequencies can vary from just a minor percentage of the genome to more that 60 percent of the genome. Repeated elements can be classified in two major types: satellites DNA and transposable elements. In this chapter, the different types of repeated elements and how these elements can impact genome and gene repertoire will be described. Also, an intriguing link between the transposable elements richness and diversity and the ecological niche will be highlighted.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1102 - Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC #20847) strain T-22; exemption from requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1102 Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2... of a tolerance is established for residues of the biofungicide Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC...

  8. Biocontrol evaluation of wheat take-all disease by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. ... Microscopic studies revealed hyphal coiling (hyperparasitism) of isolates T65, T96 and T90 around Ggt ... rhizosphere competence, mycoparasitism, antibiotic and.

  9. Heterologous expression of VHb can improve the yield and quality of biocontrol fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, during submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin

    2014-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pemanfaatan Urea sebagai Sumber Nitrogen pada Biosolubisasi Batubara oleh Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Mulyawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignite coal was found abundant in Indonesia, but usage for this type of coal was still relatively low. Economic value of coal increases when it is solubilized. Biosolubilization of coal by utilize of microbes produces compounds equivalent to petroleum. In this research, effect of urea on lignite biosolubilization by Trichoderma sp. was examined. Method of this research consisted of spore inoculum preparation, biosolubilization lignite coal with a variety of treatment that consists of treatment A (MSS + sucrose  1% + coal 5% + urea, and treatment B (MSS + sucrose  1% + coal 5%. Results showed that the addition of urea supported lignit coal biosolubilization by Trichoderma sp. based on increase in medium pH, concentration of phenolic and conjugated aromatic compounds, and activity of extracellular enzyme. In addition, result of product characterization using GCMS revealed compounds equivalent to 13,60%, 26,20% and 90,8% respectively for gasoline, kerosene and diesel components. Those confirmed that urea can be used as an alternative nitrogen source to support Trichoderma sp. in lignit biosolubilization producing petroleum compounds.

  11. Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae: two new T. hamatum-like species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    The new species, Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae, resemble the closely related T. hamatum and T. pubescens in forming discrete, setose conidial pustules within which arise smooth, green conidia from pachybasium-like conidiophores. The phylogenetic position of these species was determined with combined partial sequences of ITS, translationelongation factor 1-alpha, RNA polymerase II subunit and actin genes. All are members of the Viride clade. Trichoderma evansii forms a sister group relationship with a clade that includes T. hamatum and T. pubescens. It differs from the latter two species in having subglobose conidia; it was isolated as an endophyte from sapwood of Lophira alata (Ochnaceae) and Cola verticillata (Malvaceae) in Cameroon and Theobroma gileri (Malvaceae) in Peru. Trichoderma lieckfeldtiae occupies an unresolved position in the Viride clade despite being virtually morphologically indistinguishable from T. hamatum; it was isolated from fruit of cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri in Colombia, pseudostroma of Moniliophthora roreri on pods of Theobroma cacao in Peru and from soil in a cacao farm in Cameroon (central Africa).

  12. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruimin; Ma Zueteh; Kaetus, Isao; Kumakura, Minoro

    1993-01-01

    Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei was carried out by radiation polymerization. It was found that the activity of fixed cells increased with increasing surface area of the carrier and was affected by the concentration of monomer tetraethylenglycol dimethacrylate and the shape of the substrate composition and structure of cotton textile fabrics. (author)

  13. Assessment of the rhizosphere competency and pentachlorophenol-metabolizing activity of a pesticide-degrading strain of Trichoderma harzianum introduced into the root zone of corn seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigot, Jerĵme; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-05-01

    To develop a dependable approach to introduce laboratory selected, pesticide-degrading microorganisms into soil environments for the purpose of in situ bioremediation, we tested the possibility of utilizing plant rhizospheres as the vehicle. We first established the rhizosphere competency of a strain of the soil fungus Trichoderma harzianum, a biocontrol species well studied by plant pathologists to colonize plant rhizosphere in many parts of the world. The strain we chose, T.h.2023 is resistant to many fungicides, and it has been shown to metabolize several pesticides. Second, we found that it readily metabolized pentachlorophenol (PCP), which is quickly and stochiometrically converted to pentachloroanisole (PCA) in liquid culture. Taking advantage of this specific feature, we have developed a sensitive metabolic marker approach that allowed us to monitor for the continuous presence and activity of this fungal strain in the corn rhizosphere soil in situ over time.

  14. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Methods for the Evaluation of the Bioactivity and Biocontrol Potential of Species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna; Hicks, Emily; Kandula, Janaki; Kandula, Diwakar; Alizadeh, Hossein; Braithwaite, Mark; Yardley, Jessica; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Stewart, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma comprise the majority of commercial fungal biocontrol agents of plant diseases. As such, there is a wealth of information available on the analysis of their biocontrol potential and the mechanisms behind their superior abilities. This chapter aims to summarize the most common methods utilized within a Trichoderma biocontrol program for assessing the biological properties of individual strains.

  16. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  17. Efficient biodegradation of cyanide and ferrocyanide by Na-alginate beads immobilized with fungal cells of Trichoderma koningii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Liu, Lixing; Chen, Yunpeng; Xu, Shufa; Chen, Jie

    2007-09-01

    Cyanide or metal cyanide contaminations have become serious environmental and food-health problems. A fungal mutant of Trichoderma koningii, TkA8, constructed by restriction enzyme-mediated integration, has been verified to have a high cyanide degradation ability in our previous study. In this study, the mutant cells were entrapped in sodium-alginate (Na-alginate) immobilization beads to degrade cyanide and ferrocyanide in a liquid mineral medium. The results showed that the fungus in immobilization beads consisting of 3% Na-alginate and 3% CaCl2 could degrade cyanide more efficiently than a nonimmobilized fungal culture. For maximum degradation efficiency, the optimal ratio of Na-alginate and wet fungal biomass was 20:1 (m/m) and the initial pH was 6.5. In comparison, cell immobilization took at least 3 and 8 days earlier, respectively, to completely degrade cyanide and ferrocyanide. In addition, we showed that the immobilized beads could be easily recovered from the medium and reused for up to 5 batches without significant losses of fungal remediation abilities. The results of this study provide a promising alternative method for the large-scale remediation of soil or water systems from cyanide contamination.

  18. Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Hajji Lobna; Chattaoui Mayssa; Regaieg Hajer; M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima; Rhouma Ali; Horrigue-Raouani Najet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rat...

  19. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  20. Enzyme Production and Nitrogen Fixation by Free, Immobilized and Coimmobilized Inoculants of Trichoderma harzianum and Azospirillum brasilense and Their Possible Role in Growth Promotion of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (Azospirillum brasilense strain Az and a biocontrol fungus (Trichoderma harzianum strain T24 have been evaluated for their individual and combined production of hydrolytic enzymes, nitrogen fixation and their possible role in growth promotion of tomato seedlings. The studied organisms were inoculated as free or calcium alginate-encapsulated cells. All freshly prepared macrobeads showed high encapsulation capacity (EC/% of inocula compared with dry macrobeads. Results of enzyme production did not exhibit consistent pattern of the effect of encapsulation process on enzyme production. Beads entrapping bacterial and/or fungal cells were used successfully in 3 repeated cycles in the presence of fresh sterile culture medium in each growth cycle. Enzyme production by immobilized bacterial and/or fungal cells increased as the growth cycles were repeated. Co-culturing of A. brasilense with T. harzianum (free or immobilized in semisolid nitrogen deficient medium (N-free medium enabled A. brasilense to fix nitrogen on pectin, chitin and carboxymethyl cellulose. The activity of nitrogen fixation by A. brasilense in the case of single and combined cultures with Trichoderma (using dry encapsulated beads into the sterile soil increased with the addition of carbon source. Most of inoculations with free or alginate macrobead formulations of T. harzianum and/or A. brasilense showed significant increase in the growth parameters of tomato seedlings. The root system grew more profusely in the case of all seeds treated with A. brasilense. The growth parameters of Az/T24-treated seeds using dry coimmobilized macrobeads were higher than those of the untreated control. Moreover, the effect was improved significantly in soil enriched with different C sources. Enhanced tomato seedling growth after the co-inoculation could be due to the synergistic effect of both Trichoderma and Azospirillum. Finally, co-inoculation with Azospirillum

  1. Temporal symmetry of individual filaments in different spatial symmetry filaments pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.

  2. Requalification of a Brazilian Trichoderma Collection and Screening of Its Capability to Decolourise Real Textile Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Lisboa, Dianny; Santos, Cledir; Barbosa, Renan N; Magalhães, Oliane; Paiva, Laura M; Moreira, Keila A; Lima, Nelson; Souza-Motta, Cristina M

    2017-04-01

    Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma , have also been used for textile effluents treatment. The main aim of the present study was to requalify a Brazilian Trichoderma culture collection of 51 Trichoderma strains, isolated from different sources in Brazil and preserved in the oldest Latin-American Fungal Service Culture Collection, The Micoteca URM WDCM 804 (Recife, Brazil). Fungal isolates were re-identified through a polyphasic approach including macro- and micro-morphology and molecular biology, and screened for their capability to decolourise real effluents collected directly from storage tanks of a textile manufacture. Trichoderma atroviride URM 4950 presented the best performance on the dye decolourisation in real textile effluent and can be considered in a scale-up process at industrial level. Overall, the potential of Trichoderma strains in decolourising real textile dye present in textile effluent and the production of the oxidative enzymes Lac, LiP and MnP was demonstrated. Fungal strains are available in the collection e-catalogue to be further explored from the biotechnological point of view.

  3. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  4. Phylogenetic diversity analysis of Trichoderma species based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vi-4177/CSAU be assigned as the type strains of a species of genus Trichoderma based on phylogenetic tree analysis together with the 18S rRNA gene sequence search in Ribosomal Database Project, small subunit rRNA and large subunit ...

  5. Effect of physical treatment on Trichoderma reesei cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of physical treatment such as freezing and gamma-ray irradiation on Trichoderma reesei cells was studied. The decrease phenomena of cellulase production, which was observed in the culture of the cells using wheat bran extract, was improved by physical treatment. (author)

  6. Trichoderma viride infection in a liver transplant recipient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, F.; Byl, B.; Bourgeois, N.; Coremans-Pelseneer, J.; Florquin, S.; Depré, G.; van de Stadt, J.; Adler, M.; Gelin, M.; Thys, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A liver transplant recipient developed infection of a perihepatic haematoma due to Trichoderma viride. Before the infection was diagnosed, the patient received intense immuno-suppressive and prolonged antibacterial and anti-fungal therapies. Although the death of the patient was not directly related

  7. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  8. Truncation of a mannanase from Trichoderma harzianum improves its enzymatic properties and expression efficiency in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zeng, Desheng; Liu, Gang; Wang, Shaowen; Yu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    To obtain high expression efficiency of a mannanase gene, ThMan5A, cloned from Trichoderma harzianum MGQ2, both the full-length gene and a truncated gene (ThMan5AΔCBM) that contains only the catalytic domain, were expressed in Trichoderma reesei QM9414 using the strong constitutive promoter of the gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc), and purified to homogeneity, respectively. We found that truncation of the gene improved its expression efficiency as well as the enzymatic properties of the encoded protein. The recombinant strain expressing ThMan5AΔCBM produced 2,460 ± 45.1 U/ml of mannanase activity in the culture supernatant; 2.3-fold higher than when expressing the full-length ThMan5A gene. In addition, the truncated mannanase had superior thermostability compared with the full-length enzyme and retained 100 % of its activity after incubation at 60 °C for 48 h. Our results clearly show that the truncated ThMan5A enzyme exhibited improved characteristics both in expression efficiency and in its thermal stability. These characteristics suggest that ThMan5AΔCBM has potential applications in the food, feed, paper, and pulp industries.

  9. Contribución al estudio del sistema de lipasas de Trichoderma harzianum

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Maria de Lurdes Antunes

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Entre los hongos del género Trichoderma se han descrito algunas especies importantes como agentes de biocontrol, tales como las parejas anamorfo/teleomorfo T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii, T. viride/H. rufa, T. atroviride/H. atroviridis y T. virens/H. virens. Trichoderma tiene una amplia distribución geográfica, está presente en casi todos los suelos y en hábitats diversos (creciendo en madera, corteza, sobre y dentro otros hongos y sustratos innumerables). Por su adaptación a distintos en...

  10. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations.

  11. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations. (paper)

  12. Helical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL—The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Johnson, Eric [Micro-Photonics Laboratory – Center for Optical Material Science, Clemson, Anderson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  13. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  14. Efficacité de l'agent antagoniste Trichoderma harzianum sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité de l'agent antagoniste Trichoderma harzianum sur Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersiciagent pathogène de la tomate. LS Gnancadja, DHE Tonon, EMO Faton, KO Douro Kpindou, E Dannon, A Akoegninou ...

  15. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science Laboratory, Department of Animal ... Trichoderma treated cassava waste was beneficial to lactating West African dwarf goats. .... Animals that did not show any signs of heat were.

  16. SELEKSI DAN UJI ANTAGONISME TRICHODERMA SPP. ISOLAT TAHAN FUNGISIDA NABATI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo, Efri & Radix Suharjo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening and testing of isolate of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicides on the growth of P. capsici. The research was conducted at the Plant Disease laboratory, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University from March – November 2007. The aim of the research was to find isolate of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicide  which still have its capability to inhibit the growth of P. capsici. Completely randomized design with three replicates was used in the research. Data collected in this research were isolates of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicides and inhibition percentage of isolates of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicide on the growth of P. capsici. The data were analysed with anova and continued with LSD test at 5% of significant level. As much as 9 isolates of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicide were found. Three isolates of T. viride could survive in the 100% of tumeric powder (C, east indian galangale powder (A, and clove leaf powder (B. Two isolates of T. harzianum could survive in the 100% of tumeric powder (A and clove leaf powder (A. One isolate survived in the 90% of east indian galangale powder (D. Two isolates of T. koningii also could survive in the 100% of tumeric powder (A  and clove leaf powder (A. One isolate survived in the 90% of east indian galangale powder (C. All of the isolates  inhibited  P. capsici. All of the isolates found statistically had the same capability to inhibit the growth of P. capsici.

  17. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available extensively used for the deposition of various materials, including diamond [1], polymers [2], silicon thin films [3], boron-carbon-nitride layers [4] and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [5]. The process relies on the catalytic decomposition of precursor gases... (Ho) twice as efficient as a W filament during the deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films [6]. Reactions between the precursor gases and the heated filament result in changes of the structural properties of the filaments; a process...

  18. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  19. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  20. Filament wound structure and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, W.S.; Gerth, H.L.; Knight, C.E. Jr.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A filament wound spherical structure is described comprising a plurality of filament band sets disposed about the surface of a mandrel with each band of each set formed of a continuous filament circumferentially wound about the mandrel a selected number of circuits and with each circuit of filament being wound parallel to and contiguous with an immediate previously wound circuit. Each filament band in each band set is wound at the same helix angle from the axis of revolution of the mandrel and all of the bands of each set are uniformly distributed about the mandrel circumference. The pole-to-equator wall thickness taper associated with each band set, as several contiguous band sets are wound about the mandrel starting at the poles, is accumulative as the band sets are nested to provide a complete filament wound sphere of essentially uniform thickness

  1. The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Trichoderma species from the cacao agroecosystem with biocontrol potential of Moniliophthora roreri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Reyes-Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ( Moniliophthora roreri es la principal limitante parasítica de la producción de cacao ( Theobroma cacao en México. Una alternativa sostenible para el control de la enfermedad es el uso del hongo Trichoderma . El objetivo del presente estudio fue seleccionar aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma con las mejores características antagónicas y fisiológicas in vitro, para el control de M. roreri . Para ello, se caracterizaron 50 aislamientos de Trichoderma , obtenidos del agroecosistema cacao. El crecimiento micelial y la producción de conidios a 25, 30 y 35 °C se consideraron variables fisiológicas. El micoparasitismo, antibiosis y antagonismo potencial fueron las variables antagónicas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas ( P = 0.0001 en todas las variables evaluadas . El intervalo de temperatura óptima para el crecimiento micelial y producción de conidios fue de 25 a 30 °C. El micoparasitismo varió de 0 a 100 % y solo los aislamientos de seis especies mostraron esta característica. La antibiosis osciló entre 6.8 y 55.5 %, y el antagonismo potencial varió de 3.4 a 69 %. Trichoderma virens (TTC017 y T. harzianum (TTC090, TTC039, TTC073 mostraron el mejor biocontrol potencial in vitro , por lo que son cepas prometedoras para futuras investigaciones sobre control biológico de la moniliasis del cacao.

  3. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Biological potantial of some Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ... Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the control of soil borne plant pathogenic ... Although in many cases, these pesticides appear to be the most ... pathogens and nematodes by microorganisms has been considered a more ...

  5. Phylogeny and taxonomical investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hot spot region with special reference to Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Devi, S Indira; Sharma, K Chandradev; Kennedy, K

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  6. Wood Utilization Is Dependent on Catalase Activities in the Filamentous Fungus Podospora anserina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H2O2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass. PMID:22558065

  7. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bourdais

    Full Text Available Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2O(2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  8. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2)O(2) to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  9. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  10. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Wang, Meng; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD) method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh) and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.

  11. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Wang, Meng; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD) method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh) and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp. PMID:28002436

  12. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Saravanakumar

    Full Text Available To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.

  13. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cells by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cells were immobilized by radiation polymerization 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate monomer at low temperature. Cellulase production resulting from the growth of the cells in the porous polymer matrix of immobilized cell composites was confirmed by measuring the cellulase activity and pH during the culture. (orig.)

  14. Chemical modification of β -endoglucanase from Trichoderma viridin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Endoglucanase from Trichoderma viride was modified by methanol to explore the catalytic functional groups of cellulase. Crude cellulase was produced, and the conditions of saturation and pH by salting out with ammonium sulfate were optimized. Under optimal conditions, crude cellulase was isolated and purified.

  15. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective in vitro screening tests of Trichoderma viride for antagonism against post harvest pathogens of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) rot together with its competitive and mycoparasitic abilities informs its selection as the most promising candidate for the biocontrol of post harvest cassava root rot pathogens.

  16. Potassium biphthalate buffer for pH control to optimize glycosyl hydrolase production in shake flasks using filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The optimization of culture medium with statistical methods is widely used in filamentous fungi glycosyl hydrolase production. The implementation of such methodology in bioreactors is very expensive as it requires several pH-controlled systems operating in parallel in order to test a large number of culture media components. The objective of this study was to evaluate potassium biphthalate buffer for pH control, which allows the optimization studies to be performed in shake flasks.The results have shown that buffering the culture medium with 0.1 M potassium biphthalate allowed pH control, resulting in a decrease of the standard deviation of triplicates for pH and activities of glycosyl hydrolase measurements. The use of this buffer allowed shake flask culture media optimization of enzyme production by Trichoderma harzianum, increasing the cellulase activity by more than 2 times compared to standard unbuffered culture medium. The same buffer can be used for culture media optimization of other fungi, such as Penicillium echinulatum.

  17. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  18. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  19. Requalification of a Brazilian Trichoderma Collection and Screening of Its Capability to Decolourise Real Textile Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Lisboa, Dianny; Santos, Cledir; Barbosa, Renan N.; Magalhães, Oliane; Paiva, Laura M.; Moreira, Keila A.; Lima, Nelson; Souza-Motta, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma, have also been used for textile effluents treatment. The main aim of the present study was to requalify a Brazilian Trichoderma culture collection of 51 Trichoderma strains, isolated from different sources in Brazil and preserved in the oldest Latin-American Fungal Service Culture Collection, The Micoteca URM WDCM 804 (Recife, Brazil). Fungal isolates were re-identified through a polyphasic approach including macro- and micro-morphology and molecular biology, and screened for their capability to decolourise real effluents collected directly from storage tanks of a textile manufacture. Trichoderma atroviride URM 4950 presented the best performance on the dye decolourisation in real textile effluent and can be considered in a scale-up process at industrial level. Overall, the potential of Trichoderma strains in decolourising real textile dye present in textile effluent and the production of the oxidative enzymes Lac, LiP and MnP was demonstrated. Fungal strains are available in the collection e-catalogue to be further explored from the biotechnological point of view. PMID:28368305

  20. EFECTO SOBRE LA SARNA POLVOSA DE CUATRO AISLAMIENTOS DEL HONGO Trichoderma asperellum EN TRES TIPOS DE SUELO EFFECT ON THE POWDERY SCAB OF FOUR ISOLATES OF THE FUNGUS Trichoderma asperellum IN THREE TYPES OF SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gilchrist

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El protozoario Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea es un parásito obligado que replica en raíces y tubérculos de papa causando la sarna polvosa. Esta enfermedad se ha difundido a escala global debido al comercio de tubérculos-semilla infectados y a la ausencia de tratamientos efectivos. En este trabajo se investigó la influencia sobre la sarna polvosa de cuatro aislamientos de Trichoderma asperellum en tres tipos de suelo: Andisol, Entisol e Inceptisol. Tubérculos de Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro fueron plantados en parcelas infectadas con 1942 ± 226 quistosoros por gramo de suelo. No se observaron diferencias entre las plantas tratadas y no tratadas con T. asperellum. La superficie de raíz ocupada por agallas fue en promedio 2,2%, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas (PThe protozoan Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea is an obligate parasite that replicates in roots and tubers of potato causing the powdery scab. This disease has disseminated on a global scale, because the commercial traffic of infected tubers used as seed and the absence of effective treatments. The present work investigated the effects of four isolates of Trichoderma asperellum in three soil types: Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol. The soils were infected with 1942 ± 226 cystosori per gram of soil. It was used Solanum tuberosum variety Diacol Capiro. No differences were observed between treated and non treated plants with T. asperellum. The root surface affected by galls was an average of 2.2 %, and no significant differences (p<0.05 were observed among the soils. The reduction of plant growth was of 41, 32 and 28 % for the Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol, respectively. The reduction in tubers production was of 40, 28 and 0,1% for the Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol, respectively. Similar percent of root surface covered with galls resulted in production reduction of 40%, but also of 0,1%, indicating the necessity of other methods to

  1. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  2. Enzymatic hydrolyzing performance of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei against three lignocellulosic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Katsuji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a useful method in the production of bioethanol. The filamentous fungi Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei are known to be potential cellulase producers. In this study, we aimed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the cellulase enzymes derived from these fungi. Results We compared A. cellulolyticus and T. reesei cellulase activity against the three lignocellulosic materials: eucalyptus, Douglas fir and rice straw. Saccharification analysis using the supernatant from each culture demonstrated that the enzyme mixture derived from A. cellulolyticus exhibited 2-fold and 16-fold increases in Filter Paper enzyme and β-glucosidase specific activities, respectively, compared with that derived from T. reesei. In addition, culture supernatant from A. cellulolyticus produced glucose more rapidly from the lignocellulosic materials. Meanwhile, culture supernatant derived from T. reesei exhibited a 2-fold higher xylan-hydrolyzing activity and produced more xylose from eucalyptus (72% yield and rice straw (43% yield. Although the commercial enzymes Acremonium cellulase (derived from A. cellulolyticus, Meiji Seika Co. demonstrated a slightly lower cellulase specific activity than Accellerase 1000 (derived from T. reesei, Genencor, the glucose yield (over 65% from lignocellulosic materials by Acremonium cellulase was higher than that of Accellerase 1000 (less than 60%. In addition, the mannan-hydrolyzing activity of Acremonium cellulase was 16-fold higher than that of Accellerase 1000, and the conversion of mannan to mannobiose and mannose by Acremonium cellulase was more efficient. Conclusion We investigated the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by cellulase derived from two types of filamentous fungi. We

  3. The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Monika; Dattenböck, Christoph; Carreras-Villaseñor, Nohemí; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Tisch, Doris; Alemán, Mario Ivan; Baker, Scott E; Brown, Christopher; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Cetz-Chel, José; Cristobal-Mondragon, Gema Rosa; Delaye, Luis; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Frischmann, Alexa; Gallardo-Negrete, Jose de Jesus; García-Esquivel, Monica; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Greenwood, David R; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Kruszewska, Joanna S; Lawry, Robert; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Muñoz-Centeno, Tania; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Nogueira Lopez, Guillermo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Osorio-Concepcion, Macario; Piłsyk, Sebastian; Pomraning, Kyle R; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Aroa; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Arreguín, J Alejandro; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Stewart, Alison; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Wang, Chih-Li; Wang, Ting-Fang; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The genus Trichoderma contains fungi with high relevance for humans, with applications in enzyme production for plant cell wall degradation and use in biocontrol. Here, we provide a broad, comprehensive overview of the genomic content of these species for "hot topic" research aspects, including CAZymes, transport, transcription factors, and development, along with a detailed analysis and annotation of less-studied topics, such as signal transduction, genome integrity, chromatin, photobiology, or lipid, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism in T. reesei, T. atroviride, and T. virens, and we open up new perspectives to those topics discussed previously. In total, we covered more than 2,000 of the predicted 9,000 to 11,000 genes of each Trichoderma species discussed, which is >20% of the respective gene content. Additionally, we considered available transcriptome data for the annotated genes. Highlights of our analyses include overall carbohydrate cleavage preferences due to the different genomic contents and regulation of the respective genes. We found light regulation of many sulfur metabolic genes. Additionally, a new Golgi 1,2-mannosidase likely involved in N-linked glycosylation was detected, as were indications for the ability of Trichoderma spp. to generate hybrid galactose-containing N-linked glycans. The genomic inventory of effector proteins revealed numerous compounds unique to Trichoderma, and these warrant further investigation. We found interesting expansions in the Trichoderma genus in several signaling pathways, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, RAS GTPases, and casein kinases. A particularly interesting feature absolutely unique to T. atroviride is the duplication of the alternative sulfur amino acid synthesis pathway. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  5. Epiphytic Ba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    around each epiphytic bacteria tested was used ---:-.';( days before ..... fungus Gaeumannomyces gramznzs var. trztzcz following wheat ... laboratory studies indicate that antibiosis is one ... of an introduced biocontrol agent (Trichoderma.

  6. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  7. Involvement of pachybasin and emodin in self-regulation of Trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ruu; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Liu, Shu-Ying; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2012-03-07

    Our aim was to determine the effects of two secondary metabolites secreted by Trichoderma harzianum, pachybasin and emodin, on the mycoparasitic coiling behavior and cAMP content of T. harzianum. The number of T. harzianum coils around Nylon 66 fiber was increased in the presence of R. solani. The number of T. harzianum coils around R. solani hyphae and Nylon 66 fiber were significantly increased in the presence of pachybasin and emodin. The cAMP level in T. harzianum was significantly increased by close contact with R. solani and much higer cAMP level in the presence of exogenous pachybasin and emodin. A cAMP inhibitor diminished the effect of pachybasin and emodin on T. harzianum coiling around Nylon 66 fiber. The results suggest that pachybasin and emodin mediate the increase in the number of Trichoderma mycoparasitic coils via cAMP signaling. This is the first report to suggest that pachybasin and emodin play roles in the biocontrol mechanism of Trichoderma.

  8. Comparative genomic analysis identified a mutation related to enhanced heterologous protein production in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng-Jie; Katayama, Takuya; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Genomic mapping of mutations using next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of genes contributing to fundamental biological processes, including human diseases. However, few studies have used this approach to identify mutations contributing to heterologous protein production in industrial strains of filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae. In a screening of A. oryzae strains that hyper-produce human lysozyme (HLY), we previously isolated an AUT1 mutant that showed higher production of various heterologous proteins; however, the underlying factors contributing to the increased heterologous protein production remained unclear. Here, using a comparative genomic approach performed with whole-genome sequences, we attempted to identify the genes responsible for the high-level production of heterologous proteins in the AUT1 mutant. The comparative sequence analysis led to the detection of a gene (AO090120000003), designated autA, which was predicted to encode an unknown cytoplasmic protein containing an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain. Mutation or deletion of autA was associated with higher production levels of HLY. Specifically, the HLY yields of the autA mutant and deletion strains were twofold higher than that of the control strain during the early stages of cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that combining classical mutagenesis approaches with comparative genomic analysis facilitates the identification of novel genes involved in heterologous protein production in filamentous fungi.

  9. Optimization of Chromium Biosorption by Fungal Adsorbent, Trichoderma sp. BSCR02 and its Desorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rose Mercy Benila Smily

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in water because of the discharge of industrial effluent imposes serious environmental concern. Chromium is one of such pollutants which is considered as toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. In the present study, the fungal strains isolated from the water samples of Manjakkudi lake were screened for their resistance towards the heavy metal, chromium. The Trichoderma sp. BSCR02 showing resistance towards increased chromium concentration (4 mg/mL was selected for the biosorption studies. The chromium biosorption ability of the untreated and alkali-treated mycelium of Trichoderma sp. BSCR02 was compared and found the alkali treatment as better biosorbent. The process parameters governing chromium biosorption by the dead biomass of Trichoderma sp. were optimized and maximum chromium removal was observed at pH 5 with 200 mg/L initial metal concentration at 35°C when supplemented 1.6 mg/mL of biosorbent for the contact time of 120 min. The biosorbent was found to be active for five cycles of biosorption. The results revealed the applicability of the Trichoderma sp. BSCR2 for the effective removal of chromium from the contaminated water bodies.

  10. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  11. Fungal Screening on Olive Oil for Extracellular Triacylglycerol Lipases: Selection of a Trichoderma harzianum Strain and Genome Wide Search for the Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco-Pérez, Miguel Angel; Castillo-Avila, Genny Margarita; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Apolinar-Hernández, Max M.; Rivera-Muñoz, Gerardo; Gamboa-Angulo, Marcela; Couoh-Uicab, Yeny

    2018-01-01

    A lipolytic screening with fungal strains isolated from lignocellulosic waste collected in banana plantation dumps was carried out. A Trichoderma harzianum strain (B13-1) showed good extracellular lipolytic activity (205 UmL−1). Subsequently, functional screening of the lipolytic activity on Rhodamine B enriched with olive oil as the only carbon source was performed. The successful growth of the strain allows us to suggest that a true lipase is responsible for the lipolytic activity in the B13-1 strain. In order to identify the gene(s) encoding the protein responsible for the lipolytic activity, in silico identification and characterization of triacylglycerol lipases from T. harzianum is reported for the first time. A survey in the genome of this fungus retrieved 50 lipases; however, bioinformatic analyses and putative functional descriptions in different databases allowed us to choose seven lipases as candidates. Suitability of the bioinformatic screening to select the candidates was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The gene codifying 526309 was expressed when the fungus grew in a medium with olive oil as carbon source. This protein shares homology with commercial lipases, making it a candidate for further applications. The success in identifying a lipase gene inducible with olive oil and the suitability of the functional screening and bioinformatic survey carried out herein, support the premise that the strategy can be used in other microorganisms with sequenced genomes to search for true lipases, or other enzymes belonging to large protein families. PMID:29370083

  12. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  13. Phylogeny and Taxonomical Investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian Region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hot Spot Region with Special Reference to Manipur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th.; Devi, S. Indira; Sharma, K. Chandradev; Kennedy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice. PMID:25699268

  14. Trpac1, a pH response transcription regulator, is involved in cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronglin; Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Jia, Wendi; Li, Demao; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2014-12-01

    Fungi grow over a relatively wide pH range and adapt to extracellular pH through a genetic regulatory system mediated by a key component PacC, which is a pH transcription regulator. The cellulase production of the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei is sensitive to ambient pH. To investigate the connection between cellulase expression regulation and ambient pH, an ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans pacC, Trpac1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy. Deleting Trpac1 dramatically increased the cellulase production and the transcription levels of the major cellulase genes at neutral pH, which suggested Trpac1 is involved in the regulation of cellulase production. It was further observed that the expression levels of transcription factors xyr1 and ace2 also increased in the ΔTrpac1 mutant at neutral pH. In addition, the ΔTrpac1 mutant exhibited conidiation defects under neutral and alkaline pH. These results implied that Trpac1 in involved in growth and development process and cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of humic acids production by Trichoderma viride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FEA

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch. Fernanda Lopes Motta* and ... Trichoderma is a genus of asexually reproducing fungi with a high level of ... the most active fractions of organic matter and affect a variety of chemical ...

  16. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  17. Isolation, characterization and Molecular weight Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salwee

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Cellulose hydrolyzing enzyme from fungus Trichoderma viride was purified and characterized. The cellulase ... the most abundant component of plant biomass, found ... could efficiently and economically convert celluloytic.

  18. Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(Δ), lac8(Δ) and mco(Δ) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(Δ), lac7(Δ), mco(Δ) and lac6(Δ) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  20. Filaments and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1987-01-01

    A statistical test to investigate filaments of galaxies is performed. Only particular form of filaments is considered, viz. filaments connecting Abell clusters of galaxies. Relative position of triplets ''cluster - field object - cluster'' is analysed. Though neither cluster sample nor field object sample are homogeneous and complete only peculiar form of selection effects could affect the present statistics. Comparison of observational data with simulations shows that less than 15 per cent of all field galaxies is concentrated in filaments connecting rich clusters. Most of the field objects used in the analysis are not normal galaxies and it is possible that this conclusion is not in conflict with apparent filaments seen in the Lick counts and in some nearby 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. 26 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  1. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocontrol properties of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBSD

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay, 25 isolates were selected for further analysis. The interaction between the Trichoderma and fungal pathogens were ... effective biocontrol agents based on their ability to overgrow and ... bean seeds were planted in the plastic pot, which was filled with 3.

  3. An ethanolamine kinase Eki1 affects radial growth and cell wall integrity in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronglin; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Dongyuan

    2015-09-01

    Ethanolamine kinase (ATP:ethanolamine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.82) catalyzes the committed step of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. The functions of eki genes that encode ethanolamine kinase have been intensively studied in mammalian cells, fruit flies and yeast. However, the role of the eki gene has not yet been characterized in filamentous fungi. In this study, Treki1, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy in Trichoderma reesei. A Treki deletion mutant was less sensitive to cell wall stressors calcofluor white and Congo red and released fewer protoplasts during cell wall digestion than the parent strain QM9414. Further transcription analysis showed that the expression levels of five genes that encode chitin synthases were drastically increased in the ΔTreki1 mutant. The chitin content was also increased in the null mutant of Treki1 comparing to the parent strain. In addition, the ΔTreki1 mutant exhibited defects in radial growth, conidiation and the accumulation of ethanolamine. The results indicate that Treki1 plays a key role in growth and development and in the maintenance of cell wall integrity in T. reesei. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Differential expression of oil palm pathology genes during interactions with Ganoderma boninense and Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Fahimeh; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Khodavandi, Alireza; Abdullah, Faridah; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Chong, Pei Pei

    2011-07-01

    The expression profiles of Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD1 and SAD2) and type 3 metallothionein (MT3-A and MT3-B) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus Ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Expression of SAD1 and MT3-A in roots and SAD2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in G. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet appeared and thereafter decreased to basal levels when symptoms became visible. Our finding demonstrated that the SAD1 expression in leaves was significantly down-regulated to negligible levels at 42 and 63 d after treatment. The transcripts of MT3 genes were synthesized in G. boninense inoculated leaves at 42 d after treatment, and the analyses did not show detectable expression of these genes before 42 d after treatment. In T. harzianum inoculated seedlings, the expression levels of SAD1 and SAD2 increased gradually and were stronger in roots than leaves, while for MT3-A and MT3-B, the expression levels were induced in leaves at 3d after treatment and subsequently maintained at same levels until 63d after treatment. The MT3-A expression was significantly up-regulated in roots at 3d after treatment and thereafter were maintained at this level. Both SAD and MT3 expression were maintained at maximum levels or at levels higher than basal. This study demonstrates that oil palm was able to distinguish between pathogenic and symbiotic fungal interactions, thus resulting in different transcriptional activation profiles of SAD and MT3 genes. Increases in expression levels of SAD and MT3 would lead to enhanced resistance against G. boninense and down-regulation of genes confer potential for invasive growth of the pathogen. Differences in expression profiles of SAD and MT3 relate to plant resistance mechanisms while supporting growth enhancing effects of symbiotic T. harzianum

  5. A mini-bag technique for evaluation of fungicide effects on Trichoderma spp in mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosriwil, Salem O; Clancy, Kevin J

    2004-04-01

    An in vivo technique was developed to observe colonisation of mushroom compost by Trichoderma spp. Isolates of T. harzianum (Th2), T. harzianum (Th1), T. koningii (Tk) and T. viride (Tv) were artificially introduced into compost using a mini-bag system. Wheat grains, colonised by Trichoderma spp, were placed centrally on a layer of compost at the bottom of 1-litre polythene bags which were then filled with 350 g of spawned or un-spawned compost, and partially sealed. After 14 and 21 days incubation at 27 degrees C, the bags were assessed for recovery of Trichoderma from middle and top zones using a needle stab re-isolation technique and a visual colonisation scoring system. Visible green mould contamination, similar to that observed in practice, developed within 21 days. The visual colonisation scoring was reliably related to the re-isolation success. In this evaluation, Trichoderma spp showed considerable differences in their relative abilities to colonise spawned and un-spawned compost, with Th2 isolates being consistently superior to the other isolates of Th1, Tk and Tv in colonising spawned compost. This technique was employed to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the colonisation of mushroom compost by three Trichoderma spp: Th2, Th1 and Tk, using 1-litre and 5-litre mini-bag systems. Aqueous suspensions of benomyl, carbendazim, thiabendazole, prochloraz and prochloraz+carbendazim incorporated into the compost at 50 mg litre(-1), or applied to spawn at 50 mg kg(-1), reduced the colonisation by Trichoderma spp. Prochloraz and prochloraz+carbendazim were superior to benomyl, carbendazim or thiabendazole in reducing compost colonisation by Th2, Th1 and Tk, with Th2 being the most persistent type, capable of colonising treated compost in the presence of all five fungicides. The prochloraz+carbendazim mixture, not normally used in mushroom production, was equal to or better than prochloraz alone. The incidence of green mould colonisation by Th2 was as extensive

  6. Volatile organic compounds emitted by filamentous fungi isolated from flooded homes after Hurricane Sandy show toxicity in a Drosophila bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yin, G; Inamdar, A A; Luo, J; Zhang, N; Yang, I; Buckley, B; Bennett, J W

    2017-05-01

    Superstorm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to eight genera: Penicillium (11 species), Fusarium (four species), Aspergillus (three species), Trichoderma (two species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis. Then, we used a Drosophila larval assay to assess possible toxicity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by these molds. When cultured in a shared atmosphere with growing cultures of molds isolated after Hurricane Sandy, larval toxicity ranged from 15 to 80%. VOCs from Aspergillus niger 129B were the most toxic yielding 80% mortality to Drosophila after 12 days. The VOCs from Trichoderma longibrachiatum 117, Mucor racemosus 138a, and Metarhizium anisopliae 124 were relatively non-toxigenic. A preliminary analysis of VOCs was conducted using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from two of the most toxic, two of the least toxic, and two species of intermediate toxicity. The more toxic molds produced higher concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 2-nonanone; while the less toxic molds produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol, or an overall lower amount of volatiles. Our data support the hypothesis that at certain concentrations, some VOCs emitted by indoor molds are toxigenic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evolution of Filament Barbs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2010-01-01

    We present a selected few cases in which the sense of chirality of filament barbs changed within as short as hours. We investigate in detail a quiescent filament on 2003 September 10 and 11. Of its four barbs displaying such changes only one overlay a small polarity inversion line inside the EUV filament channel (EFC). No magnetic elements with magnitude above the noise level were detected at the endpoints of all barbs. In particular, a pair of barbs first approached toward and then departed ...

  8. Assessing the potential of fatty acids produced by filamentous fungi as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaldi, Juan Daniel; Carvalho, Ana Karine F; da Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V; de Castro, Heizir F

    2017-11-26

    Increased costs and limited availability of traditional lipid sources for biodiesel production encourage researchers to find more sustainable feedstock at low prices. Microbial lipid stands out as feedstock replacement for vegetable oil to convert fatty acid esters. In this study, the potential of three isolates of filamentous fungi (Mucor circinelloides URM 4140, M. hiemalis URM 4144, and Penicillium citrinum URM 4126) has been assessed as single-cell oil (SCO) producers. M. circinelloides 4140 had the highest biomass concentration with lipid accumulation of up to 28 wt% at 120 hr of cultivation. The profile of fatty acids revealed a high content of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), including palmitic (C16:0, 33.2-44.1 wt%) and oleic (C18:1, 20.7-31.2 wt%) acids, with the absence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) having more than four double bonds. Furthermore, the predicted properties of biodiesel generated from synthesized SCOs have been estimated by using empirical models which were in accordance with the limits imposed by the USA (ASTM D6715), European Union (EN 14214), and Brazilian (ANP 45/2014) standards. These results suggest that the assessed filamentous fungus strains can be considered as alternative feedstock sources for high-quality biofuel production.

  9. Potency of Six Isolates of Biocontrol Agents Endophytic Trichoderma Against Fusarium Wilt on Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taribuka, J; Wibowo, A; Widyastuti, S M; Sumardiyono, C

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistanc...

  10. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of enzyme fermentation by mechanistic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albaek, Mads O.; Gernaey, Krist V.; Hansen, Morten S.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling biotechnological processes is key to obtaining increased productivity and efficiency. Particularly crucial to successful modeling of such systems is the coupling of the physical transport phenomena and the biological activity in one model. We have applied a model for the expression of ce...... was found. This modeling approach can be used by manufacturers to evaluate the enzyme fermentation process for a range of different process conditions with regard to energy efficiency.......Modeling biotechnological processes is key to obtaining increased productivity and efficiency. Particularly crucial to successful modeling of such systems is the coupling of the physical transport phenomena and the biological activity in one model. We have applied a model for the expression...... of cellulosic enzymes by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and found excellent agreement with experimental data. The most influential factor was demonstrated to be viscosity and its influence on mass transfer. Not surprisingly, the biological model is also shown to have high influence on the model...

  11. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of enzyme fermentation by mechanistic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaek, Mads O; Gernaey, Krist V; Hansen, Morten S; Stocks, Stuart M

    2012-04-01

    Modeling biotechnological processes is key to obtaining increased productivity and efficiency. Particularly crucial to successful modeling of such systems is the coupling of the physical transport phenomena and the biological activity in one model. We have applied a model for the expression of cellulosic enzymes by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and found excellent agreement with experimental data. The most influential factor was demonstrated to be viscosity and its influence on mass transfer. Not surprisingly, the biological model is also shown to have high influence on the model prediction. At different rates of agitation and aeration as well as headspace pressure, we can predict the energy efficiency of oxygen transfer, a key process parameter for economical production of industrial enzymes. An inverse relationship between the productivity and energy efficiency of the process was found. This modeling approach can be used by manufacturers to evaluate the enzyme fermentation process for a range of different process conditions with regard to energy efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguac