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Sample records for filamentous fungus rhizopus

  1. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  2. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  3. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  4. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  5. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  6. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

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    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  7. Biotransformation of 20(R)-panaxadiol by the fungus Rhizopus chinensis.

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    Lin, Xiong-Hao; Cao, Ming-Nan; He, Wen-Ni; Yu, Si-Wang; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2014-09-01

    Microbial transformation of 20(R)-panaxadiol by the fungus Rhizopus chinensis CICC 3043 yielded seven metabolites. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. R. chinensis could catalyze hydroxylation and further dehydrogenation at C-24 of 20(R)-panaxadiol, as well as hydroxylation at C-7, C-15, C-16, and C-29. Three of these compounds at 10μM could moderately inhibit growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with an inhibition rate of about 40%. Three compounds (also at 10μM) showed approximately 30% inhibition on NF-κB transcriptional activity in SW480 human colon carcinoma cells stably transfected with NF-κB luciferase reporter and induced by LPS.

  8. Carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsche, Benjamin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation in bioreactor batch cultures. The work described in this thesis can be discussed as follows: (I) Establishment of computational resources for omics data analysis and interpretation in c

  9. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  10. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  11. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  12. Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis: a thermotolerant fungus with potential for production of thermostable amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Simone C; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2003-12-01

    The effect of several nutritional and environmental parameters on growth and amylase production from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis was analysed. This fungus was isolated from soil of the Brazilian "cerrado" and produced high levels of amylolytic activity at 45 degrees C in liquid medium supplemented with starch, sugar cane bagasse, oat meal or cassava flour. Glucose in the culture medium drastically repressed the amylolytic activity. The products of hydrolysis were analysed by thin layer chromatography, and glucose was detected as the main component. The amylolytic activity hydrolysed several substrates, such as amylopectin, amylase, glycogen, pullulan, starch, and maltose. Glucose was always the main end product detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicated that the amylolytic activity studied is a glucoamylase, but there were also low levels of alpha-amylase. As compared to other fungi, R. microsporus var. rhizopodiformis can be considered an efficient producer of thermostable amylases, using raw residues of low cost as substrates. This information is of technological value, considering the importance of amylases for industrial hydrolysis.

  13. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

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    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually......, which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...

  15. Genomic Analysis of the Basal Lineage Fungus Rhizopus oryzae Reveals a Whote-Genome Duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is the primary etiologic agent of mucormycosis, an emerging lifethreatening infection. The rapid growth and angioinvasive nature of mucormycotic infections in humans result in an overall mortality rate that exceeds 50%, even with combined surgical and antifungal therapies. As part ...

  16. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

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    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  17. Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.

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    Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

    2013-09-01

    Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management.

  18. Apoptotic-like phenotype triggered by hydrogen peroxide and amphotericin B in the fungus Rhizopus arrhizus.

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    Wang, Sibu; Li, Ruoyu; Yu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    Rhizopus is the most common genus of invasive mucormycosis, whose prognosis and outcome was not improved over the past decades. We studied the apoptotic-like phenotype in Rhizopus arrhizus exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and amphotericin B (AMB). The strain provided by Fungal Genetic Stock centre was studied about the apoptotic-like phenotype treated with different concentrations of H2 O2 and AMB, and then analyzed by fluorescent microscopy (observed by Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL staining), flow cytometry (stained with DHR123/PI), and DNA agarose gel electrophores. When R. arrhizus was treated with H2 O2 and AMB, there was a loss of viability associated with different phenotype of apoptosis makers. Membrane externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation can be induced and observed obviously by Annexin-V/FITC, DAPI and TUNEL staining. DNA smear not DNA ladder was also visible in R. arrhizus. Flowcytometry of R. arrhizus cells revealed not only the increase of apoptosis cell stained with DHR123 under the nonfungicida doses but dead cells stained with PI under the fungicida concentrations.This study indicated that both H2 O2 and AMB could induce the apoptotic-like phenotype in R. arrhizus.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae for the production of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meussen, B.J.; Graaff, de L.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus belonging to the Zygomycetes. It is among others known for its ability to produce the sustainable platform chemicals L-(+)-lactic acid, fumaric acid, and ethanol. During glycolysis, all fermentable carbon sources are metabolized to pyruvate and subsequently di

  20. Kinetic properties of Rhizopus oryzae RPG1 endo-polygalacturonase hydrolyzing galacturonic acid oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future fuel and specialty chemical production will benefit from the use of agricultural biomass. Efficient and effective use of agricultural biomass requires conversion to simple sugars by chemical pre-treatments and enzymes into simple sugars. Rhizopus oryzae, a filamentous fungus, makes enzymes ca...

  1. Inhibition of Rhizopus Lactate Dehydrogenase by Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the filamentous fungus Rhizopus is of significant value because of the organism’s industrial importance, clinical detriment, and agricultural problems. Yet, research has yielded very few advances that allow site directed integration of DNA used for transformation. This is because plas...

  2. Genomic analysis of the basal lineage fungus Rhizopus oryzae reveals a whole-genome duplication.

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    Li-Jun Ma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus oryzae is the primary cause of mucormycosis, an emerging, life-threatening infection characterized by rapid angioinvasive growth with an overall mortality rate that exceeds 50%. As a representative of the paraphyletic basal group of the fungal kingdom called "zygomycetes," R. oryzae is also used as a model to study fungal evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of R. oryzae strain 99-880, isolated from a fatal case of mucormycosis. The highly repetitive 45.3 Mb genome assembly contains abundant transposable elements (TEs, comprising approximately 20% of the genome. We predicted 13,895 protein-coding genes not overlapping TEs, many of which are paralogous gene pairs. The order and genomic arrangement of the duplicated gene pairs and their common phylogenetic origin provide evidence for an ancestral whole-genome duplication (WGD event. The WGD resulted in the duplication of nearly all subunits of the protein complexes associated with respiratory electron transport chains, the V-ATPase, and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. The WGD, together with recent gene duplications, resulted in the expansion of multiple gene families related to cell growth and signal transduction, as well as secreted aspartic protease and subtilase protein families, which are known fungal virulence factors. The duplication of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, especially the major azole target, lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (ERG11, could contribute to the variable responses of R. oryzae to different azole drugs, including voriconazole and posaconazole. Expanded families of cell-wall synthesis enzymes, essential for fungal cell integrity but absent in mammalian hosts, reveal potential targets for novel and R. oryzae-specific diagnostic and therapeutic treatments.

  3. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

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    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  4. Light-mediated control of gene expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

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    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2014-08-01

    We developed a light-mediated system based on synthetic light-switchable transactivators. The transactivators bind promoter upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiate transcription of target transgenes in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Light is inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and instantly removed, and thus has significant advantages over chemical inducers.

  5. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel;

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  6. Solubilization of animal bonechar by a filamentous fungus employed in solid state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolay, Vassilev; Medina, A.; Gilberto, Mendes; Antonia, Galvez; Vanessa, Martos; Maria, Vassileva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experts are concerned by the scarcity of rock phosphate and the vulnerability of the modern agricultural systems which is highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. In this work, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

  7. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of a Cryptochrome from the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehlich, Allan C.; Chen, Chen-Hui; Belden, William J.; Madeti, Cornelia; Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    In plants and animals, cryptochromes function as either photoreceptors or circadian clock components. We have examined the cryptochrome from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and demonstrate that Neurospora cry encodes a DASH-type cryptochrome that appears capable of binding flavin adenine

  8. Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Ikink, Gerjon J; Debets, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria

  9. Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Slakhorst-Wandel, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Ikink, G.J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROOXIDASE ACTIVITY IN SAPROPHYTIC FUNGUS RHIZOPUS NIGRICANS GROWN ON MEDIUM WHITH DIFERENT CONCENTRATION OF GRINDED CORN CARYOPSIS

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    Tamara Barbaneagra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assay catalase and peroxidase activity in the saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans, grown on mediums containing grinded corn caryopsis, which, in our experiments have replaced carbon source – sucrose in composition of liquid culture medium Czapeck Dox, resulting in the final three experimental variants: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l, while the control variant composition remained unchanged. Measurements were made at three time intervals: 5 days and 10 days and 15 days after inoculation, using fungus mycelium and culture liquid. Determination of catalase activity was performed using Sinha method (Artenie Vl., et al., 2008, and determination of peroxidase was carried out on the basis of ortho-dianisidine method (Cojocaru D.C., 2009. The results showed significant deferens in dynamic of enzyme activity depending on the concentration of carbon source introduced into the medium and age of the fungus.

  11. Efficient genome editing in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

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    Liu, Rui; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Yanping; Zhou, Zhihua; Zou, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have wide applications in biotechnology. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing method that facilitates genetic alterations of genomes in a variety of organisms. However, a genome-editing approach has not been reported in filamentous fungi. Here, we demonstrated the establishment of a CRISPR/Cas9 system in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by specific codon optimization and in vitro RNA transcription. It was shown that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was controllable and conditional through inducible Cas9 expression. This system generated site-specific mutations in target genes through efficient homologous recombination, even using short homology arms. This system also provided an applicable and promising approach to targeting multiple genes simultaneously. Our results illustrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome-manipulating tool for T. reesei and most likely for other filamentous fungal species, which may accelerate studies on functional genomics and strain improvement in these filamentous fungi.

  12. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

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    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex

  13. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus

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    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

  14. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    and they therefore constitute one of the most important sources for pharmaceuticals; including drugs for treatment of infections, for lowering of the cholesterol level in the bloodstream and for minimizing undesirable immune responses. The primary objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about the genetic......The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most important industrial production organisms, owing to its highly efficient (hemi-)cellulase synthesis and secretion machineries. These enzymes, which in nature allow the fungus to utilize energy bound...... mechanisms leading to biosynthesis of two of the most prominent types of secondary metabolites produced by T. reesei, polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. Since the molecular tools for T. reesei are not as well-developed as for many other species, the study was initiated with creation of new genetic tools...

  15. What’s in the genome of a filamentous fungus? Analysis of the Neurospora genome sequence

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    Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Montrone, Corinna; Haase, Dirk; Mewes, H. Werner; Aign, Verena; Hoheisel, Jörg D.; Fartmann, Berthold; Nyakatura, Gerald; Kempken, Frank; Maier, Josef; Schulte, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The German Neurospora Genome Project has assembled sequences from ordered cosmid and BAC clones of linkage groups II and V of the genome of Neurospora crassa in 13 and 12 contigs, respectively. Including additional sequences located on other linkage groups a total of 12 Mb were subjected to a manual gene extraction and annotation process. The genome comprises a small number of repetitive elements, a low degree of segmental duplications and very few paralogous genes. The analysis of the 3218 identified open reading frames provides a first overview of the protein equipment of a filamentous fungus. Significantly, N.crassa possesses a large variety of metabolic enzymes including a substantial number of enzymes involved in the degradation of complex substrates as well as secondary metabolism. While several of these enzymes are specific for filamentous fungi many are shared exclusively with prokaryotes. PMID:12655011

  16. Improvement of tolerance to lead by filamentous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HAU-2 and its oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shimin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chang, Cheng; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ting; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Xitian; Zhang, Yuting; La, Guixiao; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Xuanzhen

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater contaminated with heavy metals is a world-wide concern. One biological treatment strategy includes filamentous fungi capable of extracellular adsorption and intracellular bioaccumulation. Here we report that an acclimated strain of filamentous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HAU-2 can withstand Pb up to 1500 mg L(-1) Pb, conditions in which the wildtype strain cannot grow. The acclimated strain grew in liquid culture under 500 mg L(-1) Pb without significant abnormity in biomass and morphology, and was able to remove significant amounts of heavy metals with rate of 99.1% at 200 mg L(-1) and 63.3% at 1500 mg L(-1). Intracellular bioaccumulation as well as extracellular adsorption both contributed the Pb reduction. Pb induced levels of H2O2, and its concentration reached 72.9-100.9 μmol g(-1) under 200-1000 mg L(-1) Pb. A relatively higher malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration (8.06-7.59 nmol g(-1)) was also observed at 500-1500 mg L(-1) Pb, indicating that Pb exposure resulted in oxidative damage. The fungal cells also defended against the attack of reactive oxygen species by producing antioxidants. Of the three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), CAT was the most responsive and the maximal enzyme activity was 15.8 U mg(-1) protein. Additionally, glutathione (GSH) might also play a role (3.16-3.21 mg g(-1) protein) in detoxification under relatively low Pb concentration (100-200 mg L(-1)). Our findings suggested that filamentous fungus could be selected for increased tolerance to heavy metals and that CAT and GSH might be important components of this tolerance.

  17. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  18. Structural investigation of endoglucanase 2 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium verruculosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrusheva, A. V.; Nemashkalov, V. A.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Tishchenko, S. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Kljashtorny, V. G.; Korotkova, O. G.; Gusakov, A. V.; Sinitsyn, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    Enzyme additives capable of degrading non-starch polysaccharides of cereal cell walls, which are major ingredients used in animal feed, can improve the efficiency of livestock production. Non-starch polysaccharides have antinutritional properties that interfere with efficient digestion and assimilation of nutrients by animals. Therefore, the improvement of the properties and characteristics of enzyme additive is an important issue. The three-dimensional structure of one of the key industrial enzymes involved in the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides — endoglucanase 2 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium verruculosum — was determined (PDB ID: 5I6S). The catalytic site of this enzyme was established. Based on the enzyme structure, it was suggested that the pH optimum of the enzyme activity can be shifted from acidic to neutral or alkaline pH values.

  19. The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii as a competitive industrial inosine producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Buey, Rubén M; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    Inosine is a nucleoside with growing biotechnological interest due to its recently attributed beneficial health effects and as a convenient precursor of the umami flavor. At present, most of the industrial inosine production relies on bacterial fermentations. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii to obtain strains able to excrete high amounts of inosine to the culture medium. We report that the disruption of only two key genes of the purine biosynthetic pathway efficiently redirect the metabolic flux, increasing 200-fold the excretion of inosine with respect to the wild type, up to 2.2 g/L. These results allow us to propose A. gossypii as a convenient candidate for large-scale nucleoside production, especially in view of the several advantages that Ashbya has with respect to the bacterial systems used at present for the industrial production of this food additive. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2060-2063. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Epigenetic Control of Phenotypic Plasticity in the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Ilkka; Johannesson, Hanna; Ketola, Tarmo

    2016-12-07

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes under different environmental or developmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity is a ubiquitous feature of living organisms, and is typically based on variable patterns of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which gene expression is influenced and regulated during plastic responses are poorly understood in most organisms. While modifications to DNA and histone proteins have been implicated as likely candidates for generating and regulating phenotypic plasticity, specific details of each modification and its mode of operation have remained largely unknown. In this study, we investigated how epigenetic mechanisms affect phenotypic plasticity in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa By measuring reaction norms of strains that are deficient in one of several key physiological processes, we show that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in homeostasis and phenotypic plasticity of the fungus across a range of controlled environments. In general, effects on plasticity are specific to an environment and mechanism, indicating that epigenetic regulation is context dependent and is not governed by general plasticity genes. Specifically, we found that, in Neurospora, histone methylation at H3K36 affected plastic response to high temperatures, H3K4 methylation affected plastic response to pH, but H3K27 methylation had no effect. Similarly, DNA methylation had only a small effect in response to sucrose. Histone deacetylation mainly decreased reaction norm elevation, as did genes involved in histone demethylation and acetylation. In contrast, the RNA interference pathway was involved in plastic responses to multiple environments.

  1. Quantification of the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber cultured on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chysirichote, Teerin; Reiji, Takahashi; Asami, Kazuhiro; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated whether the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber NBRC 32318, cultured on a solid surface (agar) containing different carbon and nitrogen sources, could be used as a measure of biomass. The relationship between the amounts of glucosamine and biomass was independent of the cultivation period, but was dependent on the carbon source (D-glucose, D-fructose, maltose, sucrose, or rice starch) and the nitrogen source (ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, or yeast extract) in the agar; it was also dependent on the culture method (solid-surface culture or submerged culture). We concluded that the amount of glucosamine extracted from M. ruber is a useful index for the fungal biomass when the relationship between M. ruber biomass and glucosamine content has previously been calibrated for the carbon and nitrogen sources used. Examination of microphotographs of M. ruber hyphae in conjunction with quantification of the glucosamine and biomass contents indicated that the variation in the glucosamine content per unit biomass affects the hyphal morphology of the fungus, and especially the hyphal diameter.

  2. Identification of the augmin complex in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Edzuka

    Full Text Available Augmin is a protein complex that binds to spindle microtubules (MTs, recruits the potent MT nucleator, γ-tubulin, and thereby promotes the centrosome-independent MT generation within mitotic and meiotic spindles. Augmin is essential for acentrosomal spindle assembly, which is commonly observed during mitosis in plants and meiosis in female animals. In many animal somatic cells that possess centrosomes, the centrosome- and augmin-dependent mechanisms work cooperatively for efficient spindle assembly and cytokinesis. Yeasts have lost the augmin genes during evolution. It is hypothesized that their robust MT nucleation from the spindle pole body (SPB, the centrosome-equivalent structure in fungi, compensates for the lack of augmin. Intriguingly, however, a gene homologous to an augmin subunit (Aug6/AUGF has been found in the genome of filamentous fungi, which has the SPB as a robust MT nucleation centre. Here, we aimed to clarify if the augmin complex is present in filamentous fungi and to identify its role in mitosis. By analysing the Aug6-like gene in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we found that it forms a large complex with several other proteins that share weak but significant homology to known augmin subunits. In A. nidulans, augmin was enriched at the SPB and also associated with spindle MTs during mitosis. However, the augmin gene disruptants did not exhibit growth defects under normal, checkpoint-deficient, or MT-destabilised conditions. Moreover, we obtained no evidence that A. nidulans augmin plays a role in γ-tubulin recruitment or in mitotic cell division. Our study uncovered the conservation of the augmin complex in the fungal species, and further suggests that augmin has several functions, besides mitotic spindle MT nucleation, that are yet to be identified.

  3. Non-specific association between filamentous bacteria and fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Christian; Lakatos, Tanja; Böttcher, Ingo; Arendholz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Redenbach, Matthias; Wirth, Rainer

    2007-10-01

    Fungus-growing ants and their fungal cultivar form a highly evolved mutualism that is negatively affected by the specialized parasitic fungus Escovopsis. Filamentous Pseudonocardia bacteria occurring on the cuticle of attine ants have been proposed to form a mutualistic interaction with these ants in which they are vertically transmitted (i.e. from parent to offspring colonies). Given a strictly vertical transmission of Pseudonocardia, the evolutionary theory predicts a reduced genetic variability of symbionts among ant lineages. The aim of this study was to verify whether actinomycetes, which occur on Acromyrmex octospinosus leaf-cutting ants, meet this expectation by comparing their genotypic variability with restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Multiple actinomycete strains could be isolated from both individual ant workers and colonies (one to seven strains per colony). The colony specificity of actinomycete communities was high: Only 15% of all strains were isolated from more than one colony, and just 5% were present in both populations investigated. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of two of the isolated strains assigned both of them to the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycetes could also be isolated from workers of the two non-attine ant species Myrmica rugulosa and Lasius flavus. Sixty-two percent of the strains derived from attine ants and 80% of the strains isolated from non-attine ants inhibited the growth of Escovopsis. Our data suggest that the association between attine ants and their actinomycete symbionts is less specific then previously thought. Soil-dwelling actinomycetes may have been dynamically recruited from the environment (horizontal transmission), probably reflecting an adaptation to a diverse community of microbial pathogens.

  4. Epigenetic Control of Phenotypic Plasticity in the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Kronholm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes under different environmental or developmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity is a ubiquitous feature of living organisms, and is typically based on variable patterns of gene expression. However, the mechanisms by which gene expression is influenced and regulated during plastic responses are poorly understood in most organisms. While modifications to DNA and histone proteins have been implicated as likely candidates for generating and regulating phenotypic plasticity, specific details of each modification and its mode of operation have remained largely unknown. In this study, we investigated how epigenetic mechanisms affect phenotypic plasticity in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. By measuring reaction norms of strains that are deficient in one of several key physiological processes, we show that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in homeostasis and phenotypic plasticity of the fungus across a range of controlled environments. In general, effects on plasticity are specific to an environment and mechanism, indicating that epigenetic regulation is context dependent and is not governed by general plasticity genes. Specifically, we found that, in Neurospora, histone methylation at H3K36 affected plastic response to high temperatures, H3K4 methylation affected plastic response to pH, but H3K27 methylation had no effect. Similarly, DNA methylation had only a small effect in response to sucrose. Histone deacetylation mainly decreased reaction norm elevation, as did genes involved in histone demethylation and acetylation. In contrast, the RNA interference pathway was involved in plastic responses to multiple environments.

  5. Autophagy promotes survival in aging submerged cultures of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Benjamin M; Burggraaf-van Welzen, Anne-Marie; Lamers, Gerda; Meyer, Vera; Ram, Arthur F J

    2013-09-01

    Autophagy is a well-conserved catabolic process constitutively active in eukaryotes that is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by the targeting of cytoplasmic content and organelles to vacuoles. Autophagy is strongly induced by the limitation of nutrients including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and is clearly associated with cell death. It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of empty hyphal compartments and cryptic growth in carbon-starved submerged cultures of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is accompanied by a joint transcriptional induction of autophagy genes. This study examines the role of autophagy by deleting the atg1, atg8, and atg17 orthologs in A. niger and phenotypically analyzing the deletion mutants in surface and submerged cultures. The results indicate that atg1 and atg8 are essential for efficient autophagy, whereas deletion of atg17 has little to no effect on autophagy in A. niger. Depending on the kind of oxidative stress confronted with, autophagy deficiency renders A. niger either more resistant (menadione) or more sensitive (H2O2) to oxidative stress. Fluorescence microscopy showed that mitochondrial turnover upon carbon depletion in submerged cultures is severely blocked in autophagy-impaired A. niger mutants. Furthermore, automated image analysis demonstrated that autophagy promotes survival in maintained carbon-starved cultures of A. niger. Taken together, the results suggest that besides its function in nutrient recycling, autophagy plays important roles in physiological adaptation by organelle turnover and protection against cell death upon carbon depletion in submerged cultures.

  6. Physiological evaluation of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in production processes by marker gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically relevant molecular markers can be used in evaluation of the physiological state of an organism in biotechnical processes. We monitored at high frequency the expression of 34 marker genes in batch, fed-batch and continuous cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by the transcriptional analysis method TRAC (TRanscript analysis with the aid of Affinity Capture. Expression of specific genes was normalised either with respect to biomass or to overall polyA RNA concentration. Expressional variation of the genes involved in various process relevant cellular functions, such as protein production, growth and stress responses, was related to process parameters such as specific growth and production rates and substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Results Gene expression of secreted cellulases and recombinant Melanocarpus albomyces laccase predicted the trends in the corresponding extracellular enzyme production rates and was highest in a narrow "physiological window" in the specific growth rate (μ range of 0.03 – 0.05 h-1. Expression of ribosomal protein mRNAs was consistent with the changes in μ. Nine starvation-related genes were found as potential markers for detection of insufficient substrate feed for maintaining optimal protein production. For two genes induced in anaerobic conditions, increasing transcript levels were measured as dissolved oxygen decreased. Conclusion The data obtained by TRAC supported the usefulness of focused and intensive transcriptional analysis in monitoring of biotechnical processes providing thus tools for process optimisation purposes.

  7. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was iden...

  8. The phenotype of a phospholipase C (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Roger R; Giblon, Rachel E; Lorenti, Miranda S H

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, phospholipase C may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. One candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase C is PLC-1. We characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (KO plc-1) and a RIP mutated strain (RIP plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene product non-functional). Growth and hyphal cytology of wildtype and KO plc-1 were similar, but the RIP plc-1 mutant grew slower and exhibited abnormal membrane structures at the hyphal tip, imaged using the fluorescence dye FM4-64. To test for causes of the slower growth of the RIP plc-1 mutant, we examined its physiological poise compared to wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. The electrical properties of all three strains and the electrogenic contribution of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (identified by cyanide inhibition) were the same. Responses to high osmolarity were also similar. However, the RIP plc-1 mutant had a significantly lower turgor, a possible cause of its slower growth. While growth of all three strains was inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin, the RIP plc-1 mutant did not exhibit hyphal bursting after addition of the inhibitor, observed in both wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. Although the plc-1 gene is not obligatory for tip growth, the phenotype of the RIP plc-1 mutant - abnormal tip cytology, lower turgor and resistance to inhibitor-induced hyphal bursting - suggest it does play a role in tip growth. The expression of a dysfunctional plc-1 gene may cause a shift to alternative mechanism(s) of growth sensing in hyphal extension. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 海洋真菌Rhizopus sp.菌丝体中化学成分的研究%The chemical constituents from the mycelia of marine fungus Rhizopus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石瑛; 田黎; 裴月湖

    2005-01-01

    目的对海洋真菌Rhizopus sp.菌丝体的丙酮和甲醇萃取部分进行化学成分的研究.方法采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱等手段,利用理化和波谱分析方法,对海洋真菌Rhizopus sp.菌丝体中的化合物进行分离鉴定.结果与结论从该真菌菌丝体中分离得到6个化合物.经光谱数据分析,鉴定其结构为5α,8α-过氧麦角甾-6,22-二烯-3β-醇(1)、1-O-9(Z)-十八碳烯酰甘油酯(2)、麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β-三醇(3)、麦角甾-8(9),22-二烯-3β,5α,6β,7α-四醇(4)、戊五醇(5)、尿素(6).这些化合物均为首次从该真菌菌丝体中分离得到.

  10. Macrophage receptors of polysaccharide isolated from a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song CHEN; Deng-ke YIN; Wen-bing YAO; Yi-dan WANG; Yi-ran ZHANG; Xiang-dong GAO

    2009-01-01

    Aim:YCP,a novel (1,4)-α-D-glucan,was isolated from the mycelium of the marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108.In this work,we investigated a YCP-binding cellular receptor expressed by macrophages and the intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in YCP-induced macrophage activation.Methods:Fluorescence-labeled YCP (fl-YCP) was prepared using the CDAP-activation method.Fluorescence confocal laser microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to analyze the effect of fl-YCP on macrophages.To characterize the properties of the YCP receptor,carbohydrates and antibodies were used to inhibit the binding of fl-YCP to macrophages.Moreover,we investigated the role of membrane receptors Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2),Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4),Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) and complement receptor 3 (CR3).We also examined the role of the p38 kinase pathway in mediating nitric oxide (NO) production.Results:YCP had an in vitro stimulatory effect on the release of NO in macrophage,and fl-YCP can bind directly to receptors on the surface of macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner.Competition studies show that LPS,laminarin,anti-TLR4 antibody and anti-CD11b (CR3) antibody could inhibit fl-YCP binding to macrophages.Conversely,mannose,anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR6 antibody could not.Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with YCP resulted in significant activation of p38 in a time-dependent manner.The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 abrogated YCP-induced NO generation.Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with anti-TLR4 antibody and anti-CR3 antibody significantly reduced YCP-induced NO production and p38 activation.Conclusion:We have demonstrated that YCP-induced NO production occurs through the TLR4 and CR3 membrane receptors in a p38 kinase-dependent manner in macrophages.

  11. 根霉发酵大豆食品的研究 ——菌种生长条件及发酵初试%The research on rhizopus fermenting soyfood --The determining conditions of growth on the fungus and experiment of initial ferment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characters of growth and reproduce of Rhizopus oligosporus Saito were determented.The results showed that the suitable temperature is at 37℃,and the suitable pH volue at 4.00~4.50,on the mycelium growth and spore germination of the fungus.Tempe preparad by using this fungus had good flavor and can be cooded easily.%研究了少孢根霉(Rhizopus oliqosporus Saito)的生长繁殖特性。该菌的菌丝生长及孢子萌发最适温度为37℃;最适pH为4.0~4.5。用其发酵大豆制得的天培性状良好,适口性强,可加工调理。

  12. Sulfation of a polysaccharide produced by a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108 alters its antioxidant properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X B; Gao, X D; Han, F; Tan, R X

    2005-08-30

    Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by all aerobic cells and are widely believed to play a significant role in aging as well as a number of degenerative or pathological diseases. This study compared the free radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activity of YCP, a polysaccharide from the mycelium of a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS 4108 and its two chemically sulfated derivatives YCP-S1 and YCP-S2. Sulfation, which masks hydroxyl groups of YCP polysaccharide molecule, could introduce new antioxidant activity, such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, metal chelating action, lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid oxidation inhibition capability. Furthermore, sulfated YCP was more potent than YCP at protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage hemolysis. The current data suggest for the first time that sulfation of polysaccharide significantly increases its antioxidant activity and the chemical modification of polysaccharides may allow the preparation of derivatives with new properties and a variety of applications.

  13. Structure of Importin-α from a Filamentous Fungus in Complex with a Classical Nuclear Localization Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E Bernardes

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus that has been extensively studied as a model organism for eukaryotic biology, providing fundamental insights into cellular processes such as cell signaling, growth and differentiation. To advance in the study of this multicellular organism, an understanding of the specific mechanisms for protein transport into the cell nucleus is essential. Importin-α (Imp-α is the receptor for cargo proteins that contain specific nuclear localization signals (NLSs that play a key role in the classical nuclear import pathway. Structures of Imp-α from different organisms (yeast, rice, mouse, and human have been determined, revealing that this receptor possesses a conserved structural scaffold. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Impα mechanism of action may vary significantly for different organisms or for different isoforms from the same organism. Therefore, structural, functional, and biophysical characterization of different Impα proteins is necessary to understand the selectivity of nuclear transport. Here, we determined the first crystal structure of an Impα from a filamentous fungus which is also the highest resolution Impα structure already solved to date (1.75 Å. In addition, we performed calorimetric analysis to determine the affinity and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction between Imp-α and the classical SV40 NLS peptide. The comparison of these data with previous studies on Impα proteins led us to demonstrate that N. crassa Imp-α possess specific features that are distinct from mammalian Imp-α but exhibit important similarities to rice Imp-α, particularly at the minor NLS binding site.

  14. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae M-4 strain with self-protection transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Li, Jianlong; Yao, Kai; Zhao, Nan; Zhou, Kang; Hu, Xinjie; Zou, Likou; Han, Xinfeng; Liu, Aiping; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-11-01

    A novel filamentous fungus M-4 strain was isolated from soy sauce koji and identified as Aspergillus oryzae (Collection number: CGMCC 11645) on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence. M-4 could degrade 80.62 % of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA; 100 mg L(-1)) within 5 days. 3-PBA degradation occurred in accordance with first-order kinetics. The degradation metabolites of 3-PBA were identified through high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Relevant enzymatic activities and substrate utilization were also investigated, which indicated that M-4 could effectively degrade the intermediates of 3-PBA. Base on analysis of these metabolites, a novel biochemical pathway for the degradation of 3-PBA was proposed. There exists a mutual transformation between 3-phenoxy-benzyl alcohol and 3-PBA, which was firstly reported about the degradation of 3-PBA and may be attributed to self-protection transformation of M-4; subsequently, 3-PBA was gradually transformed into phenol, 3-hydroxy-5-phenoxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid. The safety of M-4 was evaluated via an acute toxicity test in vivo. The biodegradation ability of M-4 without toxic effects reveals that this fungus may be likely to be used for eliminating 3-PBA from contaminated environment or fermented foods.

  15. Review of Microalgae Harvesting via Co-Pelletization with Filamentous Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of microalgae to utilize CO2 and nutrients in the wastewater to generate biofuel products is a promising research objective. However, the process faces tremendous technical difficulties, especially the harvest of microalgae cells, an economically challenging step. Several researchers recently reported co-culturing of filamentous fungi with microalgae so that microalgae cells can be co-pelletized in order to facilitate the cell harvest. This algae pelletization via the filamentous fungi represents an innovative approach to address both the cost and sustainability issues in algae biofuel production and also has potential with direct commercial applications. This paper reviews the current research status in this area and some possible drawbacks of this method in order to provide some possible directions for the future research.

  16. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  17. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

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    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  18. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-05-09

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  19. Septin phosphorylation and coiled-coil domains function in cell and septin ring morphology in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseroll, Rebecca A; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2013-02-01

    Septins are a class of GTP-binding proteins conserved throughout many eukaryotes. Individual septin subunits associate with one another and assemble into heteromeric complexes that form filaments and higher-order structures in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the assembly and maintenance of higher-order structures in cells remain poorly understood. Septins in several organisms have been shown to be phosphorylated, although precisely how septin phosphorylation may be contributing to the formation of high-order septin structures is unknown. Four of the five septins expressed in the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, are phosphorylated, and we demonstrate here the diverse roles of these phosphorylation sites in septin ring formation and septin dynamics, as well as cell morphology and viability. Intriguingly, the alteration of specific sites in Cdc3p and Cdc11p leads to a complete loss of higher-order septin structures, implicating septin phosphorylation as a regulator of septin structure formation. Introducing phosphomimetic point mutations to specific sites in Cdc12p and Shs1p causes cell lethality, highlighting the importance of normal septin modification in overall cell function and health. In addition to discovering roles for phosphorylation, we also present diverse functions for conserved septin domains in the formation of septin higher-order structure. We previously showed the requirement for the Shs1p coiled-coil domain in limiting septin ring size and reveal here that, in contrast to Shs1p, the coiled-coil domains of Cdc11p and Cdc12p are required for septin ring formation. Our results as a whole reveal novel roles for septin phosphorylation and coiled-coil domains in regulating septin structure and function.

  20. Genotoxicity of the cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitor sulindac sulfide in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Genotoxicidade de sulfeto de sulindaco em Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco; Claudia Tiemi Miyamoto; Juliane Rocha de Sant'Anna; Marialba Avezum Alves Castro-Prado

    2007-01-01

    Sulindac sulfide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with chemopreventive effect on human cancer cells. Due to the involvement of the somatic recombination in the carcinogenic process, sulindac sulfide's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by the Homozygotization Index (HI) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The drug's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes from heterozygous diploid cells. Sulindac sulfide ...

  1. Supramolecular organization of cytochrome c oxidase- and alternative oxidase-dependent respiratory chains in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Frank; Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Werner, Alexandra; Rexroth, Sascha; Reifschneider, Nicole H; Dencher, Norbert A; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2004-06-18

    To elucidate the molecular basis of the link between respiration and longevity, we have studied the organization of the respiratory chain of a wild-type strain and of two long-lived mutants of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. This established aging model is able to respire by either the standard or the alternative pathway. In the latter pathway, electrons are directly transferred from ubiquinol to the alternative oxidase and thus bypass complexes III and IV. We show that the cytochrome c oxidase pathway is organized according to the mammalian "respirasome" model (Schägger, H., and Pfeiffer, K. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 1777-1783). In contrast, the alternative pathway is composed of distinct supercomplexes of complexes I and III (i.e. I(2) and I(2)III(2)), which have not been described so far. Enzymatic analysis reveals distinct functional properties of complexes I and III belonging to either cytochrome c oxidase- or alternative oxidase-dependent pathways. By a gentle colorless-native PAGE, almost all of the ATP synthases from mitochondria respiring by either pathway were preserved in the dimeric state. Our data are of significance for the understanding of both respiratory pathways as well as lifespan control and aging.

  2. Morphological changes of the filamentous fungus Mucor mucedo and inhibition of chitin synthase activity induced by anethole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutani, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Yukie; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2011-11-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum with antimicrobial activity relatively weaker than those of well-known antibiotics, and significantly enhances the antifungal activity of polygodial and dodecanol against the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole is unresolved. Anethole demonstrated antifungal activity against the filamentous fungus, Mucor mucedo IFO 7684, accompanied by hyphal morphological changes such as swollen hyphae at the tips. Its minimum growth inhibitory concentration was 0.625 mM. A hyperosmotic condition (1.2 M sorbitol) restricted the induction of morphological changes, while hypoosmotic treatment (distilled water) induced bursting of hyphal tips and leakage of cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, anethole dose-dependently inhibited chitin synthase (CHS) activity in permeabilized hyphae in an uncompetitive manner. These results suggest that the morphological changes of M. mucedo could be explained by the fragility of cell walls caused by CHS inhibition.

  3. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2)O(2) to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  4. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bourdais

    Full Text Available Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2O(2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  5. The evolutionary imprint of domestication on genome variation and function of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John G; Salichos, Leonidas; Slot, Jason C; Rinker, David C; McGary, Kriston L; King, Jonas G; Klich, Maren A; Tabb, David L; McDonald, W Hayes; Rokas, Antonis

    2012-08-01

    The domestication of animals, plants, and microbes fundamentally transformed the lifestyle and demography of the human species [1]. Although the genetic and functional underpinnings of animal and plant domestication are well understood, little is known about microbe domestication [2-6]. Here, we systematically examined genome-wide sequence and functional variation between the domesticated fungus Aspergillus oryzae, whose saccharification abilities humans have harnessed for thousands of years to produce sake, soy sauce, and miso from starch-rich grains, and its wild relative A. flavus, a potentially toxigenic plant and animal pathogen [7]. We discovered dramatic changes in the sequence variation and abundance profiles of genes and wholesale primary and secondary metabolic pathways between domesticated and wild relative isolates during growth on rice. Our data suggest that, through selection by humans, an atoxigenic lineage of A. flavus gradually evolved into a "cell factory" for enzymes and metabolites involved in the saccharification process. These results suggest that whereas animal and plant domestication was largely driven by Neolithic "genetic tinkering" of developmental pathways, microbe domestication was driven by extensive remodeling of metabolism.

  6. First Report of Rhizopus oryzae as a Postharvest Pathogen of Apple in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Won-Il

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot in apple caused by Rhizopus oryzae was found for the first time in Korea. A detailed description of the specimen is given along with its internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence. The fungus was identified as Rhizopus oryzae based on the mycological characteristics, molecular data, and pathogenicity testing.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of a Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor in the filamentous fungus Tuber borchii

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    Stocchi Vilberto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small GTPases of the Rho family function as tightly regulated molecular switches that govern important cellular functions in eukaryotes. Several families of regulatory proteins control their activation cycle and subcellular localization. Members of the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI family sequester Rho GTPases from the plasma membrane and keep them in an inactive form. Results We report on the characterization the RhoGDI homolog of Tuber borchii Vittad., an ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus. The Tbgdi gene is present in two copies in the T. borchii genome. The predicted amino acid sequence shows high similarity to other known RhoGDIs. Real time PCR analyses revealed an increased expression of Tbgdi during the phase preparative to the symbiosis instauration, in particular after stimulation with root exudates extracts, that correlates with expression of Tbcdc42. In a translocation assay TbRhoGDI was able to solubilize TbCdc42 from membranes. Surprisingly, TbRhoGDI appeared not to interact with S. cerevisiae Cdc42, precluding the use of yeast as a surrogate model for functional studies. To study the role of TbRhoGDI we performed complementation experiments using a RhoGDI null strain of Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism where the roles of Rho signaling pathways are well established. For comparison, complementation with mammalian RhoGDI1 and LyGDI was also studied in the null strain. Although interacting with Rac1 isoforms, TbRhoGDI was not able to revert the defects of the D. discoideum RhoGDI null strain, but displayed an additional negative effect on the cAMP-stimulated actin polymerization response. Conclusion T. borchii expresses a functional RhoGDI homolog that appears as an important modulator of cytoskeleton reorganization during polarized apical growth that antecedes symbiosis instauration. The specificity of TbRhoGDI actions was underscored by its inability to elicit a growth defect in S

  8. The polo-like kinase PLKA is required for initiation and progression through mitosis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachewich, Catherine; Masker, Kathryn; Osmani, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Polo-like kinases (PLK) function during multiple stages of mitotic progression and in cytokinesis. We identified and cloned a PLK homologue in Aspergillus nidulans, plkA, which is the first PLK reported in a filamentous fungus and the largest member of the PLK family to date. As plkA was essential, the effects of overexpression and localization of protein in living cells were explored to determine PLKA function. Overexpression of PLKA permitted hyphal formation, but blocked nuclear division in interphase. In NIMA or NIMT temperature-sensitive backgrounds, overexpression of PLKA impaired normal entry into mitosis upon release from restrictive temperature, supporting a role for PLKA during G2/M. In the few mitotic cells present, spindles were monopolar or disorganized, and chromatin condensation and segregation were impaired, suggesting additional roles for PLKA in spindle formation and in chromosome dynamics. Consistent with this, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PLKA could localize to the spb during interphase, and to the spb and nucleus throughout mitosis. Intriguingly, PLKA remained on the spb during telophase and into G1, in contrast to other PLK. In addition, spb localization was independent of NIMA function, unlike that demonstrated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe where PLK localization to the spb required the NIMA homologue Fin1. PLKA was not detected at cortical, septation-associated sites, and overexpression did not drive septum formation, also in contrast to that observed with other PLK. Therefore, PLKA is important for multiple events during mitosis, similar to PLK in higher organisms, but exhibits differences in size, localization and influence on septation/cytokinesis, suggesting additional novel regulatory features.

  9. Transcriptional monitoring of steady state and effects of anaerobic phases in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

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    Penttilä Merja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemostat cultures are commonly used in production of cellular material for systems-wide biological studies. We have used the novel TRAC (transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture method to study expression stability of approximately 30 process relevant marker genes in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and its transformant expressing laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces. Transcriptional responses caused by transient oxygen deprivations and production of foreign protein were also studied in T. reesei by TRAC. Results In cultures with good steady states, the expression of the marker genes varied less than 20% on average between sequential samples for at least 5 or 6 residence times. However, in a number of T. reesei cultures continuous flow did not result in a good steady state. Perturbations to the steady state were always evident at the transcriptional level, even when they were not measurable as changes in biomass or product concentrations. Both unintentional and intentional perturbations of the steady state demonstrated that a number of genes involved in growth, protein production and secretion are sensitive markers for culture disturbances. Exposure to anaerobic conditions caused strong responses at the level of gene expression, but surprisingly the cultures could regain their previous steady state quickly, even after 3 h O2 depletion. The main effect of producing M. albomyces laccase was down-regulation of the native cellulases compared with the host strain. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptional analysis by TRAC in ensuring the quality of chemostat cultures prior to costly and laborious genome-wide analysis. In addition TRAC was shown to be an efficient tool in studying gene expression dynamics in transient conditions.

  10. Novel Lactate Transporters from Carboxylic Acid-Producing Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  11. Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  12. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  13. Harvesting of Chlorella sorokiniana by co-culture with the filamentous fungus Isaria fumosorosea: A potential sustainable feedstock for hydrothermal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Stephen; Gomes, Eduardo; Holliger, Christof; Bauer, Rolene; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent advances in down-stream processing, production of microalgae remains substantially limited because of economical reasons. Harvesting and dewatering are the most energy-intensive processing steps in their production and contribute 20-30% of total operational cost. Bio-flocculation of microalgae by co-cultivation with filamentous fungi relies on the development of large structures that facilitate cost effective harvesting. A yet unknown filamentous fungus was isolated as a contaminant from a microalgal culture and identified as Isaria fumosorosea. Blastospores production was optimized in minimal medium and the development of pellets, possibly lichens, was followed when co-cultured with Chlorella sorokiniana under strict autotrophic conditions. Stable pellets (1-2mm) formed rapidly at pH 7-8, clearing the medium of free algal cells. Biomass was harvested with large inexpensive filters, generating wet slurry suitable for hydrothermal gasification. Nutrient rich brine from the aqueous phase of hydrothermal gasification supported growth of the fungus and may increase the process sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monoxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp., to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Kristin M; Wolpert, Thomas J; Hyman, Michael R; Ciuffetti, Lynda M

    2014-02-01

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was identified, cloned and functionally characterized as an alkane-oxidizing cytochrome P450 (GSPALK1). Analysis of CYP52L1 suggests that it is a member of the CYP52 cytochrome P450 family, which is comprised of medium- and long-chain alkane-oxidizing enzymes found in yeasts. However, phylogenetic analysis of GSPALK1 with other CYP52 members suggests they are not closely related. Post-transcriptional ds-RNA-mediated gene silencing of CYP52L1 severely reduced the ability of this fungus to oxidize alkanes and ethers, however, downstream metabolic steps in these pathways were unaffected. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that GSPALK1 is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial oxidation of alkanes and ethers but is not involved in the later steps of alkane or ether metabolism.

  15. Endo-β-N-acetylglucosamidases (ENGases) in the fungus Trichoderma atroviride: possible involvement of the filamentous fungi-specific cytosolic ENGase in the ERAD process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Georgios; Hosomi, Akira; Hossain, Tanim Jabid; Hirayama, Hiroto; Dubey, Mukesh; Jensen, Dan Funck; Suzuki, Tadashi; Karlsson, Magnus

    2014-06-27

    N-Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins, which mainly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glycoproteins that are unable to fold properly are exported to the cytosol for degradation by a cellular system called ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Once misfolded glycoproteins are exported to the cytosol, they are subjected to deglycosylation by peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) to facilitate the efficient degradation of misfolded proteins by the proteasome. Interestingly, the ortholog of PNGase in some filamentous fungi was found to be an inactive deglycosylating enzyme. On the other hand, it has been shown that in filamentous fungi genomes, usually two different fungi-specific endo-β-N-acetylglucosamidases (ENGases) can be found; one is predicted to be localized in the cytosol and the other to have a signal sequence, while the functional importance of these enzymes remains to be clarified. In this study the ENGases of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride was characterized. By heterologous expression of the ENGases Eng18A and Eng18B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it was found that both ENGases are active deglycosylating enzymes. Interestingly, only Eng18B was able to enhance the efficient degradation of the RTL protein, a PNGase-dependent ERAD substrate, implying the involvement of this enzyme in the ERAD process. These results indicate that T. atroviride Eng18B may deglycosylate misfolded glycoproteins, substituting the function of the cytoplasmic PNGase in the ERAD process.

  16. Rhizopus Soft Rot on Lily Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

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    Soo-Sang Hahm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus soft rot of lily (Lilium longiflorum caused by Rhizopus oryzae was observed in the experimental field in Taean Lily Experiment Station in Korea, 2012. The typical symptoms were water-soaked lesions on bottom stem and leaf rot. The lesion rapidly expanded and the plant was softened totally. The fungus grew vigorously at an optimum temperature (25oC and brownish colony and black sporangia were formed on potato dextrose agar medium. Sporangiophores formed on end of sporangia were sub-globose, brownish and 6-10 μm in size. Sporangia were globose, blackish and 87-116 μm in size. Sporangiospores were irregularly oval and sub-globose, brownish 4-8 μm in size. On the basis of mycological characteristics, analyzing sequences of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, and pathogenicity test on host plants, the causal fungus was identified as R. oryzae. This is the first report of Rhizopus soft rot on lily caused by R. oryzae in Korea.

  17. A mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome c1 leads to a decreased ROS content and to a long-lived phenotype in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellem, Carole H; Marsy, Sophie; Boivin, Antoine; Lemaire, Claire; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2007-07-01

    We present here the properties of a complex III loss-of-function mutant of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. The mutation corresponds to a single substitution in the second intron of the gene cyc1 encoding cytochrome c(1), leading to a splicing defect. The cyc1-1 mutant is long-lived, exhibits a defect in ascospore pigmentation, has a reduced growth rate and a reduced ROS production associated with a stabilisation of its mitochondrial DNA. We also show that increased longevity is linked with morphologically modified mitochondria and an increased number of mitochondrial genomes. Overexpression of the alternative oxidase rescues all these phenotypes and restores aging. Interestingly, the absence of complex III in this mutant is not paralleled with a deficiency in complex I activity as reported in mammals although the respiratory chain of P. anserina has recently been demonstrated to be organized according to the "respirasome" model.

  18. The gene for a lectin-like protein is transcriptionally activated during sexual development, but is not essential for fruiting body formation in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora

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    Cebula Patricia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies called perithecia that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. In previous microarray analyses, several genes have been identified that are downregulated in sterile mutants compared to the wild type. Among these genes was tap1 (transcript associated with perithecial development, a gene encoding a putative lectin homolog. Results Analysis of tap1 transcript levels in the wild type under conditions allowing only vegetative growth compared to conditions that lead to fruiting body development showed that tap1 is not only downregulated in developmental mutants but is also upregulated in the wild type during fruiting body development. We have cloned and sequenced a 3.2 kb fragment of genomic DNA containing the tap1 open reading frame and adjoining sequences. The genomic region comprising tap1 is syntenic to its homologous region in the closely related filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. To determine whether tap1 is involved in fruiting body development in S. macrospora, a knockout construct was generated in which the tap1 open reading frame was replaced by the hygromycin B resistance gene hph under the control of fungal regulatory regions. Transformation of the S. macrospora wild type with this construct resulted in a tap1 deletion strain where tap1 had been replaced by the hph cassette. The knockout strain displayed no phenotypic differences under conditions of vegetative growth and sexual development when compared to the wild type. Double mutants carrying the Δtap1 allele in several developmental mutant backgrounds were phenotypically similar to the corresponding developmental mutant strains. Conclusion The tap1 transcript is strongly upregulated during sexual development in S. macrospora; however, analysis of a tap1 knockout strain shows that tap1 is not essential for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora.

  19. Evidence that a Secondary Metabolic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster has Grown by Gene Relocation During Evolution of the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of medical and agricultural interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis ...

  20. Physiological traits of Penicillium glabrum strain LCP 08.5568, a filamentous fungus isolated from bottled aromatized mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, L; Vasseur, V; Le Madec, A; Le Bras, M A; Coroller, L; Leguérinel, I; Barbier, G

    2009-04-15

    Penicillium glabrum is a ubiquitous fungus distributed world wide. This fungus is a frequent contaminant in the food manufacturing industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, water activity and pH have a great influence on fungal development. In this study, a strain of P. glabrum referenced to as LCP 08.5568, has been isolated from a bottle of aromatized mineral water. The effects of temperature, a(w) and pH on radial growth rate were assessed on Czapeck Yeast Agar (CYA) medium. Models derived from the cardinal model with inflection [Rosso et al., 1993 An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. J. Theor. Bio. 162, 447-463.] were used to fit the experimental data and determine for each factor, the cardinal parameters (minimum, optimum and maximum). Precise characterisation of the growth conditions for such a fungal contaminant, has an evident interest to understand and to prevent spoilage of food products.

  1. Septin Phosphorylation and Coiled-Coil Domains Function in Cell and Septin Ring Morphology in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Meseroll, Rebecca A.; Occhipinti, Patricia; Gladfelter, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Septins are a class of GTP-binding proteins conserved throughout many eukaryotes. Individual septin subunits associate with one another and assemble into heteromeric complexes that form filaments and higher-order structures in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the assembly and maintenance of higher-order structures in cells remain poorly understood. Septins in several organisms have been shown to be phosphorylated, although precisely how septin phosphorylation may be contributing to the formati...

  2. Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(Δ), lac8(Δ) and mco(Δ) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(Δ), lac7(Δ), mco(Δ) and lac6(Δ) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis.

  3. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  4. Massive changes in genome architecture accompany the transition to self-fertility in the filamentous fungus Neurospora tetrasperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher E; Stajich, Jason E; Jacobson, David J; Natvig, Donald O; Lapidus, Alla; Foster, Brian; Aerts, Andrea; Riley, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Taylor, John W

    2011-09-01

    A large region of suppressed recombination surrounds the sex-determining locus of the self-fertile fungus Neurospora tetrasperma. This region encompasses nearly one-fifth of the N. tetrasperma genome and suppression of recombination is necessary for self-fertility. The similarity of the N. tetrasperma mating chromosome to plant and animal sex chromosomes and its recent origin (<5 MYA), combined with a long history of genetic and cytological research, make this fungus an ideal model for studying the evolutionary consequences of suppressed recombination. Here we compare genome sequences from two N. tetrasperma strains of opposite mating type to determine whether structural rearrangements are associated with the nonrecombining region and to examine the effect of suppressed recombination for the evolution of the genes within it. We find a series of three inversions encompassing the majority of the region of suppressed recombination and provide evidence for two different types of rearrangement mechanisms: the recently proposed mechanism of inversion via staggered single-strand breaks as well as ectopic recombination between transposable elements. In addition, we show that the N. tetrasperma mat a mating-type region appears to be accumulating deleterious substitutions at a faster rate than the other mating type (mat A) and thus may be in the early stages of degeneration.

  5. Massive Changes in Genome Architecture Accompany the Transition to Self-Fertility in the filamentous Fungus Neurospora tetrasperma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Christoper; Stajich, Jason; Jacobson, David; Nativ, Donald; Lapidus, Alla; Foster, Brian; Aerts, Andrea; Riley, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor; Taylor, John

    2011-05-16

    A large region of suppressed recombination surrounds the sex-determining locus of the self-fertile fungus Neurospora tetrasperma. This region encompasses nearly one-fifth of the N. tetrasperma genome and suppression of recombination is necessary for self-fertility. The similarity of the N. tetrasperma mating chromosome to plant and animal sex chromosomes and its recent origin (5 MYA), combined with a long history of genetic and cytological research, make this fungus an ideal model for studying the evolutionary consequences of suppressed recombination. Here we compare genome sequences from two N. tetrasperma strains of opposite mating type to determine whether structural rearrangements are associated with the nonrecombining region and to examine the effect of suppressed recombination for the evolution of the genes within it. We find a series of three inversions encompassing the majority of the region of suppressed recombination and provide evidence for two different types of rearrangement mechanisms: the recently proposed mechanism of inversion via staggered single-strand breaks as well as ectopic recombination between transposable elements. In addition, we show that the N. tetrasperma mat a mating-type region appears to be accumulating deleterious substitutions at a faster rate than the other mating type (mat A) and thus may be in the early stages of degeneration.

  6. A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses

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    Rui eZhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10 of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1. A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two mycelially incompatible Rosellinia necatrix strains. A biological comparison of the virus-free and -recipient isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnFV1 infects latently and thus has no potential as a virocontrol agent. The virus has an undivided positive-sense RNA genome of 6286 nucleotides excluding a poly (A tail. The genome possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs: a large ORF1 that encodes polypeptides with RNA replication functions and a smaller ORF2 that encodes polypeptides of unknown function. A lack of coat protein genes was suggested by the failure of virus particles from infected mycelia. No evidence was obtained by Northern analysis or classical 5'-RACE for the presence of subgenomic RNA for the downstream ORF. Sequence similarities were found in amino-acid sequence between RnFV1 putative proteins and counterparts of a previously reported mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1. Interestingly, several related sequences were detected by BLAST searches of independent transcriptome assembly databases one of which probably represents an entire virus genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that RnFV1, FgV1, and these similar sequences are grouped in a cluster distinct from distantly related hypoviruses. It is proposed that a new taxonomic family termed Fusariviridae be created to include RnFV1and FgV1.

  7. Multiple effects of a commercial Roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Valérie; Oestreicher, Nathalie; Vélot, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), especially to Roundup® which is widely used worldwide. However, studies on the effects of GBH formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. We evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of Roundup® (R450), containing 450 g/L of glyphosate (GLY), on the soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. The median lethal dose (LD50) on solid media was between 90 and 112 mg/L GLY (among adjuvants, which are also included in the Roundup® formulation), which corresponds to a dilution percentage about 100 times lower than that used in agriculture. The LOAEL and NOAEL (lowest- and no-observed-adverse-effect levels) associated to morphology and growth were 33.75 and 31.5 mg/L GLY among adjuvants, respectively. The formulation R450 proved to be much more active than technical GLY. At the LD50 and lower concentrations, R450 impaired growth, cellular polarity, endocytosis, and mitochondria (average number, total volume and metabolism). In contrast with the depletion of mitochondrial activities reported in animal studies, R450 caused a stimulation of mitochondrial enzyme activities, thus revealing a different mode of action of Roundup® on energetic metabolism. These mitochondrial disruptions were also evident at a low dose corresponding to the NOAEL for macroscopic parameters, indicating that these mitochondrial biomarkers are more sensitive than those for growth and morphological ones. Altogether, our data indicate that GBH toxic effects on soil filamentous fungi, and thus potential impairment of soil ecosystems, may occur at doses far below recommended agricultural application rate.

  8. A protein kinase C-encoding gene, pkcA, is essential to the viability of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinomiya, Masayuki; Uchida, Hirotaka; Koshi, Yukako; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

    2007-11-01

    A protein kinase C (PKC)-encoding gene (pkcA) was isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Although we attempted to isolate pkcA deletion mutants, we obtained only heterokaryons that had both DeltapkcA and pkcA(+) nuclei. Conidia produced by the heterokaryon germinated. The germ tubes, however, lysed frequently and no colony formation was observed, indicating that the pkcA gene is essential to the viability of A. nidulans. We constructed conditional mutants (alcA(p)-pkcA mutants) that expressed pkcA under the control of the alcA promoter (alcA(p)). Under alcA(p)-repressing conditions, their colonies were smaller than those of the wild-type strains and their hyphae lysed frequently. These phenotypes were not remedied under moderate- or high-osmolarity conditions; the growth defect deteriorated further under the latter. Under alcA(p)-inducing conditions, the alcA(p)-pkcA mutants also showed growth-sensitivity to cell wall destabilizing agents. These results indicate that pkcA plays an important role in the maintenance of cell integrity.

  9. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the heat stress response in the filamentous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang-Xun; Zhou, Xia-Zhi; Meng, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Quan; Huang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is widely used for biological control of a variety of insect pests. The effectiveness of the microbial pest control agent, however, is limited by poor thermotolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying the response to heat stress in the conidia of entomopathogenic fungi remains unclear. Here, we conducted high-throughput RNA-Seq to analyze the differential gene expression between control and heat treated conidia of M. anisopliae at the transcriptome level. RNA-Seq analysis generated 6,284,262 and 5,826,934 clean reads in the control and heat treated groups, respectively. A total of 2,722 up-regulated and 788 down-regulated genes, with a cutoff of twofold change, were identified by expression analysis. Among these differentially expressed genes, many were related to metabolic processes, biological regulation, cellular processes and response to stimuli. The majority of genes involved in endocytic pathways, proteosome pathways and regulation of autophagy were up-regulated, while most genes involved in the ribosome pathway were down-regulated. These results suggest that these differentially expressed genes may be involved in the heat stress response in conidia. As expected, significant changes in expression levels of genes encoding heat shock proteins and proteins involved in trehalose accumulation were observed in conditions of heat stress. These results expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response of conidia and provide a foundation for future investigations.

  10. Uncovering the genome-wide transcriptional responses of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to lignocellulose using RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Delmas

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the production of second generation biofuels is the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into fermentable sugars. Enzymes, particularly those from fungi, are a central part of this process, and many have been isolated and characterised. However, relatively little is known of how fungi respond to lignocellulose and produce the enzymes necessary for dis-assembly of plant biomass. We studied the physiological response of the fungus Aspergillus niger when exposed to wheat straw as a model lignocellulosic substrate. Using RNA sequencing we showed that, 24 hours after exposure to straw, gene expression of known and presumptive plant cell wall-degrading enzymes represents a huge investment for the cells (about 20% of the total mRNA. Our results also uncovered new esterases and surface interacting proteins that might form part of the fungal arsenal of enzymes for the degradation of plant biomass. Using transcription factor deletion mutants (xlnR and creA to study the response to both lignocellulosic substrates and low carbon source concentrations, we showed that a subset of genes coding for degradative enzymes is induced by starvation. Our data support a model whereby this subset of enzymes plays a scouting role under starvation conditions, testing for available complex polysaccharides and liberating inducing sugars, that triggers the subsequent induction of the majority of hydrolases. We also showed that antisense transcripts are abundant and that their expression can be regulated by growth conditions.

  11. The influence of some factors on β-1,4-xylanase activity of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414

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    Alexandru Manoliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mesophyllic fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph to Hypocrea jecorina is an important biotechnological tool, known for its ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. Renewable biomass, such as agricultural and forest wastes are used to produce microbial enzymes in various industrial processes such as food, feed and bioethanol industries. In raw biomass materials, such as wheat straws, barley straws and maize stalks, the main polysaccharide is cellulose which is closely associated with hemicelluloses like xylan, manan and xyloguclan. In consequence, the hydrolysis of these materials requires the concerted action of several enzymes, namely cellulases and xylanases. Endo-xylanase (endo-1,4--xylanase, EC 3.2.1.8 is the key enzyme involved in xylan hydrolysis, the mainhemicellulosic component of plant cell walls. The metabolic activity and enzyme productivity of Trichoderma reesei isinfluenced by various environmental conditions. In this context, we analysed the effect of pH, cultivation period, thenature of the substrate used and the nitrogen source on enzymatic activity. The maximum xylanase yield was recorded at a initial pH of 4 (116.189 IU/ml for barley and 5 for wheat (88.578 IU/ml, respectively maize (116.583 IU/ml. The bestsubstrate for endo-xylanase activity was maize stalks (90.446 IU/ml at a a concentration of 30g/L.

  12. Cytoplasmic continuity revisited: closure of septa of the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune in response to environmental conditions.

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    Arend F van Peer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycelia of higher fungi consist of interconnected hyphae that are compartmentalized by septa. These septa contain large pores that allow streaming of cytoplasm and even organelles. The cytoplasm of such mycelia is therefore considered to be continuous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show by laser dissection that septa of Schizophyllum commune can be closed depending on the environmental conditions. The most apical septum of growing hyphae was open when this basidiomycete was grown in minimal medium with glucose as a carbon source. In contrast, the second and the third septum were closed in more than 50% and 90% of the cases, respectively. Interestingly, only 24 and 37% of these septa were closed when hyphae were growing in the absence of glucose. Whether a septum was open or closed also depended on physical conditions of the environment or the presence of toxic agents. The first septum closed when hyphae were exposed to high temperature, to hypertonic conditions, or to the antibiotic nourseothricin. In the case of high temperature, septa opened again when the mycelium was placed back to the normal growth temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, it is concluded that the septal pores of S. commune are dynamic structures that open or close depending on the environmental conditions. Our findings imply that the cytoplasm in the mycelium of a higher fungus is not continuous per se.

  13. Long-distance translocation of protein during morphogenesis of the fruiting body in the filamentous fungus, Agaricus bisporus.

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    Benjamin M Woolston

    Full Text Available Commercial cultivation of the mushroom fungus, Agaricus bisporus, utilizes a substrate consisting of a lower layer of compost and upper layer of peat. Typically, the two layers are seeded with individual mycelial inoculants representing a single genotype of A. bisporus. Studies aimed at examining the potential of this fungal species as a heterologous protein expression system have revealed unexpected contributions of the mycelial inoculants in the morphogenesis of the fruiting body. These contributions were elucidated using a dual-inoculant method whereby the two layers were differientially inoculated with transgenic β-glucuronidase (GUS and wild-type (WT lines. Surprisingly, use of a transgenic GUS line in the lower substrate and a WT line in the upper substrate yielded fruiting bodies expressing GUS activity while lacking the GUS transgene. Results of PCR and RT-PCR analyses for the GUS transgene and RNA transcript, respectively, suggested translocation of the GUS protein from the transgenic mycelium colonizing the lower layer into the fruiting body that developed exclusively from WT mycelium colonizing the upper layer. Effective translocation of the GUS protein depended on the use of a transgenic line in the lower layer in which the GUS gene was controlled by a vegetative mycelium-active promoter (laccase 2 and β-actin, rather than a fruiting body-active promoter (hydrophobin A. GUS-expressing fruiting bodies lacking the GUS gene had a bonafide WT genotype, confirmed by the absence of stably inherited GUS and hygromycin phosphotransferase selectable marker activities in their derived basidiospores and mycelial tissue cultures. Differientially inoculating the two substrate layers with individual lines carrying the GUS gene controlled by different tissue-preferred promoters resulted in up to a ∼3.5-fold increase in GUS activity over that obtained with a single inoculant. Our findings support the existence of a previously undescribed

  14. Fate and effects of nonylphenol in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikova, I.; Safronova, V.; Zaytseva, T.; Medvedeva, N.

    2017-07-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is the most abundant environmental pollutant that is classified as an endocrine disruptor, and it originates from the degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are widely used as industrial surfactants. It has been referred to in a list of substances of particular risk to the Baltic Sea, in a list of priority hazardous substances in the Water Frame Directive, and in the 3rd draft Working Document on Sludge, developed by the EU. In this study, the fate and effects of NP in the filamentous fungus Penicillium expansum isolated from the bottom sediments of the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland were investigated in laboratory experiments. This strain was more tolerant to technical nonylphenol (tNP) compared to other types of aquatic organisms, such as fish, protozoa, and algae. The toxicity concentration values of tNP in Penicillium expansum were EC50 20 mg L- 1 and EC90 > 100 mg L- 1. The activity level of hydrolytic enzymes, cellulases and amylases decreased significantly in the tNP treatments. Given the significant role played by terrestrial fungi in the transformation of organic substrate into bottom sediment, such an effect from tNP on fungi could disturb the regulatory mechanisms and balance between the biosynthesis and biodegradation of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems as well as the formation of cenotic relations in aquatic biocenoses. Oxidative stress induced by tNP has been found to increase the synthesis of enzymatic protection factors, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and nonenzymatic factors (melanin-like pigments and extracellular polysaccharides). This research indicated that the malondialdehyde concentration (the biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation) in the cells of the fungus decreased with increasing antioxidation factors. Penicillium expansum was able to decrease the tNP concentration in the culture medium. The removal of tNP was mainly caused by fungal degradation rather than by simple sorption and

  15. Hydrogen Production by Co-cultures of Rhizopus oryzae and a Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yasuo; Ishimi, Katsuhiro; Nagata, Yoko; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Miyake, Jun; Kohno, Hideki

    Hydrogen production with glucose by using co-immobilized cultures of a fungus, Rhizopus oryzae NBRC5384, and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV, in agar gels was studied. The co-immobilized cultures converted glucose to hydrogen via lactate in a high molar yield of about 8moles of hydrogen per glucose at a maximum under illuminated conditions.

  16. Evaluation of Rhizopus oligosporus in nursery pig diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thin stillage leftover from ethanol production contains biodegradable organic compounds and sufficient micronutrients that are ideal for fungal cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus (RO). This fungus removes about 60% of the organic material, including the suspended solids and even more of some sp...

  17. Identification of Rhizopus stolonifer as a Pre-emergence Seedling Disease Pathogen of Beta vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus stolonifer, a common soil borne fungus in Michigan, is a known root rot pathogen on mature sugar beet. In 2008, Rs was isolated from a sugar beet seed lot showing consistently low germination rates in both the field and lab, and Rs was morphologically identified on malt extract agar. Much o...

  18. Genotoxicity of the cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitor sulindac sulfide in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Genotoxicidade de sulfeto de sulindaco em Aspergillus nidulans

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    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID with chemopreventive effect on human cancer cells. Due to the involvement of the somatic recombination in the carcinogenic process, sulindac sulfide's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by the Homozygotization Index (HI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The drug's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes from heterozygous diploid cells. Sulindac sulfide at 175 and 350 µM concentrations induced mitotic recombination in A. nidulans diploid cells, with HI values for genetic markers higher than 2.0, and significantly different from control HI values. The recombinogenic effect of NSAID was related to the induction of DNA strand breaks and cell cycle alterations. Sulindac sulfide's carcinogenic potential was also discussed.Sulfeto de sulindaco é um antiinflamatório não-esteroidal com efeitos quimiopreventivos em cânceres humanos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial recombinagênico do sulfeto de sulindaco em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans. O efeito recombinagênico da droga foi demonstrado através da homozigotização de genes recessivos, previamente presentes em heterozigose. Os valores de HI (Índice de Homozigotização para diferentes marcadores genéticos apresentaram-se maiores do que 2,0 e significativamente diferentes dos valores obtidos em sulfeto de sulindaco ausência da droga (controle. O potencial recombinagênico do sulfeto de sulindaco foi associado à indução de quebras na molécula do DNA e a alterações no ciclo celular. O potencial carcinogênico do sulfeto de sulindaco foi discutido no presente trabalho.

  19. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

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    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  20. A method of extracting carotenoids from filamentous fungus%真菌菌丝中类胡萝卜素的提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建法; 蒋鹏举; 黄为一

    2002-01-01

    建立一种从丝状真菌的菌丝体中快速提取类胡萝卜素的方法.发现类胡萝卜素在菌丝体中以色素颗粒形式存在.当饱和NaCl溶液存在于磨碎的菌丝体中,色素颗粒被破坏,类胡萝卜素可以被石油醚萃取.该方法适合根霉属(Rhizopus)、笄霉属(Choanephora)、毛霉属(Mucor)、 脉孢霉属(Neurspora)、镰胞霉属(Fusarium)、布拉霉属(Blakeslea)、根霉属(Rhizopus)等丝状真菌菌丝体中类胡萝卜素的提取.

  1. A successful treatment of rhinocerebral mucormycosis due to Rhizopus oryzae

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    Rasoul Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi of the Mucoraceae family. The genera most commonly responsible are Mucor or Rhizopus. The disease occurs mostly in association with diabetic ketoacidosis. Mucormycosis has an extremely high death rate even when aggressive surgery is done. Death rates range from 25-85% depending on the body area involved. A case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a 65-year-old diabetic male patient typically presenting as headache, especially in parietal and frontal lobes, with nose and left eye discharge. After clinical and laboratory examination, mucormycosis was diagnosed, and Rhizopus oryzae was isolated. Systemic therapy with amphotericin B administered intravenously then replaced by posaconazole by a combination of aggressive surgery. The patient was treated and followed up for one year. We emphasize the importance of early detection and aggressive treatment in the management of this fatal disease.

  2. The Nematicidal Spectrum of Bio-nematicides from Filamentous Fungus Sr18%Sr18生防制剂的杀线虫谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 田阳; 高丙利; 孙建华

    2012-01-01

    为检测Sr18生防制剂的杀线虫谱,通过室内法测定了Sr18的4种不同调配制剂S01-S04对南方根结线虫、大豆孢囊线虫和松材线虫的作用效果.结果表明:4种生防调配制剂对南方根结线虫的致死效果最强,稀释至8倍的校正死亡率均达到100%;对大豆孢囊线虫,生防制剂S01和S03(原始pH制剂)16倍稀释液的校正死亡率均可达到85%以上;而对松材线虫的致死率高的是S02和S04(中性pH制剂),8倍稀释液仍可达到100%.实验证实Sr18生防制剂是一种有效的广谱生物源杀线剂,在重要植物寄生线虫病害的生物防治方面具有广阔的应用前景.%For finding out the nematicidal spectrum of bio-nematicides from filamentous fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Sr18), in-vitro methods were developed to test the four different preparations of bio-nematicides, S01-S04, affecting nematode mobility of three nematodes including root knot nematode (RKN), soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and pine wood nematode (PWN). A serious of acute toxicity tests exhibited that the bio-nematicides were effective strongly to RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, and all of 8x diluted concentrations had corrected mortality of 100% differing from CK significantly; to SCN, Heterodera glycines, 16xdilution of S01 and S03 (the two nematicides with original pH) had corrected mortality of above 85%; on the contrary with SCN, S02 and S04 (the two neutral samples) had high nematicidal effects on PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, 100% corrected mortality from original concentrations to those at 8 x diluted. Bio-nematicides from Srl8 showed good effects on the three species of nematodes which had effective broad-spectrum biological nematicides, and would had the widespread application of several major plant-parasitic nematodes.

  3. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  4. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  5. rFTR1 is Required for Pathogenesis, and appears to be an Essential Gene, of Rhizopus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Rhizopus oryzae is a multinucleated fungus responsible for the majority of cases of mucormycosis. The high affinity iron permease gene (rFTR1) is required for R. oryzae iron transport in iron-limited environments. We sought to disrupt the gene to define its role in virulence. METHODS: ...

  6. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  7. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans : early progeny choice in a filamentous fungus = Selectie arena in Aspergillus nidulans : vroege selectie van nakomelingen in een filamenteuse schimmel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:selection arena, progeny choice, Aspergillus nidulans , fungus, spores, ascospore, conidiospore, asexual, sexual, fruiting body, cleistothecium, zygote, dikaryon, self-sterility, self-fertility, mutation accumulation, fitness,

  8. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans : early progeny choice in a filamentous fungus = Selectie arena in Aspergillus nidulans : vroege selectie van nakomelingen in een filamenteuse schimmel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:selection arena, progeny choice, Aspergillus nidulans , fungus, spores, ascospore, conidiospore, asexual, sexual, fruiting body, cleistothecium, zygote, dikaryon, self-sterility, self-fertility, mutation accumulation, fitness,

  9. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  10. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP) and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1) from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Song; Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza; Sheng-Hua Ying; Jin-Xia Zhang; Nemat O Keyhani

    2015-01-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regula...

  11. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  12. Adaptive alterations in the fatty acids composition under induced oxidative stress in heavy metal-tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii cultured in ascorbic acid presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słaba, Mirosława; Gajewska, Ewa; Bernat, Przemysław; Fornalska, Magdalena; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the heavy metal-tolerant fungus Paecilomyces marquandii to modulate whole cells fatty acid composition and saturation in response to IC50 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu was studied. Cadmium and nickel caused the most significant growth reduction. In the mycelia cultured with all tested metals, with the exception of nickel, a rise in the fatty acid unsaturation was noted. The fungus exposure to Pb, Cu, and Ni led to significantly higher lipid peroxidation. P. marquandii incubated in the presence of the tested metals responded with an increase in the level of linoleic acid and escalation of electrolyte leakage. The highest efflux of electrolytes was caused by lead. In these conditions, the fungus was able to bind up to 100 mg g(-1) of lead, whereas the content of the other metals in the mycelium was significantly lower and reached from 3.18 mg g(-1) (Cu) to 15.21 mg g(-1) (Zn). Additionally, it was shown that ascorbic acid at the concentration of 1 mM protected fungal growth and prevented the changes in the fatty acid composition and saturation but did not alleviate lipid peroxidation or affect the increased permeability of membranes after lead exposure. Pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the copper-stressed cells manifested strong growth inhibition and enhanced metal accumulation as a result of membrane damage. Toxic metals action caused cellular modulations, which might contributed to P. marquandii tolerance to the studied metals. Moreover, these changes can enhance metal removal from contaminated environment.

  13. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Sabine; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12.

  14. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gruber

    Full Text Available Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12.

  15. Production of a Fermented Solid Containing Lipases of Rhizopus microsporus and Its Application in the Pre-Hydrolysis of a High-Fat Dairy Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Alberton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Rhizopus microsporus CPQBA 312-07 DRM was grown in solid-state cultivation and the fermented solid produced was used to hydrolyze triacylglycerols in a high-fat dairy wastewater. For the solid-state cultivation, a mixture of sunflower seed meal and sugarcane bagasse (1:3 by mass on dry basis was selected. After 18 h of culture, the fermented product had an activity, measured titrimetrically against triolein, of 26 U per gram of dry solids. This substrate mixture does not suffer from compaction and therefore can be used in large scale solid-state cultivation bioreactors. When used to pretreat a high-fat dairy wastewater, with an oil and grease level above 1300 mg/L, the fermented solid reduced the oil and grease level to below 300 mg/L after 72 h at 35 °C. Further work is required to improve the production of lipolytic activity in the solid-state cultivation step and to find the optimum pretreatment time in the wastewater pretreatment step.

  16. Isolation, identification and optimization of a new extracellular lipase producing strain of Rhizopus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Jayshree B; Bagade, Aditi V; Mahajan, Siddharth A; Pawar, Shrikant P; Shouche, Yogesh S; Prabhune, Asmita Ashutosh

    2011-08-01

    A lipolytic mesophilic fungus which produces lipase extracellularly was isolated from soil. Based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region sequences of ribosomal RNA, it was concluded that the isolate JK-1 belongs to genus Rhizopus and clades with Rhizopus oryzae. The present paper reports the screening, isolation, identification, and optimization of fermentation conditions for the production of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3). Culture conditions were optimized, and the highest lipase production was observed in basal medium with corn steep liquor as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source. Maximum lipase production was observed at 72 h, which is about 870 U/ml. Optimization of fermentation conditions resulted in 16-fold enhancement in enzyme production.

  17. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  18. IDC1, a pezizomycotina-specific gene that belongs to the PaMpk1 MAP kinase transduction cascade of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet-Vierny, Corinne; Debuchy, Robert; Prigent, Magali; Silar, Philippe

    2007-12-01

    Components involved in the activation of the MAPK cascades in filamentous fungi are not well known. Here, we provide evidence that IDC1, a pezizomycotina-specific gene is involved along with the PaNox1 NADPH oxidase in the nuclear localization of the PaMpk1 MAP kinase, a prerequisite for MAPK activity. Mutants of IDC1 display the same phenotypes as mutants in PaNox1 and PaMpk1, i.e., lack of pigment and of aerial hyphae, female sterility, impairment in hyphal interference and inability to develop Crippled Growth cell degeneration. As observed for the PaNox1 mutant, IDC1 mutants are hypostatic to PaMpk1 mutants. IDC1 seems to play a key role in sexual reproduction. Indeed, fertility is diminished in strains with lower level of IDC1. In strains over-expressing IDC1, protoperithecia reach a later stage of development towards perithecia without fertilization; however, upon fertilization maturation of fertile perithecia is diminished and delayed. In addition, heterokaryon construction shows that IDC1 is necessary together with PaNox1 in the perithecial envelope but not in the dikaryon resulting from fertilization.

  19. Furfural degradation by filamentous fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1%丝状真菌Amorphotheca resinae ZN1的糠醛降解代谢分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 张建; 辛秀娟; 鲍杰

    2012-01-01

    Some degradation products from lignocellulose pretreatment strongly inhibit the activities of cellulolytic enzymes and ethanol fermentation strains, thus the efficient removal of the inhibitor substances ("detoxification") is the inevitable step for the biotransformation processes. In this study, the biological detoxification of furfural by a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was studied and the metabolic pathways of furfural degradation was analyzed. The metabolic pathway of furfural degradation in A. resinae ZN1 was described as follows: first, furfural was quickly converted into the low toxic furfuryl alcohol; then the furfuryl alcohol was gradually converted into furfural again but under the low concentration under aerobic condition, which was not lethal to the growth of the fungi; furfural continued to be oxidized to furoic acid by A. resinae ZN1. It is likely that furoic acid was further degraded in the TCA cycle to complete the biological degradation of furfural. The present study provided the important experimental basis for speeding up the biodetoxification of furfural by A. resinae ZN1 and the rate-limiting step in the lignocellulose biotransformation to ethanol.%木质纤维素在预处理过程产生的降解产物对后续的酶水解和微生物发酵过程产生了强烈的抑制.因此,这些抑制物的脱除即所谓的“脱毒”步骤是正常进行后续酶解和发酵的前提条件.我们对本实验室筛选的丝状真菌Amorphotheca resinae ZN1的糠醛的代谢路径进行了研究.丝状真菌A.resinae ZN1转化糠醛的降解代谢途径可以简述为:糠醛首先快速地转化为毒性较低的糠醇;在有氧条件下,糠醇又再度生成不致对微生物产生危害的低浓度糠醛,糠醛继续氧化为糠酸.推测糠酸可能继续进入TCA循环,进而完成糠醛的完全降解.研究结果为将来加快丝状真菌A.resinae ZN1生物脱毒速率、改善木质纤维素生物转化的限速步骤提供了重要的实验依据.

  20. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture.

  1. 21 CFR 173.130 - Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. 173.130... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.130 Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. Carbohydrase from Rhizopus oryzae may be safely used in the production of dextrose from starch...

  2. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  3. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings.

  4. Cavitary Pulmonary Zygomycosis Caused by Rhizopus homothallicus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Shivaprakash, M. R.; Gupta, Sunita; Garg, Rajiv; Sakhuja, V.; Singhal, Sanjay; Baghela, Abhishek; Dixit, Ajai; Garg, M. K.; Padhye, Arvind A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA. PMID:20200286

  5. Cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Marak, Rungmei S K; Shivaprakash, M R; Gupta, Sunita; Garg, Rajiv; Sakhuja, V; Singhal, Sanjay; Baghela, Abhishek; Dixit, Ajai; Garg, M K; Padhye, Arvind A

    2010-05-01

    We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA.

  6. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungus during xylose fermentation for ethanol production%木糖发酵产乙醇丝状真菌的鉴定及发酵特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范金霞; 杨谦; 姚琳; 陈刚

    2011-01-01

    At present,yeast is the main microorganism involved in ethanol production using xylose as carbon source.The filamentous fungi have been less studied compared to yeast.Duchenne tube and ethanol yield assay methods were applied to screen different microbes for xylose fermentation.The microorganism producing the highest amount of ethanol was identified by microscopy and 18s rRNA amplification and analysis.Fermentation assays of this microorganism were studied by the Potassium dichromate method.The screening results showed that the organism code named cs-28 was Fusarium oxysporum.It was found that this fungus could ferment xylose,glucose,sucrose and corn stalk to produce ethanol.The optimal nitrogen source was yeast extract.The ethanol production rate was highest at initial pH 6.0 and 30 ℃,when initial xylose concentration was 20 g·L-1.Thus,cs-28 can be used as a new strain for transformation of cellulose materials to ethanol.Moreover,characterization of cs-28 on xylose fermentation can be applied in technological advancement.%针对目前对丝状真菌的木糖发酵研究较少的现状,应用杜氏管发酵法初筛和发酵测定法复筛对不同环境的土壤样品进行菌株的筛选,并采用显微镜观察和18S rRNA序列扩增分析对菌种进行鉴定;用重铬酸钾法对菌株的发酵特性进行研究.结果表明:筛选到一株能发酵木糖的丝状真菌,命名为cs-28;经形态学和生物学鉴定为尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum);它不仅能发酵木糖,同时也能利用葡萄糖、蔗糖和玉米秸秆等多种发酵碳源;其最适氮源为酵母提取物;在温度为30℃、初始pH值为6.0、初始木糖质量浓度为20 g·L-

  7. SPENT SULPHITE LIQUOR FOR CULTIVATION OF AN EDIBLE RHIZOPUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Ferreira,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spent sulphite liquor, the major byproduct from the sulphite pulp production process, was diluted to 50% and used for production of an edible zygomycete Rhizopus sp. The focus was on production, yield, and composition of the fungal biomass composition. The fungus grew well at 20 to 40°C, but 32°C was found to be preferable compared to 20 and 40°C in terms of biomass production and yield (maximum of 0.16 g/g sugars, protein content (0.50-0.60 g/g, alkali-insoluble material (AIM (ca 0.15 g/g, and glucosamine content (up to 0.30 g/g of AIM. During cultivation in a pilot airlift bioreactor, the yield increased as aeration was raised from 0.15 to 1.0 vvm, indicating a high demand for oxygen. After cultivation at 1.0 vvm for 84 h, high yield and production of biomass (up to 0.34 g/g sugars, protein (0.30-0.50 g/g, lipids (0.02-0.07 g/g, AIM (0.16-0.28 g/g, and glucosamine (0.22-0.32 g/g AIM were obtained. The fungal biomass produced from spent sulphite liquor is presently being tested as a replacement for fishmeal in feed for fish aquaculture and seems to be a potential source of nutrients and for production of glucosamine.

  8. Rhizopus stolonifer mediated biosynthesis of biocompatible cadmium chalcogenide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareeswari, P; Brijitta, J; Harikrishna Etti, S; Meganathan, C; Kaliaraj, Gobi Saravanan

    2016-12-01

    We report an efficient method to biosynthesize biocompatible cadmium telluride and cadmium sulphide quantum dots from the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer. The suspension of the quantum dots exhibited purple and greenish-blue luminescence respectively upon UV light illumination. Photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirms the formation of the quantum dots. From the photoluminescence spectrum the emission maxima is found to be 424 and 476nm respectively. The X-ray diffraction of the quantum dots matches with results reported in literature. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for cell viability evaluation carried out on 3-days transfer, inoculum 3×10(5) cells, embryonic fibroblast cells lines shows that more than 80% of the cells are viable even after 48h, indicating the biocompatible nature of the quantum dots. A good contrast in imaging has been obtained upon incorporating the quantum dots in human breast adenocarcinoma Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 cell lines.

  9. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Jiali E-mail: liaojiali@163.com; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove {sup 241}Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting {sup 241}Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb {sup 241}Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of {sup 241}Am was removed from {sup 241}Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of {sup 241}Am. At this time, the total adsorption of {sup 241}Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed {sup 241}Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO{sub 3}.

  10. Efficient transformation of Rhizopus delemar by electroporation of germinated spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sha; Zhou, Zhengxiong; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-08-01

    High efficient transformation of mycelial fungi is essential to both metabolic engineering and physiological analysis of these industrially important microorganisms. However, transformation efficiencies for mycelial fungi are highly restricted by difficulties in colony formation and competent cell preparation. In this work, an innovative transformation procedure that could significantly improve the efficiency of colony formation and transformation process has been established for a typical mycelial fungus, Rhizopus delemar. Single colonies of R. delemar were obtained with the addition of sodium deoxycholate. Fresh germinated spores of R. delemar were successfully transformed by electroporation. In addition, by pretreatment of the germinated spores with 0.05M lithium acetate (LiAc) and 20mM dithiothreitol (DTT) before electroporation, the transformation efficiency was further improved by 9.5-fold. The final transformation efficiency at optimal conditions reached 1239 transformants/μg DNA. The method described here would facilitate more efficient metabolic engineering and investigation of physiological functions in R. delemar or other similar mycelial fungi.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression of CPR gene from Rhizopus oryzae into Rhizopus nigericans and its application in the 11α-hydroxylation of 16α, 17-epoxy-progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Luo, Xinrong; Cao, Feifei; Zhu, Tingheng; Fan, Yongxian; Jia, Xiaoqing; Shen, Yinchu

    2014-11-01

    The hydroxylations of the steroid skeleton structure are catalyzed by a family of enzymes, the cytochromes P450 (CYPs). In this study, the pCB1004-PgpdA plasmid was used for cloning the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) gene from Rhizopus oryzae into Rhizopus nigericans to strengthen the expression of CPR gene in R. nigericans with REMI (Restriction Enzyme Mediate Integration) mediated protoplast transformation. The conditions for the protoplast production of R. nigericans were optimized as follows: 75 μg/mL yatalase, 50 μg/mL lywallzyme, fungus age of 12h, digestion time of 3 h and digestion temperature of 30°C. REMI mediated protoplast transformation with plasmid pCB1004-PgpdA into R. nigericans was performed to construct the transformants. More than 30 transformants were successfully selected from the hygromycin B-resistant plates and 6 transformants had the abilities to improve the biotransformation of 16α, 17-epoxyprogesterone. The highest biotransformation rate of the transformants was 65.38%, which was 7.06% higher than that of the original strain.

  12. Biosynthesis of antifungal and antibacterial polyketides by Burkholderia gladioli in coculture with Rhizopus microsporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claudia; Opel, Viktoria; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Fungi-bacteria interactions can impact the course of fungal infection and biotechnological use. The mucoralean fungus Rhizopus microsporus, traditionally used in food fermentations (tempe and sufu), is frequently accompanied by Burkholderia gladioli pv. cocovenenans. When producing tempe bongkrek, the bacterial contamination can lead to lethal food-related intoxications caused by the respiratory toxin bongkrekic acid. To unveil the metabolic potential of the fungus-associated bacterium, we sequenced its genome, assigned secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters and monitored the metabolic profile under various growth conditions. In addition to the bongkrekic acid biosynthesis gene cluster we found gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of toxoflavin and a complex polyketide. The orphan polyketide synthase gene cluster was activated under conditions that emulate tempe production, which enabled isolation and structure elucidation of four members of the enacyloxin family of antibiotics, out of which one is new. Moreover, we found that the fungus positively influences the growth of the bacteria and dramatically increases bongkrekic acid production in stationary culture, which inhibits the growth of the fungus. These results showcase the context-dependent formation of antifungal and antibacterial agents at the fungal-bacterial interface, which may also serve as a model for scenarios observed in mixed infections.

  13. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cellulose into glucose- a carbon source for Rhizopus to grow. Then, the fermentation process was carried out in shake flask for 3 days at pH 6. Several conditions for fermentation process had been chosen which were 25oC at 150 rpm, 25 oC at 200 rpm, 37 oC at 150 rpm and 37oC at 200 rpm. In this fermentation process, 0.471 g/L, 0.428 g/L, 0.444 g/L and 0.38 g/L of lactic acid was produced respectively. Sample at 25oC at 200 rpm produced maximum amount of lactic acid compared to others.ABSTRAK: Biojisim kenaf berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan monomer asid polylactic (poliester alifatik termoplastik diterbitkan daripada sumber boleh diperbaharu seperti kanji jagung yang merupakan asid laktik menerusi penapaian oleh Rhizopus oryzae (sejenis fungus yang hidup dalam jirim organik yang telah mati. Struktur biojisim kenaf adalah kompleks disebabkan kandungan lignin dan selulosanya. Hal ini menyebabkan ia perlu melalui proses pra-rawatan sebagai langkah awal sebelum proses penapaian dijalankan. Dalam kertas ini, biojirim kenaf dirawat dengan asid sulfurik (H2SO4 yang dicairkan untuk menghidrolisis kandungan selulosa di dalamnya di samping menukar selulosa menjadi glukosa - sumber karbon bagi tumbesaran Rhizopus. Kemudian, proses penapaian dijalankan di dalam kelalang goncang selama 3 hari pada pH 6. Beberapa ciri proses penapaian telah dipilih iaitu 25 oC pada 150 rpm, 25 oC pada 200 rpm, 37 oC pada 150 rpm dan 37 oC pada 200 rpm. Dalam proses penapaian

  14. [Invasive maxilar sinusitis by Rhizopus oryzae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, S; del Palacio, A; Gil, R; de la Serna, J; Mata, R; Arribi, A

    1997-12-01

    We herein present a diabetic with non Hodgkin lymphoma patient that had been treated with steroids and developed fungal invasive sinusitis. The patient had intensive facial pain that did not respond to antibiotics and on clinical inspection had a necrotic lesion on right nasal area. A smear and biopsy tissue showed broad non septate hyphae and on cultures Rhizopus oryzae was isolated. There was an unfavorable outcome, and the patient died even though liposomal Amphotericin B was administered and surgical treatment was performed.

  15. Ventriculitis due to infection with Rhizopus arrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hagel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old heart–lung transplant patient presented to the emergency department with acute onset of neurologic symptoms. MRI showed ballooning of the left ventricle, midline shift and contrast enhancement in the anterior horn of the left ventricle. Ventricle neuroendoscopy revealed whitish, floccose aerial structures within the left ventricle. Brain biopsy cultures grew Rhizopus arrhizus. Therapy with liposomale amphotericin B and posaconazole was performed. Except for hemianopsia and deficits in minute motor activity, the patient completely recovered.

  16. Improvement of fermentor facility to enhance liquid fermentation level of membrane-bound lipase produced by Rhizopus chinensis%发酵罐装置改进提高华根霉膜结合脂肪酶液态发酵水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱增亮; 王栋; 徐岩

    2013-01-01

    研究主要利用7L通风搅拌式发酵罐,基于华根霉膜结合脂肪酶液态发酵的生物学特性和要求对发酵装置进行改进,促进菌体聚集和对橄榄油的利用,以提高其发酵产酶水平.与许多丝状真菌液态发酵类似,华根霉脂肪酶的液态发酵水平与菌丝形态密切相关.在发酵罐中加入套筒改变发酵液流型,促使华根霉菌丝在套筒上聚集生长;添加斜叶搅拌桨增强轴向流,促进橄榄油在发酵液中的分散和利用.最终华根霉膜结合脂肪酶单位菌体酶活达到283.16 U/g,菌体干重量达到14.01 g/L,发酵单位体积总活力达到3967.07 U/L,是未改进前发酵水平的4.2倍.%Membrane-bound lipase with high synthetic activity produced by Rhizopus chinensis (CCTCC 2010021) could catalyze the synthesis of ester in non-aqueous phase and had potential applications in the production of flavor and fragrance compounds, biodiesel, and so on. However, it was difficult to improve the fermentation level of this lipase because of the culture characteristics of this filamentous fungus. Based on the biological characteristics and requirements of Rhizopus chinensis, the improvement of 7 L mechanical stirring fermentor facilities was carried out to promote the aggregation of mycelium and the olive oil was used for increasing the lipase fermentation level. Similar to other filamentous fungus, the lipase liquid fermentation level with Rhizopus chinensis was closely related to the mycelium morphologies. The aggregate growth of mycelia was achieved by changing the fermentation broth rheology with a sleeve; Olive oil in the fermentation broth was more evenly distributed due to the increase of axial flow of broth by adding an oblique leaves impeller, and which improved the induction effect. Ultimately the synthetic activity of membrane-bound lipase produced by Rhizopus chinensis reached 283.16 U/g, dry cell weight reached 14.01 g/L, the total activity per unit volume of

  17. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  18. Linoleic and linolenic acids analysis of soybean tofu with Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus as coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPYANI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudaryatiningsih C, Supyani. 2009. Linoleic and linolenic acids analysis of soybean tofu with Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus as coagulant. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 110-116. The aims of this research are to know the potency of Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae as a coagulant in tofu processing for increasing the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids, and to know the time that needed by R. oligosporus and R. oryzae for increasing the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids. It uses PDA for inoculating fungi, and it is done at Sub-Lab Chemistry, Central Laboratory for Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. The tofu making was done in “Dele Emas” Tofu Factory, Surakarta. Analysis of linoleic and linolenic acids were done by Gas Chromatography, in LPPT-UGM Yogyakarta. The conclusion of this research are R. oligosporus dan R. oryzae having a potency as a coagulant in tofu processing for increasing the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids. R. oryzae needs 18 hours to coagulate the tofu, and R. oligosporus needs 12 hours for the same process. The highest amount of linoleic and linolenic acids were obtained by R. oryzae at 6 hours of fermentation (0.26% and 0.14%, and 24 hours of fermentation by R. oligosporus (0.06% and 0.04%.

  19. Helical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL—The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Johnson, Eric [Micro-Photonics Laboratory – Center for Optical Material Science, Clemson, Anderson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  20. Functional expression of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in Pichia pastoris: high-level production and some properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, S; Schmidt-Dannert, C; Schmid, R D

    1998-12-11

    The mature lipase of the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) was functionally expressed and secreted in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In a batch cultivation, where methanol feeding was linked to the dissolved oxygen content in the cultivation solution, a lipase activity of 500,000 units per liter (60 mg active lipase per liter) of culture was achieved after initial glycerol feeding of the culture. Recombinant ROL lipase was purified to homogeneity by a simple two-step purification procedure and had a specific activity of 8571 U mg-1 (triolein, 30 degrees C, pH 8.1) which is comparable with the purified native enzyme. The properties of the recombinant lipase were similar to those reported both for the native lipase and for the enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded from inactive inclusion bodies.

  1. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.; Liu, Z.L.

    2008-01-01

    -isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency......Corncob is an economic feedstock and more than 20 million tons of corncobs are produced annually in China. Abundant xylose can be potentially converted from the large amount of hemicellulosic materials in corncobs, which makes the crop residue an attractive alternative substrate for a value......-added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the...

  2. Cloning and expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer Uyar, Ebru; Yücel, Meral; Hamamcı, Haluk

    2016-05-01

    Trehalose is a reducing disaccharide acting as a protectant against environmental stresses in many organisms. In fungi, Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (TPS1) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of trehalose. In this study, a full-length cDNA from Rhizopus oryzae encoding TPS1 (designated as RoTPS1) was isolated. The RoTPS1 cDNA is composed of 2505 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 834 amino acids with a molecular mass of 97.8 kDa. The amino acid sequence of RoTPS1 has a relatively high homology with the TPS1s in several other filamentous fungi. RoTPS1 was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secretively expressed.

  3. Production of recombinant proteins by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen P

    2012-01-01

    The initial focus of recombinant protein production by filamentous fungi related to exploiting the extraordinary extracellular enzyme synthesis and secretion machinery of industrial strains, including Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Rhizopus species, was to produce single recombinant protein products. An early recognized disadvantage of filamentous fungi as hosts of recombinant proteins was their common ability to produce homologous proteases which could degrade the heterologous protein product and strategies to prevent proteolysis have met with some limited success. It was also recognized that the protein glycosylation patterns in filamentous fungi and in mammals were quite different, such that filamentous fungi are likely not to be the most suitable microbial hosts for production of recombinant human glycoproteins for therapeutic use. By combining the experience gained from production of single recombinant proteins with new scientific information being generated through genomics and proteomics research, biotechnologists are now poised to extend the biomanufacturing capabilities of recombinant filamentous fungi by enabling them to express genes encoding multiple proteins, including, for example, new biosynthetic pathways for production of new primary or secondary metabolites. It is recognized that filamentous fungi, most species of which have not yet been isolated, represent an enormously diverse source of novel biosynthetic pathways, and that the natural fungal host harboring a valuable biosynthesis pathway may often not be the most suitable organism for biomanufacture purposes. Hence it is expected that substantial effort will be directed to transforming other fungal hosts, non-fungal microbial hosts and indeed non microbial hosts to express some of these novel biosynthetic pathways. But future applications of recombinant expression of proteins will not be confined to biomanufacturing. Opportunities to exploit recombinant technology to unravel the

  4. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No... nonpathogenic and nontoxigenic strain of Rhizopus niveus. The enzyme preparation also contains...

  5. Modelado del Efecto de la Temperatura, Actividad de Agua y pH sobre el Crecimiento de Rhizopus oryzae Modeling the Effects of Temperature, Water Activity and pH on the Growth of Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L Carrillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue modelar el crecimiento de Rhizopus oryzae, hongo deteriorativo de alimentos, en función de la temperatura, la actividad de agua (a w y el pH. Las curvas de crecimiento de Rhizopus oryzae se generaron a las condiciones de temperatura (20 y 30 °C, a w (0.895 y 0.99 y pH (3 y 5 dadas por un diseño factorial completo. Dichas curvas se obtuvieron al graficar el diámetro de las colonias contra el tiempo y se ajustaron con el modelo de Baranyi para obtener los parámetros de crecimiento (velocidad específica de crecimiento, tiempo de latencia y crecimiento máximo, a partir de los cuales se generó un modelo polinomial. El análisis estadístico indicó que todos los factores ejercen un efecto significativo (p The proposal of this work was modeling the growth of Rhizopus oryzae- fungus deteriorative food- in function of temperature, water activity (a w and pH. Growth curves of R. oryzae were generated at conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C, a w (0.895 and 0.99 and pH (3 and 5 giving in factorial full design. Such curves were obtained to graphic the colony diameter versus time and were adjusted with the Baranyi model in order to obtain the growth parameters - specific growth rate, latency of time and maximal growth-, to left was generated a polynomial model. The three factors were statistically significant (p<0.001 on the fungi growth.

  6. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Eeltink, D; Marchiando, N; Hermelin, S; Gateau, J; Brunetti, M; Wolf, J P; Kasparian, J

    2016-01-01

    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This 'positive' effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple-filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  7. Toxic Ipomeamarone Accumulation in Healthy Parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Storage Roots upon Infection by Rhizopus stolonifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  8. Toxic Ipomeamarone accumulation in healthy parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) storage roots upon infection by Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Lydia N; Cheseto, Xavier; Ouna, Elizabeth; Kaplan, Fatma; Maniania, Nguya K; Machuka, Jesse; Torto, Baldwyn; Ghislain, Marc

    2015-01-14

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts.

  9. Glucocorticosteroids do not impact directly growth rate and biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, A P; Minetos, Y D; Albert, N; Shirazi, F; Walsh, T J; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) use is a common risk factor for invasive fungal infections. This is attributed to the complex dysregulation of immunity caused by GCs. However, studies have demonstrated increased growth with GC exposure for some molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Exserohilum rostratum. No such data exist for Mucorales. Therefore, we investigated the influence of GC exposure on the growth of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in different culture media and in different atmospheres. We measured continuous spore growth using spectrophotometry and biomass variations using XTT assay. We did not observe enhanced growth or biomass variation with any of the GCs regardless of the medium or conditions. These results support the existence of fungus-specific differences in the effect of GCs on fungal biology.

  10. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed.

  11. 21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110 Amyloglucosidase derived... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus. 173.110 Section 173.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. CBS domain-containing proteins are Rhizopus oryzae ferrioxamine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Iron-overload patients treated with deferoxamine are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis, because Rhizopus spp. can obtain iron from ferrioxamine (deferoxamine + Fe**3+). Previously we have identified two closely related, ferrioxamine-inducible R. oryzae genes (FOB1 and FOB2) in which ...

  13. Multifocal Rhizopus microsporus lung infection following brush clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artsiom V. Tsyrkunou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of pulmonary Rhizopus microsporus infection in a patient with untreated diabetes following brush clearing. The patient was successfully treated with a combined medical and surgical approach with complete resolution of the lung lesions and remains asymptomatic at 11-month follow-up.

  14. Screening of filamentous fungi for production of enzymes of biotechnological interest Seleção de fungos filamentosos para a produção de enzimas de interesse biotecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique S. Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many enzymes produced by fungi have relevant biotechnological applications in several industrial areas. The purpose of this study was to collect and isolate filamentous fungi from soil and humus, plants and sugar cane bagasse of different regions of the São Paulo state. Forty isolates were examined for their ability to produce xylanase, glucose-oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, phytase, pectinase and amylase. Among these, twenty three isolates exhibited enzymatic potential. The xylanases produced by two of these isolates (Aspergillus caespitosus and A. phoenicis showed good potential for pulp bleaching. Among seventeen isolates, at least three produced high levels of glucose-oxidase, being Rhizopus stolonifer and A. versicolor the best producer strains. A. caespitosus, Mucor rouxii, and nine others still not identified were the best producers of phosphatases in submerged fermentation. Pectinase was best produced by IF II and C-8 belong R. stolonifer. Significant levels of amylase were produced by Paecilomyces variotii and A. phoenicis. A remarkable enzyme producer was Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis that produced high levels of amylase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, and pectinase. Some morphological structures of this fungus were illustrated using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. This study contributes to catalogue soil fungi isolated in the state of São Paulo, and provides additional information to support future research about the industrial potential of these microorganisms that may produce enzymes and, eventually, also secondary metabolites with anti-microbial or anti-parasitic activities.Muitas enzimas produzidas por fungos têm relevantes aplicações em diferentes áreas industriais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi coletar e isolar fungos filamentosos do solo e humus, plantas e bagaço de cana de açúcar de diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Quarenta isolados foram

  15. Fast solubilization of recalcitrant cellulosic biomass by the basidiomycete fungus Laetisaria arvalis involves successive secretion of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navarro, David; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Haon, Mireille; Olivé, Caroline; Bonnin, Estelle; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Chevret, Didier; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2014-01-01

    .... Filamentous fungi are the predominant natural source of enzymes acting on lignocellulose. We describe the extraordinary cellulose-deconstructing capacity of the basidiomycete Laetisaria arvalis, a soil-inhabiting fungus. The L...

  16. Pentachlorophenol sorption in nylon fiber and removal by immobilized Rhizopus oryzae ENHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Santiestebán, Hugo; Meraz, Mónica; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Tomasini, Araceli

    2011-06-15

    This study describes pentachlophenol (PCP) sorption in nylon fiber in which Rhizopus oryzae ENHE was immobilized to remove the chemical compound. The experimental sorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models using non-linear error functions to fit the experimental data to the three models. Results showed that the isotherm obtained from the data fitted the three models used. However, the g parameter from Redlich-Peterson model showed that the isotherm obtained approaches the Freundlich model. This support reached the sorption equilibrium concentration at 3mg PCPg(-1)nylon. To study PCP removal capability by R. oryzae ENHE and to eliminate the error caused by PCP sorbed by the nylon fiber during its quantification, nylon fiber at PCP equilibrium sorption concentration was used to immobilize R. oryzae ENHE. It was found that this fungus grew within nylon fiber cubes in presence or not of PCP, even when PCP caused growth inhibition. Maximum biomass accumulated into nylon cubes without PCP was of 32 mg biomass g(-1)nylon and into nylon cubes at PCP equilibrium concentration was of 18 mg g(-1)nylon. The results showed that R. oryzae ENHE immobilized into nylon fiber removed 88.6% and 92% of PCP in cultures with 12.5 and 25 mg PCPL(-1), as initial concentration, respectively. This is the first work to report that a zygomycete, such as R. oryzae ENHE, immobilized into nylon fiber kept its potential to remove PCP.

  17. Fungal protein and ethanol from lignocelluloses using Rhizopus pellets under simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh FazeliNejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of the 2nd generation bioethanol production process cannot rely on a single product but on a biorefinery built around it. In this work, ethanol and fungal biomass (animal feed were produced from acid-pretreated wheat straw slurry under an innovative simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and filtration (SSFF strategy. A membrane unit separated the solids from the liquid and the latter was converted to biomass or to both biomass and ethanol in the fermentation reactor containing Rhizopus sp. pellets. Biomass yields of up to 0.34 g/g based on the consumed monomeric sugars and acetic acid were achieved. A surplus of glucose in the feed resulted in ethanol production and reduced the biomass yield, whereas limiting glucose concentrations resulted in higher consumption of xylose and acetic acid. The specific growth rate, in the range of 0.013-0.015/h, did not appear to be influenced by the composition of the carbon source. Under anaerobic conditions, an ethanol yield of 0.40 g/g was obtained. The present strategy benefits from the easier separation of the biomass from the medium and the fungus ability to assimilate carbon residuals in comparison with when yeast is used. More specifically, it allows in-situ separation of insoluble solids leading to the production of pure fungal biomass as a value-added product.

  18. Repetitive genomic sequences as a substrate for homologous integration in the Rhizopus oryzae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzbashev, Tigran V; Larina, Anna S; Vybornaya, Tatiana V; Yuzbasheva, Evgeniya Y; Gvilava, Ilia T; Sineoky, Sergey P

    2015-06-01

    The vast number of repetitive genomic elements was identified in the genome of Rhizopus oryzae. Such genomic repeats can be used as homologous regions for integration of plasmids. Here, we evaluated the use of two different repeats: the short (575 bp) rptZ, widely distributed (about 34 copies per genome) and the long (2053 bp) rptH, less prevalent (about 15 copies). The plasmid carrying rptZ integrated, but did so through a 2256-bp region of homology to the pyrG locus, a unique genomic sequence. Thus, the length of rptZ was below the minimal requirements for homologous strand exchange in this fungus. In contrast, rptH was used efficiently for homologous integration. The plasmid bearing this repeat integrated in multicopy fashion, with up to 25 copies arranged in tandem. The latter vector, pPyrG-H, could be a valuable tool for integration at homologous sequences, for such purposes as high-level expression of proteins. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  20. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively.

  1. Effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on development and mitochondrial function of Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, Leobarda; Guerra-Sánchez, María Guadalupe; Hernández-Lauzardo, Ana Niurka; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Velázquez-del Valle, Miguel Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    The antifungal activities of chitosan and oligochitosan have been used to control postharvest decay of the fruits. The effect of chitosan and oligochitosan on mycelium growth, spore germination, and mitochondrial function of Rhizopus stolonifer was evaluated in order to establish a connection between fungus development and the main organelle in charge to provide energy to the cell. The mycelium growth of R. stolonifer was significantly reduced on minimum media amended with chitosan or oligochitosan. The highest antifungal indexes were obtained on media containing chitosan or oligochitosan at 2.0 mg ml(-1). Microscopic observation showed that chitosan and oligochitosan affected the spore germination and hyphae morphology. Both polymers increased oxygen consumption of R. stolonifer. Respiratory activity was restored with NADH in permeabilized treated and untreated cells, and was inhibited with rotenone and flavones. Complex III and IV were inhibited by antimycin A and cyanide, respectively, in treated and untreated cells. Chitosan and oligochitosan increased NADH dehydrogenase activity in isolated mitochondria. However, there were not changes in the cytochrome c oxidase and ATPase activities by effect of these polymers. These results suggest that both chitosan and oligochitosan affect the development of R. stolonifer and might be implicated in the mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Effects of fengycin from Bacillus subtilis fmbJ on apoptosis and necrosis in Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunyong; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Tao, Yang; Qu, Xiaoxu

    2014-08-01

    The lipopeptide antibiotic fengycin, produced by Bacillus subtilis, strongly inhibits growth of filamentous fungi. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fengycin treatment on apoptosis and necrosis in Rhizopus stolonifer by means of cell staining and epifluorescence microscopy. At fengycin concentrations less than 50 μg/ml, treated fungal cells demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis-associated markers compared with the untreated control. These markers included chromatin condensation, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, phosphatidylserine externalization, and the occurrence of DNA strand breaks. These results showed that fungal cells were impaired in a number of important functions and entered apoptosis upon treatment with low concentrations of fengycin. In contrast, high concentrations (>50 μg/ml) induced necrosis, indicating that the fungicidal action of fengycin operates via two modes: apoptosis at low concentrations and necrosis at high concentrations. Additionally, the apoptotic effect that we have shown suggests that lower concentrations of fengycin than previously thought may be effective for food preservation.

  3. Filamentation in Laser Wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Eva; Trines, Raoul; Silva, Luis; Bingham, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Laser filamentation instability is observed in plasma wakefields with sub-critical densities, and in high density inertial fusion plasmas. This leads to non-uniform acceleration or compression respectively. Here, we present simulation results on laser filamentation in plasma wakefields. The 2-D simulations are carried out using the particle-in-cell code Osiris. The filament intensity was found to increase exponentially before saturating. The maximum amplitude to which the highest intensity filament grew for a specific set of parameters was also recorded, and plotted against a corresponding parameter value. Clear, positively correlated linear trends were established between plasma density, transverse wavenumber k, laser pulse amplitude and maximum filament amplitude. Plasma density and maximum filament amplitude also showed a positive correlation, which saturated after a certain plasma density. Pulse duration and interaction length did not affect either filament intensity or transverse k value in a predictable manner. There was no discernible trend between pulse amplitude and filament width.

  4. Biosorption of Azo dyes by spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Neeta A.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was used for the removal of six azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The dye removal capacity of the biomass was evaluated by conducting batch tests as a function of contact time, biomass dosage, pH and initial dye concentrations. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999, suggesting that chemisorptions might be the rate limiting step. The equilibrium sorption data showed good fit to the Langmuir isotherm model. Among the six dyes tested, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for fast red A and metanil yellow was found to be 108.8 and 128.5 mg/g, respectively. These encouraging results suggest that dead Rhizopus arrhizus biomass could be a potential biomaterial for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous dye solution.

  5. Stimulation by potassium ions of the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus during liquid-and solid-substrate fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, W; Davey, C L; Hedger, J N; Kell, D B

    1991-03-01

    Soya beans and several other beans and cereals have been used as substrates for tempe fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus Saito. Except for the presence of alkaloids, the chemical composition of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) is similar to that of soya beans. Therefore the potential of lupins for tempe production in regions with a long tradition of lupin consumption is promising. The preparation of the fermentation substrate when using bitter lupins (which contain significan quantities of alkaloids) as starting material includes a debittering stage to remove the alkaloids. However, we found that the debittering process yielded lupins that did not support the mycelial growth required in the tempe fermentation. We discovered that potassium is preferentially leached out during the debittering process. The effect of potassium on fungal biomass formation was monitored using a computerized system that determines biomass accretion by measurement of the electrical capacitance at radio frequencies. The importance of potassium for the growth of R. oligosporus was confirmed in liquid cultures. A linear relationship was found between biomass yield and K(+) concentration in the range of 1 to 10 mg/l. The present report represents one of the few demonstrations of a mineral deficiency during the growth of a fungus on a natural, solid substrate.

  6. Biocontrol of postharvest Rhizopus decay of peaches with Pichia caribbica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baitian; Zhang, Hongyin; Chen, Keping; Xu, Qin; Yao, Yao; Gao, Hui

    2013-08-01

    A new yeast antagonist, Pichia caribbica, isolated in our laboratory from the soil collected from unsprayed orchards, was evaluated for its biocontrol capability against Rhizopus stolonifer on peaches and the possible mechanisms involved. The decay incidence and lesion diameter of Rhizopus decay of peaches treated by P. caribbica were significantly reduced compared with the control fruits, and the higher the concentration of P. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. Rapid colonization of the yeast in peach wounds stored at 25 °C was observed. In peaches, the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were significantly induced by P. caribbica treatment compared to those of the control fruits. All these results indicated that P. caribbica has a great potential for the development of commercial formulations to control postharvest Rhizopus decay of peaches. Its modes of action were based on competition for space and nutrients with pathogens, inducement of activities of defense-related enzymes such as POD, CAT, and PAL of peaches.

  7. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2014-12-01

    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As producer of organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes it is widely applied in food industry and biotechnology. Using a set of 82 strains we studied phylogenetic and biological species boundaries within Rhizopus arrhizus s.l. to test the taxonomic status of R. delemar that was recently separated from R. arrhizus. Sequence analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region, the gene of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II, a part of the actin gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed. Phenotypic characters such as enzyme profiles and growth kinetics were examined and the mating behavior was tested. Molecular analyses supported the existence of two phylogenetic species. However, the results of the mating test suggest that the mating barrier is still not complete. No physiological, ecological or epidemiological distinction could be found beside the difference in the production of organic acids. Consequently the status of varieties is proposed for the two phylogenetic species. Because the description of the first described R. arrhizus is considered to be conclusive we recommend the use of Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus and var. delemar.

  8. Parakari, an indigenous fermented beverage using amylolytic Rhizopus in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Terry W

    2005-01-01

    The alcoholic beverage parakari is a product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation by Amerindians of Guyana. While fermented beverage production is nearly universal among indigenous Amazonians, parakari is unique among New World beverages because it involves the use of an amylolytic mold (Rhizopus sp., Mucoraceae, Zygomycota) followed by a solid substratum ethanol fermentation. The mycological significance of this dual fermentation process previously was unrecognized. A detailed study of parakari fermentation was made in the Wapisiana Amerindian village of Aishalton, South Rupununi, Guyana. Thirty steps were involved in parakari manufacture, and these exhibited a high degree of sophistication, including the use of specific cassava varieties, control of culture temperature and boosting of Rhizopus inoculum potential with purified starch additives. During the fermentation process, changes in glucose content, pH, flavor, odor and culture characteristics were concomitant with a desirable finished product. Parakari is the only known example of an indigenous New World fermentation that uses an amylolytic mold, likely resulting from domestication of a wild Rhizopus species in the distant past. Parakari production is remarkably similar to dual fermentations of Asia, yet it was independently derived.

  9. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  10. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  11. Heme biosynthesis and regulation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Adriana Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose makes up one of the most abundant renewable materials, present in all kinds of plant biomass (Pauly and Keegstra 2010). However, to be able to utilize the cellulose as feedstock, it needs to be separated from lignin which cements the cellulose and hemi-cellulose fibers. Lignolytic

  12. DNA-mediated transformation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernars, K.

    1986-01-01

    Although transformation of S.   cerevisiae and N.crassa already could be achieved at the end of the seventies, positive results for A.nidulans had to await the isolation of useful selection markers. As soon as cloned fungal genes of homologous ( amd S

  13. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D Fedorova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT, but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL. The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories".

  14. Large-Scale Patterns of Filament Channels and Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Duncan

    2016-07-01

    In this review the properties and large-scale patterns of filament channels and filaments will be considered. Initially, the global formation locations of filament channels and filaments are discussed, along with their hemispheric pattern. Next, observations of the formation of filament channels and filaments are described where two opposing views are considered. Finally, the wide range of models that have been constructed to consider the formation of filament channels and filaments over long time-scales are described, along with the origin of the hemispheric pattern of filaments.

  15. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  16. Isolation and optimization of pectinase enzyme production one of useful industrial enzyme in Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akram songol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase enzyme is one of the most important industrial enzymes which isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the fruit and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi performed through plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strains were identified by ITS1, 4 sequencing as Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the five factorial design, each at three levels. These factors are carbon sources (whey, glucose and stevia, ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results indicate that optimum condition for enzyme production for three fungi strains was obtained at 32 °C, pH = 6, 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate and 10g / L of each carbon source. The best experiment in obtaining the optimum enzyme contained 1.328 mg / ml of glucose for Aspergillus niger 1.284 and 1.039 mg / ml of whey for Rhizopus oryzae and Penicilium chrysogenum. Molecular weight of enzyme was about 40 and 37 kDa which was obtained by SDS- PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that three strains could grow in a wide range of carbon source, pH and temperature, which could be a good candidate for industrial application.

  17. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Afreen [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Rathod, Vandana, E-mail: drvandanarathod@rediffmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Ranganath, E. [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. {yields} Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. {yields} Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. {yields} Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  18. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  19. Subcutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae: probable nosocomial acquired infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Queiroz Telles Filho

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The Authors present a case of subcutaneous mucormycosis occurring in a patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of diabetic ketoacidosis. The clinical, mycological and histopathological features are described, emphasizing the relevance of a rapid diagnosis in order to stablish early treatment. The clinical forms of mucormycosis and the main associated conditions are briefly reviewed as well as the most probable conditions which may lead to the enhanced susceptibility to infection in the diabetic patient in ketoacidosis. The recovery of Rhizopus oryzae from the air of the room of the patient suggests a nosocomial infection acquired through contamination of venous puncture site by air borne spores.

  20. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  1. Biotransformation of benzaldehyde into (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol by filamentous fungi or their extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosche, B; Sandford, V; Breuer, M; Hauer, B; Rogers, P

    2001-10-01

    Extracts of 14 filamentous fungi were examined regarding their potential for production of (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol [(R)-PAC], which is the chiral precursor in the manufacture of the pharmaceuticals ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Benzaldehyde and pyruvate were transformed at a scale of 1.2 ml into PAC by cell-free extracts of all selected strains, covering the broad taxonomic spectrum of Ascomycota, Zygomycota and Basidiomycota. Highest final PAC concentrations were obtained with the extracts of Rhizopus javanicus and Fusarium sp. [78-84 mM (11.7-12.6 g/l) PAC within 20 h from initial substrate concentrations of 100 mM benzaldehyde and 150 mM pyruvate]. (R)-PAC was in about 90-93% enantiomeric excess. Rhizopus javanicus had the advantage of faster growth than Fusarium sp. Rhizopus javanicus mycelia were used as an example in a biotransformation process based on whole cells and benzaldehyde and glucose as substrates. The substrate pyruvate was generated through the fungal fermentation of glucose. Only 19 mM PAC (2.9 g/l) were produced within 8 h from 80 mM benzaldehyde. with evidence of significant benzyl alcohol production.

  2. Semiflexible filamentous composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.M.; Heussinger, C.; Storm, C.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the ubiquity of composite filamentous networks in nature, we investigate models of biopolymer networks that consist of interconnected floppy and stiff filaments. Numerical simulations carried out in three dimensions allow us to explore the microscopic partitioning of stresses and strains

  3. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  4. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with technologica

  5. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  6. Iron starvation induces apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with mucormycosis remains high despite current antifungals. Iron-starvation strategies have been shown to have promising activity against Mucorales. We hypothesized that iron starvation enhances apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae. Apoptosis was characterized in R. oryzae transformed with RNAi plasmid targeting FTR1 expression (iron permease mutant) or empty plasmid grown in iron rich (0.125% FeCl3) and iron depleted media (YNB+1mM ferrozine and 1 mM ascorbic acid). Increased apoptosis was observed with dihydrorhodamine-123 and rhodamine-123 staining in the iron starved mutant FTR1 when compared to empty plasmid, followed by increased extracellular ATP levels. In addition, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activity were prominent in FTR1. In contrast, Rhizopus strains grown in iron-rich medium displayed minimal apoptosis. Our results demonstrate a metacaspase dependent apoptotic process in iron deprived condition and further support the role of iron starvation strategies as an adjunct treatment for mucormycosis, a mechanism by which iron starvation affects R. oryzae.

  7. Caffeine degradation by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column bioreactor using coffee husk as substrate Degradação de cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas usando casca de café como substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vanessa Tagliari

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Various microorganisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi can degrade caffeine. There are few publications about caffeine degradation pathway in filamentous fungi, mainly by solid-state fermentation (SSF. Studies were carried out on degradation of caffeine and their metabolites by filamentous fungi in SSF using coffee husk as substrate. The purpose of this work was to investigate the caffeine degradation pathway by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column fermenter and to compare this degradation metabolism with glass flasks fermentation. The methylxanthines were quantified by HPLC analysis. The experiments were realized with the optimized conditions in previous experiments: pH 6.5, 28ºC, inoculation rate 10(6 spores/g substrate, aeration rate 60 mL/min and initial moisture 73%. Under these conditions, after 72 hous of fermentation was achieved only 0.19% of caffeine and 0.014% of theophylline in the coffee husk. The strain proved to be able for caffeine and theophylline degradation by SSF in packed bed column bioreactor.Diversos microrganismos incluindo bactérias, fungos e leveduras são capazes de assimilar a cafeína de meios sintéticos ou de resíduos de café. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre a via de degradação da cafeína em fungos filamentosos, principalmente por fermentação no estado sólido (FES. Estudos de degradação da cafeína por fungos filamentosos em FES usando casca de café como substrato vêm sendo realizados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a via de degradação da cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas aeradas e comparar este metabolismo de degradação com o da fermentação em frascos de vidro. As metilxantinas foram quantificadas por análises em HPLC. Os experimentos foram realizados com as condições otimizadas previamente: pH 6,5, 28ºC, 10(6 espores/g substrato, vazão de ar 60 mL/min e 73% de umidade inicial. Após 90 horas de fermentação, 65% da cafeína foi reduzida, resultando 0

  8. Effect of Preexposure to Triazoles on Susceptibility and Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Albert, Nathaniel D; Lewis, Russell E; Walsh, Thomas J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2015-12-01

    Triazole prophylaxis has become the norm in patients with hematological malignancies. Breakthrough infections caused by Mucorales during triazole prophylaxis remain a challenging problem. We found that preexposure of Rhizopus oryzae to antifungal triazoles (fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole) did not modify the in vitro susceptibility of Rhizopus oryzae to posaconazole. In contrast, preexposure of Rhizopus to triazoles was associated with the enhanced in vitro susceptibility of R. oryzae to amphotericin B. Preexposure to posaconazole did not alter the virulence of R. oryzae in the fly model of mucormycosis.

  9. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees.

  10. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Edouard; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of 0.2-0.7 mg representative compound equivalents (RCE)/g DW), whereas application of Rhizopus onto the seedlings increased the isoflavonoid content considerably (in the range of 0.5-3.3 mg RCE/g DW). The inducibility of different isoflavonoid subclasses in seedlings with Rhizopus varied per species. Isoflavones and isoflavanones were mainly found in elicited seedlings of Phaseolus, Vigna and Lablab, whereas pterocarpans were mainly observed in those of Psophocarpus. Despite their phylogenetic relatedness, the seeds of various species within Phaseoleae appeared to respond differently towards elicitation by Rhizopus during germination. The kind of molecules induced followed the phylogenetic relationship of the various species, but their amounts induced during germination, alone or combined with elicitation, did not.

  11. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  12. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  13. Blistering of viscoelastic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Sattler, R; Wagner, C

    2007-01-01

    When a dilute polymer solution experiences capillary thinning, it forms an almost uniformly cylindrical thread, which we study experimentally. In the last stages of thinning, when polymers have become fully stretched, the filament becomes prone to instabilities, of which we describe two: A novel "breathing" instability, originating from the edge of the filament, and a sinusoidal instability in the interior, which ultimately gives rise to a "blistering" pattern of beads on the filament. We describe the linear instability with a spatial resolution of 80 nm in the disturbance amplitude. For sufficiently high polymer concentrations, the filament eventually separates out into a "solid" phase of entangled polymers, connected by fluid beads. A solid polymer fiber of about 100 nanometer thickness remains, which is essentially permanent.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  15. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Interaction of malathion, an organophosphorus pesticide with Rhizopus oryzae biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Subhankar; Das, Sujoy K.; Chakravarty, Rajdeep; Chakrabarti, Adrita [Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghosh, Subrata [West Bengal Pollution Control Board, Paribesh Bhawan, Kakinara, 24 Parganas (N), PIN - 743126 (India); Guha, Arun K., E-mail: bcakg@mahendra.iacs.res.in [Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Adsorption of malathion on Rhizopus oryzae biomass (ROB) with special reference to binding mechanism has been described. ROB has been found to adsorb {approx}85% of malathion from its aqueous solution as against 47-68% by other fungal biomasses. Hydrogen ion concentration does not influence the adsorption of malathion by ROB which follows Langmuir-Freundlich dual equilibrium isotherm model (r{sup 2} = 0.998). Both physical and chemical interactions are responsible for binding of malathion on ROB. Scanning electron micrographs and EDXA spectra exhibit adsorption of the pesticide on cell surface of ROB. Studies with cell surface polysaccharides show that chitosan through its amine groups contributes largely in the adsorption of malathion. Extraction of lipids from ROB decreases its adsorption capacity to the extent of 36.37-94.02%, depending on the polarity of the solvent.

  17. Zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus and Rhizopus oryzae in Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) Central India: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawange, Shesh R; Singh, S M; Naidu, J; Jain, S; Nagpal, T; Behrani, D S; Mellado, E; Tudela, J L Rodriguez

    2012-08-01

    Zygomycosis encompasses infections due to two distinct orders of fungi, Mucorales and Entomophthorales. With rare exception, Entomophthorales are restricted to tropical areas. By contrast, mucorales are ubiquitous opportunistic fungi, which play a crucial part in the natural decay process. In human pathology, they may be opportunistic agents and be responsible for rare infection called (Mucormycosis) zygomycosis. We report two cases of zygomycosis from Madhya Pradesh, Central India, one caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a diabetic patient and another caused by Rhizopus microsporus in an apparently healthy patient. The cases were diagnosed by direct microscopy, histopathological examination and culture. Both the patients were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Rhizopus microsporus is, for the first time reported from Madhya Pradesh, India, causing rhino-maxillary orbital zygomycosis.

  18. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  19. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinnokulasi Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLIKAH ANA ESTIKOMAH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A. 2010. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkaan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi Rhizopus oryzae. Bioteknologi 7: 55-62. Keju merupakan makanan hasil fermentasi dari susu yang proses fermentasinya dilakukan oleh bakteri asam laktat maupun jamur. Rhizopus oryzae diketahui mampu menghasilkan asam laktat, protease, dan lipase. Perubahan cita rasa dan tekstur keju terjadi selama pemeraman keju. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi R. oryzae melalui pemeraman. Pemeraman dilakukan dengan variasi waktu (7, 14 hari dan suhu (5ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC. Penelitian ini terdiri dua tahap, yaitu pembuataan keju mentah diikuti pemeraman keju mentah tersebut. Keju penelitian dianalisis nilai pH, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar asam amino dan diidentifikasi mikrobanya. Data hasil penellitian dianalisis dengan uji siidik ragam (ANAVA, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji berjarak ganda Duncan (DMRT pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Data hasil tingkat kesukaan dianalisis dengan statistik nonparametrik uji Fridman yang dilanjutkaan dengan Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT pada taraf sigifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keju peram yang disukai panelis adalah keju peram pada suhu 15ºC selama 14 hari. Kondisi pemeraman berpengaruh terhadap nilai pH, kadar lemak,, kadar proteinn dan tidak berpengaruh pada kadar asam amino. Kualitas keju peram terbaik terdapat pada kondisi suhu 15°C selama 14 hari, memiliki nilai pH 4,40, kadar protein tertinggi yaitu sebesar 99,78%, dan kadar lemak sebesar 35,02%. Hasil identifikasi mikroba pada keju mentah dan keju peram meliputi Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, dan Aspergillus sp.

  20. Rapidly progressive cutaneous Rhizopus microsporus infection presenting as Fournier's gangrene in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, C M; Alonso, C D; Subhawong, A P; Kwiatkowski, N P; Showel, M; Carroll, K C; Marr, K A

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Rhizopus within the class Zygomycetes can cause devastating opportunistic infections. Cutaneous disease arising from direct inoculation of fungal spores has the potential to disseminate widely. Here, we describe a dramatic case of cutaneous Rhizopus infection involving the penis in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. Despite aggressive surgical debridement, systemic antifungal therapy, and donor lymphocyte infusion, the infection was ultimately fatal. This case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in the clinical management of cutaneous Rhizopus infection.

  1. Rhizopus chinesis在新型白酒中的应用%Application of Rhizopus Chinesis in New Style Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔如生; 徐岩

    2007-01-01

    市场上部分新型白酒口感上香和味分离,浮香突出,质量不稳定,严重败坏了新型白酒的名声.研究重点为应用华根霉(Rhizopus chinesis)技术即采用生物酯化的方法合成香料,生产调味酒,代替化工合成香料,解决新型白酒浮香味,通过洋河试验酒与市售中档酒的比较,找出提高新型白酒质量的措施.

  2. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced.

  3. Characterization of HI Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubar, Emily; Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the properties of dramatic interstellar HI filaments to learn more about the dynamics and structure of such features. Using Gauss fitting software, we searched the Effelsburg-Bonn HI Survey data for indications of a simple twisting (toroidal) motion across these filaments. Instead, we found that the structure was more complicated than expected. Apparent angular widths of several filaments were measured using the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI), Bonn, and Leident/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) surveys. Based on filament widths and other parameters, we conclude that magnetism is the dominant force opposing internal motion and maintaining the structure of these filaments. The apparent width as a function of beam width closely follows a relationship reported in 1993 for HI features in general. They tend to subtend an angle two times the beam width, suggesting that the features remain unresolved.The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana, and the Universities Space Research Association. The Arecibo Observatory REU is funded under grant AST-1559849 to Universidad Metropolitana.

  4. Lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae transformants with modified lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, C D

    2004-04-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is capable of producing high levels of lactic acid by the fermentation of glucose. Yields typically vary over 60-80%, with the remaining glucose diverted primarily into ethanol fermentation. The goal of this work was to increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, so lactic acid fermentation could more effectively compete for available pyruvate. Three different constructs, pLdhA71X, pLdhA48XI, and pLdhA89VII, containing various lengths of the ldhA gene fragment, were transformed into R. oryzae. This fungus rarely integrates DNA used for transformation, but instead relies on extra-chromosomal replication in a high-copy number. Plasmid pLdhA48XI was linearized prior to transformation in order to facilitate integration into the pyrG gene used for selection. Isolates transformed with ldhA containing plasmid were compared with both the wild-type parent strain and the auxotrophic recipient strain containing vector only. All isolates transformed with pLdhA71X or pLdhA48XI had multiple copies of the ldhA gene that resulted in ldhA transcript accumulation, LDH specific activity, and lactic acid production higher than the controls. Integration of plasmid pLdhA48XI increased the stability of the strain, but did not seem to offer any benefit for increasing lactic acid production. Since lactic acid fermentation competes with ethanol and fumaric acid production, it was not unexpected that increased lactic acid production was always concomitant with decreased ethanol and fumaric acid. Plasmid pLdhA71X, containing a large ldhA fragment (6.1 kb), routinely yielded higher levels of lactic acid than the smaller region (3.3 kb) used to construct plasmid pLdhA48XI. The greatest levels of ldhA transcript and enzyme production occurred with isolates transformed with plasmid pLdhA89VII. However, these transformants always produced less lactic acid and higher amounts of ethanol, fumaric, and glycerol compared with the control.

  5. Characteristics of New Milk-clotting Enzyme Produced by Rhizopus sp.052%Rhizopus sp.052凝乳酶的部分酶学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕国新; 李里特

    2006-01-01

    Rhizopus sp.052在pH 1~7范围内,4℃条件下稳定.凝乳酶的最适作用温度为40℃,55℃保持20min完全失去活性,与小牛凝乳酶性质相似,而热失活的温度低于小牛凝乳酶.Rhizopus sp.052凝乳酶对热不稳定的特性有利于干酪副产品乳清的加工处理.Rhizopus sp.052凝乳酶对酪蛋白的水解能力比蛋白酶低,比小牛凝乳酶高,可以用于干酪的生产.对N-末段15个氨基酸序列GTGSVPVTDYQNDVE进行检索,结果表明,Rhizopus sp.052凝乳酶与其他菌株相比不完全相同,尚未见有研究者对其进行研究和报道.

  6. Filaments in Lupus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Rodon, J.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Plunkett, A.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms behind the formation of sub-stellar mass sources are key to determine the populations at the low-mass end of the stellar distribution. Here, we present mapping observations toward the Lupus I cloud in C18O(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) obtained with APEX. We have identified a few velocity-coherent filaments. Each contains several substellar mass sources that are also identified in the 1.1mm continuum data (see also SOLA catalogue presentation). We will discuss the velocity structure, fragmentation properties of the identified filaments, and the nature of the detected sources.

  7. Aerogel-supported filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Johnson, III, Coleman V.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces.

  8. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  9. A Sensitive Method for Examining Whole Cell Biochemical Composition in Single Cells of Filamentous Fungi using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantin,J.; Gough, K.; Julian, R.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cell function is related to cell composition. The asexual state of filamentous fungi (molds and mildews) has two main life cycle stages: vegetative hyphae for substrate colonization and nutrient acquisition, and asexual spores for survival and dispersal. Hyphal composition changes over a few tens of microns during growth and maturation; spores are different from hyphae. Most biochemical analyses are restricted to studying a few components at high spatial resolution (e.g. histochemistry) or many compounds at low spatial resolution (e.g. GC-MS). Synchrotron FTIR spectromicroscopy can be used to study fungal cell biology by fingerprinting varieties of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids at about 6 microm spatial resolution. FTIR can distinguish fungal species and changes during hyphal growth, and reveals that even fungi grown under optimal vs mildly stressed conditions exhibit dramatic biochemical changes without obvious morphological effects. Here we compare hypha and spore composition of two fungi, Neurospora and Rhizopus. There are clear biochemical changes when Neurospora hyphae commit to spore development, during spore maturation and following germination, many of which are consistent with results from molecular genetics, but have not been shown before at high spatial resolution. Rhizopus spores develop within a fluid-containing sporangium that becomes dry at maturity. Rhizopus spores had similar protein content and significantly more carbohydrate than the sporangial fluid, both of which are novel findings.

  10. Kilometer range filamentation

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Magali; Houard, Aurélien; Prade, Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André; Durécu, Anne; Moreau, Bernard; Fleury, Didier; Vasseur, Olivier; Borchert, Hartmut; Diener, Karsten; Schmitt, Rudiger; Théberge, Francis; Chateauneuf, Marc; Daigle, Jean-François; Dubois, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We demonstrate for the first time the possibility to generate long plasma channels up to a distance of 1 km, using the terawatt femtosecond T&T laser facility. The plasma density was optimized by adjusting the chirp, the focusing and beam diameter. The interaction of filaments with transparent and opaque targets was studied.

  11. Avaliação antagônica in vitro e in vivo de Trichoderma spp. a Rhizopus stolonifer em maracujazeiro amarelo Antagonic effect in vitro and in vivo of Trichoderma spp. to Rhizopus stolonifer in yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Pereira Bomfim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a potencialidade antagônica de espécies de Trichoderma spp. in vitro e in vivo a Rhizopus stolonifer, patógeno causador da podridão floral do maracujazeiro, foram estudadas as espécies de Trichoderma viride, T. virens, T. harzianum e T. stromaticum. O crescimento micelial do fitopatógeno foi realizado pelo teste do pareamento de culturas, para crescimento individual foram utilizadas cinco temperaturas. Avaliou-se também o crescimento micelial em 24h e 48h, avaliando a taxa de crescimento dos isolados. Na produção de metabolitos voláteis e não voláteis foram utilizados papel celofane e sobreposição de placas. Em condição de campo os frutos/planta foram tratados com a suspensão na concentração de 2 x 10(8 Conídios/mL sendo avaliado o número médio de frutos aos 15 e 30. No pareamento de cultura todos os isolados de Trichoderma spp. apresentaram crescimento micelial, impedindo o desenvolvimento do fitopatógeno, para todos os isolados as temperaturas ideais de crescimento foram de 25ºC e 30ºC. Nos períodos de incubação de 24 e 48h, foram constatadas diferenças significativas no crescimento micelial entre os isolados os antagonistas apresentaram velocidade de crescimento maior que o fitopatógeno. Houve uma produção de metabólitos voláteis e não voláteis de ação antifúngica ao R. stolonifer. No ensaio em campo houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, verificando-se que o melhor resultado entre os antagonistas em estudo cujos percentuais de pegamento foram 74% para os tratamentos Trichoderma harzianum e T. virens, e os tratamentos T. viride e T. stromaticum obtiveram um porcentual de 75% enquanto a testemunha obteve um percentual de 42%.Floral rot of passion fruit is caused by the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer, which attacks newly open flowers and young little fruits. The infection starts in the inner parts of the flower buds where it causes water-soaked lesions, whose floral tissues acquire a

  12. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  13. Positrusion Filament Recycling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  14. Produksi Gula Reduksi oleh Rhizopus oryzae dari Substrat Bekatul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran was produced from rice-hulling process. Rice bran was contain high starch, therefore it was used to saccharification process. The aim of this research was to study the optimum concentration of rice bran to produce reducing sugar on saccharification process by Rhizopus oryzae. The 100 mL-rice bran medium (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% were sterilized at 1210C, for 15 minutes and inoculated with R. oryzae (± 2x106 cfu and incubated for3 days. The concentration of reducing sugar, starch, pH value, and biomass were analyzed everyday. Concentration of starch was decreasing during saccharification process. However, the concentration of reducing sugar was maximum at first day saccharification. The optimum concentration of rice bran for saccharification process was showed by maximum production of reducing sugar (15,347 mg/mL; it was in 20% concentration of medium. The pH value was decreasing during saccharification process, and the biomass was reversed.

  15. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  16. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  17. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  18. Characterization of two thermostable inulinases from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two inulinases (Inu2 and Inu3 were purified from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710 by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 columns. The molecular weight of Inu2 and Inu3 were determined to be 76 and 30 kDa, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had the same pH optimum at 5.0, temperature optimum at 50 and 60 °C, and thermal stability up to 60 and 70 °C for 1 h, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had low km values (0.93 and 0.70 mM, respectively indicating the high affinity toward inulin. Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and EDTA did not significantly influence the enzyme activity. Ni2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Co2+ showed a partial inhibitory effect, and Hg2+ had a strong inhibitory effect. p-Chloromercuribenzoate had a partial inhibitory effect on Inu2. From these findings, R. oligosporus inulinases can be beneficial enzymes for industrial enzymatic production of high fructose syrup.

  19. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples; Efeito da radiacao gama na frequencia de fungos toxigenicos em amostras de sene (Cassia angustifolia) e cha verde (Camellia sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com; Reis, T.A.; Zorzete, P.; Correa, B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Goncalez, E.; Rossi, M.H. [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination.

  20. Properties of twisted ferromagnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belovs, Mihails; Cebers, Andrejs [University of Latvia, Zellu 8, LV-1002 (Latvia)], E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.lv

    2009-02-01

    The full set of equations for twisted ferromagnetic filaments is derived. The linear stability analysis of twisted ferromagnetic filament is carried out. Two different types of the buckling instability are found - monotonous and oscillatory. The first in the limit of large twist leads to the shape of filament reminding pearls on the string, the second to spontaneous rotation of the filament, which may constitute the working of chiral microengine.

  1. Optimization of Lipase Production by a Rhizopus MR12 in Shake Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, R.; Yousuf, A.; Hoq, M. M.

    Rhizopus sp. a mould of mucor family, excrete lipase when cultured on lipolytic media. The Rhizopus sp. produced a larger clear zone on tributyrin agar medium suggesting its esterase activity. It was further investigated in liquid medium in order to optimize the lipase production conditions under shake culture. Lipase production was found to be maximum with medium containing maltose (1%) and peptone (5%) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively with Rhizopus sp. The enzyme production was profoundly influenced by initial pH of the medium and optimum value of this parameter was found to be 6.0. Maximum enzyme production was obtained at 30°C with a shaking rate of 200 rpm. Ca2+ was found to stimulate lipase production, while it was strongly inhabited by Hg2+. Lipase production was increased about 23.7% under optimized cultivation conditions over olive oil-peptone medium.

  2. Removal of lead in wastewater by immobilized inactivated cells of Rhizopus oligosporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于霞; 柴立元; 闵小波

    2003-01-01

    A novel technology for lead removal with nonliving Rhizopus oligosporus immobilized in calcium alginate was studied. The results show that the main influencing factors include pH value and interfering cations. pH value has different effects on biosorption of various heavy metals and lead adsorption can be proceeded by controlling pH value in a range of 2-5; interfering cations especially Cu( Ⅱ ) can make the adsorption amount of Pb( Ⅱ ) decrease by immobilized Rhizopus oligosporus. Desorption efficiency of different eluants and kinetics were investigated. Citrate the reaction equilibrium reaches 3 h. Immobilized biomass keeps high lead biosorption capacity after five cycles of regeneration.

  3. Solid friction between soft filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...

  4. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    provide a 1:1 image of the filament profile onto a CCD camera (The Imaging Source DMK72BUC02). Neutral density filters were used to prevent the...thermal velocity, until their momentum was arrested by collisions with neutral air molecules. This results in a short distance, transient current which...Martin Richardson, 3rd ELI-ALPS User Workshop, Szeged, Hungary November 2015 126 “Photonics and the Changing Energy Scene ”, Martin Richardson

  5. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AbdelRahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR. The presence of surface plasmon band around 420 nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern corresponding to (111, (200 and (220 planes. Spherical, mono-dispersed and stable AgNPs with diameter around 9.47 nm were prepared and affirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR shows peaks at 1426 and 1684 cm−1 that affirm the presence of coat covering protein the AgNPs which is known as capping proteins. Parameter optimization showed the smallest size of AgNPs (2.86 ± 0.3 nm was obtained with 10−2 M AgNO3 at 40 °C. The present study provides the proof that the molecules within aqueous mycelial extract of R. stolonifer facilitate synthesis of AgNPs and highlight on value-added from R. stolonifer for cost effectiveness. Also, eco-friendly medical and nanotechnology-based industries could also be provided. Size of prepared AgNPs could be controlled by temperature and AgNO3 concentration. Further studies are required to study effect of more parameters on size and morphology of AgNPs as this will help in the control of large scale production of biogenic AgNPs.

  6. Simultaneous silencing of multiple genes in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis, by expression of RNA with chimeric inverted repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, A.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Plummer, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    RNA-mediated gene silencing has been demonstrated in plants, animals, and more recently in filamentous fungi. Here, we report high frequency, RNA-mediated gene silencing in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was silenced in a GFP-expressing tran

  7. Development of scalable high throughput fermentation approaches for physiological characterisation of yeast and filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    through development and validation of small, scalable microtiter based systems, for cultivating yeast and filamentous fungi, validated by comparable results from bioreactors. The experimental work was performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Aspergillus nidulans (filamentous fungus) strains...... for cultivating filamentous fungi in microtiter plates, without compromise to morphology and with product yields and growth rates identical to bioreactors. This was made possible by the dispersive effect on morphology of the anionic polymer carboxypolymethylene, enabling the application of optical density...... to be applicable for a wide range of different filamentous fungi and conditions, with growth rates comparable with those reported in the literature. A final comparative study of cell factory potential, involving the heterologous 6-MSA producing S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans strains, applied throughout the thesis...

  8. An unusual ulcer: A case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Gardiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycoses are high-mortality infections feared by clinicians worldwide. They predominantly affect immunocompromised hosts and are associated with a spectrum of disease. We describe a case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a patient with multiple risk factors cured with complete surgical excision and a short course of antifungal therapy.

  9. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  10. Modulation of Isoflavonoid Composition of Rhizopus oryzae Elicited Soybean (Glycine max) Seedlings by Light and Wounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.; Gruppen, H.; Madzora, B.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The isoflavonoid profile of soybean was altered in different ways by stimulation of defense response upon germination. The combination of simultaneous germination and induction by Rhizopus oryzae increased the total isoflavonoid content of soybeans over 2-fold. Pterocarpans became the predominant

  11. Interesterification of Milk Fat with Oleic Acid Catalyzed by Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBA, T; Witholt, B.

    1994-01-01

    Milk fat was interesterified with oleic acid by catalysis of an immobilized lipase in a microaqueous two-phase system. A commercial lipase from Rhizopus oryzae and a controlled pore glass carrier were selected for preparation of an immobilized lipase. The prepared immobilized lipase showed a Michael

  12. The ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring performance of four polygalacturonase enzymes obtained from rhizopus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical and statistical method has been developed to measure the ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring performance of milligram quantities of endo- and exo-polygalacturonase enzymes obtained from Rhizopus oryzae fungi. UV-Vis spectrophotometric data and a general linear mixed models procedure indic...

  13. Pre-emergence Damping Off of Beta vulgaris by Rhizopus stolonifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs), a cool temperature zygomycete that can cause a post-harvest rot on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), also causes pre-emergence damping off in other crops. We are interested in its potential pre-emergence damping off activity in sugarbeet. Sugarbeets are quite susceptible to seedli...

  14. Ziek en Zeer : oorzaak stengelrot bij lelies kan ook schimmel Rhizopus zijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.

    2011-01-01

    In dit artikel over het voortgezet diagnostisch onderzoek bij PPO een verslag van het onderzoek naar een voor lelies bijzondere stengelrot. Onder speciale teeltomstandigheden kan de schimmel Rhizopus namelijk een stengelrot veroorzaken waardoor soms tot wel 30% van de lelieplanten verloren kan gaan.

  15. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of 0

  16. Identification, Biochemical Characterization, and Evolution of the Rhizopus oryzae 99-880 Polygalacturonase Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    A search of the recently sequenced Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 genome database uncovered 18 putative polygalacturonase genes with 2 genes being identical and only 1 with similarity to a previously reported R. oryzae polygalacturonase gene. The 17 different genes share 50% to greater than 90% iden...

  17. Stengelrot bij lelie door de schimmel Rhizopus : voorgezet diagnostisch onderzoek 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Kok, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Bij de bloementeelt van lelies in vers gestoomde (veen)gronden kan tijdens de zomermaanden plotseling sprake zijn van veel uitval. Daarbij vallen spruiten of jonge planten om als gevolg van een stengelrot op de grens van lucht en grond. Tot nu toe werd daarbij geregeld de schimmel Rhizopus gevonden,

  18. High Affinity Iron Permease is Required for Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is the most common cause of mucormycosis. Clinical and animal model data clearly demonstrate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to develop mucormycosis. The high affinity iron permease gene (rFTR1) is required for R. oryzae iron transport in iro...

  19. Expression and characterization of fifteen Rhizopus oryzae 99-880 polygalacturonase enzymes in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polygalacturonase enzymes hydrolyze the long polygalacturonic acid chains found in the smooth regions of pectin. Interest in this enzyme class continues due to their ability to macerate tissues of economically important crops and their use in a number of industrial processes. Rhizopus oryzae has a l...

  20. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian

    2004-01-01

    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  1. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  2. Isolation and characterization of 17 different genes encoding putative endopolygalacturonase genes from Rhizopus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polygalacturonase enzymes are a valuable aid in the retting of flax for production of linens and, more recently, production of biofuels from citrus wastes. In a search of the recently sequenced Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 genome database, 18 putative endopolygalacturonase genes were identified, w...

  3. FERMENTASI BUNGKIL KOPRA DENGAN Rhizopus sp. DAN PEMANFAATANNYA DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN BANDENG DI TAMBAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra (BK hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. memiliki kandungan protein yang lebih tinggi dan lemak yang lebih rendah dibandingkan yang tidak difermentasi, sehingga memiliki potensi dan perlu dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan-ikan herbivora-omnivora seperti ikan bandeng. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati pemanfaatan bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan untuk pembesaran ikan bandeng di tambak. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan empat petak tambak masing-masing berukuran 2.500 m2/petak. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah yuwana ikan bandeng berukuran awal rata-rata 10 g/ekor yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 1.500 ekor/petak, dan diaplikasikan pakan uji pada saat ikan berukuran rata-rata 65 g. Pakan uji yang digunakan adalah pakan buatan yang berbahan baku utama (A tepung bungkil kopra tanpa fermentasi, dan (B tepung bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan, rasio konversi pakan, dan sintasan ikan tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 di antara kedua perlakuan. Namun ikan yang diberi pakan uji B memiliki produksi yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada yang diberi pakan uji A. Bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan bandeng.

  4. Identification, Characterization, and Evolution of a Large Polygalacturonase Gene Family from Rhizopus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polygalacturonase enzymes are a valuable aid in the retting of flax for production of linens, clarification of juices, and more recently, production of value-added products from citrus wastes. A search of the recently sequenced Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 genome database uncovered 18 putative pol...

  5. The High Affinity Iron Permease is a Key Virulence Factor Required for Rhizopus oryzae Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is the most common cause of mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection that causes a >/=50% mortality rate despite first-line therapy. Clinical and animal model data clearly demonstrate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to mucormycosis. Th...

  6. Modification of Rhizopus lactate dehydrogenase for improved resistance to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid. We determined that one of the key enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), involved in synthesis of lactic acid by R. oryzae was significantly inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at physiological concentrations. Thi...

  7. INTERESTERIFICATION OF MILK-FAT WITH OLEIC-ACID CATALYZED BY IMMOBILIZED RHIZOPUS-ORYZAE LIPASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBA, T; WITHOLT, B

    1994-01-01

    Milk fat was interesterified with oleic acid by catalysis of an immobilized lipase in a microaqueous two-phase system. A commercial lipase from Rhizopus oryzae and a controlled pore glass carrier were selected for preparation of an immobilized lipase. The prepared immobilized lipase showed a Michael

  8. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  9. Chaperonin filaments: The archael cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.D.; Kagawa, H.K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, E.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Chaperonins are multi-subunit double-ring complexed composed of 60-kDa proteins that are believed to mediate protein folding in vivo. The chaperonins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae are composed of the organism`s two most abundant proteins, which represent 4% of its total protein and have an intracellular concentration of {ge} 3.0 mg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 mg/ml, purified chaperonin proteins aggregate to form ordered filaments. Filament formation, which requires Mg{sup ++} and nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), occurs at physiological temperatures under conditions suggesting filaments may exist in vivo. If the estimated 4,600 chaperonins per cell, formed filaments in vivo, they could create a matrix of filaments that would span the diameter of an average S. shibatae cell 100 times. Direct observations of unfixed, minimally treated cells by intermediate voltage electron microscopy (300 kV) revealed an intracellular network of filaments that resembles chaperonin filaments produced in vitro. The hypothesis that the intracellular network contains chaperonins is supported by immunogold analyses. The authors propose that chaperonin activity may be regulated in vivo by filament formation and that chaperonin filaments may serve a cytoskeleton-like function in archaea and perhaps in other prokaryotes.

  10. CJ-15,183, a new inhibitor of squalene synthase produced by a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Hirai, H; Ishiguro, M; Kambara, T; Kojima, Y; Matsunaga, T; Nishida, H; Suzuki, Y; Sugiura, A; Harwood, H J; Huang, L H; Kojima, N

    2001-11-01

    A new squalene synthase (SSase) inhibitor, CJ-15,183 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus CL38916. The compound potently inhibited rat liver and Candida albicans microsomal SSases and also inhibited the human enzyme. It also showed antifungal activities against filamentous fungi and a yeast. The structure was determined to be an aliphatic tetracarboxylic acid compound consisting of an alkyl gamma-lactone, malic acid and isocitric acid moieties by spectroscopic studies.

  11. Functional genomics in the rice blast fungus to unravel the fungal pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhyun JEON; Jaehyuk CHOI; Jongsun PARK; Yong-Hwan LEE

    2008-01-01

    A rapidly growing number of successful genome sequencing projects in plant pathogenic fungi greatly increase the demands for tools and methodologies to study fungal pathogenicity at genomic scale. Magnaporthe oryzae is an economically important plant pathogenic fungus whose genome is fully sequenced. Recently we have reported the development and application of functional genomics platform technologies in M. oryzae. This model approach would have many practical ramifications in design and implementation of upcoming functional genomics studies of filamentous fungi aimed at understanding fungal pathogenicity.

  12. Current filamentation model for the Weibel/Filamentation instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chang-Mo; Huynh, Cong Tuan; Kim, Chul Min

    2016-10-01

    A current filamentaion model for a nonrelativistic plasma with e +/e- beam has been presented together with PIC simulations, which can explain the mangetic field enhancement during the Weibel/ Filamentation instabilities. This filament model assumes the Hammer-Rostoker equilibrium. In addition, this model predicts preferential acceleration/deceleration for electron-ion plasmas depending on the injected beam to be e +/e-.

  13. Assay of Antioxidant Potential of Two Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-02-02

    The antioxidant capacity and antioxidant constituents of two filamentous fungi (Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae) isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava (gathot) were evaluated in the present study. The antioxidant capacity of the fungal crude extracts was assessed based on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS) method. Total phenolics were determined based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content in the fungal extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride. Total tannins were estimated by the Folin-Denis method. The ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity was higher (p Indonesian fermented dried cassava exhibited antioxidant potentials as indicated by their capabilities to scavenge ABTS⁺. A. charticola had a higher antioxidant capacity than R. oryzae. The antioxidant capacity of A. charticola was attributed mainly to its phenolics and tannins contents.

  14. Evaluation of two conservation methods of filamentous fungal oil palm pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Ladino Rey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about filamentous fungal oil palm pathogens is as essential for the maintenance and the sustainability of the crop as the conservation of these identified fungi itself because it allows its uses for former researches or as a guide for identify fungi through time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two methods of conservation, one of them in three times sterilized distilled water (ADTE and with Glicerol 10 %. By four months, with a monthly review of fungi isolated from plant tissue palm oil affected by Aspergillus sp., Chrysosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. Six of the seven fungi strains conserved were successfully recovered from the Treatment with Glicerol 10 %, while five of the seven strains conserved ADTE were recovered after the four evaluation months of this study.

  15. Gangrenous cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae: a case report and review of primary cutaneous mucormycosis in China over Past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, HouMin; Hwang, Sonia Kay; Zhou, Cheng; Du, Juan; Zhang, JianZhong

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by zygomycetes that can be rapidly fatal if unrecognized. We describe the clinical, histopathological, fungal and molecular features of a case of gangrenous cutaneous mucormycosis. The patient presented with great necrosis on his right forearm at the site of detained intravenous cannula needle. He had type II diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency. KOH mount of black eschar showed many broad, aseptate fungal hyphae with right-angle branching. PAS staining of the tissue sample revealed similar broad hyphae in the dermis and cutis. Fungal culture and ITS sequence analysis identified this fungus as Rhizopus oryzae. As no organ involvement was detected, the patient was diagnosed with primary cutaneous mucormycosis. Considering the poor state of the patient, complete excision of the infectious tissue was performed without skin graft instead of amputation. At the same time, intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was given, starting from a small dosage and increased to a total dosage amount of 5.45 g. The wound recovered well with granulation. We emphasize that early recognition and prompt therapy including the control of the primary diseases were important. In this article, we also reviewed the features of primary cutaneous mucormycosis reported in China over the last 20 years.

  16. Metabolomics protocols for filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, Joel P A; Krill, Christian; Du Fall, Lauren; Waters, Ormonde D C; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and transcriptomics are established functional genomics tools commonly used to study filamentous fungi. Metabolomics has recently emerged as another option to complement existing techniques and provide detailed information on metabolic regulation and secondary metabolism. Here, we describe broad generic protocols that can be used to undertake metabolomics studies in filamentous fungi.

  17. Purification and characterization of a novel phospholipid transfer protein from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, P; Vergnolle, C; Chavant, L; Kader, J C

    1990-01-01

    1. We have isolated from mycelia of Mucor mucedo, a filamentous fungus, a phospholipid transfer protein. 2. The purification steps were gel filtration, hydroxyapatite chromatography, blue affinity column and fast protein liquid chromatography on anion exchanger. 3. A purified protein was obtained with a molecular mass of 24 kDa and a pI of 5.05 and its N-terminal sequence was established. 4. This protein transfers phosphatidylinositol, as well as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.

  18. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Seamus D; Hubber, David A

    2016-01-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long, initially sub-critical but accreting filaments. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length scale which is roughly 4 times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multi-wavelength density power spectrum there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispe...

  19. Resonantly enhanced filamentation in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Doussot, J; Billard, F; Béjot, P; Faucher, O

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, a low-loss Kerr-driven optical filament in Krypton gas is experimentally reported in the ultraviolet. The experimental findings are supported by ab initio quantum calculations describing the atomic optical response. Higher-order Kerr effect induced by three-photon resonant transitions is identified as the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the intensity stabilization during the filamentation process, while ionization plays only a minor role. This result goes beyond the commonly-admitted paradigm of filamentation, in which ionization is a necessary condition of the filament intensity clamping. At resonance, it is also experimentally demonstrated that the filament length is greatly extended because of a strong decrease of the optical losses.

  20. Comparative study on the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly against Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection. Rhizopus oryzae is major cause of mucormycosis in humans. This disease is the most common form of the acute fungal infection with rapid progress. Iranian Propolis extract and Royal jelly are honey bee products which have been used by human over the past centuries in traditional medicine. In this study the effects of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly were investigated against Rhizopus oryzae and Candida albicans. Methods: The used method in this study was microdilution. To perform it, the prepared dilutions of Royal jelly and alcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis were added to tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose broth culture media except to control group and then Rhizopus oryzae suspension was added to all microtubes. In the next stage, microtubes were maintained in incubator at 25oC for 48 hours and then 10 ml of the content of each microtube was transferred to Sabouraud dextrose agar media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the agents were calculated. Results: In this study, the MIC and MFC of Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml and the MFC of Royal jelly on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 100 ± 34 and 133 ± 46 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicate that Propolis might be used as an ideal combination for the treatment of fungal infections like Rhizopus oryzae. However, clinical studies are needed to confirm the effects of these drugs.

  1. Progresses of Researches on Rhizopus for Liquor-making%酿酒根霉菌研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙可; 赵中开; 马莹莹; 杨建刚

    2013-01-01

    根霉是一种极其重要的酿酒微生物,在糖化过程中的作用十分显著,根霉产酶特性的研究正如火如荼,纯种根霉制曲早已广泛应用于生产,现今根霉在我国酒类酿造业中的作用已无可替代.本文介绍了酿酒用根霉的一些主要生长及产酶特性,并对根霉在酿酒过程中产酒精及对酒类风味物质的影响的研究进展进行了综述.%Rhizopus is a very important microbiology for liquor-making, which plays an extremely significant role in the process of saccharification. Many studies focus on the characteristics of the Rhizopus enzyme production. Purebred Rhizopus koji has been widely used in production. And nowadays the role of Rhizopus in liquor brewing has become irreplaceable. This paper introduces major growth and enzyme production characteristics of Rhizopus for liquor-making, and discusses the effect of product ethyl alcohol and flavor substances of Rhizopus.

  2. Yeasts and filamentous fungi carried by the gynes of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnocca, Fernando C; Rodrigues, André; Nagamoto, Nilson S; Bacci, Maurício

    2008-11-01

    Insect-associated microbes exhibit a wide range of interactions with their hosts. One example of such interactions is the insect-driven dispersal of microorganisms, which plays an essential role in the ecology of several microbes. To study dispersal of microorganisms by leaf-cutting ants (Formicidae: Attini), we applied culture-dependent methods to identify the filamentous fungi and yeasts found in two different body parts of leaf-cutting ant gynes: the exoskeleton and the infrabuccal pocket. The gynes use the latter structure to store a pellet of the ants' symbiotic fungus during nest founding. Many filamentous fungi (n = 142) and yeasts (n = 19) were isolated from the gynes' exoskeleton. In contrast, only seven filamentous fungi and three yeasts isolates were recovered from the infrabuccal pellets, suggesting an efficient mechanism utilized by the gynes to prevent contamination of the symbiotic fungus inoculum. The genus Cladosporium prevailed (78%) among filamentous fungi whereas Aureobasidium, Candida and Cryptococcus prevailed among yeasts associated with gynes. Interestingly, Escovopsis, a specialized fungal pathogen of the leaf-cutting ant-fungus symbiosis, was not isolated from the body parts or from infrabuccal pellets of any gynes sampled. Our results suggest that gynes of the leaf-cutter ants Atta laevigata and A. capiguara do not vertically transmit any particular species of yeasts or filamentous fungi during the foundation of a new nest. Instead, fungi found in association with gynes have a cosmopolitan distribution, suggesting they are probably acquired from the environment and passively dispersed during nest foundation. The possible role of these fungi for the attine ant-microbial symbiosis is discussed.

  3. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  4. Activity Cycle of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. J. Li; Q. X. Li; P. X. Gao; J. Mu; H. D. Chen; T. W. Su

    2007-06-01

    Long-term variation in the distribution of the solar filaments observed at the Observatorie de Paris, Section de Meudon from March 1919 to December 1989 is presented to compare with sunspot cycle and to study the periodicity in the filament activity, namely the periods of the coronal activity with the Morlet wavelet used. It is inferred that the activity cycle of solar filaments should have the same cycle length as sunspot cycle, but the cycle behavior of solar filaments is globally similar in profile with, but different in detail from, that of sunspot cycles. The amplitude of solar magnetic activity should not keep in phase with the complexity of solar magnetic activity. The possible periods in the filament activity are about 10.44 and 19.20 years. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 10.44 years is statistically significant during the whole consideration time. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 19.20 years is under the 95% confidence spectrum during the whole consideration time, but over the mean red-noise spectrum of = 0.72 before approximate Carrington rotation number 1500, and after that the filament activity does not statistically show the period. Wavelet reconstruction indicates that the early data of the filament archive (in and before cycle 16) are more noiseful than the later (in and after cycle 17).

  5. Separation and Purification of Rhizopus and Menstruation of Amylase%酒曲根霉的分离纯化及淀粉酶活力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻凤香; 陈煦; 林亲录; 李珂; 杨熠; 李菁

    2006-01-01

    本试验采用直接分离法和单菌落挑选法从酒曲中分离纯化得到30株根霉,测定其液化酶、糖化酶和麦芽低聚糖活力,根霉Rhizopus RN-1,Rhizopus RA-1,Rhizopus RS-1,Rhizopus RQ-1具有低聚糖酶产生能力,且产糖化酶和液化酶活力比传统的Q303都高.

  6. Differentiation of clinically relevant Mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Kolecka, Anna; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS for reliable identification of the two most frequently occurring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely Rhizopus arrhizus with its two varieties, arrhizus and delemar, and Rhizopus microsporus. The test-set comprised 38 isolates of clinical and environmental origin previously identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of rDNA. Multi-locus sequence data targeting three gene markers (ITS, ACT, TEF ) showed two monophylic clades for Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus (bootstrap values of 99 %). Cluster analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct clades within Rhizopus arrhizus representing its varieties arrhizus and delemar. The MALDI Biotyper 3.0 Microflex LT platform (Bruker Daltonics) was used to confirm the distinction between Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus and the presence of two varieties within the species Rhizopus arrhizus. An in-house database of 30 reference main spectra (MSPs) was initially tested for correctness using commercially available databases of Bruker Daltonics. By challenging the database with the same strains of which an in-house database was created, automatic identification runs confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is able to recognize the strains at the variety level. Based on principal component analysis, two MSP dendrograms were created and showed concordance with the multi-locus tree; thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for diagnostics of mucoralean species.

  7. Rapidly progressing dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus: when soil inhabitants become deadly invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Milind; Rapose, Alwyn

    2016-12-08

    We present a case report of a 61-year-old patient with acute pulmonary and cerebral infections with Aspergillus and Rhizopus. The only risk factor for invasive fungal disease was high-dose corticosteroids used to treat her chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. She had rapid progression and succumbed to her infections within 2 weeks of diagnosis in spite of aggressive antifungal therapy and surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapidly fatal dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus Our case highlights the role of high-dose corticosteroids as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in patients without traditional risk factors like haematological malignancies, solid organ transplantation or uncontrolled diabetes.

  8. The surfactant-induced conformational and activity alterations in Rhizopus niveus lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Rabbani, Gulam; Badr, Gamal; Badr, Badr Mohamed; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we have reported the effect of nonionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic detergents on the enzymatic activity and structural stability of Rhizopus niveus lipase. Secondary structural changes were monitored by Far-UV CD which shows that surfactant induces helicity in the Rhizopus niveus lipase protein which was maximum in case of CTAB followed by SDS, CHAPS, and Brij-35. Similarly, tertiary structural changes were monitored by tryptophan fluorescence. We also carried out enzyme kinetics assays which showed that activity was enhanced by 1.5- and 1.1-fold in the presence of CHAPS and Brij-35, respectively. Furthermore, there was a decline in activity by 20 and 30 % in case of SDS and CTAB, respectively. These studies may be helpful in understanding detergent-lipase interaction in greater detail as lipases are used in many industrial processes.

  9. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called “China wood oil” is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through differ...

  10. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis.

  11. Amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae grown on agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R C; Hang, Y D

    1990-03-01

    The amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 grown on different agricultural commodities was datermined. The mould produced much higher enzyme activity from barley, corn, bats, and rice than from cassava. The optimal temperature for enzyme production was 30°C. Neutralization with CaCO3 greatly enhanced the rate of enzyme production. Nitrogen supplementation of cassava resulted in higher enzyme yields.

  12. Comparative Biomechanics of Thick Filaments and Thin Filaments with Functional Consequences for Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaffold of striated muscle is predominantly comprised of myosin and actin polymers known as thick filaments and thin filaments, respectively. The roles these filaments play in muscle contraction are well known, but the extent to which variations in filament mechanical properties influence muscle function is not fully understood. Here we review information on the material properties of thick filaments, thin filaments, and their primary constituents; we also discuss ways in which mechanical properties of filaments impact muscle performance.

  13. Pengaruh Rhizopus sp sebagai agensia bating terhadap sifat kuat tarik dan kemuluran kulit garmen domba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Rhizopus sp as bating agent for the tensile strength an elongation properties of sheep leather garment have been investigated. The concentration treatments for Rhizopus Sp were 0,5% and 1% of bloten weight and as comparation was used 1% of oropon OR bating agent, meanwhile the sheep skins used was grouped into 3 groups of weight bases on the fresh skin those were skin those were skin with weight less than 2 kgs, between 2 and 2.5 kgs and skin with weight more than 2.5 kgs, whereas the bating time employed was 60 minutes. The design of experimental method employed in this research was Completely Randomized Design (CRD for factorial 3x3 with three repetitions. The testing applications parameters observed were tensile strength and elongation at break. The result showed that tensile strength of leather in this research was significantly influenced by the weight of sheep skin (p0.05. by concentration of 1% oropon OR; 0.5% and 1% Rhizopus sp the tensile strength and elongation at break for sheep’s skin weight of less than 2 kg fulfill the requirements of Indonesian National Standard (SNI 06-0250-1989: Sheep/goat leather glove and jacket.

  14. Production of chitooligosaccharides from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710 cells by chitosanase digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Maria; Shinya, Shoko; Masaki, Eiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Mazumder, Tapan K; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Narihiro, Kazue; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2014-01-13

    The intact cells of Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL2710, whose cell walls are abundant source of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN), were digested with three chitinolytic enzymes, a GH-46 chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174 (CsnN174), a chitinase from Pyrococcus furiosus, and a chitinase from Trichoderma viride, respectively. Solubilization of the intact cells by CsnN174 was found to be the most efficient from solid state CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Chitosanase products from Rhizopus cells were purified by cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 and gel-filtration on Cellulofine Gcl-25m. NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of the purified products revealed that GlcN-GlcNAc, (GlcN)2-GlcNAc, and (GlcN)2 were produced by the enzymatic digestion of the intact cells. The chitosanase digestion of Rhizopus cells was found to be an excellent system for the conversion of fungal biomass without any environmental impact.

  15. Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-06-17

    The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit.

  16. Centromeres of filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristina M.; Galazka, Jonathan M.; Phatale, Pallavi A.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Freitag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How centromeres are assembled and maintained remains one of the fundamental questions in cell biology. Over the past 20 years the idea of centromeres as precise genetic loci has been replaced by the realization that it is predominantly the protein complement that defines centromere localization and function. Thus, placement and maintenance of centromeres are excellent examples of epigenetic phenomena in the strict sense. In contrast, the highly derived “point centromeres” of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives are counterexamples for this general principle of centromere maintenance. While we have learned much in the past decade, it remains unclear if mechanisms for epigenetic centromere placement and maintenance are shared amongst various groups of organisms. For that reason it seems prudent to examine species from many different phylogenetic groups with the aim to extract comparative information that will yield a more complete picture of cell division in all eukaryotes. This review addresses what has been learned by studying the centromeres of filamentous fungi, a large, heterogeneous group of organisms that includes important plant, animal and human pathogens, saprobes and symbionts that fulfill essential roles in the biosphere, as well as a growing number of taxa that have become indispensable for industrial use. PMID:22752455

  17. Orchestration of Morphogenesis in Filamentous Fungi: Conserved Roles for Ras Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo complex developmental programs including conidial germination, polarized morphogenesis, and differentiation of sexual and asexual structures. For many fungi, the coordinated completion of development is required for pathogenicity, as specialized morphological structures must be produced by the invading fungus. Ras proteins are highly conserved GTPase signal transducers and function as major regulators of growth and development in eukaryotes. Filamentous fungi typically express two Ras homologues, comprising distinct groups of Ras1-like and Ras2-like proteins based on sequence homology. Recent evidence suggests shared roles for both Ras1 and Ras2 homologues, but also supports the existence of unique functions in the areas of stress response and virulence. This review focuses on the roles played by both Ras protein groups during growth, development, and pathogenicity of a diverse array of filamentous fungi. PMID:26257821

  18. Collisions of Vortex Filament Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banica, Valeria; Faou, Erwan; Miot, Evelyne

    2014-12-01

    We consider the problem of collisions of vortex filaments for a model introduced by Klein et al. (J Fluid Mech 288:201-248, 1995) and Zakharov (Sov Phys Usp 31(7):672-674, 1988, Lect. Notes Phys 536:369-385, 1999) to describe the interaction of almost parallel vortex filaments in three-dimensional fluids. Since the results of Crow (AIAA J 8:2172-2179, 1970) examples of collisions are searched as perturbations of antiparallel translating pairs of filaments, with initial perturbations related to the unstable mode of the linearized problem; most results are numerical calculations. In this article, we first consider a related model for the evolution of pairs of filaments, and we display another type of initial perturbation leading to collision in finite time. Moreover, we give numerical evidence that it also leads to collision through the initial model. We finally study the self-similar solutions of the model.

  19. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our prel...

  20. The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Lomascolo, Anne; Chabrol, Olivier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Boukhris-Uzan, Eva; Piumi, François; Kües, Ursula; Ram, Arthur F J; Murat, Claude; Haon, Mireille; Benoit, Isabelle; Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Drula, Elodie; Kwon, Min Jin; Gouret, Philippe; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lombard, Vincent; Mariette, Jérôme; Noirot, Céline; Park, Joohae; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Sigoillot, Jean Claude; Wiebenga, A.; Wösten, Han A B; Martin, Francis; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P; Martínez, Angel T; Klopp, Christophe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and whi

  1. The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Lomascolo, Anne; Chabrol, Olivier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Boukhris-Uzan, Eva; Piumi, François; Kües, Ursula; Ram, Arthur F J; Murat, Claude; Haon, Mireille; Benoit, Isabelle; Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Drula, Elodie; Kwon, Min Jin; Gouret, Philippe; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lombard, Vincent; Mariette, Jérôme; Noirot, Céline; Park, Joohae; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Sigoillot, Jean Claude; Wiebenga, A.; Wösten, Han A B; Martin, Francis; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P; Martínez, Angel T; Klopp, Christophe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and whi

  2. The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus : a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Lomascolo, Anne; Chabrol, Olivier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Boukhris-Uzan, Eva; Piumi, François; Kües, Ursula; Ram, Arthur F J; Murat, Claude; Haon, Mireille; Benoit, Isabelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410023; Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Drula, Elodie; Kwon, Min Jin; Gouret, Philippe; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lombard, Vincent; Mariette, Jérôme; Noirot, Céline; Park, Joohae; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Sigoillot, Jean Claude; Wiebenga, Ad|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314110763; Wösten, Han A B; Martin, Francis; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960; Martínez, Angel T; Klopp, Christophe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Wosten, Han|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120693186

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and whi

  3. The genome of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus : a basidiomycete model with a versatile arsenal for lignocellulosic biomass breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levasseur, Anthony; Lomascolo, Anne; Chabrol, Olivier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Boukhris-Uzan, Eva; Piumi, François; Kües, Ursula; Ram, Arthur F J; Murat, Claude; Haon, Mireille; Benoit, Isabelle; Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Drula, Elodie; Kwon, Min Jin; Gouret, Philippe; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lombard, Vincent; Mariette, Jérôme; Noirot, Céline; Park, Joohae; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Sigoillot, Jean Claude; Wiebenga, Ad; Wösten, Han A B; Martin, Francis; Coutinho, Pedro M; de Vries, Ronald P; Martínez, Angel T; Klopp, Christophe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Wosten, Han

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saprophytic filamentous fungi are ubiquitous micro-organisms that play an essential role in photosynthetic carbon recycling. The wood-decayer Pycnoporus cinnabarinus is a model fungus for the study of plant cell wall decomposition and is used for a number of applications in green and whi

  4. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in tRNA gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-04-10

    Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Invasive fungal disease (IFD) by filamentous fungi in the Valparaíso Region, Chile, since implementation of rapid laboratory diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Álvarez, Patricio; Provoste, Felipe; Ducasse, Karen; González, Marcela; Wilson, Gonzalo; Díaz, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) by filamentous fungi are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, especially those with myeloid leukemia. In 2011 a protocol for the rapid diagnosis of IFD by filamentous fungi was implemented in Valparaiso Region. To describe cases of IFD by filamentous fungi of the Valparaíso Region, since the implementation of rapid diagnosis and to compare results with the period 2004-2009. Descriptive and prospective study conducted in two public hospitals: Carlos van Buren at Valparaiso and Gustavo Fricke at Viña del Mar. We selected patients with a diagnosis of filamentous fungal diseases considering the EORTC/MSG criteria. Demographics, underlying diseases, risk factors for EFI, galactomannan (GM) results in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, cultures and biopsies, treatment and overall lethality rates at 30 days were registered. Eighteen patients were detected, 6 with proven and 12 probable IFD. Nine were diagnosed by GM, 8 by culture and two with both methods. In cases which the agent (9/18) was isolated from Rhizopus oryzae was the most frequent. When comparing overall lethality with the period 2004-2009, there was a reduction of 47.8%, which was statistically significant. Compared to data previously published in the region, demographic and comorbidities of patients with IFD caused by filamentous fungi are similar, however the currently rapid diagnosis protocol has improved survival of patients and lethality experienced overall decrease.

  7. 华根霉合成活性脂肪酶液态发酵菌体形态调控的研究%Studies on morphologic regulation of Rhizopus chinensis in submerged fermentation of lipase with synthetic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艺博; 王栋; 徐岩; 朱增亮; 李鸣

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-bound lipase with high activity produced by Rhizopus chinensis (CCTCC 2010021) could catalyze the synthesis of ester in non-aqueous phase and had potential applications in the production of flavor and fragrance compounds, biodiesel, and so on. Similar to other filamentous fungi, Rhizopus chinensis would form different morphologies in submerged fermentation, which influenced the production of membrane-bound lipase with synthetic activity obviously. Based on mycelial morphology and synthetic activity of Rhizopus chinensis lipase, the influences of fermentation conditions on the mycelial morphologies and lipase synthetic activity were investigated. The results showed that the medium volume, rotation speed and baffled flask remarkably influenced the Rhizopus chinensis morphology and the higher lipase synthetic activity could be obtained by clump mycelia. The optimized fermentation conditions for clump mycelia were as follows: medium volume 20 mL/250 flask, 200 r/min, initial pH 5. 5, inoculum 5 × 107 spores/mL. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, clump mycelia were formed and synthetic activity of Rhizopus chinensis lipase reached up to 1080 U/g.%华根霉(CCTCC M201021)膜结合脂肪酶在非水相中具有突出的催化酯合成的能力,在生物香料、生物柴油生产等工业应用中具有良好的前景.与许多丝状真茵形态影响其初级及次级代谢产物的生产相类似,华根霉在液态发酵中也会形成不同的茵体形态,显著影响合成活性膜结合脂肪酶的发酵水平.本研究以华根霉菌体形态及脂肪酶合成活性为指标,考察了不同发酵条件对华根霉液态培养茵体形态的影响以及与脂肪酶合成活性的关系.研究结果表明,发酵摇瓶装液量、摇床转速及摇瓶中挡板的设置对华根霉茵体形态影响显著,块状茵体可以得到较高的脂肪酶活性.确定在装液量20 mL/250 mL发酵摇瓶,摇床转速200 r/min,发酵液初始pH 5.5,接种量5

  8. [Identification of filamentous fungi isolated from clinical samples by two different methods and their susceptibility results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direkel, Sahin; Otağ, Feza; Aslan, Gönül; Ulger, Mahmut; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2012-01-01

    , Other fungi were identified at genus level by conventional methods and at species level by DNA sequencing. Fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined as > 256 mg/L in all strains, except Scedosporium; voriconazole MIC values were 32 mg/L for Fusarium, Scedosporium, Rhizopus and Bipolaris strains and ≤ 0.006-0.125 mg/L in all Aspergillus isolates, In three strains (Fusarium equiseti, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola and Rhizopus oryzae) posaconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were > 32 mg/L, however it was 32 mg/L for Fusarium, Scedosporium, Rhizopus and all A.terreus strains and filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. is easily and reliably achieved by conventional methods. Since the rate of invasive fungal infections is increasing currently, filamentous molds should be searched especially in the clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients for accurate and prompt diagnosis of such infections and to decrease the related mortality risk.

  9. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications.

  10. Galaxy pairs align with galactic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, Elmo

    2015-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse theory and numerical simulations suggest that the velocity field within large-scale galaxy filaments is dominated by motions along the filaments. Aims. Our aim is to check whether observational data reveal any preferred orientation of galaxy pairs with respect to the underlying filaments as a result of the expectedly anisotropic velocity field. Methods. We use galaxy pairs and galaxy filaments identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. For filament extraction, we use the Bisous model that is based the marked point process technique. During the filament detection, we use the centre point of each pair instead of the positions of galaxies to avoid a built-in influence of pair orientation on the filament construction. For pairs lying within filaments (3012 cases), we calculate the angle between the line connecting galaxies of each pair and their host filament. To avoid redshift-space distortions, the angle is measured in the plain of the sky. Results. The alignment analysis...

  11. 根霉Rhizopus sp.TC1产酶条件的研究%Fermentation conditions for cellulase production by Rhizopus sp. TC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阿娜; 汤斌; 张庆庆; 翟光雯; 周逢云

    2006-01-01

    根据要因实验原则,选择影响因子较大的因素进行实验,初步研究了根霉Rhizopus sp.TC1的产酶条件.经实验确定优化产酶条件为:稻草:麸皮=1:1;固液比=1:3;接种量9 mL种子液/100 g湿基;温度28℃,在此条件下发酵96 h,FPA和CMC酶活分别达到17.8 IU/g、187.0 IU/g,较优化前的12.3 IU/g、131.6 IU/g分别提高了45%和42%.

  12. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Starzyńska-Janiszewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Material and methods. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7, glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. Results. The signifi cant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more effi cient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. Conclusions. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is benefi cial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  13. Rhizopus sp. PW358 lipase production by solid state fermentation%Rhizopus sp.PW358菌脂肪酶固态发酵生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克; 刘斌; 蔡敬民; 王彪; 杨洁; 潘仁瑞

    2002-01-01

    研究了Rhizopus sp.PW358菌的固态生长和产脂肪酶条件.结果表明:黄豆饼粉为培养基的基本成分,用来生产脂肪酶.培养基中可加入淀粉和蛋白胨作为碳源和氮源,有利于脂肪酶的合成.培养基的含水量以及金属离子Ca2+、Mg2+的浓度也影响Rhizopus sp.PW358茵的脂肪酶产生.在优化条件下,12g豆饼粉中含1.0g淀粉及0.5g蛋白胨、15ml营养盐中Ca2+、Mg2+离子浓度分别为8.o和4.0g/L,培养基含水量为55.6%,在接种后培养48h,酶活力可达最大值320IU/g干培养基.脂肪酶的基本性质研究表明,酶的最适反应温度和pH分别为35℃和7.0,酶的半失活温度为53.5℃,不同的pH环境中,30℃保温1h后酶在pH6.5~8.5范围内较为稳定.

  14. Temperature Controlled Filamentation in Argon Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shi-Ying; KONG Wei-Peng; SONG Zhen-Ming; QIN Yu; LI Ru-Xin; WANG Qing-Yue; ZHANG Zhi-Gang

    2008-01-01

    Temperature controlled filamentation is experimentally demonstrated in a temperature gradient gas-filled tube.The proper position of the tube is heated by a furnace and two ends of the tube are cooled by air. The experimental results show that multiple filaments are shrunken into a single fila.ment or no filament only by increasing the temperature at the beginning of the filament. This technique offers another degree of freedom of controlling the filamentation and opens a new way for intense monocycle pulse generation through gradient temperature in a noble gas.

  15. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses.

  16. Actinomycetes inhibit filamentous fungi from the cuticle of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dângelo, Rômulo Augusto Cotta; de Souza, Danival José; Mendes, Thais Demarchi; Couceiro, Joel da Cruz; Lucia, Terezinha Maria Castro Della

    2016-03-01

    Actinomycetes bacteria associated with leafcutter ants produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against Escovopsis, a fungus specialized in attacking the gardens of fungus-growing ants, which denies the ants their food source. Because previous studies have used fungi isolated from fungus gardens but not from ant integument, the aims of the present study were to isolate actinomycetes associated with the cuticle of the Acromyrmex spp. and to quantify their inhibition abilities against the filamentous fungal species carried by these ants. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes had varied strain-dependent effects on several filamentous fungal species in addition to antagonistic activity against Escovopsis. The strain isolated from Acromyrmex balzani was identified as a Streptomyces species, whereas the remaining isolates were identified as different strains belonging to the genus Pseudonocardia. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that actinomycetes do not act specifically against Escovopsis mycoparasites and may have the ability to inhibit other species of pathogenic fungi. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  18. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH2 at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid.   ABSTRAK Polimerisasi asam

  19. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  20. Lipases production by solid-state fermentation: the case of Rhizopus homothallicus in perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    Lipases are widely used in the industry for different purposes. Although these enzymes are mainly produced by submerged fermentation, lipase production by solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been gaining interest due to the advantages of this type of culture. Major advantages are higher production titers and productivity, less catabolite repression, and use of the dried fermented material as biocatalyst. This chapter describes a traditional methodology to produce fungal (Rhizopus homothallicus) lipases by SSF using perlite as inert support. The use of different devices (glass columns or Erlenmeyer flasks) and type of inoculum (spores or growing mycelium) is considered so that lipase production by SSF could be easily performed in any laboratory.

  1. A rare case of mucormycosis of median sternotomy wound caused by Rhizopus arrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of mucormycosis of median sternotomy wound caused by Rhizopus arrhizus . The patient, a known diabetic and a case of coronary artery disease underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. In the postoperative period, patient developed infection of the median sternotomy wound, from which R. arrhizus was isolated on culture. Patient succumbed in spite of being treated with surgical debridement and amphotericin B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mucormycosis of median sternotomy wound from India.

  2. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMON CANELA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk.

    Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol.


    RESUMEN

    En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk.

    Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  3. Extracellular enzyme production by Rhizopus and Mucor species on solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D P; Eribo, B E

    1984-01-01

    Solid media were employed to determine the presence and absence of extracellular enzyme production by two genera of fruit-rot fungi, Rhizopus and Mucor. The results of this investigation revealed that phosphatase was released into the cultural medium by all the fungi examined; however, only R. oryzae, R. tritici, M. mucedo, and M. piriformis showed the possibility of being high producers of the enzyme. Protease, urease, ribonuclease, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, at varying levels of activity, were detected, in the majority of the fungi, in the cultural medium.

  4. Efficient L-lactic acid fermentation by the mold Rhizopus oryzae using activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, M.; Hirata, M.; Gaw, M.; Takanashi, H.; Hano, T. [Oita Univ, Oita (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Batch fermentations of Rhizopus oryzae AHU 6537 in medium containing granular activated carbon from coal, powder activated carbon from coal or granular activated carbon from coconut were carried out in an airlift bioreactor. As a result, fermentation broths were decolorized by activated carbon, and clearer fermentation broths were obtained than in fermentation without activated carbon. With activated carbon from coal, the cells formed smaller pellets than in fermentation without activated carbon, and fermentation performance was improved. Productivity was further improved by increasing the amount of activated carbon from coal. Therefore, the productivity of lactic acid fermentation could be improved by selecting a suitable activated carbon and by controlling the amount of activated carbon.

  5. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  6. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...... and quantified. (C) 1999 The Society of Rheology. [S0148-6055(99)00103-0]....

  7. Merger of Long Vortex Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video demonstrates the merger of long vortex filaments is shown experimentally. Two counter-rotating vortices are generated using in a tank with very high aspect ratio. PIV demonstrates the merger of the vortices within a single orbit.

  8. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    LeibnizUniversityHannover,Welfengarten 1, D-30167Hannover, Germany 3 CEA-DAM,DIF, F-91297Arpajon, France 4 Univ.Bordeaux—CNRS—CEA,Centre Lasers ...optics.arizona.edu Keywords: laser filamentation, picosecond laser pulses, nonlinear propagation, optical ionization Abstract The propagation of intense

  9. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  10. Filament Winding. A Unified Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation we have presented an overview and comprehensive treatment of several facets of the filament winding process. With the concepts of differential geometry and the theory of thin anisotropic shells of revolution, a parametric shape generator has been formulated for the design proced

  11. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  12. Epigenetic genome mining of an endophytic fungus leads to the pleiotropic biosynthesis of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Xu, Wei; Li, Dehai; Yin, Wen-Bing; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Li, Yong-Quan; Tang, Yi; Hu, Youcai

    2015-06-22

    The small-molecule biosynthetic potential of most filamentous fungi has remained largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. Genome sequencing of Calcarisporium arbuscula, a mushroom-endophytic fungus, revealed 68 core genes that are involved in natural product biosynthesis. This is in sharp contrast to the predominant production of the ATPase inhibitors aurovertin B and D in the wild-type fungus. Inactivation of a histone H3 deacetylase led to pleiotropic activation and overexpression of more than 75 % of the biosynthetic genes. Sampling of the overproduced compounds led to the isolation of ten compounds of which four contained new structures, including the cyclic peptides arbumycin and arbumelin, the diterpenoid arbuscullic acid A, and the meroterpenoid arbuscullic acid B. Such epigenetic modifications therefore provide a rapid and global approach to mine the chemical diversity of endophytic fungi.

  13. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavel Ambrož; Alfred Schroll

    2000-09-01

    Precise measurements of heliographic position of solar filaments were used for determination of the proper motion of solar filaments on the time-scale of days. The filaments have a tendency to make a shaking or waving of the external structure and to make a general movement of whole filament body, coinciding with the transport of the magnetic flux in the photosphere. The velocity scatter of individual measured points is about one order higher than the accuracy of measurements.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    catalysts gave straight filaments, while the use of nickel and other catalysts resulted in a variety of vermicular forms of filaments. Ferrocene, (C5H5)2Fe...vapor deposition of carbon filaments is presented along with a theory for the vermicular growth of filaments on quartz substrates. I U I I I I I I...one hour. The experimental details of the matrix and results are discussed, also theories for the role of hydrogen and the vermicular growth of

  15. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  16. Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Elise; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of narrow plasma channels formed in the filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses, with a DC high voltage. The laser filaments prevent electrical arcs by triggering corona that neutralize the high-voltage electrodes. This phenomenon, due to the electric field modulation and free electron release around the filament, opens new prospects to lightning and over-voltage mitigation.

  17. Comparative study of kinetic and interfacial properties of a novel Rhizopus oryzae lipase and ROL29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Salah Riadh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared several kinetic and interfacial properties of a lipase from a novel strain of Rhizopus oryzae (ROLw with ROL29 lipase. In contrast to ROL29, ROLw was able to hydrolyze triolein emulsion in the absence of any additive, like bovine serum albumin (BSA. Furthermore, unlike Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL29, kinetic study of ROLw lipase shows linear dependency when using tributyrin emulsion as substrate. ROLw can tolerate, more efficiently than ROL29, the accumulation of long-chain free fatty acids at the interface when olive oil emulsion was used as substrate. The critical surface pressure πc of penetration into phosphatidyl choline from egg yolk films was found to be 23 mN/m with ROLw, in contrast to a value of 10 mN/m obtained with ROL29. The effect of calcium ion and synthetic detergent on the two lipases was studied. In contrast to ROL29, ROLw was activated in the presence of 100 lmoles TX-100. No significant difference on the two lipase activity was observed in presence or absence of calcium ion.

  18. Optimization of the high-level production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, S; Serrano, A; Ferrer, P; Solá, C; Schmid, R D; Valero, F

    2001-03-09

    The lipases of the Rhizopus species family are important and versatile enzymes that are mainly used in fat and oil modification due to their strong 1,3-regiospecificity. Inexpensive synthetic medium was used for the production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Methanol accumulation inside the bioreactor has previously been shown to negatively influence the production level. Three different methanol fed-batch strategies for maintaining the methanol concentration within optimal limits have been assayed in high-density cultures. One methanol feeding strategy, which is based on the monitoring of the methanol concentration by gas chromatography, resulted in a 2.5-fold higher productivity compared to an initial cultivation, where the feeding rate was adjusted according to the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in the supernatant. Finally, productivity could be further increased by introducing a transition phase that involved the simultaneous feeding of glycerol and methanol followed by a single methanol feed. This optimized strategy resulted in the highest productivity (12888 U l(-1) h(-1)), which is 13.6-fold higher than the DO-based strategy.

  19. Role of Met93 and Thr96 in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan-Shan; Li, Ming; Yu, Xiaowei; Xu, Yan

    2013-05-01

    We engineered Rhizopus chinensis lipase to study its critical amino acid role in catalytic properties. Based on the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional model of the lipase, residues located in its lid hinge region (Met93 and Thr96) were replaced with corresponding amino acid residues (Ile93 and Asn96) found in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase. The substitutions in the lid hinge region affected not only substrate specificity but also the thermostability of the lipase. Both lipases preferred p-nitrophenyl laurate and glyceryl trilaurate (C12). However, the variant S4-3O showed a slight decline in activity toward long-chain fatty acid (C16-C18). When enzymes activities decreased by half, the temperature of the variant (45 °C) was 22 °C lower than the parent (67 °C), probably substantially destabilized the structure of the lid region. The interfacial kinetic analysis of S4-3O suggested that the lower catalytic efficiency was due to a higher K m* value. According to the lipase structure investigated, Ile93Met played a role of narrowing the size of the hydrophobic patch, which affected the substrate binding affinity, and Asn96Thr destabilized the structure of the lipase by disrupting the H-bond interaction in the lid region.

  20. Induction of Rhizopus oryzae germination under starvation using host metabolites increases spore susceptibility to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Kakongi, Nathan; Schneider, Avishai; Vinokur, Yakov; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Carmeli, Shmuel; Levy, Maggie; Skory, Christopher D; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2014-03-01

    Sweetpotato is a nutritional source worldwide. Soft rot caused by Rhizopus spp. is a major limiting factor in the storage of produce, rendering it potentially unsafe for human consumption. In this study, Rhizopus oryzae was used to develop a concept of postharvest disease control by weakening the pathogen through induction of spore germination under starvation conditions. We isolated the sweetpotato active fractions (SPAFs) that induce spore germination and used them at a low dose to enhance spore weakening caused by starvation. Germination in SPAF at 1 mg/ml weakened the pathogen spores by delaying their ability to form colonies on rich media and by increasing their sensitivity to heat stress. The weakening effect was also supported by reduced metabolic activity, as detected by Alarmar Blue fluorescent dye assays. Spores incubated with SPAF at 1 mg/ml showed DNA fragmentation in some of their nuclei, as observed by TUNEL assay. In addition, these spores exhibited changes in ultrastructural morphology (i.e., shrinkage of germ tubes, nucleus deformation, and vacuole formation) which are hallmarks of programmed cell death. We suggest that induction of spore germination under starvation conditions increases their susceptibility to stress and, therefore, might be considered a new strategy for pathogen control.

  1. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, α-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food.

  2. Rhizopus arrhizus and Fusarium solani Concomitant Infection in an Immunocompromised Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Júnior, João N; Ibrahim, Karim Y; Del Negro, Gilda M B; Bezerra, Evandro D; Duarte Neto, Amaro N; Batista, Marjorie V; Siciliano, Rinaldo F; Giudice, Mauro C; Motta, Adriana L; Rossi, Flávia; Pierrotti, Ligia C; Freire, Maristela P; Bellesso, Marcelo; Pereira, Juliana; Abdala, Edson; Benard, Gil

    2016-02-01

    Neutropenic patients are at risk of the development of hyalohyphomycosis and mucormycosis. Correct identification is essential for the initiation of the specific treatment, but concomitant mold infections are rarely reported. We report one unprecedented case of concomitant mucormycosis and fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with acute myeloid leukemia. The patient developed rhino-orbital infection by Rhizopus arrhizus and disseminated infection by Fusarium solani. The first culture from a sinus biopsy grew Rhizopus, which was consistent with the histopathology report of mucormycosis. A second sinus biopsy collected later during the patient's clinical deterioration was reported as hyalohyphomycosis, and the culture yielded F. solani. Due to the discordant reports, the second biopsy was reviewed and two hyphae types suggestive of both hyalohyphomycetes and mucormycetes were found. The dual mold infection was confirmed by PCR assays from paraffinized tissue sections. Increased awareness of the existence of dual mold infections in at-risk patients is necessary. PCR methods in tissue sections may increase the diagnosis of dual mold infections. In case of sequential biopsies showing discrepant results, mixed infections have to be suspected.

  3. Wooden sticks as the source of a pseudoepidemic of infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis among immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, P E; Voss, A; Donnelly, J P; de Pauw, B E; Meis, J F

    1997-09-01

    Wooden sticks used to suspend feces obtained for surveillance cultures were found to be the source of Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis causing a pseudo-outbreak among 17 immunocompromised patients cared for in three different wards. Nonsterile wooden products should therefore not be used for collecting, handling, and processing specimens for microbiological examination.

  4. Wooden sticks as the source of a pseudoepidemic of infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis among immunocompromised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, P.E.; Voss, A.; Donnelly, J P; de Pauw, B E; Meis, J. F. G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Wooden sticks used to suspend feces obtained for surveillance cultures were found to be the source of Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis causing a pseudo-outbreak among 17 immunocompromised patients cared for in three different wards. Nonsterile wooden products should therefore not be used for collecting, handling, and processing specimens for microbiological examination.

  5. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Ayla [University of Mersin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 33343 Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: ayozer@mersin.edu.tr; Akkaya, Goenuel [University of Mersin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 33343 Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey); Turabik, Meral [University of Mersin, Higher Vocational School of Mersin, Chemical Prog., Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey)

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  6. Cunninghamella bertholletiae exhibits increased resistance to human neutrophils with or without antifungal agents as compared to Rhizopus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Georgiadou, Elpiniki; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2010-08-01

    Among Zygomycetes, Cunninghamella bertholletiae occurs less frequently as the etiologic agent of human disease but causes more aggressive, refractory, and fatal infections despite antifungal therapy. Little is known about the differential innate host response against Cunninghamella and other Zygomycetes in the presence of antifungal agents. We therefore studied the activity of human neutrophils (PMNs) alone or in combination with caspofungin, posaconazole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC) against hyphae of Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus and C. bertholletiae. Hyphal damage was measured by XTT metabolic assay and release of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha from PMNs by ELISA. Cunninghamella bertholletiae was more resistant to PMN-induced hyphal damage than either Rhizopus spp. at effector:target (E:T) ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 (P Rhizopus spp. (P < 0.01). No IL-6 was released from PMNs exposed to the three Zygomycetes. In comparison to R. oryzae and R. microsporus, C. bertholletiae is more resistant to PMN-induced hyphal damage with or without antifungal therapy and is more capable of suppressing release of IL-8.

  7. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  8. Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae: Effects of overexpressing pyc and pepc genes on fumaric acid biosynthesis from glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid used as a food acidulant and in manufacturing synthetic resins, can be produced from glucose in fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. However, the fumaric acid yield is limited by the co-production of ethanol and other byproducts. To increase fumaric acid production, ove...

  9. Kinetic properties of two Rhizopus exo-polygalacturonase enzymes hydrolyzing galacturonic acid oligomers using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic characteristics of two Rhizopus oryzae exo-polygalacturonases acting on galacturonic acid oligomers (GalpA) were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). RPG15 hydrolyzing (GalpA)2 demonstrated a Km of 55 uM and kcat of 10.3 s^-1^ while RPG16 was shown to have greater af...

  10. Catalytic properties of two Rhizopus oryzae 99-880 glucoamylase enzymes without starch binding domains expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic properties of the two glucoamylases, AmyC and AmyD, without starch binding domains from Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 were heterologously expressed and purified to homogeneity. AmyC and AmyD demonstrate pH optima of 5.5 and 6.0, respectively, nearly 1 unit higher than most fungal glucoamy...

  11. Development of a system for integrative and stable transformation of the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae by Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Salim, K.; Ragas, P.; Ram, A.F.J.; Kudla, B.; Jarry, B.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    Two transformation systems, based on the use of CaCl2/PEG and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, respectively, were developed for the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae. Irrespective of the selection marker used, a pyr4 marker derived from R. niveus or a dominant amdS+ marker from Aspergillus nidulans, and irrespec

  12. Tailor-made TALEN system for highly efficient targeted gene replacement in the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazoe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Miyoshi, Kennosuke; Yamato, Tohru; Ohsato, Shuichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Arie, Tsutomu; Kuwata, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Genetic manipulation is key to unraveling gene functions and creating genetically modified strains of microbial organisms. Recently, engineered nucleases that can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a specific site in the desired locus within genome are utilized in a rapidly developing genome editing technology via DSBs repair. However, the use of engineered nucleases in filamentous fungi has not been validated. In this study, we demonstrated that tailor-made transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) system, Platinum-Fungal TALENs (PtFg TALENs), could improve the efficiency of homologous recombination-mediated targeted gene replacement by up to 100% in the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. This high-efficiency PtFg TALEN has great potential for basic and applied biological applications in filamentous fungi.

  13. 钠、钾离子对米根霉SOI106-3 L-乳酸发酵中菌体形态及产酸的影响%EFFECT OF Na+ AND K+ ON MORPHOLOGY AND L-LACTIC ACID PRODUCTIVITY OF Rhizopus oryzae SOI106-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冬梅; 代海霞; 班睿; 赵学明; 胡宗定

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION L-lactic acid and its salts are being widely used in the food and Pharmaceutical industries. In particular, lactic acid can be used in the formation of polylactic acid (PLA), a new biodegradable plastic, which will solve one of the world-wide environmental problems, abandoning of waste plastic. Rhizopus oryzae is known to be outstanding in producing optically pure L-lactic acid with low nutritional requirement. Similar to many other mycelial fungal species, Rhizopus cultures are morphology complex. They can grow as extended filamentous form, mycelial mats, mycelial pellets or clumps. Different morphology growth forms can have a significant effect on the rheology of the fermentation broth that will affect O2 transfer and the productivity of strain. In this report, the relationship among the ratio Na+ to K+ in medium, the morphology of the mycelial growth and lactic acid production were studied. We also compared the lactic acid productivity of optimal pellet form with immobilized cells by polyurethane foam.

  14. The septin AspB in Aspergillus nidulans forms bars and filaments and plays roles in growth emergence and conidiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Yainitza; Hastings, Susan; Momany, Michelle

    2012-03-01

    In yeast, septins form rings at the mother-bud neck and function as diffusion barriers. In animals, septins form filaments that can colocalize with other cytoskeletal elements. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans there are five septin genes, aspA (an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC11), aspB (an ortholog of S. cerevisiae CDC3), aspC (an ortholog of S. cerevisiae CDC12), aspD (an ortholog of S. cerevisiae CDC10), and aspE (found only in filamentous fungi). The aspB gene was previously reported to be the most highly expressed Aspergillus nidulans septin and to be essential. Using improved gene targeting techniques, we found that deletion of aspB is not lethal but results in delayed septation, increased emergence of germ tubes and branches, and greatly reduced conidiation. We also found that AspB-green fluorescent protein (GFP) localizes as rings and collars at septa, branches, and emerging layers of the conidiophore and as bars and filaments in conidia and hyphae. Bars are found in dormant and isotropically expanding conidia and in subapical nongrowing regions of hyphae and display fast movements. Filaments form as the germ tube emerges, localize to hyphal and branch tips, and display slower movements. All visible AspB-GFP structures are retained in ΔaspD and lost in ΔaspA and ΔaspC strains. Interestingly, in the ΔaspE mutant, AspB-GFP rings, bars, and filaments are visible in early growth, but AspB-GFP rods and filaments disappear after septum formation. AspE orthologs are only found in filamentous fungi, suggesting that this class of septins might be required for stability of septin bars and filaments in highly polar cells.

  15. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  16. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  17. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  18. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Militello, F; Omotani, J T

    2016-01-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the filament has a significant temperature perturbation compared to its density perturbation: They lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  19. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Easy, L.; Militello, F.; Omotani, J. T.

    2016-11-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the pressure perturbation within the filament is supported primarily through a temperature increase as opposed to density: they lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  20. Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen that requires a specific structure called infective filament to penetrate the plant tissue. Although able to grow, this filament is cell cycle arrested on the plant surface. This cell cycle arrest is released once the filament penetrates the plant tissue. The reasons and mechanisms for this cell cycle arrest are unknown. Here, we have tried to address these questions. We reached three conclusions from our studies. First, the observed cell cycle arrest is the result of the cooperation of at least two distinct mechanisms: one involving the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) cascade; and the other relying on the transcriptional downregulation of Hsl1, a kinase that modulates the G2/M transition. Second, a sustained cell cycle arrest during the infective filament step is necessary for the virulence in U. maydis, as a strain unable to arrest the cell cycle was severely impaired in its ability to infect corn plants. Third, production of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, is incompatible with an active cell cycle. The inability to infect plants by strains defective in cell cycle arrest seems to be caused by their failure to induce the appressorium formation process. In summary, our findings uncover genetic circuits to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on the plant surface, thus allowing the penetration into plant tissue.

  1. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...... in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen...... limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes...

  2. A CRISPR-Cas9 System for Genetic Engineering of Filamentous Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Kogle, Martin Engelhard

    2015-01-01

    there is a demand for developing versatile methods that can be used to genetically manipulate non-model filamentous fungi. To facilitate this, we have developed a CRISPR-Cas9 based system adapted for use in filamentous fungi. The system is simple and versatile, as RNA guided mutagenesis can be achieved...... by transforming a target fungus with a single plasmid. The system currently contains four CRISPR- Cas9 vectors, which are equipped with commonly used fungal markers allowing for selection in a broad range of fungi. Moreover, we have developed a script that allows identification of protospacers that target gene...... used our CRISPR Cas9 system to generate a strain that contains an AACU_pyrG marker and demonstrated that the resulting strain can be used for iterative gene targeting....

  3. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  4. Force-induced dynamical properties of multiple cytoskeletal filaments are distinct from that of single filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Dipjyoti; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-01-01

    How cytoskeletal filaments collectively undergo growth and shrinkage is an intriguing question. Collective properties of multiple bio-filaments (actin or microtubules) undergoing hydrolysis, have not been studied extensively earlier, within simple theoretical frameworks. In this paper, we show that collective properties of multiple filaments under force are very distinct from the properties of a single filament under similar conditions -- these distinctions manifest as follows: (i) the collapse time during collective catastrophe for a multifilament system is much larger than that of a single filament with the same average length, (ii) force-dependence of the cap-size distribution of multiple filaments are quantitatively different from that of single filament, (iii) the diffusion constant associated with the system length fluctuations is distinct for multiple filaments, (iv) switching dynamics of multiple filaments between capped and uncapped states and the fluctuations therein are also distinct. We build a un...

  5. Grafting as a method for studying development in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    While grafting and transplant experiments have extensively been used to study development in animals and plants, they have seldom been employed to study fungal development. Here, grafting is used to study the interplay between mycelium and multicellular fruiting bodies during maturation in the model ascomycete Podospora anserina. Data indicate that grafts need a competent mycelium to continue their ripening. Vegetative incompatibility does not prevent transplanted fructifications to undergo development. Grafting onto mutant mycelia confirmed a previous model stating that the NADPH oxidase PaNox1 is required in the developing fruiting bodies, while the MAP kinase cascade PaMpk1 is required in the mycelium. Data also show that the IDC1 protein is required not only in the developing fruiting bodies but also in the mycelium, likely because of its role in anastomosis. Finally, entry inside the grafted fruiting bodies of a ribosomal protein tagged with GFP could be detected, suggesting that cellular components are imported from the underlying mycelium during maturation.

  6. Reducing fitness costs associated with antibiotic resistance: experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoustra, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s saw the growth of two distinct strands of debates on the transformations and emerging problems besetting the urban space. One of these has focused on the relationship between globalisation and the similar changes metropolitan cities are undergoing, as they become home to numerous global ec

  7. Can hTNF-alpha be successfully produced and secreted in filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasevec, N.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Komel, R.

    2000-01-01

    A gene-fusion expression strategy was applied for the heterologous expression of hTNF-α in A. niger AB1.13. The TNF-α gene was fused with the A. niger glucoamylase GII form as a carrier-gene, behind its transcription control and secretion signal. The protein was expressed in the cells in the form of

  8. Structural features of sugars that trigger or support conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2013-11-01

    The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germination, we distinguish two distinct stages, the initial swelling of the conidium and subsequent polarized growth. The stage of conidial swelling requires a germination trigger, which we define as a compound that is sensed by the conidium and which leads to catabolism of d-trehalose and isotropic growth. Sugars that triggered germination and outgrowth included d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-xylose. Sugars that triggered germination but did not support subsequent outgrowth included d-tagatose, d-lyxose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Nontriggering sugars included d-galactose, l-glucose, and d-arabinose. Certain nontriggering sugars, including d-galactose, supported outgrowth if added in the presence of a complementary triggering sugar. This division of functions indicates that sugars are involved in two separate events in germination, triggering and subsequent outgrowth, and the structural features of sugars that support each, both, or none of these events are discussed. We also present data on the uptake of sugars during the germination process and discuss possible mechanisms of triggering in the absence of apparent sugar uptake during the initial swelling of conidia.

  9. Direct fermentation of cellulose to ethanol by a cellulolytic filamentous fungus, monilia sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, C.S.; Maun, C.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Monilia, isolated from bagasse compost, utilized many polysaccharides (including cellulose) and displayed cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Monilia also fermented glucose, xylose, and cellulosic materials to ethanol. Over 60% of the solid cellulose substrate added to Monilia cultures was converted to ethanol as the major fermentation product. Thus, Monilia is a potential organism for the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol.

  10. A Sandwiched-Culture Technique for Evaluation of Heterologous Protein Production in a Filamentous Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Sigrídur A.; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Wessels, Joseph G. H.

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is known for its efficient excretion machinery. However, problems have often arisen in obtaining high amounts of heterologous proteins in the culture medium. Here we present a quick method using sandwiched colonies to evaluate transgenic strains for secretion of heterologous proteins. Expressing the ABH1 hydrophobin of Agaricus bisporus in A. niger, we showed that low production levels of the heterologous protein are probably due to extracellular proteolytic degradation of the protein. PMID:10224030

  11. A sandwiched-culture technique for evaluation of heterologous protein production in a filamentous fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgeirsdottir, SA; Scholtmeijer, K; Wessels, JGH

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is known for its efficient excretion machinery. However, problems have often arisen in obtaining high amounts of heterologous proteins in the culture medium. Here we present a quick method using sandwiched colonies to evaluate transgenic strains for secretion of heterologous protei

  12. Citrinin derivatives from the soil filamentous fungus Penicillium sp. H9318

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangmin, Yao [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Tongji Medical College. Hubei Key Lab. of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resources Evaluation; Sebisubi, Fred Musoke [Ministry of Health, Kampala (Uganda). Div. of Pharmaceutical Services; Voo, Lok Yung Christopher; Ho, Coy Choke [University Malaysia Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia). School of Science and Technology. Biotechnology Program; Tan, Ghee Teng; Chang, Leng Chee, E-mail: lengchee@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii Hilo, Hilo (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    2011-07-01

    Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Penicillium sp. H9318 led to the isolation of a new isoquinolinone alkaloid, (5S)-3,4,5,7-tetramethyl-5,8-dihydroxyl-6(5H)- isoquinolinone (1), along with four known citrinin derivatives (2-5). Citrinin (2) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against Streptomyces 85E in the hyphae formation inhibition (HFI) assay, while compounds 1, 3-5 were not active when tested at 20 {mu}g/disk in the HFI assay. Citrinin (2) further demonstrated a weak inhibitory activity against MCF-7 (IC{sub 50} 71.93 {mu}mol L{sup -1}), LNCaP (IC{sub 50} 77.92 {mu}mol L{sup -1}), LU-1 (147.85 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) and KB (IC{sub 50} 65.93 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) cell lines, respectively, in the cytotoxicity assay. (author)

  13. Frequency and Distribution of Microsatellites in the Genome of Filamentous Fungus, Neurospora crassa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-yun; LI Jin-bin; ZHOU Xiao-gang; ZHANG Shao-song; XU Ming-hui

    2005-01-01

    A total of 38.0 Mb of publicly available DNA sequence in Neurospora crassa was researched for mono- to hexanucleotide simple sequence repeats (SSR or microsatellite) to determine the type, size and frequency. A total of 14 788 SSRs were observed in the whole genomic DNA sequence, about one every 2.57 kb, with the criteria of SSR length >15 bp and 80%matches. The most abundant microsatellite was trinucleotide repeat, the number was 4 729, followed by hexanucleotide and mononucleotide repeats, the numbers were 2 940 and 2 489 respectively, and the least abundance was dinucleotide repeat, only 691 were found. Among the 10 082 ORFs, 4 094 SSRs were harbored in 2 373 ORF (no intron) of the organism.One thousand and fifty six ORFs harbored only one SSR. Similar with other organisms, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were predominant in ORFs, 54.1 and 48.8% oftri- and hexanucleotide repeats were distributed in ORF region. The density of these two motifs was overpresented in coding regions, because ORF region and coding region constitutes only 46 and 38.3% of genomic sequence, respectively. Upstream and downstream 300 bp of regulatory regions were high density regions of SSRs, particularly density of pentanucleotide SSR in upstream region was as high as five times of average density in genomic DNA, density of di- and tetranucleotide SSR was also more than two times of average density. The density of penta-, tetra-, di- and mononucleotide SSRs was relatively higher than average density. There were 47 SSRs in mitochondria 64 840 bp DNA sequence, their distribution is similar with genomic DNA sequence. These results suggested that SSRs were clustered in regulatory regions of genomic DNA.

  14. Reducing fitness costs associated with antibiotic resistance: experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoustra, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s saw the growth of two distinct strands of debates on the transformations and emerging problems besetting the urban space. One of these has focused on the relationship between globalisation and the similar changes metropolitan cities are undergoing, as they become home to numerous global

  15. Growth inhibition of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans by cadmium: an antioxidant enzyme approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Andrea; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Lea, Peter J; Molina, Silvia M G

    2003-04-01

    The heavy metal cadmium is very toxic to biological systems. Although its effect on the growth of microorganisms and plants has been investigated, the response of antioxidant enzymes of Aspergillus nidulans to cadmium is not well documented. We have studied the effect of cadmium (supplied as CdCl(2)) on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). 0.005 mM CdCl(2) had a very slight stimulatory effect on the growth rate of A. nidulans, but at concentrations above 0.025 mM, growth was totally inhibited. The accumulation of Cd within the mycelium was directly correlated with the increase in the concentration of CdC(2) used in the treatments. Although a cadmium-stimulated increase in SOD activity was observed, there was no change in the relative proportions of the individual Mn-SOD isoenzymes. Higher concentrations of CdCl(2) induced a small increase in total CAT activity, but there was a major increase in one isoenzymic form, that could be separated by gel electrophoresis. GR activity increased significantly following treatment with the highest concentration (0.05 mM) of CdCl(2). The increases in SOD, CAT, and GR activities suggest that CdCl(2) induces the formation of reactive oxygen species inside the mycelia of A. nidulans.

  16. Tributyltin (TBT) induces oxidative stress and modifies lipid profile in the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Gajewska, Ewa; Szewczyk, Rafał; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the response of the tributyltin-degrading fungal strain Cunninghamella elegans to the organotin, a comparative lipidomics strategy was employed using an LC/MS-MS technique. A total of 49 lipid species were identified. Individual phospholipids were then quantified using a multiple reaction monitoring method. Tributyltin (TBT) caused a decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. In the presence of TBT, it was observed that overall unsaturation was lower than in the control. Lipidome data were analyzed using principal component analysis, which confirmed the compositional changes in membrane lipids in response to TBT. Additionally, treatment of fungal biomass with butyltin led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. It is suggested that modification of the phospholipids profile and lipids peroxidation may reflect damage to mycelium caused by TBT.

  17. An aspartic proteinase gene family in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea contains members with novel features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Dekkers, E.; Kay, J.; Phylip, L.H.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea, an important fungal plant pathogen, secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity in axenic cultures. No cysteine, serine or metalloproteinase activity could be detected. Proteinase activity was higher in culture medium containing BSA or wheat germ extract, as compared to minimal medi

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually...... reproducing ascomycete Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a well-defined sexual cycle, in which diploid cells can undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores in response to nutrient starvation. The diploid state is a requirement for meiosis and results from fusion of two haploid cells of the opposite mating type...... negatively instead of controlling mating. In line with this, a mating partner might not be required since the multinucleate compartments could still enable nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and meiosis. The presence of karyogamy is supported by our results that deletion of the A. gossypii homologs Kar3 and Kar4...

  19. Mutations affecting mitotic recombination frequency in haploids and diploids of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Y; Parag, G

    1975-01-01

    A haploid strain of Asp. nidulans with a chromosome segment in duplicate (one in normal position on chromosome I, one translocated to chromosome II) shows mitotic recombination, mostly by conversion, in adE in a frequency slightly higher than in the equivalent diploid. A method has been devised, using this duplication, for the selection of rec and uvs mutations. Six rec mutations have been found which decrease recombination frequency in the haploid. One mutation selected as UV sensitive showed a hundred fold increase in recombination frequency in the haploid (pop mutation) and probably the same in diploids. The increased frequency is both in gene conversion and in crossing over, and the exchanges appear in clusters of two or more. pop is allelic to uvsB (Jansen, 1970) which had been found to affect mitotic but not meiotic recombination. It is suggested that mutations of this type interfere with the control mechanism which determines that high recombination is confirmed to the meiotic nuclei and avoided in somatic nuclei.

  20. Divergent adaptation promotes reproductive isolation among experimental populations of the filamentous fungus Neurospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson James B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An open, focal issue in evolutionary biology is how reproductive isolation and speciation are initiated; elucidation of mechanisms with empirical evidence has lagged behind theory. Under ecological speciation, reproductive isolation between populations is predicted to evolve incidentally as a by-product of adaptation to divergent environments. The increased genetic diversity associated with interspecific hybridization has also been theorized to promote the development of reproductive isolation among independent populations. Using the fungal model Neurospora, we founded experimental lineages from both intra- and interspecific crosses, and evolved them in one of two sub-optimal, selective environments. We then measured the influence that initial genetic diversity and the direction of selection (parallel versus divergent had on the evolution of reproductive isolation. Results When assayed in the selective environment in which they were evolved, lineages typically had greater asexual fitness than the progenitors and the lineages that were evolved in the alternate, selective environment. Assays for reproductive isolation showed that matings between lineages that were adapted to the same environment had greater sexual reproductive success than matings between lineages that were adapted to different environments. Evidence of this differential reproductive success was observed at two stages of the sexual cycle. For one of the two observed incompatibility phenotypes, results from genetic analyses were consistent with a two-locus, two-allele model with asymmetric (gender-specific, antagonistic epistasis. The effects of divergent adaptation on reproductive isolation were more pronounced for populations with greater initial genetic variation. Conclusion Divergent selection resulted in divergent adaptation and environmental specialization, consistent with fixation of different alleles in different environments. When brought together by mating, these alleles interacted negatively and had detrimental effects on sexual reproductive success, in agreement with the Dobzhansky-Muller model of genetic incompatibilities. As predicted by ecological speciation, greater reproductive isolation was observed among divergent-adapted lineages than among parallel-adapted lineages. These results support that, given adequate standing genetic variation, divergent adaptation can indirectly cause the evolution of reproductive isolation, and eventually lead to speciation.

  1. Reducing fitness costs associated with antibiotic resistance: experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoustra, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s saw the growth of two distinct strands of debates on the transformations and emerging problems besetting the urban space. One of these has focused on the relationship between globalisation and the similar changes metropolitan cities are undergoing, as they become home to numerous global ec

  2. Mutations affecting extracellular protease production in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M E; Flynn, P K; vanKuyk, P A; Cheetham, B F

    1996-04-10

    The extracellular proteases of Aspergillus nidulans are known to be regulated by carbon, nitrogen and sulphur metabolite repression. In this study, a mutant with reduced levels of extracellular protease was isolated by screening for loss of halo production on milk plates. Genetic analysis of the mutant showed that it contains a single, recessive mutation, in a gene which we have designated xprE, located on chromosome VI. The xprE1 mutation affected the production of extracellular proteases in response to carbon, nitrogen and, to a lesser extent, sulphur limitation. Three reversion mutations, xprF1, xprF2 and xprG1, which suppress xprE1, were characterised. Both xprF and xprG map to chromosome VII but the two genes are unlinked. The xprF1, xprF2 and xprG1 mutants showed high levels of milk-clearing activity on medium containing milk as a carbon source but reduced growth on a number of nitrogen sources. Evidence is presented that the xprE1 and xprG1 mutations alter expression of more than one protease and affect levels of alkaline protease gene mRNA.

  3. Assessment of the microbody luminal pH in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, Ted R. van der; Breeuwer, Pieter; Abee, Tjakko; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The enzymes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium chrysogenum are located in different subcellular compartments. Consequently, penicillin pathway precursors and the biologically active penicillins have to cross one or more membranes. The final enzymatic step that is mediated by acylt

  4. Calorie restriction causes healthy life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Maas, M.F.P.M.; Huberts, D.H.E.W.; Goedbloed, D.J.; Engelmoer, D.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Krause, F.; Dencher, N.A.; Sellem, C.H.; Sainsard-Chanet, A.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although most fungi appear to be immortal, some show systemic senescence within a distinct time frame. Podospora anserina for example shows an irreversible growth arrest within weeks of culturing associated with a destabilization of the mitochondrial genome. Here, we show that calorie restriction (C

  5. Gambaran Biokimia dan Leukosit Darah Ayam Kampung Umur 25 Hari yang Diberi Probiotik Fungi Rhizopus oryzae (BIOCHEMICAL AND BLOOD LEUKOCYTES DESCRIPTIONS OF 25 DAYS AGE OF KAMPONG CHICKEN FEEDWITH FUNGI Rhizopusoryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isroli Isroli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of fungusprobiotic Rhizopus oryzae on the serum biochemical and leukocytes profile of 25 days old Kampong chicken.A total of 100 day-old chicks weight 39.65 ± 1.46 g were randomly allotted into 20 plots of enclosure. Allchickens received feed containing 20.54% crude protein, metabolism energi of 2913 kcal/kg ad libitum.Acompletely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments and five replicates, each replicate of 5chicken was applied. The treatments were: supplementation of fungus probiotic R.oryzae in thediets (atthe levels of 0% (T0, 0.2% (T1, 0.4% (T2 and 0.6% (T3, respectively. The treatment diets were givenatdays 1, 7, 14 and 21, respectively. Parameters measured includingblood biochemistry (uric acid, totalprotein, albumin and globulin and leukocyte profile (total leukocytes and its differentials. Results showedthat dietary supplementation of probiotics R. oryzae had no effect on the parameters observed, except forthe percentage of eosinophils. It can be concluded that the administration of R. oryzae in the ration ateveryseven days intervals failed to improve the physiological condition of the Kampong chickens.

  6. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF. In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source.

  7. A CRISPR-Cas9 System for Genetic Engineering of Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nødvig, Christina S; Nielsen, Jakob B; Kogle, Martin E; Mortensen, Uffe H

    2015-01-01

    The number of fully sequenced fungal genomes is rapidly increasing. Since genetic tools are poorly developed for most filamentous fungi, it is currently difficult to employ genetic engineering for understanding the biology of these fungi and to fully exploit them industrially. For that reason there is a demand for developing versatile methods that can be used to genetically manipulate non-model filamentous fungi. To facilitate this, we have developed a CRISPR-Cas9 based system adapted for use in filamentous fungi. The system is simple and versatile, as RNA guided mutagenesis can be achieved by transforming a target fungus with a single plasmid. The system currently contains four CRISPR-Cas9 vectors, which are equipped with commonly used fungal markers allowing for selection in a broad range of fungi. Moreover, we have developed a script that allows identification of protospacers that target gene homologs in multiple species to facilitate introduction of common mutations in different filamentous fungi. With these tools we have performed RNA-guided mutagenesis in six species of which one has not previously been genetically engineered. Moreover, for a wild-type Aspergillus aculeatus strain, we have used our CRISPR Cas9 system to generate a strain that contains an AACU_pyrG marker and demonstrated that the resulting strain can be used for iterative gene targeting.

  8. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  9. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  10. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  11. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  12. Cloning and heterologous expression of the antibiotic peptide (ABP) genes from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Tominaga, Mihoko; Nakayama, Tasuku; Koseki, Takuya; Fujita, Akiko; Akita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We carried out protein sequencing of purified Antibiotic Peptide (ABP), and cloned two genes encoding this peptide as abp1 and abp2, from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631. Both genes contain an almost identical 231-bp segment, with only 3 nucleotide substitutions, encoding a 77 amino acid peptide. The abp gene product comprises a 28 amino acid signal sequence and a 49 amino acid mature peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that at least one of the abp genes is transcribed in R. oligosporus NBRC 8631. A truncated form of abp1 encoding only the mature peptide was fused with the alpha-factor signal peptide and engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. Culture broth of the recombinant Pichia displayed ABP activity against Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 after induction of heterologous gene expression. This result indicates that mature ABP formed the active structure without the aid of other factors from R. oligosporus, and was secreted.

  13. KAJIAN PENGARUH KONSENTRASI Rhizopus sp. SEBAGAI AGEN PENGIKIS PROTEIN TERHADAP MUTU KULIT IKAN GURAMI TERSAMAK

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    Ratri Nur Hayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the effect of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. as a bating agent on the tanned carp leather quality, and their use for commercial leather products. The study was designed with a completely randomized design with four treatment, namely: the concentration of protease from Rhizopus sp. 0.5% (a1, 1.0% (a2, 1.5% (a3 and palkobat 1.0% (a4/control with 3 replications. Parameters were observed that is (1 protease activity of Rhizopus sp and palcobat; (2 Thickness (mm, tensile strength (N/cm2, tear strength (N/cm, elongation (%, enervation (mm, shrinkage temperature (ºC, fat/oil content (% of tanned leather; and (3 level of consumer acceptance (% and added valuead of comercial leather product. The data of tanned leather quality is then compared with SNI 06-4586-1998 concenring freshwater snake skin leather and chrome Burk’s Bay (1996 on the raw material quality leather products. The test results of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. = 7.97 mg/50mg/ jam and palkobat = 13.62 mg/50 mg/hour. The results of the analysis of tanned leather carp qulity sample from each treatment and comparison with the SNI as follows: (1 Thickness: 0.41 (a1, 0.38 (a2, 0.43 (a3, 0.41mm (a4 and ≥ 0.22 (SNI 06-4586-1998. Tensile strength: 1682.67; 1818.17; 1195.57; 1670.55 and 1,000N/cm2 (SNI. Tear strength: 314.87; 310.95; 332.06; 462.22, and 150.00 N/cm (SNI. Elongation: 93.33; 62.67; 56.67; 97.33, and <30.00% (SNI. Enervation: 1.87; 2.20; 1.63, 2.49, and ≥ 2.0 mm (Burk’s Bay, 1996. Shrinkage temperature: 74.00; 95.33; 96.33; 97.33, and ≥ 70.33ºC (SNI. The fat/oil content: 7.84; 8.17; 5.25; 8.49, and 2.00 to 6.00% (SNI. All treatments were tested has met the SNI quality, except elongation and fat/oil content. The level of consumer acceptance of the Oval HP Cover that is (1 aspects of the display (76.67% like and 23.33% dislike, (2 the use of convenience (66.67% like and 33.33% dislike , and (3 price (63.33% accepted and 23.67 reject. The

  14. Antihepatotoxic effect of isolated chitin from Rhizopus oryzae against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Ramanathan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the antihepatotoxic activity of isolated fungal chitin, a natural polysaccharide from Rhizopus oryzae NCIM1009 against paracetamol-induced toxicity in rats. Changes in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic injury such as serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyuruvic transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total protein were determined in both treated and control group of rats. The effect of fungal chitin was compared with that of silymarin (25 mg/kg. The results showed that paracetamol (750 mg/kg elevated the levels of biomarkers enzymes. Treatment with fungal chitin (200 mg/kg brought the marker level near to normal and showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Acute toxicity studies of fungal chitin was carried out and found safe up to 2,000 mg/kg. The isolated fungal chitin was characterized by IR spectroscopy and compared with commercial chitin.

  15. Expression and characterization of recombinant Rhizopus oryzae lipase for enzymatic biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilin; Li, Xun; Wang, Ye; Wang, Youdong; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Jianchun

    2011-10-01

    The Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant lipase subunit showed a molecular mass of 32 kDa. The maximum activity of recombinant lipase obtained from Mut(s) recombinant was 90 IU/ml. The enzyme was stable in broad ranges of temperatures and pH, with the optimal temperature at 35 °C and pH 7.0. The crude recombinant R. oryzae lipase can be directly used for the transesterification of plant oils at high-water content of 60-100% (w/w) based on oil weight. The addition of 80% water to the transesterification systems resulted in the yield of methyl ester of 95%, 94% and 92% after 72 h using soybean oil, Jatropha curcas seed raw oil and Pistacia chinensis seed raw oil as raw material, respectively. These results indicate that the recombinant lipase is an effective biocatalyst for enzymatic biodiesel production.

  16. Production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase from Pichia pastoris using alternative operational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surribas, Anna; Stahn, Rainer; Montesinos, José Luis; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Valero, Francisco; Jahic, Mehmedalija

    2007-06-30

    Different cultivation strategies have been compared for the production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) from Pichia pastoris. Several drawbacks have been found using a methanol non-limited fed-batch. On the one hand, oxygen limitation appeared at early cell dry weights and, on the other hand, high cell death was observed. A temperature limited fed-batch has been proposed to solve both problems. However, in our case study a methanol non-limited fed-batch results in better productivities. Finally, a lower salt medium were used to overcome cell death problems and a temperature limited fed-batch was applied thereafter to solve oxygen transfer limitations. This combined strategy has resulted in lower productivities when compared to a methanol non-limited fed-batch. However the culture could be longer prolonged and a 1.3-fold purer final product was obtained mainly due to cell death reduction.

  17. Efficient regioselective acylation of quercetin using Rhizopus oryzae lipase and its potential as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Jahan, Firdaus; Mahajan, Richi V; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation describes the regioselective enzymatic acylation of quercetin with ferulic acid using Rhizopus oryzae lipase. Optimization of reaction parameters resulted in 93.2% yield of the ester synthesized using 750IU of lipase in cyclo-octane at a temperature of 45°C. The reaction was successfully carried out upto 25g scale. The ester synthesized was analyzed by (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The ester synthesized (quercetin ferulate) showed higher antiradical activity as compared to ascorbic acid using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. These results on enzyme-catalyzed acylation of quercetin might be used to prepare and scale-up other flavonoids derivatives.

  18. Biotransformations of Imbricatolic Acid by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus nigricans Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Theoduloz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial transformation of imbricatolic acid (1 by Aspergillus niger afforded 1α-hydroxyimbricatolic acid (2, while transformation with Rhizopus nigricans yielded 15-hydroxy-8,17-epoxylabdan-19-oic acid (3. When the diterpene 1 was added to a Cunninghamella echinulata culture, the main products were the microbial metabolites mycophenolic acid (4 and its 3-hydroxy derivative 5. All the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The cytotoxicity of these compounds towards human lung fibroblasts and AGS cells was assessed. While 4 and 5 showed low cytotoxicity, with IC50 values > 1000 μM against AGS cells and fibroblasts, 1α-hydroxyimbricatolic acid (2 presented moderate toxicity towards these targets, with IC50 values of 307 and 631 μM, respectively. The structure of 2 is presented for the first time.

  19. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  20. Asymmetric Bioconversion of Acetophenone in Nano-Sized Emulsion Using Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingzhi; Shi, Yang; He, Le; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The fungal morphologies and pellet sizes were controlled in acetophenone reduction by Rhizopus oryzae. The acetophenone conversion and (S)-phenylethanol enantiomeric excesses (e.e.) reached the peak after 72 h of incubation when using pellets with 0.54 mm diameter, which showed an excellent performance compared with suspended mycelia, clumps, and pellets with 0.65 or 0.75 mm diameter. Furthermore, nano-sized acetophenone was used as a substrate to improve the performances of biotransformation work. The results showed that the conversion of nanometric acetophenone and (S)-phenylethanol e.e. reached the maximum (both >99%) after 32 h of incubation when using 0.54 mm diameter pellets, at least 24 h in advance of the control group. On the other hand, Tween 80 and 1, 2-propylene glycol showed low or no toxicity to cells. In conclusion, pellets and acetophenone nanoemulsions synergistically result in superior performances of acetophenone reduction.

  1. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation.

  2. Generation of a Functionally Distinct Rhizopus oryzae Lipase through Protein Folding Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Atsushi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) has a propeptide at its N-terminus that functions as an intramolecular chaperone and facilitates the folding of mature ROL (mROL). In this study, we successfully generated a functionally distinct imprinted mROL (mROLimp) through protein folding memory using a mutated propeptide. The mutated propeptide left its structural memory on mROL and produced mROLimp that exhibited different substrate specificities compared with mROLWT (prepared from the wild type propeptide), although the amino acid sequences of both mROLs were the same. mROLimp showed a preference for substrates with medium chain-length acyl groups and, noticeably, recognized a peptidase-specific substrate. In addition, ROLimp was more stable than mROLWT. These results strongly suggest that proteins with identical amino acid sequences can fold into different conformations and that mutations in intramolecular chaperones can dynamically induce changes in enzymatic activity.

  3. The lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Prayudi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of peptone concentration (2,5% or 5%, inoculum concentration (0,1%, 0,5% or 1% and incubation period (0 – 96 hours, interval 12 hours on the lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6. Fermentation was done using the basal medium from Samad and the lipolytic activity on olive oil substrate was measured employing titration method with 0,05M NaOH. Lipolytic activity is expressed as unit/ml and one unit is defined as 1 Ωmol fatty acid liberated per minute. Results show that optimum lipolytic activity was obtained from 1 % inoculum, 5% peptone after 72 hours incubation period.

  4. Metabolic control analysis of L-lactate synthesis pathway in Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wei; Chang, Shu; Chen, Xiaoju; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Yang, Peizhou; Wu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the metabolic flux and the activities of the pyruvate branching enzymes of Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686 during L-lactate fermentation was investigated using the perturbation method of aeration. The control coefficients for five enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), were calculated. Our results indicated significant correlations between PDH and PC, PDC and LDH, PDC and ADH, LDH and ADH, and PDC and PC. It also appeared that PDH, PC, and LDH strongly controlled the L-lactate flux; PDH and ADH strongly controlled the ethanol flux; while PDH and PC strongly controlled the acetyl coenzyme A flux and the oxaloacetate flux. Further, the flux control coefficient curves indicated that the control of the system gradually transferred from PDC to PC during the steady state. Therefore, PC was the key rate-limiting enzyme that controls the flux distribution.

  5. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis from yeast oil using immobilized recombinant Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Susan Hartwig; Hernández, Gonzalo Lázaro del Peso; Canet, Albert; Benaiges, Maria Dolors; Maugeri, Francisco; Valero, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The recombinant Rhizopus oryzae lipase (1-3 positional selective), immobilized on Relizyme OD403, has been applied to the production of biodiesel using single cell oil from Candida sp. LEB-M3 growing on glycerol from biodiesel process. The composition of microbial oil is quite similar in terms of saponifiable lipids than olive oil, although with a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. The reaction was carried out in a solvent system, and n-hexane showed the best performance in terms of yield and easy recovery. The strategy selected for acyl acceptor addition was a stepwise methanol addition using crude and neutralized single cell oil, olive oil and oleic acid as substrates. A FAMEs yield of 40.6% was obtained with microbial oils lower than olive oil 54.3%. Finally in terms of stability, only a lost about 30% after 6 reutilizations were achieved.

  6. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2 of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4 and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA, with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  7. Secretion of pro- and mature Rhizopus arrhizus lipases by Pichia pastoris and properties of the proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei-ning; Li, Zhao-peng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-01-01

    The lipases of Rhizopus spp. share a high 1,3-regiospecificity toward triacylglycerols, which makes them important enzymes in lipid modification. In the present study, the extracellularly active production of recombinant Rhizopus arrhizuslipase was carried out with genes encoding the mature region (mRAL) and the mRAL having the prosequence (ProRAL) in Pichia pastoris. Two transformed P. pastoris clones containing the multicopy of mRAL and ProRAL genes were separately selected for the production of recombinant enzymes. In a fed-batch cultivation, where methanol feeding was controlled by an on-line methanol analyzer, the supernatant contained 91 mg/L recombinant pro-form lipase (rProRAL) and 80 mg/L recombinant mature lipase (rRAL) after 92 h of cultivation. rProRAL and rRAL were purified by ultrafiltration, SP-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography, and Butyl-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. Molecular weights of rProRAL and rRAL are 32 kDa and 29 kDa, respectively. The amino-terminal analysis showed that the 32-kDa protein was mRAL attached with 28 amino acids of the carboxy-terminal part of the prosequence (rPro28RAL). The specific lipase activities of mRAL attached with 28 amino acids of the carboxy-terminal part of the prosequence (rPro28RAL) and rRAL were 1543 U/mg and 2437 U/mg. The rPro28RAL was more stable than rRAL at pH 4.0-7.0, whereas rRAL was more stable at pH 7.0-10.0. The rPro28RAL had the highest lipase activity toward tributyrin (C4), whereas rRAL had the highest lipase activity toward tricaprylin (C8).

  8. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Gu, Xinzhe; Wang, Zhenjie; Huang, Yangmin; Wei, Yingying; Zhang, Miaomiao; Tu, Kang; Pan, Leiqing

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS). A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4) and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA), with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  9. Cloning and characterization of the first GH10 and GH11 xylanases from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhuang; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Lau, Peter C K

    2014-10-01

    The only available genome sequence for Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 was annotated to not encode any β-1,4-endoxylanase encoding genes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 or 11. Here, we report the identification and cloning of two such members in R. oryzae strain NRRL 29086. Strain 29086 was one of several selected fungi grown on wheat or triticale bran and screened for xylanase activity among other hydrolytic actions. Its high activity (138 U/ml) in the culture supernatant led to the identification of two activity-stained proteins, designated Xyn-1 and Xyn-2 of respective molecular masses 32,000 and 22,000. These proteins were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The specific activities of Xyn-1 and Xyn-2 towards birchwood xylan were 605 and 7,710 U/mg, respectively. Kinetic data showed that the lower molecular weight Xyn-2 had a higher affinity (K m=3.2 ± 0.2 g/l) towards birchwood xylan than Xyn-1 by about 4-fold. The melting temperature (T m) of the two proteins, estimated to be in the range of 49.5-53.7 °C indicated that they are rather thermostable proteins. N-terminal and internal peptide sequences were obtained by chemical digestion of the purified xylanases to facilitate cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and sequencing of the respective gene. The cloned Rhizopus xylanases were used to demonstrate release of xylose from flax shives-derived hemicellulose as model feedstock. Overall, this study expands the catalytic toolbox of GH10 and 11 family proteins that have applications in various industrial and bioproducts settings.

  10. Successful surgical and medical treatment of rhizopus osteomyelitis following hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Nikita; Avedian, Raffi; Brown, Janice; Arai, Sally

    2012-10-01

    Mucormycosis has been reported in otherwise healthy individuals; however, it is primarily seen in immunocompromised patients, such as those with diabetes mellitus, malignancy, or chronic graft-versus-host disease, and has a high mortality rate. Because most cases of mucormycosis are associated with contiguous rhinocerebral infection, only 5 cases of isolated musculoskeletal Rhizopus infection have been reported in the literature. One patient underwent hematopoietic cell transplant, which resulted in a fatal outcome.This article describes the successful treatment of isolated Rhizopus osteomyelitis in a patient who underwent hematopoietic cell transplant using a combined surgical and medical approach. A 33-year-old woman with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent hematopoietic cell transplant with few complications but developed chronic graft-versus-host disease 8 months posttransplant. She was treated with high-dose steroids for 6 weeks before she was admitted for severe right tibial pain in the absence of trauma. Early detection, aggressive therapies, and a multidisciplinary surgical and medical team allowed for the microbiologically confirmed resolution of the infection. Treatment included multiagent antimicrobial therapy with amphotericin B, daptomycin, and ertapenem. Several surgical irrigation and debridement procedures were also performed, with the eventual placement of amphotericin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate cement beads and small fragment titanium screws. The patient continued taking postoperative antifungal treatment for 7 months after discharge. Six months following the discontinuation of antifungal therapy, the team's multidisciplinary approach achieved a continued resolution of the patient's infection and a return to a fully ambulatory and radiographically proven recovery without limb loss. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  12. Muscle myosin filaments: cores, crowns and couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, John M

    2009-09-01

    Myosin filaments in muscle, carrying the ATPase myosin heads that interact with actin filaments to produce force and movement, come in multiple varieties depending on species and functional need, but most are based on a common structural theme. The now successful journeys to solve the ultrastructures of many of these myosin filaments, at least at modest resolution, have not been without their false starts and erroneous sidetracks, but the picture now emerging is of both diversity in the rotational symmetries of different filaments and a degree of commonality in the way the myosin heads are organised in resting muscle. Some of the remaining differences may be associated with how the muscle is regulated. Several proteins in cardiac muscle myosin filaments can carry mutations associated with heart disease, so the elucidation of myosin filament structure to understand the effects of these mutations has a clear and topical clinical relevance.

  13. Chemical constituents of the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioso, Roberto; Marante, Francisco Javier Toledo; Laguna, Irma Herrera Bravo de

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is a well-known multifunctional cell factory of high added-value biomolecules. The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the metabolites present in the culture broth of a new marine-derived Penicillium roqueforti strain isolated in the Canary Islands, Spain. The fungal biomass production was carried out in liquid-state fermentation, and after 10-12 days of incubation at 22-25°C, the supernatant mycelia was separated by filtration, and the culture broth (12l) was stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane (3×), in accordance with the modified Kupchan method. The volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were separated by chromatography and analyzed using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses. Several volatile organic compounds involved in the fatty acid pathway were identified: a terpenoid, a cyclic dipeptide, phthalates, and an alkyl adipate. In addition, three categories of non-volatile compounds (alkanes, fatty acids and 1-alkanols) were identified by spectroscopy. The results show that the fermented broth of this fungal strain has no mycotoxins under the culture conditions applied. It is hoped that this chemo-specific information will offer critical input for improving the biotechnological applications of this filamentous fungus. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

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    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  15. Filamentous Biological Entities Obtained from the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported the presence of large, non-filamentous, biological entities including a diatom fragment in the stratosphere at heights of between 22-27km. Here we report clear evidence for the presence of filamentous entities associated with a relatively large particle mass collected from the stratosphere. Although viable fungi have previously been isolated from the stratosphere, this is the first report of a filamentous microorganism being observed in situ on a stratospheric particle mass.

  16. Solubilization and fractionation of paired helical filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P J; Correas, I; Avila, J

    1992-09-01

    Paired helical filaments isolated from brains of two different patients with Alzheimer's disease were extensively treated with the ionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulphate. Filaments were solubilized at different extents, depending on the brain examined, thus suggesting the existence of two types of paired helical filaments: sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble and insoluble filaments. In the first case, the number of structures resembling paired helical filaments greatly decreased after the detergent treatment, as observed by electron microscopy. Simultaneously, a decrease in the amount of sedimentable protein was also observed upon centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-treated paired helical filaments. A sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was isolated as a supernatant after low-speed centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulphate-treated paired helical filaments. The addition of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 to this fraction resulted in the formation of paired helical filament-like structures. When the sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was further fractionated by high-speed centrifugation, three subfractions were observed: a supernatant, a pellet and a thin layer between these two subfractions. No paired helical filaments were observed in any of these subfractions, even after addition of Nonidet P-40. However, when they were mixed back together, the treatment with Nonidet P-40 resulted in the visualization of paired helical filament-like structures. These results suggest that at least two different components are needed for the reconstitution of paired helical filaments as determined by electron microscopy. The method described here may allow the study of the components involved in the formation of paired helical filaments and the identification of possible factors capable of blocking this process.

  17. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  18. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  19. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  20. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  1. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  2. A New Macrocyclic Trichochecene from Soil Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoWANG; YiZHANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province, a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopie evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  3. Equilibrium shapes of twisted magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belovs, Mihails; Cirulis, Teodors; Cebers, Andrejs [University of Latvia, Zellu 8, LV-1002 (Latvia)], E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.lv

    2009-06-12

    It is shown that ferromagnetic filaments with free and unclamped ends undergo buckling instabilities under the action of twist. Solutions of nonlinear equations describing the buckled shapes are found, and it is shown that the transition to the buckled shape is subcritical if the magnetization is parallel to the field and supercritical when the magnetization of the straight filament is opposite to the external field. Solutions with the localized curvature distribution are found in the case of long filaments. The class of solutions corresponding to helices is described, and the behavior of coiled ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic filaments is compared.

  4. Hydrodynamic interactions between nearby slender filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biology abound with filaments interacting through fluids, from intracellular microtubules, to rotating flagella and beating cilia. While previous work has demonstrated the complexity of capturing nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions between moving filaments, the problem remains difficult theoretically. We show here that when filaments are closer to each other than their relevant length scale, the integration of hydrodynamic interactions can be approximately carried out analytically. This leads to a set of simplified local equations, illustrated on a simple model of two interacting filaments, which can be used to tackle theoretically a range of problems in biology and physics.

  5. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  6. Deep coronal hole associated with quiescent filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesumaningrum, Rasdewita; Herdiwidjaya, Dhani

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the morphology of quiescent filament observed by H-alpha Solar Telescope at Bosscha Observatory in association with coronal hole observed by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in 193 Å from Solar Dynamics Observatory. H-alpha images were processed by imaging softwares, namely Iris 5.59 and ImageJ, to enhance the signal to noise ratio and to identify the filament features associated with coronal hole. For images observed on October 12, 2011, November 14, 2011 and January 2, 2012, we identified distinct features of coronal holes above the quiescent filaments. This associated coronal holes have filament-like morphology with a thick long thread as it's `spine', defined as Deep Coronal Hole. Because of strong magnetic field of sunspot, these filaments and coronal holes emerged far from active region and lasted for several days. It is interesting as for segmented filament, deep coronal holes above the filaments lasted for a quite long period of time and merged. This association between filament and deep coronal hole can be explained by filament magnetic loop.

  7. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.

  8. Biotransformation of sclareolide by filamentous fungi: cytotoxic evaluations of the derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza; Ramirez-Apan, Maria Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo, E-mail: delgado@unam.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Sclareolide (1) was incubated with eight different species of filamentous fungi conventionally used for bio-oxidations. Compound 1 was metabolized with Aspergillus niger in medium A to yield 3-ketosclareolide (2) and 3b-hydroxysclareolide (4), while in medium B (containing major number of nutrients with respect to medium A), compounds 2, 4, 3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide (16), 1-ketosclareolide (17), 3-keto-15-hydroxysclareolide (18) and 3{beta},15-dihydroxysclareolide (19) were obtained. The biotransformation products 16-19 were found to be new substances. Fermentation of 1 with Cunninghamella blackesleeana using medium A afforded 2 and 4, while using medium B yielded 2, 4, 16 and 17. Compounds 2, 4 and 17 were also obtained with Curvularia lunata. Biotransformation of 1 with Beauveria bassiana yielded 4 in satisfactory yield, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Mucor miehei afforded 2 and 4, while with R. nigricans and Fusarium moliniforme yielded 2, 4 and 16. Cytotoxic evaluation of 1 and the obtained products against selected human cancer cell lines (U251, PC-3, K562, HCT-15, MCF-7 and SKUL-1) indicated that 16 (3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide) displayed moderate cytotoxic (IC{sub 50} < 100 {mu}M) against U251, PC-3, HCT-15 and MCF-7. (author)

  9. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the poisoning of tungsten filaments during the hot-filament chemical vapour deposition process at typical carbon nanotube (CNT) deposition conditions and filament temperatures ranging from 1400 to 2000 °C. The morphological...

  10. A Statistical Study of Solar Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Nicole; Aggarwal, Ashna; Reeves, Kathy; Kempton, Dustin James; Angryk, Rafal

    2016-05-01

    Solar filaments are cool, dark channels of partially-ionized plasma that lie above the chromosphere. Their structure follows the neutral line between local regions of opposite magnetic polarity. Previous research (e.g. Schmieder et al. 2013, McCauley et al. 2015) has shown a positive correlation (70-80%) between the occurrence of filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CME’s). In this study, we attempt to use properties of the filament in order to predict whether or not a given filament will erupt. This prediction would help to better predict the occurrence of an oncoming CME. To track the evolution of a filament over time, a spatio-temporal algorithm that groups separate filament instances from the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) into filament tracks was developed. Filament features from the HEK metadata, such as length, chirality, and tilt are then combined with other physical features, such as the overlying decay index for two sets of filaments tracks - those that erupt and those that remain bound. Using statistical methods such as the Kolmogrov-Smirnov test and a Random Forest Classifier, we determine the effectiveness of the combined features in prediction. We conclude that there is significant overlap between the properties of filaments that erupt and those that do not, leading to predictions only ~5-10% above chance. However, the changes in features, such as a change in the filament's length over time, were determined to have the highest predictive power. We discuss the possible physical connections with the change in these features."This project has been supported by funding from the Division of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure within the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, the Division of Astronomical Sciences within the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, and the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences within the Directorate for Geosciences, under NSF award #1443061.”

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Rhizopus microsporus Strains CBS 344.29 and ATCC 62417.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Fabian; Üzüm, Zerrin; Möbius, Nadine; Guthke, Reinhard; Linde, Jörg; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-22

    Specific Rhizopus microsporus pathovars harbor bacterial endosymbionts (Burkholderia rhizoxinica) for the production of a phytotoxin. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two R. microsporus strains, one symbiotic (ATCC 62417), and one endosymbiont-free (CBS 344.29). The gene predictions were supported by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. The functional annotation sets the basis for comparative analyses. Copyright © 2015 Horn et al.

  12. The role of Bgl2p in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyue; Zhang, Ruoyu; Takada, Ayako; Iwatani, Shun; Oka, Chiemi; Kitamoto, Toshitaka; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a transition from yeast cells to filamentous cells that is related to its pathogenicity. The complex multicellular processes involved in biofilm formation by this fungus also include this transition. In this work, we investigated the morphological role of the Bgl2 protein (Bgl2p) in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans. Bgl2p has been identified as a β-1, 3-glucosyltransferase, and transcription of the CaBGL2 gene is upregulated during biofilm formation. We used scanning electron microscopy to observe the microstructure of a bgl2 null mutant during biofilm formation and found a delay in the transition to filamentous cells in the premature phase (24 hours) of biofilm formation. Deletion of the CaBGL2 gene led to a decrease in the expression of CPH2 and TEC1, which encode transcription factors required for the transition to the filamentous form. These findings indicate that Bgl2p plays a role in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  13. Biotransformation of indomethacin by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Li-hong LIN; Hai-hua HUANG; Hai-yan XU; Da-fang ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of indomethacin, the first of the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, by filamentous fungus and to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of indomethacin. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C blakesleeana AS 3.153, C blakesleeana AS 3.910 and C echinulata AS 3.2004) were screened for their ability to catalyze the biotransformation of indomethacin. Indomethacin was partially metabolized by five strains of Cunninghamella, and C blakesleeana AS 3.910 was selected for further investigation. Three metabolites produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by a combination analysis of LC/MSn and NMR spectra. These three metabolites were separated and quantitatively assayed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Results: After 120 h of incubation with C blakesleeana AS 3.910, approximately 87.4% of indomethacin was metabolized to three metabolites: O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI, M1, 67.2%), Af-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DBI, M2,13.3%) and O-desmethyl-AT-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DMBI, M3, 6.9%). Three phase I metabolites of indomethacin produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were identical to those obtained in humans. Conclusion: C blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of indomethacin.

  14. Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus Cunninghamella blakes-leeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MA; Hai-hua HUANG; Xiao-yan CHEN; Yu-ming SUN; Li-hong LIN; Da-fang ZHONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of metoprolol, a β1-cardioselective adrenoceptor antagonist, by filamentous fungus, and to compare the parallels between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C echinulata AS 3.2004, C blakesleeana AS 3.153 and AS 3.910) were screened for the ability to transform metoprolol. The metabolites of metoprolol produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.153 were separated and assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSn). The major metabolites were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and the structures were identified by a combination of LC/MSn and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Results: Metoprolol was transformed to 7 metabolites; 2 were identified as new metabolites and 5 were known metabolites in mammals. Conclusion: The microbial transformation of metoprolol was similar to the metabolism in mammals. The fungi belonging to Cunninghamella species could be used as complementary models for predicting in vivo metabolism and producing quantities of metabolite references for drugs like metoprolol.

  15. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  16. Improvement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Rhizopus Oryzae by Low-Energy Ions and Analysis of Its Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chunmei; Yang, Yingge; Fan, Yonghong; Li, Wen; Pan, Renrui; Zheng, Zhiming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-02-01

    The wild type strain Rhizopus oryzae PW352 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion implantation (15 keV, 7.8 × 1014 ~ 2.08 × 1015 ions/cm2) to find an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, and two mutants RE3303 and RF9052 were isolated. In order to discuss the mechanism primarily, Lactate Dehydrogenase of Rhizopus oryzae was studied. While the two mutants produced L(+)-lactic acid by 75% more than the wild strain did, their specific activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase was found to be higher than that in the wild strain. The optimum temperature of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae RF9052 was higher. Compared to the wild strain, the Michaelis constant (Km) value of Lactate Dehydrogenase in the mutants was changed. All these changes show that L(+)-lactic acid production has a correlation with the specific activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase. The low-energy ions, implanted into the strain, may improve the specific activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase by influencing its gene structure and protein structure.

  17. Endoglucanase and total cellulase from newly isolated Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei: production, characterization, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupski, Larine; Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Buffon, Jaqueline Garda; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2014-01-01

    A multienzymatic complex production was evaluated, as well as endoglucanase and total cellulase characterization, during solid-state fermentation of rice industry wastes with Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 (newly isolated microorganism) and Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 (control). R. oryzae produced enzymes with higher activity at 15 h of fermentation (5.1 and 2.3 U g(-1) to endoglucanase and total cellulase), while T. reesei produced them at 55 h (15.3 and 2.8 U g(-1) to endoglucanase and total cellulase). The optimum temperature for total cellulase and endoglucanase was 60 °C. For Trichoderma and Rhizopus, the optimum pH was 5.0 and 6.0 for total cellulase and 6.0 and 5.0 for endoglucanase, respectively. The enzymes produced by Rhizopus presented higher stability at the temperature range evaluated (25-100 °C); the endoglucanase KM value was 20 times lower than the one found for Trichoderma. The characterization of the cellulolytic enzymes from the fungal species native of rice husk revealed that they can be more efficient than the genetically modified enzymes when rice husk and rice bran are used as substrates.

  18. Improvement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Rhizopus Oryzae by Low-Energy Ions and Analysis of Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Chunmei; YANG Yingge; FAN Yonghong; LI Wen; PAN Renrui; ZHENG Zhiming; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    The wild type strain Rhizopus oryzae PW352 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion implantation (15 keV, 7.8 × 104 ~ 2.08 × 105 ions/cm2) to find an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, and two mutants RE3303 and RF9052 were isolated. In order to discuss the mechanism primarily,Lactate Dehydrogenase of Rhizopus oryzae was studied. While the two mutants produced L(+)-lactic acid by 75% more than the wild strain did, their specific activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase was found to be higher than that in the wild strain. The optimum temperature of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae RF9052 was higher. Compared to the wild strain, the Michaelis constant (Km) value of Lactate Dehydrogenase in the mutants was Changed. All these changes show that L(+)-lactic acid production has a correlation with the specific activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase. The low-energy ions, implanted into the strain, may improve the specific activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase by influencing its gene structure and protein structure.

  19. FERMENTASI CAIR AMPAS KELAPA SAWIT DAN KAPANG RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS UNTUK MENGHASILKAN ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Affandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background:The utilization of Rhizopus oligosporus to produce fatty acid omega-3 in liquid substrate has been conducted widely.  The content of fat in the palm oil waste in the amount of 5.56/100 gram still has potential to produce fatty acid omega-3.   The solid fermentation of tofu waste with R. oligosporus could increase the content of fatty acid up to 34.4% and palm oil waste could increase up to 61.57%. Methods: Sample is collected from the industry of palm-oil. The palm-oil waste is considered as a substrate, and the mold used is R.oligosporus.  The waste product is formulated by adding urea and sucrose.  In this case, urea is used as the source of N (nitrogen and sucrose is used as the source of C (carbon. The substrate with nitrogen is called as low-carbon treatment and the substrate with carbon is called as high-carbon treatment. For the controlle we did not add anything. Fermentation  is conducted within 7 days on the shaker at room temperature. The product of fermentation was analyzed for the Water, Ash, Fat, and Fatty-Acid Omega-3 contents. Results: This research shows that the water content of the fermentation product  decreased and ash content increased. This happened both in the low-carbon treatment and in the high-carbon treatment.  The content of fat after fermentation in controlle treatment increased by 6.44%.  However, in  the low-carbon treatment fermentation, the fat content decreased by 31.14% from the original content.  In the high-carbon treatment fermentation, the fat content increased by 31.67%. The content of saturated-fatty acids produced in the high-carbon treatment and low-carbon treatment are as follows: Capric acid (10:0 and lauric acid (12:0 decreased and myristic acid (14:0, palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0 increased, except the myristic-acid in high-carbon treatment decreased .  The content of unsaturated-fatty acid in controlle and high-carbon treatment: Oleic acid (18

  20. Spectral stability of Alfven filament chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The two-fluid model of nonlinear Alfven perturbations has singular solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. We investigate analytically and numerically the spectral stability of single and double rows of filaments. Staggered and non-staggered double rows (von Karman streets) are studied. I

  1. Spectral stability of Alfven filament configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The two-fluid plasma equations that describe nonlinear Alfven perturbations have singular solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. These filaments are analogous to point vortices in ideal hydrodynamics and geostrophic fluids. In this work the spectral (linear) stability of current-vortex f

  2. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.

    2006-01-01

    reduces the radial velocity of isolated filaments. The results are discussed in the context of convective transport in scrape-off layer plasmas, comprising both blob-like structures in low confinement modes and edge localized mode filaments in unstable high confinement regimes. (c) 2006 American Institute...

  3. Reconstitution of the muscle thin filament from recombinant troponin components and the native thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Fumiko; Deshimaru, Shungo; Oda, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2010-04-15

    We have developed a technique by which muscle thin filaments are reconstituted from the recombinant troponin components and the native thin filaments. By this technique, the reconstituted troponin complex is exchanged into the native thin filaments in the presence of 20% glycerol and 0.3M KCl at pH 6.2. More than 90% of endogenous troponin complex was replaced with the recombinant troponin complex. Structural integrity and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the reconstituted thin filament prepared by this technique was confirmed by X-ray fiber diffraction measurements and the thin filament-activated myosin subfragment 1 ATPase measurements, respectively.

  4. [Isolation of filamentous fungi capable of enhancing sludge dewaterability and study of mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Jun; Fu, Hao-Yi; Fan, Xian-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Zheng, Guan-Yu

    2015-02-01

    To study the influence of filamentous fungi on the sludge dewaterability is very significant for the development of biological treatment methods for enhancing sludge dewaterability. In this study, filamentous fungi capable of enhancing sludge dewaterability were isolated from sewage sludge and the related mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhancement were investigated. A filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides ZG-3 was successfully isolated from sludge, and sludge dewaterability could be drastically improved by this fungus. Further study revealed that the enhancement of sludge dewaterability was influenced by inoculation method, inoculum size and solid content of sludge. The optimal inoculation method was mycelia inoculation, the optimal inoculum size was 10%, and the optimal solid content of sludge was about 4%. Under the optimized conditions, the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of sludge could be decreased by 75.1% after being treated by M. circinelloides ZG-3. After the treatment, the COD value of sludge supernatant was only 310 mg x L(-1), and the treated sludge still exhibited good settleability. During the treatment of sewage sludge by M. circinelloides ZG-3, the mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhancement included the degradation of sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the decrease of sludge pH. Therefore, the treatment of sewage sludge using M. circinelloides ZG-3 is a useful and novel method for sludge conditioning.

  5. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. M. Rust

    2000-09-01

    Solar filaments are discussed in terms of two contrasting paradigms. The standard paradigm is that filaments are formed by condensation of coronal plasma into magnetic fields that are twisted or dimpled as a consequence of motions of the fields' sources in the photo-sphere. According to a new paradigm, filaments form in rising, twisted flux ropes and are a necessary intermediate stage in the transfer to interplanetary space of dynamo-generated magnetic flux. It is argued that the accumulation of magnetic helicity in filaments and their coronal surroundings leads to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections. These ejections relieve the Sun of the flux generated by the dynamo and make way for the flux of the next cycle.

  6. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  7. Theory of Semiflexible Filaments and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlong Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the recent developments in the theory of individual semiflexible filaments, and of a crosslinked network of such filaments, both permanent and transient. Starting from the free energy of an individual semiflexible chain, models on its force-extension relation and other mechanical properties such as Euler buckling are discussed. For a permanently crosslinked network of filaments, theories on how the network responds to deformation are provided, with a focus on continuum approaches. Characteristic features of filament networks, such as nonlinear stress-strain relation, negative normal stress, tensegrity, and marginal stability are discussed. In the new area of transient filament network, where the crosslinks can be dynamically broken and re-formed, we show some recent attempts for understanding the dynamics of the crosslinks, and the related rheological properties, such as stress relaxation, yield stress and plasticity.

  8. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  9. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  10. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  11. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  12. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  13. Simultaneous RNA-seq analysis of a mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kawahara

    Full Text Available A filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a causal agent of rice blast disease, which is one of the most serious diseases affecting cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying both rice defense and fungal attack are not yet fully understood. Extensive past studies have characterized many infection-responsive genes in the pathogen and host plant, separately. To understand the plant-pathogen interaction comprehensively, it is valuable to monitor the gene expression profiles of both interacting organisms simultaneously in the same infected plant tissue. Although the host-pathogen interaction during the initial infection stage is important for the establishment of infection, the detection of fungal gene expression in infected leaves at the stage has been difficult because very few numbers of fungal cells are present. Using the emerging RNA-Seq technique, which has a wide dynamic range for expression analyses, we analyzed the mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus in infected leaves at 24 hours post-inoculation, which is the point when the primary infection hyphae penetrate leaf epidermal cells. We demonstrated that our method detected the gene expression of both the host plant and pathogen simultaneously in the same infected leaf blades in natural infection conditions without any artificial treatments. The upregulation of 240 fungal transcripts encoding putative secreted proteins was observed, suggesting that these candidates of fungal effector genes may play important roles in initial infection processes. The upregulation of transcripts encoding glycosyl hydrolases, cutinases and LysM domain-containing proteins were observed in the blast fungus, whereas pathogenesis-related and phytoalexin biosynthetic genes were upregulated in rice. Furthermore, more drastic changes in expression were observed in the incompatible interactions compared with the compatible ones in both rice and blast fungus at this stage. Our

  14. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2012-01-01

    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  15. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  16. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  17. Unwinding Motion of a Twisted Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Liu, J. H.; Kong, D. F.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  18. Striation and convection in penumbral filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, H. C.; Scharmer, G. B.; Löfdahl, M. G.

    2010-10-01

    Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward propagating striations with inclination angles suggesting that they are aligned with the local magnetic field. We interpret it as the equivalent of the striations seen in the walls of small isolated magnetic structures. Their origin is then a corrugation of the boundary between an overturning convective flow inside the filament and the magnetic field wrapping around it. The outward propagation is a combination of a pattern motion due to the downflow observed along the sides of bright filaments, and the Evershed flow. The observed short wavelength of the striation argues against the existence of a dynamically significant horizontal field inside the bright filaments. Its intensity contrast is explained by the same physical effect that causes the dark cores of filaments, light bridges and “canals”. In this way striation represents an important clue to the physics of penumbral structure and its relation with other magnetic structures on the solar surface. We put this in perspective with results from the recent 3-D radiative hydrodynamic simulations. 4 movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  20. Star forming filaments in warm dark models

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Liang; Springel, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We performed a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of the formation of a Milky Way-like galaxy in a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology. Smooth and dense filaments, several co-moving mega parsec long, form generically above z 2 in this model. Atomic line cooling allows gas in the centres of these filaments to cool to the base of the cooling function, resulting in a very striking pattern of extended Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). Observations of the correlation function of LLSs might hence provide useful limits on the nature of the dark matter. We argue that the self-shielding of filaments may lead to a thermal instability resulting in star formation. We implement a sub-grid model for this, and find that filaments rather than haloes dominate star formation until z 6. Reionisation decreases the gas density in filaments, and the more usual star formation in haloes dominates below z 6, although star formation in filaments continues until z=2. Fifteen per cent of the stars of the z=0 galaxy formed in filaments. At hi...

  1. Biodiesel Production: Utilization of Loofah Sponge to Immobilize Rhizopus chinensis CGMCC #3.0232 Cells as a Whole-Cell Biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiyang; Xia, Qianjun; Wang, Yuejiao; Li, Xun; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Bo; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-28

    Rhizopus chinensis cells immobilized on loofah (Luffa cylindrica) sponges were used to produce biodiesel via the transesterification of soybean oil. In whole-cell immobilization, loofah sponge is considered to be a superior alternative to conventional biomass carriers because of its biodegradable and renewable properties. During cell cultivation, Rhizopus chinensis mycelia can spontaneously and firmly adhere to the surface of loofah sponge particles. The optimal conditions for processing 9.65 g soybean oil at 40°C and 180 rpm using a 3:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio were found to be 8% cell addition and 3-10% water content (depending on the oil's weight). Under optimal conditions, an over 90% methyl ester yield was achieved after the first reaction batch. The operational stability of immobilized Rhizopus chinensis cells was assayed utilizing a 1:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, thus resulting in a 16.5-fold increase in half-life when compared with immobilized cells of the widely studied Rhizopus oryzae. These results suggest that transesterification of vegetable oil using Rhizopus chinensis whole cells immobilized onto loofah sponge is an effective approach for biodiesel production.

  2. 根霉对特香型白酒风味的影响研究%Effects of Rhizopus on the flavor of Site-flavor liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 章肇敏; 吴生文

    2012-01-01

    从特香型白酒大曲中分离、富集了根霉菌液,将其应用于白酒生产,研究了根霉对特香型白酒各主要风味成分的影响.结果表明,制备的根霉菌液浓度为1.84mg/mL,根霉菌液的使用能有效增加白酒中乙醛含量的增加,当菌液用量为25mL时,能提高酒基中总酸及各主要风味物质的含量.%Rhizopus was isolated and accumulated in Daqu of Site-flavor liquor, and was used in production of liquor. Effects of Rhizopus on flavor components of the Site-flavor liquor were studied. The results showed that, the concentration of prepared Rhizopus in liquid was 1.84mg/ml, and application of Rhizopus could increase acetaldehyde content in Site-flavor liquor, and when addition of Rhizopus in liquid reached 25ml, contents of total acids and major flavor compounds in the liquor would be increased.

  3. 生料制作根霉曲工艺控制措施分析%Control Technology of Rhizopus Koji Measures Analysis of Production Raw Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楼

    2013-01-01

      文章概述了根霉曲生产常见工艺,结合生产实际,从产前准备、加水拌和、菌种、温度控制、监督管理、杂菌防治六个方面,探讨了夏季生料制作根霉曲工艺控制措施,比较了生、熟料制作根霉曲工艺控制区别,为完善根霉曲生产工艺,保证根霉曲全年不间断生产提供参考。%This paper summarizes the common process for the production of Rhizopus koji, Combined with the actual production, From the antenatal preparation,mixing, strain, temperature control, supervision and management, bacteria control six aspects, Discusses the Rhizopus Koji process control measures for making summer meal, compared the students, clinker production Rhizopus Koji process control difference, in order to improve the production process of Rhizopus Koji, ensure the Rhizopus Koji annual continuous production of reference.

  4. Filamentous Biopolymers on Surfaces: Atomic Force Microscopy Images Compared with Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Filament Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Norbert; Klenin, Konstantin; Kirmse, Robert; Bussiek, Malte; Herrmann, Harald; Hafner, Mathias; Langowski, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of filamentous biopolymers, such as the persistence length, may be determined from two-dimensional images of molecules immobilized on surfaces. For a single filament in solution, two principal adsorption scenarios are possible. Both scenarios depend primarly on the interaction strength between the filament and the support: i) For interactions in the range of the thermal energy, the filament can freely equilibrate on the surface during adsorption; ii) For interactions much stronger than the thermal energy, the filament will be captured by the surface without having equilibrated. Such a ‘trapping’ mechanism leads to more condensed filament images and hence to a smaller value for the apparent persistence length. To understand the capture mechanism in more detail we have performed Brownian dynamics simulations of relatively short filaments by taking the two extreme scenarios into account. We then compared these ‘ideal’ adsorption scenarios with observed images of immobilized vimentin intermediate filaments on different surfaces. We found a good agreement between the contours of the deposited vimentin filaments on mica (‘ideal’ trapping) and on glass (‘ideal’ equilibrated) with our simulations. Based on these data, we have developed a strategy to reliably extract the persistence length of short worm-like chain fragments or network forming filaments with unknown polymer-surface interactions. PMID:19888472

  5. Filamentous biopolymers on surfaces: atomic force microscopy images compared with Brownian dynamics simulation of filament deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mücke

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical properties of filamentous biopolymers, such as the persistence length, may be determined from two-dimensional images of molecules immobilized on surfaces. For a single filament in solution, two principal adsorption scenarios are possible. Both scenarios depend primarily on the interaction strength between the filament and the support: i For interactions in the range of the thermal energy, the filament can freely equilibrate on the surface during adsorption; ii For interactions much stronger than the thermal energy, the filament will be captured by the surface without having equilibrated. Such a 'trapping' mechanism leads to more condensed filament images and hence to a smaller value for the apparent persistence length. To understand the capture mechanism in more detail we have performed Brownian dynamics simulations of relatively short filaments by taking the two extreme scenarios into account. We then compared these 'ideal' adsorption scenarios with observed images of immobilized vimentin intermediate filaments on different surfaces. We found a good agreement between the contours of the deposited vimentin filaments on mica ('ideal' trapping and on glass ('ideal' equilibrated with our simulations. Based on these data, we have developed a strategy to reliably extract the persistence length of short worm-like chain fragments or network forming filaments with unknown polymer-surface interactions.

  6. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  7. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253 but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  8. Production, statistical optimization and application of endoglucanase from Rhizopus stolonifer utilizing coffee husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P N; Pushpa, S Murthy

    2013-08-01

    Coffee cherry husk (CH) is one of the major by-products obtained from coffee processing industry and accounts to 43 ± 5.9% of cellulose. Screening of fungal organism for cellulase production was carried out and the potential organism was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer by internal transcribed spacer's (ITS)-5.8S rDNA analysis. A systematic study with response surface methodology (RSM) based on CCRD was used to study the interactions among the variables such as pH (3-7), moisture (40-80%) and progression duration (72-168 h) of the fermentation process to maximize the enzyme production. Under the optimized cultivation condition, R. stolonifer synthesized 22,109 U/gds. Model validations at optimum operating conditions showed excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted responses with a confidence level of 95%. Endoglucanase thus produced was utilized for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and maximum of 65.5 g/L of ethanol was obtained. This fungal cellulase has also reported to be efficient detergent additives and promising for commercial use. The present study demonstrates coffee husk as a significant bioprocess substrate. Statistical optimization with major parameters for cellulase production can be highly applicable for industrial scale. Furthermore, value addition to coffee husk with sustainable waste management leading to environment conservation can be achieved.

  9. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Conversion of Agroindustrial Wastes into Chitin and Chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcântara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79–3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08 × 103 and 4.68 × 103 g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24853288

  11. Unraveling the protein network of tomato fruit in response to necrotrophic phytopathogenic Rhizopus nigricans.

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    Xiaoqi Pan

    Full Text Available Plants are endowed with a sophisticated defense mechanism that gives signals to plant cells about the immediate danger from surroundings and protects them from pathogen invasion. In the search for the particular proteins involved in fruit defense responses, we report here a comparative analysis of tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig infected by Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb, which is a significant contributor to postharvest rot disease in fresh tomato fruits. In total, four hundred forty-five tomato proteins were detected in common between the non-infected group and infected tomato fruit of mature green. Forty-nine differentially expressed spots in 2-D gels were identified, and were sorted into fifteen functional groups. Most of these proteins participate directly in the stress response process, while others were found to be involved in several equally important biological processes: protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death and so on. These responses occur in different cellular components, both intra- and extracellular spaces. The differentially expressed proteins were integrated into several pathways to show the regulation style existing in tomato fruit host. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their roles in pathogen-plant interactions. Collectively results provide evidence that several regulatory pathways contribute to the resistance of tomato fruit to pathogen.

  12. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

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    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA and benzohydroxamate (BHAM, inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ and itraconazole (ICZ against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents.

  13. Safety evaluation of lipase produced from Rhizopus oryzae: summary of toxicological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Michael T; Kondo, Mitsuru

    2003-04-01

    The toxicity of Lipase D, an enzyme preparation, was evaluated in a series of studies. Lipase D selectively hydrolyzes triglycerides of fatty acids. It also catalyzes the interesterification of edible fats and oils. In a 13-week gavage study, Sprague-Dawley rats received Lipase D at levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg body wt./day. A dose dependent decrease in urinary pH was observed, but there were no effects on electrolyte balance, kidney weight, or histology of the kidney. The no-observed-adverse-effect level in rats was 1000 mg/kg body wt./day. In common with other enzyme preparations, Lipase D was not genotoxic. Lipase D was tested in the Ames assay, the mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, and the chromosome aberration assay. Finally, the particular strain of Rhizopus oryzae used to prepare Lipase D was shown to have low to moderate pathogenicity when injected into the tail vein of mice at doses up to 1.3 x 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) per animal. No effects were observed when mice received up to 2.2 x 10(5) CFU by gavage or in their diets daily for 28 days. The results indicate that this particular strain can be handled using ordinary safety practices current in the fermentation industry. These studies support a conclusion that Lipase D is safe when used as described in the processing of dietary fatty acids and glycerides of fatty acids.

  14. Role of spacer length in interaction between novel gemini imidazolium surfactants and Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Sunita; Datta, Sougata; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Banerjee, Rintu

    2015-11-01

    An insight into the effects of new ionic liquid-type gemini imidazolium cationic surfactants on the structure and function of the lipases is of prime importance for their potential application. Changes in the activity, stability and structure of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of novel gemini surfactants, [C16-3-C16im]Br2 and [C16-12-C16im]Br2 were probed in the present study. Surfactant with shorter spacer length, [C16-3-C16im]Br2 was found to be better in improving the hydrolytic activity and thermal stability of the lipase. For both the surfactants, activation was concentration dependent. CD spectroscopy results showed a decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content in the presence of these surfactants. A higher structural change observed in presence of [C16-12-C16im]Br2 correlated with lower enzyme activity. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies showed the binding to be spontaneous in nature based on sequential two site binding model. The forces involved in binding were found to differ for the two surfactants proving that the spacer length is an important factor which governs the interaction. These surfactants could be used as promising components both in enzyme modification and media engineering for attaining the desired goals in biocatalytic reactions.

  15. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yonghong; YANG Yingge; ZHENG Zhiming; LI Wen; WANG Peng; YAO Liming; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. Oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N+ implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2. Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ~ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38~C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  16. Conversion of a Rhizopus chinensis lipase into an esterase by lid swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhu, Shan-Shan; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to explore the feasibility of converting a lipase into an esterase by modifying the lid region, we designed and characterized two novel Rhizopus chinensis lipase variants by lid swapping. The substrate specificity of an R. chinensis lipase was successfully modified toward water-soluble substrates, that is, turned into an esterase, by replacing the hydrophobic lid with a hydrophilic lid from ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger Meanwhile, as a comparison, the lid of R. chinensis lipase was replaced by a hydrophobic lid from Rhizomucor miehei lipase, which did not alter its substrate specificity but led to a 5.4-fold higher catalytic efficiency (k*cat/K*m) toward p-nitrophenyl laurate. Based on the analysis of structure-function relationships, it suggests that the amphipathic nature of the lid is very important for the substrate specificity. This study provides new insight into the structural basis of lipase specificities and a way to tune the substrate preference of lipases.

  17. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

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    JONH J. MÉNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available .En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 oC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk.

  18. Food Waste Fermentation to Fumaric Acid by Rhizopus arrhizus RH7-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Ma, Jingyuan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Weinan; Deng, Li; Nie, Kaili; Yue, Xuemin; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-12-01

    Fumaric acid as a four-carbon unsaturated dicarboxylic acid is widely used in the food and chemical industries. Food waste (FW), rich in carbohydrates and protein, is a promising potential feedstock for renewable bio-based chemicals. In this research, we investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus RH7-13 in producing fumaric acid from FW. The liquid fraction of the FW (L-FW) was proven to be the best seed culture medium in our research. When it was however used to be fermentation medium, the yield of fumaric acid reached 32.68 g/L, at a volumetric production of 0.34 g/L h. The solid fraction of FW mixed with water (S-FW) could also be used as fermentation medium when a certain amount of glucose was added, and the yield of fumaric acid reached 31.26 g/L. The results indicated that both fractions of FW could be well utilized in fermentation process and it could replace a part of common carbon, nitrogen, and nutrient. The process has an application potential since reducing the costs of raw materials.

  19. Synthetic activity enhancement of membrane-bound lipase from Rhizopus chinensis by pretreatment with isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xu, Yan; Teng, Yun

    2007-05-01

    The cell-bound lipase from Rhizopus chinensis CCTCC M201021 with high catalysis ability for ester synthesis was located as a membrane-bound lipase by the treatments of Yatalase firstly. In order to improve its synthetic activity in non-aqueous phase, the pretreatments of this enzyme with various organic solvents were investigated. The pretreatment with isooctane improved evidently the lipase synthetic activity, resulting in about 139% in relative synthetic activity and 115% in activity recovery. The morphological changes of mycelia caused by organic solvent pretreatments could influence the exposure of the membrane-bound enzyme from mycelia and the exhibition of the lipase activity. The pretreatment conditions with isooctane and acetone were further investigated, and the optimum effect was obtained by the isooctane pretreatment at 4 degrees C for 1 h, resulting in 156% in relative synthetic activity and 126% in activity recovery. When the pretreated lipases were employed as catalysts for the esterification production of ethyl hexanoate in heptane, higher initial reaction rate and higher final molar conversion were obtained using the lipase pretreated with isooctane, compared with the untreated lyophilized one. This result suggested that the pretreatment of the membrane-bound lipase with isooctane could be an effective method to substitute the lyophilization for preparing biocatalysts used in non-aqueous phase reactions.

  20. Purification and Characterisation of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Rhizopus micro sporus var. tuberosus

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    Shuli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus was purified and characterised. The microorganism was isolated in a distillery from daqu, a fermentative agent used in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar at diff erent temperatures. The fibrinolytic enzyme was partially purifi ed by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE Sepharose® Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the fi brinolytic enzyme was estimated to be 24.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed optimal activity at pH=7.0 and 37 °C by fibrin plate method. It showed stronger resistance to the inhibition by trypsin and was stable at 37 °C retaining 96.1 % residual activity aft er 4 h of incubation. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cu2+ partly inhibited enzymatic activity. Using fibrin plate method, we found that the enzyme not only degrades fibrin directly, but also activates plasminogen into plasmin to degrade fibrin. The results indicate that the pure enzyme has a potential in dissolving blood clot, and the possibility for application in the treatment of thrombosis.

  1. Statistical optimization of FPase production from water hyacinth using Rhizopus oryzea PR 7

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    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pretreated water hyacinth was used as sole carbon source for the production of cellulase enzyme by Rhizopus oryzae PR 7 MTCC 9642 in both liquid state (LSF and solid state fermentation (SSF that was measured by the FPase activity. To maximize the FPase production, the critical parameters like substrate concentration, cultivation temperature and pH on enzyme production were optimized using response surface methodology using Central Composite Design (CCD. The LSF was found to be better than SSF for the production of FPase. The best preferred combination for highest FPase activity from LSF was with substrate concentration 1.25%,pH 7.32 and temperature 25.25°C. Estimated optimum conditions for FPase production from SSF was a combination of substrate concentration of 0.5%, pH 6, temperature 18°C. Under the optimized cultivation condition, the strain synthesized 123 U/ml and 48U/ml FPase from LSF and SSF respectively and the highest production was achieved within only 48 hours of cultivation.

  2. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Doenjang Prepared with Rhizopus, Pichia, and Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Su Jin; Seo, Ji Yeon; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Chang Kwon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A new type of doenjang was manufactured by mixing soaked soybean, koji (Rhizopus oryzae), cheonggukjang (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 and B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17), and Pichia farinosa SY80 as a yeast, salt, and water, followed by fermentation with koji that was made by fermenting whole wheat with R. oryzae. The mixed culture doenjang was designed to have a more palatable flavor and stronger biological activities than the conventional product. The extract of mixed culture doenjang showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial doenjang as evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay although it was not significantly different from the commercial product in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities. Further, the mixed culture doenjang reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and protected cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity more efficiently in human hippocampal HT22 neuroblastoma cells than the commercial doenjang. In conclusion, a newly-developed mixed culture doenjang had a strong antioxidant activity in vitro and cultured cell model systems, exhibited a potential to prevent oxidative stress-associated disorders although animal and clinical studies are needed to confirm its in vivo efficacy. PMID:27752498

  3. Inducing effect of salicin for extracellular endoglucanase synthesis in Rhizopus oryzae PR7 MTCC 9642.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, M

    2013-01-01

    The induction of endoglucanase of Rhizopus oryzae PR7 MTCC 9642 has been observed in cultivation medium using a batch-fermentation technique. The effect of various experimental parameters such as use various carbon sources as inducers, concentration of inducer and effect of different additives were investigated. Salicin at concentrations from 0.25 to 0.75% (w/v) was found to bring about a remarkable increase in endoglucanase synthesis when used as a sole carbon source and thought to act as a gratuitous inducer of the enzyme. Endoglucanase activity increased within 24 h after the addition of salicin, reached maximum after 48 h and maintained high level even after 120 h of fungal growth. Repression of enzyme synthesis by glucose could partially be restored by addition of salicin at an early phase of growth. The carboxymethyl cellulose induced enzyme was inhibited by cyclohexamide and ethidium bromide and partially recovered by the salicin which indicated that salicin might act at the transcriptional but not translational level.

  4. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Bi-Bo

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to screen for and isolate a novel enzyme with the specific activity of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, R. oryzae was identified as a novel fungal species that produces large amounts of γ-linolenic acid. A full-length cDNA, designated here as RoD6D, with high homology to fungal Δ6-fatty acid desaturase genes was isolated from R. oryzae by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. It had an open reading frame of 1176 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 391 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis characterized the putative RoD6D protein as a typical membrane-bound desaturase, including three conserved histidine-rich motifs, a hydropathy profile, and a cytochrome b5 -like domain in the N terminus. When the coding sequence was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl, the encoded product of RoD6D exhibited Δ6-fatty acid desaturase activity that led to the accumulation of γ-linolenic acid. The corresponding genomic sequence of RoD6D was 1565 bp in length, with five introns. This is the first report on the characterization and gene cloning of a Δ6-fatty acid desaturase of R. oryzae from Douchi.

  5. Mechanism of Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue Using Dried Biomass of Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Manash Deep; Shukla, Ruchi; Bordoloi, Naba K; Doley, Robin; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption is an efficient way to remove synthetic dyes from industrial effluent. Here, we show mechanism of adsorptive removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) from its aqueous solution using dried biomass of Rhizopus oryzae as a biosorbent. The optimum pH and temperature for adsorption was found to be 7.0 and 28 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the biomass suggested distinct changes in surface topology post-MB adsorption, while Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated chemical interaction between the surface of the biomass and MB. Chemical modification of -OH and -C=O groups of biomass reduced the MB adsorption and corroborated with the FTIR analyses. Kinetics study revealed that the adsorption rate was fast initially and reached equilibrium at 4 h following a pseudo-second-order-kinetics. The adsorption isotherm followed Freundlich isotherm model with n value of 1.1615.The dried biomass of R. oryzae can be used as a potent biosorbent for the removal of MB.

  6. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yonghong; Yang, Yingge; Zheng, Zhiming; Li, Wen; Wang, Peng; Yao, Liming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-02-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N+ implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2. Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ~ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38°C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  7. Protein enrichment of brewery spent grain from Rhizopus oligosporus by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo, Marianny Silva; de Paula, Fernanda Gomes; da Silva, Flávio Alves; Vendruscolo, Francielo

    2016-07-01

    Brewery spent grain represents approximately 85 % of total by-products generated in a brewery. Consisting of carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and low amounts of protein, the use of brewery spent grain is limited to the feeding of ruminants; however, its potential use should be investigated. The reuse of this by-product using microorganisms by solid-state fermentation process as the case of protein enrichment by single-cell protein incorporation is an alternative to ensure sustainability and generate commercially interesting products. In this context, the aim of this study was to grow Rhizopus oligosporus in brewery spent grain under different initial moisture contents and nitrogen sources to increase the protein content of the fermented material. After 7 days of fermentation, increase of 2-4 times in the crude protein and soluble protein content was verified, respectively, compared to unfermented brewery spent grain. The kinetics of protein enrichment demonstrated the possibility of application of this technique, which can be a great alternative for use in diets for animals.

  8. Purification, partial characterization and antitumor effect of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Guochuang; Zhang, Pengying; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a homogeneous exopolysaccharide (EPS1-1) was purified from the fermentation broth of Rhizopus nigricans. EPS1-1 was composed of glucose, mannose, galactose and fructose in the molar ratio of 5.89:3.64:3.20:1.00 with weight average molecular weight of 9.7×10(3)g/mol. EPS1-1 could significantly inhibit proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells in vitro. EPS1-1 also induced S phase cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. The results of morphological characterization and flow cytometry showed that EPS1-1 induced apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 cells. EPS1-1 caused dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulation of Bax and p53 mRNA expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression, which suggested that mitochondrial pathway was involved in the EPS1-1-induced apoptosis. These findings bring new insights into the potential use of EPS1-1 as antitumor drug against human colorectal carcinoma.

  9. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch.

  10. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation.

  11. Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-ling CHEN; Qin GUO; Rui-zhi WANG; Juan XU; Chen-wei ZHOU; Hui RUAN; Guo-qing HE

    2011-01-01

    Surface display is effectively utilized to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst.Codon optimization has been proven to be effective in maximizing production of heterologous proteins in yeast.Here,the cDNA sequence of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was optimized and synthesized according to the codon bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,and based on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display system with α-agglutinin as an anchor,recombinant yeast displaying fully codon-optimized ROL with high activity was successfully constructed.Compared with the wild-type ROL-displaying yeast,the activity of the codon-optimized ROL yeast whole-cell biocatalyst (25 U/g dried cells) was 12.8-fold higher in a hydrolysis reaction using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate.To our knowledge,this was the first attempt to combine the techniques of yeast surface display and codon optimization for whole-cell biocatalyst construction.Consequently,the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst was constructed with high activity.The optimum pH and temperature for the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst were pH 7.0 and 40 ℃.Furthermore,this whole-cell biocatalyst was applied to the hydrolysis of tributyrin and the resulted conversion of butyric acid reached 96.91% after 144 h.

  12. Extra-cellular isoamylase production by Rhizopus oryzae in solid-state fermentation of agro wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnita Ghosh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular isoamylase was produced by Rhizopus oryzae PR7 in solid-state fermentations of various agro wastes, among which millet, oat, tapioca, and arum (Colocasia esculenta showed promising results. The highest amount of enzyme production was obtained after 72 h of growth at 28°C. The optimum pH for enzyme production was - 8.0. Among the various additives tested, enzyme production increased with ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and also with cysteine, GSH, and DTT. The enzyme synthesis was reduced in the presence of thiol inhibitors like Cu2+ and pCMB. The surfactants like Tween-40, Tween-80 and Triton X-100 helped in enhancing the enzyme activity. The production could be further increased by using the combinations of substrates. The ability to produce high amount of isoamylase within a relatively very short period and the capability of degrading wastes could make the strain suitable for commercial production of the enzyme.

  13. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH AMPAS KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT UNTUK SINTESIS ZAT GIZI MELALUI FERMENTASI KAPANG RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS (USES OF THE WASTE OF PALM RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE FOR SYNTHESIZING SOME NUTRIENTS THROUGH RHIZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Affandi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The residue of palm seeds is the by-products of palm oil. This waste still contains palm oil which can be used as sources of carbon for fermentation in producing the useful substances. Objective: Use of the palm oil residue as the substrate fermentation for the mould of Rhizopus oligosporus. Methods: The residue of palm seeds  were treated by adding urea, sucrose and fish oil for the growth of mould.  The mould of R.oligosporus was used as mix culture which is used in the fermented soybean. The fermentation was carried out for 3 days in the incubator at 37o C. Product of fermentation were analyzed for the content of water, ash, protein, fat, and fibres. Results: The results indicated the water content of all substrate were changed. The substrate without added nutrient as the control and substrate added urea decreased 29.06 and 11.35  percent, substrate addition of sucrose and fish oil were increasing respectively 26.38 and 19.81 percent. The ash content were increasing for the all substrates, were 79.43; 85.02; 32.97 and 6.06 percent respectively for substrate without addition , substrate with added fish oil,  sucrose, urea. The protein contents increased 85.34 and 71.58 percent for substrate without addition, and substrate added fish oil. The highest fat content was in the substrate added sucrose, and 313.09 percent decreasing for the substrate added fish oil. Conclusion: The residue of palm seeds could be used as the substrate fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus to increase the content of fat after addition of sucrose as the growth supplementation.   Keywords: Residue of palm seeds, Rhizopus oligosporus, fermentation. Abstrak Latar belakang: Ampas sawit merupakan produk samping minyak sawit. Limbah masih mengandung minyak, dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber karbon (C untuk fermentasi dalam menghasilkan senyawa yang bermanfaat. Tujuan: memanfaatkan limbah ampas kelapa sawit sebagai substrat fermentasi kapang Rhizopus

  14. Can We Determine the Filament Chirality by the Filament Footpoint Location or the Barb-bearing?

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Q; Fang, C; Chen, P F; Cao, W

    2015-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopt the Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with H-alpha filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) H-alpha archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have ...

  15. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  16. Tailor-made CRISPR/Cas system for highly efficient targeted gene replacement in the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazoe, Takayuki; Miyoshi, Kennosuke; Yamato, Tohru; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Ohsato, Shuichi; Arie, Tsutomu; Kuwata, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    CRISPR/Cas-derived RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) that can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a specific sequence are widely used for targeted genome editing by induction of DSB repair in many organisms. The CRISPR/Cas system consists of two components: a single Cas9 nuclease and a single-guide RNA (sgRNA). Therefore, the system for constructing RGNs is simple and efficient, but the utilization of RGNs in filamentous fungi has not been validated. In this study, we established the CRISPR/Cas system in the model filamentous fungus, Pyricularia oryzae, using Cas9 that was codon-optimized for filamentous fungi, and the endogenous RNA polymerase (RNAP) III U6 promoter and a RNAP II fungal promoter for the expression of the sgRNA. We further demonstrated that RGNs could recognize the desired sequences and edit endogenous genes through homologous recombination-mediated targeted gene replacement with high efficiency. Our system will open the way for the development of various CRISPR/Cas-based applications in filamentous fungi.

  17. Tunnel ionization, population trapping, filamentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang Chin, See; Xu, Huailiang

    2016-11-01

    The advances in femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser technology have led to the discovery of a profusion of new physics. This review starts with a brief historical account of the experimental realization of tunnel ionization, followed by high harmonic generation and the prediction of attosecond pulses. Then, the unique phenomenon of dynamic population trapping during the ionization of atoms and molecules in intense laser fields is introduced. One of the consequences of population trapping in the highly excited states is the neutral dissociation into simple molecular fragments which fluoresce. Such fluorescence could be amplified in femtosecond laser filamentation in gases. The experimental observations of filament-induced fluorescence and lasing in the atmosphere and combustion flames are given. Excitation of molecular rotational wave packets (molecular alignment) and their relaxation and revival in a gas filament are described. Furthermore, filament-induced condensation and precipitation inside a cloud chamber is explained. Lastly, a summary and future outlook is given.

  18. Interaction and merging of vortex filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Weston, R. P.; Ishii, K.; Ting, L.; Visintainer, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for vortex filaments of finite strength with small effective vortical cores are summarized with special emphasis placed on the physical meaning and the practical limit to the applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finite-difference solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for the marging of the filament(s) are described with a focus on the development of the approximate boundary conditions for the computational domain. An efficiency study employing a model problem is used to assess the advantages of the present approximate boundary condition method over previously used techniques. Applications of the present method are presented for the motion and decay of a 3:1 elliptic vortex ring, and for the merging process of a pair of coaxial vortex rings. A numerical procedure for the problem of local merging of vortex filaments, which requires the asymptotic analysis as well as the numerical Navier-Stokes solver, is also presented.

  19. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production from Xylose with Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RLC41-6 Breeding by Low-Energy Ton Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yingge; FAN Yonghong; LI Wen; WANG Dongmei; WU Yuejin; ZHENG Zhiming; YU Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, the strain Rhizopus oryzae PW352 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion beam implantation and the mutant strain Rhizopus oryzae RLC41-6 was obtained. An experimental finding was made in surprise that Rhizopus oryzae mutant RLC41-6 is not only an L(+)-lactic acid producer from corn starch but also an efficient producer of L(+)-lactic acid from xylose. Under optimal conditions, the production of L(+)-lactic acid from 100 g/L xylose reached 77.39 g/L after 144 h fed-batch fermentation. A high mutation rate and a wide mutation spectrum of low-energy ion implantation were observed in the experiment.

  20. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production from Xylose with Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RLC41-6 Breeding by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingge; Fan, Yonghong; Li, Wen; Wang, Dongmei; Wu, Yuejin; Zheng, Zhiming; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-10-01

    In order to obtain an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, the strain Rhizopus oryzae PW352 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion beam implantation and the mutant strain Rhizopus oryzae RLC41-6 was obtained. An experimental finding was made in surprise that Rhizopus oryzae mutant RLC41-6 is not only an L(+)-lactic acid producer from corn starch but also an efficient producer of L(+)-lactic acid from xylose. Under optimal conditions, the production of L(+)-lactic acid from 100 g/L xylose reached 77.39 g/L after 144 h fed-batch fermentation. A high mutation rate and a wide mutation spectrum of low-energy ion implantation were observed in the experiment.

  1. Organizing Filament of Small Amplitude Scroll Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU TianShou; ZHANG SuoChun

    2001-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the organizing filament of small amplitude scroll waves in general excitable media by perturbation method and explicitly give the expressions of coefficients in Keener theory. In particular for the excitable media with equal diffusion, we obtain a close system for the motion of the filament. With an example of the Oregonator model, our results are in good agreement with those simulated by Winfree.``

  2. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  3. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen MJ; Stricker RB

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they resu...

  4. Induced resistance to Rhizopus rot(Rhizopus stolonifer) in nectarine fruit by postharvest treatment with nitric oxide%采后一氧化氮处理对油桃抗软腐病的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永才; 陈松江; 毕阳; 尹燕; 赵转霞

    2012-01-01

    Control effect of sodium nitroprusside(SNP)treatment on Rhizopus rot of nectarine fruit during storage at low temperature and its mechanism were studied.The result showed that postharvest SNP treatment significantly inhibited the development of Rhizopus rot in nectarine fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer,relative lower concentration of SNP at 5 mmol/L had the best control effect,and its lesion diameter was only 75.83% of the control.Meanwhile activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL),peroxidase(POD)in nectarine tissue were significantly increased during whole storage,catalase(CAT)and superoxide dismutase(SOD)were inhibited by SNP treatment during later storage,but SNP did not stimulate polyphenoloxidase(PPO)activity.These findings suggested that NO might enhance disease resistance of nectarine through changing resistant-related enzyme activities.%以油桃为实验对象,研究了采后NO供体硝普钠(SNP)处理对低温贮藏期间油桃根霉软腐病的控制效果及其机理。研究结果表明硝普钠处理能显著地抑制损伤接种Rhizopus stolonifer的油桃果实软腐病的扩展,其中较低浓度5mmol/L的硝普钠处理效果最好,其病斑直径仅为对照的75.83%。进一步研究表明SNP浸泡处理能显著地提高低温贮藏期间油桃果实组织苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活性,且在贮藏后期对组织过氧化氢酶(CAT)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)酶活性具有抑制作用,然而对多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性没有明显的诱导作用。可见一氧化氮是通过改变油桃抗性相关酶的活性来增强果实的抗病性。

  5. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations.

  6. On the nature of star-forming filaments: II. Sub-filaments and velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rowan J; Klessen, Ralf S; Fuller, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    We show that hydrodynamic turbulent cloud simulations naturally produce large filaments made up of a network of smaller and coherent sub-filaments. Such simulations resemble observations of filaments and fibres in nearby molecular clouds. The sub-filaments are dynamical features formed at the stagnation points of the turbulent velocity field where shocks dissipate the turbulent energy. They are a ubiquitous feature of the simulated clouds, which appear from the beginning of the simulation and are not formed by gradual fragmentation of larger filaments. Most of the sub-filaments are gravitationally sub-critical and do not fragment into cores, however, there is also a significant fraction of supercritical sub-filaments which break up into star-forming cores. The sub-filaments are coherent along their length, and the residual velocities along their spine show that they are subsonically contracting without any ordered rotation on scales of ~0.1 pc. Accretion flows along the sub-filaments can feed material into st...

  7. Actin filament attachments for sustained motility in vitro are maintained by filament bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Hu

    Full Text Available We reconstructed cellular motility in vitro from individual proteins to investigate how actin filaments are organized at the leading edge. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of actin filaments, we tested how profilin, Arp2/3, and capping protein (CP function together to propel thin glass nanofibers or beads coated with N-WASP WCA domains. Thin nanofibers produced wide comet tails that showed more structural variation in actin filament organization than did bead substrates. During sustained motility, physiological concentrations of Mg(2+ generated actin filament bundles that processively attached to the nanofiber. Reduction of total Mg(2+ abolished particle motility and actin attachment to the particle surface without affecting actin polymerization, Arp2/3 nucleation, or filament capping. Analysis of similar motility of microspheres showed that loss of filament bundling did not affect actin shell formation or symmetry breaking but eliminated sustained attachments between the comet tail and the particle surface. Addition of Mg(2+, Lys-Lys(2+, or fascin restored both comet tail attachment and sustained particle motility in low Mg(2+ buffers. TIRF microscopic analysis of filaments captured by WCA-coated beads in the absence of Arp2/3, profilin, and CP showed that filament bundling by polycation or fascin addition increased barbed end capture by WCA domains. We propose a model in which CP directs barbed ends toward the leading edge and polycation-induced filament bundling sustains processive barbed end attachment to the leading edge.

  8. 米根霉RhizopusoryzaeLS-1对糠醛抑制物的耐受性%Tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae LS-1 on Furfural Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志忠; 张曼芳; 任海伟; 王永刚; 张轶

    2015-01-01

    通过考察不同糠醛浓度对米根霉 (Rhizopus oryzae LS-1) 发酵产乳酸过程中糖酸转化率和糖利用率的影响, 探索了解Rhizopus oryzae LS-1对木质纤维水解副产物糠醛抑制物的耐受性, 寻找Rhizopus oryzae LS-1对糠醛抑制物的耐受浓度. 结果表明: Rhizopus oryzae LS-1对糠醛的耐受浓度为12.5g/L, 在0~12.5g/L可提高糖酸转化率和糖利用率. 当糠醛浓度大于12.5g/L时, 菌株生长完全受到抑制. 研究结果对乳酸生产用木质纤维素水解液的脱毒处理工艺具有指导作用.%Through studying effects of glucose acid conversion rate and glucose utilization rate on different furfural concen-tration, tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae LS-1 on furfural inhibitor in lignocelluloses hydrolysates were explored, and tolerance con-centration was searched. Results showed that tolerance threshold for Rhizopus oryzae LS-1was 12.5g/L, when furfural was indi-vidually added. Yield of lactic acid increased when furfural concentration was lower than 12.5g/L. quantitative view to the lactic acid production under the inhibition of lignocellulose degradation products were gave, and it has some guiding significances for overcome the difficulties of the lignocellulosic hydrolysates fermentation.

  9. Filaments in the Lupus molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedettini, M; Pezzuto, S; Elia, D; André, P; Könyves, V; Schneider, N; Tremblin, P; Arzoumanian, D; di Giorgio, A M; Di Francesco, J; Hill, T; Molinari, S; Motte, F; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Palmeirim, P; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Roy, A; Rygl, K L J; Spinoglio, L; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the filaments extracted from the column density maps of the nearby Lupus 1, 3, and 4 molecular clouds, derived from photometric maps observed with the Herschel satellite. Filaments in the Lupus clouds have quite low column densities, with a median value of $\\sim$1.5$\\times$10$^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ and most have masses per unit length lower than the maximum critical value for radial gravitational collapse. Indeed, no evidence of filament contraction has been seen in the gas kinematics. We find that some filaments, that on average are thermally subcritical, contain dense cores that may eventually form stars. This is an indication that in the low column density regime, the critical condition for the formation of stars may be reached only locally and this condition is not a global property of the filament. Finally, in Lupus we find multiple observational evidences of the key role that the magnetic field plays in forming filaments, and determining their confinement and dynamical evolution.

  10. Filaments in Simulations of Molecular Cloud Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Gilberto C

    2013-01-01

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse is hierarchical in nature, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in cloud, and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features, through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump, but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalli...

  11. Filaments in the Lupus molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedettini, M.; Schisano, E.; Pezzuto, S.; Elia, D.; André, P.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Tremblin, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Hill, T.; Molinari, S.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the filaments extracted from the column density maps of the nearby Lupus 1, 3, and 4 molecular clouds, derived from photometric maps observed with the Herschel satellite. Filaments in the Lupus clouds have quite low column densities, with a median value of ˜1.5 × 1021 cm-2 and most have masses per unit length lower than the maximum critical value for radial gravitational collapse. Indeed, no evidence of filament contraction has been seen in the gas kinematics. We find that some filaments, that on average are thermally subcritical, contain dense cores that may eventually form stars. This is an indication that in the low column density regime, the critical condition for the formation of stars may be reached only locally and this condition is not a global property of the filament. Finally, in Lupus we find multiple observational evidences of the key role that the magnetic field plays in forming filaments, and determining their confinement and dynamical evolution.

  12. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  13. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  14. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  15. Renal fungus ball: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Phin; Turba, Ulku C; Deane, Leslie A

    2017-04-28

    We describe a case of renal pelvi-ureteric fungus ball managed with placement of two nephrostomy tubes and amphotericin B irrigation through a nephrostomy tube with the other to free drain. A 46-year-old man with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to the urology clinic for workup of recurrent urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew Candida albicans. The patient was started on oral fluconazole therapy. Cystoscopy and cystogram revealed a grade 3 left vesicoureteral reflux and right retrograde pyelogram revealed a filling defect in the right renal pelvis extending into the proximal ureter with severe hydroureteronephrosis. Two nephrostomy tubes were placed (mid-pole and lower pole) to ensure that the system was not obstructed. Amphotericin B (50 mg/1000 ml normal saline) irrigation was then instilled through the mid-pole nephrostomy tube at a rate of 30 ml/h with the lower pole nephrostomy tube to free drain. An antegrade nephrostogram was performed after 5 days of amphotericin B instillation, showing complete resolution of the fungus ball. The patient is awaiting definitive minimally invasive management of the distal ureteral narrowing. Renal and pelvi-ureteric fungus ball is a challenging clinical entity. It must be addressed promptly and efficiently to be successful. We describe a minimally invasive approach that was tolerated well and resulted in complete clearance of the fungus ball in a relatively short time frame.

  16. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Despite this, a large proportion (75 to 90%) of fertilizer P .... nitrogen salts such as Urea, KNO3, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NaNO2 (Figure. 2). Phospholytic activity of fungus along with MHB strains without any carbon and nitrogen sources acted as control and .... complexity of CaP chemistry, release of microbial.

  17. Degradation of metalaxyl and folpet by filamentous fungi isolated from Portuguese (Alentejo) vineyard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M Rosário; Pereira, Pablo; Lima, Nelson; Cruz-Morais, Júlio

    2013-07-01

    Degradation of xenobiotics by microbial populations is a potential method to enhance the effectiveness of ex situ or in situ bioremediation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of repeated metalaxyl and folpet treatments on soil microbial communities and to select soil fungal strains able to degrade these fungicides. Results showed enhanced degradation of metalaxyl and folpet in vineyards soils submitted to repeated treatments with these fungicides. Indeed, the greatest degradation ability was observed in vineyard soil samples submitted to greater numbers of treatments. Respiration activities, as determined in the presence of selective antibiotics in soil suspensions amended with metalaxyl and folpet, showed that the fungal population was the microbiota community most active in the degradation process. Batch cultures performed with a progressive increase of fungicide concentrations allowed the selection of five tolerant fungal strains: Penicillium sp. 1 and Penicillium sp. 2, mycelia sterila 1 and 3, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Among these strains, mycelium sterila 3 and R. stolonifer presented only in vineyard soils treated with repeated application of these fungicides and showed tolerance >1,000 mg l(-1) against commercial formulations of metalaxyl (10 %) plus folpet (40 %). Using specific methods for inducing sporulation, mycelium sterila 3 was identified as Gongronella sp. Because this fungus is rare, it was compared using csM13-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the two known species, Gongronella butleri and G. lacrispora. The high tolerance to metalaxyl and folpet shown by Gongronella sp. and R. stolonifer might be correlated with their degradation ability. Our results point out that selected strains have potential for the bioremediation of metalaxyl and folpet in polluted soil sites.

  18. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  19. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  20. Development of a versatile and conventional technique for gene disruption in filamentous fungi based on CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Mei; Lin, Fu-Long; Gao, Hao; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Gao-Qian; Chen, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Dan

    2017-08-23

    Filamentous fungi represent an invaluable source of pharmaceutically active compounds. The development of versatile methods to genetically manipulate filamentous fungi is of great value for improving the low yields of bioactive metabolites and expanding chemical diversity. The CRISPR-Cas9-based system has become a common platform for genome editing in a variety of organisms. However, recent application of this technology in filamentous fungi is limited to model strains, a versatile method for efficient gene disruption in different fungi is lacking. Here, we investigated the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in a less-studied fungus Nodulisporium sp. (No. 65-12-7-1), and we have developed an efficient CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption strategy by simultaneous transformation of in vitro transcriptional gRNA and the linear maker gene cassette into the Cas9-expressing fungi. We found that the linear marker gene cassette could not only allow for selection of transformants, but also significantly enhance the gene disruption efficiency by inserting itself into the Cas9 cut site. Moreover, the above approach also demonstrated its efficiency in two other phylogenetically distinct strains Aspergillus oryzae NSAR1 and Sporormiella minima (No. 40-1-4-1) from two different classes of Ascomycota. These results suggested that a versatile CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption method in filamentous fungi was established.