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Sample records for figures paint grim

  1. Egyptian Symbols and Figures. Hieroglyphs [and] Scroll Paintings. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson introduces students to the writing, art, and religious beliefs of ancient Egypt through hieroglyphs, one of the oldest writing systems in the world, and through tomb paintings. Hieroglyphs consist of pictures of familiar objects that represent sounds and were used in ancient Egypt from about 3100 BC to 400 CE. In the first part of the…

  2. 论中国画的现实主义%On the Realism in Figure Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠剑; 高金龙

    2015-01-01

    与西方写实性的现实主义艺术风格一样,中国传统人物画也是以关注现实为依归,且以叙事性的方式来表现生活中的事件,并形成了具有中国特色的现实主义人物画创作模式。但是,由于绘画材料的不同以及东西方审美的差异,中国人物画的现实主义与西方绘画又有很大的区别,最根本的体现就是:西方绘画中的现实主义是写实性的,而中国画的现实主义是写意性的。%The purpose of Chinese traditional figure painting,as an art style of the western realism,was also concerning for the reality,and expressed events in life by means of the narration,formed a distinct creative mode of realism figure painting.However,because of different drawing materials and the differences between eastern and Western aesthetics, the realism of Chinese figure painting and Western painting also had a very big difference,in which the most fundamental is:Western painting’s realism was realistic,and Chinese painting’s realism was freehandly.

  3. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents' face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents' body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes.

  4. 关良戏剧人物画画风成因初探%The Exploration of Painting Style Formation of Guan Liang’ s Drama Figure Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧怡

    2016-01-01

    关良是中国现代人物画史上极具开拓性的人物画大家,其在戏剧人物画方面的探索与创新具有典范意义。从题材选择、构思、构图、笔墨等方面探讨关良戏剧人物画的画风,可以更好地理解其画风成因,并对关良戏剧人物画画派的流向进行合情推断。%Guan Liang is a pioneer painter in the history of contemporary Chinese figure painting .His explora-tion and innovation in the field of Chinese opera figure painting is very significant .This paper discusses the painting style of Guan Liang ’ s drama figure painting from the theme selection , conception , composition , ink using and etc . This paper also focuses on the formation of Guan Liang ’ s painting style as well as the development tendency of his drama figure painting .

  5. Discussion of Figures in Chinese Landscape Painting%论中国山水画中的点景人物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国良

    2016-01-01

    中国山水画作为中国文艺的重要门类,与中国文化有着密切的关系,集中体现着中国人的人文精神和人生情怀,而山水画中的点景人物在其中扮演着重要的角色。梳理历代山水画中点景人物的特征发现,点景人物在传统山水画的现代化转型中有着重要的作用。山水画中点景人物表现,反映了现代转型的早期探索。%Chinese landscape painting is an important category of Chinese art ,closely linked with Chinese culture .Chi-nese humanism and sentiments are shown in Chinese landscape paintings ,and figures in the paintings play a key role .This study analyzes the significance of figures in Chinese landscape painting’s transition from traditional style to modern style by summing up the characteristics of figures in Chinese landscape paintings over different times as well as modern artists’ experience in this field .Finally ,the writer shares his views on how modern Chinese landscape painter paint figures in land-scape paintings .

  6. 浅谈写意人物画写生教学%Teaching of Freehand Figure Painting from Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏波

    2011-01-01

    写意人物画写生是中国人物画教学和创作的重要课程.通过不断写生,可以从中提炼适合自己的艺术造型,形成独具特色的个人风格,摆脱临摹发现自我.通过写生,可以激发创作热情,刺激对现实生活的认识和理解,激起我们对艺术生活的热爱.任何艺术都离不开现实生活的滋养.%Freehand figure painting from nature is an important teaching and writing curriculum of Chinese figure painting. Through continuous painting from nature, we can extract our own artistic style, form a unique personal style, and get rid of copy and find ourselves. Through painting from nature, we can stimulate creative passion, stimulate awareness and understanding of real life, and arouse our love of artistic life. Any art are inseparable from the nourishment of real Me.

  7. Trying to Live Now: Chronotopic Figures in Jenny Watson’s A Painted Page Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McAuliffe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Between late 1979 and early 1980, Australian artist Jenny Watson painted a sequence of six works, each with the title A Painted Page. Combining gridded, painted reproductions of photographs, newspapers and department store catalogues with roughly painted fields of color, the series brought together a range of recent styles and painterly idioms: pop, photorealism, and non-objective abstraction. Watson’s evocation of styles considered dated, corrupted or redundant by contemporary critics was read as a sign of the decline of modernism and the emergence of a postmodernism inflected with irony and a cool, “new wave” sensibility. An examination of the Painted Pages in the context of Watson’s interest in autobiography and her association with the women’s art movement, however, reveals the works to be subjective, highly personal reflections on memory, self and artistic aspiration. Drawing on Bahktin’s model of the chronotope, this paper argues for a spatio-temporal reading of Watson’s Painted Pages rather than the crude model of stylistic redundancy and succession. Watson’s source images register temporal orders ranging across the daily, the seasonal and the epochal. Her paintings transpose Bahktin’s typology of quotidian, provincial and “adventuristic” time into autobiographical paintings of teenage memories, the vicissitudes of the art world and punk subcultures. Collectively, the Painted Pages established a chronotopic field; neither an aggregation of moments nor a collaged evocation of a period but a point at which Watson closed off one kind of time (an art critical time of currency and succession and opened up another (of subjectivity and affective experience.

  8. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel...... a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much....... Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65)....

  9. Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — data for figures 1-8 in journal article "Assessment of port-related air quality impacts: geographic analysis of population", International Journal of Environment and...

  10. 水墨人物写生笔墨表达方式探究%Probing into the Ink Expression Modes in the Ink Figure Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬

    2014-01-01

    Pen and ink are the principal tools in ink figure painting .They can both help shape the figures and convey the subjective image creation .It is of great significance for the creation of ink images to refine one’ s own ink painting style that fits one ’ s mentality in the course of ink figure painting .More emphasis should be geared to the acquisition and experience of Chinese traditional culture so as to deepen the under -standing of ink figure painting , explore more modes for ink painting .In this way , ink painting blends with cul-ture and life, and combines with figure shaping , and thus creating a unique ink painting style of one ’s own.%笔与墨是中国水墨人物画最主要的表现手段。笔墨既可造型,又可进行主观的意象传达。在水墨人物画写生中锤炼符合自己心性的笔墨,对于传达笔墨意象有着重要的意义。应当加强对传统文化的认知和体验,提升对笔墨造型的理解,拓展笔墨表达方式,使笔墨与文化相容,笔墨与生活相汇,通过笔墨同造型的有机组织,在形式上寻找独特的笔墨意味。

  11. The Hungarian Peculiarities of National Remembrance: Historical Figures with Symbolic Importance in Nineteenth-century Hungarian History Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to place nineteenth-century Hungarian art into international context, this article calls for the theoretical discourse of cultural memory, when a suppressed community turns to their past and insists on their antecedents’ traditions for the survival of their culture. When, in the 1850s and 1860s, the leaders of the Habsburg Austrian Empire retaliated against Hungary for its 1848-49 “Fight for Freedom”, Hungarian visual art of the era rediscovered long-honoured figures of the historical past as the essential components of Hungarian national identity. This article argues that the successful visualization and memorialization of outstanding historical characters with symbolic values for the Hungarian nation was due to history painting itself as medium. The Hungarian painters’ choice of characters vigorously reacted to the changing political relationship between the Austrians and the Hungarians from the failure of the 1849 Hungarian Fight for Freedom until the 1850s and the 1870s involving the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Keeping it in mind, the display and the reception of four great paintings, Bertalan Székely’s The Discovery of the Body of King Louis II (1860, Viktor Madarász’s Péter Zrínyi and Ferenc Frangepán in Prison at Wiener-Neustadt (1864, Székely’s The Women of Eger (1867 and Gyula Benczúr’s The Baptism of Vajk (1875 are analysed.

  12. The Causes and Influence of Liang Kai’s Stick Figure Paintings%梁楷减笔人物画的成因及影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓阳

    2014-01-01

    Liang Kai’s Stick Figure Paintings were used much ink freely and the shapes were brief which were influenced by Zen thoughts deeply. Liang Kai’s Stick Figure Paintings were intensified by the expression of the“pen”(stick), reflecting the innovation of the stick figure paintings’ style, and they delivered the spirits of the figures by using brief ink, then they achieved the effects of“brief stick but full spirit”, which promoted the development of the artworks figure paintings since Song and Yuan Dynasty. During Ming and Qing Dynasty, artists transformed his style and led the idea of artworks paintings, then the main style of Chinese figure paintings formed.%梁楷的减笔人物画,笔墨酣畅,造型简洁,深受禅宗思想的影响。梁楷的减笔人物画是对“笔”(线条)表现力的强化,体现了人物画风格的创新,以简洁的笔墨将人物的精神传达出来,达到“笔简神具”的效果,推动了宋元以来写意人物画的发展。明清时期,对这种风格加以改造,直接导入写意画的道理,形成中国人物画的主要风格。

  13. "Paintings Fade Like Flowers": Pigment Analysis and Digital Reconstruction of a Faded Pink Lake Pigment in Vincent van Gogh's Undergrowth with Two Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E; Knutås, Per; Hostettler, Kurt; Smith, Gregory D

    2017-01-01

    Color fading in Vincent van Gogh's Undergrowth with Two Figures was studied chemically to facilitate the creation of a digital reconstruction of fugitive colors . The painting contains a field of white, green, orange, and yellow flowers under a canopy of poplar trees with two central figures-a man and a woman, arms entwined. From Van Gogh's letters, however, it is known that he painted the picture with some pink flowers, which appear to have altered, presumably to white. Raman spectroscopy was applied to microsamples of paint to identify the faded pigment as geranium lake, which in this painting consists of the dye, eosin (2',4',5',7'-tetrabromofluorescein). For the first time, lead(II) sulfate has been specifically identified as the likely inorganic substrate for a geranium lake used by Van Gogh in the last months of his life. Microfocus X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) spectroscopy was subsequently used in situ to analyze the white flowers to identify bromine as a proxy for eosin, thus indicating an original pink coloration. Of the 387 white flowers analyzed, 37.7% contained measurable bromine and were, therefore, originally pink. Several cross-sections from these formerly pink areas were assessed using a combination of visual inspection and microcolorimetry to create a colored mask in Adobe Photoshop to digitally reconstruct a suggestion of the original appearance of the painting with regard to the faded flowers. Additionally, microfadeometry was undertaken for the first time on a painting cross-section sample to understand the actual fading kinetics of the underlying bright pink geranium lake used by Van Gogh. A combination of Raman microspectroscopy, MXRF, and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were utilized in situ and on paint microsamples to identify the complete palette used to create Undergrowth with Two Figures.

  14. ON ARTISTIC FEATURES AND CONTEMPORARY INFLUENCE OF NEW PORCELAIN GLAZE POWDER ENAMEL VASE WITH FIGURE PAINTING IN THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA%论民国新粉彩人物瓷画艺术特色与当代影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游凌志

    2012-01-01

    New porcelain glaze powder enamel vase with figure painting in the Republic of China roots in classic pastel and light purple color figure porcelain painting, Adheres to the breath of literati painting and is affected by the Shanghai painting school and forms its own unique features. New porcelain glaze powder enamel vase with figure painting in the Republic of China has a far reaching influence, and until now it still plays a very important and positive influence.%民国新粉彩人物瓷画源于古典粉彩与浅绛彩人物瓷画,秉承其文人画气息,并深受海上画派影响形成其独特艺术特色。民国新粉彩人物瓷画影响深远,及至当代仍发挥着非常重要而积极的影响力。

  15. Thoughts on the Variation Style of Figure Paintings in the Late Ming Dynasty%对明末人物画变异画风的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕飞

    2012-01-01

    Variation in painting styles results from some artists' bold attempts to reanalyze and reinterpret the painting traditions.The variation style of figure painting in the late Ming Dynasty was formed by the joint exploration of several prominent artists,i.e.,Ding Yunpeng,Wu Bin,Cui Zizhong,and Chen Hongshou.They took account of social aesthetic needs of anti-neutralization,extracted the style elements from the non-mainstream painter Guan Xiu's work Luo Han Tu,and integrated his free and unrestrained feelings,which produced grotesque effects.It also turned the smooth and beautiful but feeble style into a new aesthetic trend in figure painting,and exerted enormous influences on later generations.%变异画风是一批艺术家大胆对传统再分析、重阐释而形成的结果。明末人物画变异画风,由丁云鹏、吴彬、崔子忠、陈洪绶等不同凡响的画家共同探索而形成。他们结合社会反中和的审美需求,提炼五代非主流画家贯休罗汉图中的风格化元素,融合个人自由奔放的情感,获得了怪诞奇异的效果,扭转了流丽柔靡时风,引导了人物画崭新的审美取向,对后世画坛影响巨大。

  16. 工笔人物画技法语言多元化探析%Thinking about Contemporary Meticulous figure painting language skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索峰

    2013-01-01

    随着时代的发展,工笔人物画在当代文化语境下生发状况、生态环境均受到科技和经济的影响。对外文化的交融使艺术观念、审美方式在传统和当代两大阵营中反复抗衡。不少人认为现代工笔人物画技法语言的不断创新本身就是工笔人物画的发展。任何技法表现的艺术创作都是在艺术性的基础上开始的,而技术却并不等同于艺术。在新的历史时空中技术在某种层面上与艺术或许保持一致,单纯的技法语言不能完全诠释工笔人物画的内涵,结合中国文化语境、精神内涵才能曲径通幽。%With the development of fine brushwork figure painting era in the context of contemporary culture germinal condition, ecological environment are affected by the technology and economic. Integration of foreign culture of the artistic conception, aesthetic style in traditional and contemporary two camps repeatedly. Many people think that the innovation of modern figure painting techniques of language itself is the development of the Chinese figure painting. Any technique of expression in the art creation is based on the art of the technology, and it is not the same as art. In the new historical time and space technology may remain the same in some way with art, meaning the pure technique language does not fully explain the meticulous figure painting ,and it is possible to achieve a winding path leading to a secluded spot with Chinese cultural context and spiritual connotation.

  17. Characteristics and Learning of the Brush in Chinese Figure Painting%论中国人物画骨法用笔笔性及传习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑

    2015-01-01

    中国人物画的“骨法用笔”蕴含着深刻的哲理,成为学习模写的重点对象,探析人物画的“练形”“练法”“练心”并广泛吸收姐妹艺术的表现形式,结合时代的笔墨元素与美学思想,进而拓展艺术表现能力与笔墨技法的潜在张力,使“骨法用笔”在传承中发扬光大。%T he "strength draw ing" in C hinese figure painting is profoundly philosophical. It becom es the m odel for learning and im itating. T his paper analyzes the m ethod of the characters shaping, draw ing style and thought. A nd it extensively absorbs other form s of art. It com bines the painting elem ents of tim es and the view point of aesthetics to expand the expression of art and the latent tension of painting techniques, and to develop the"strength draw ing" through learning and passing on.

  18. 计算机辅助绘制工笔人物画效果%Computer-Aided Rendering of Chinese Meticulous Figure Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁孝强; 胡桃成; 彭韧; 于金辉

    2015-01-01

    工笔画是我国传统绘画艺术,画面工整细致,但物体的渲染费工费时。为此提出一种计算机辅助绘制算法来加速物体渲染并保持工笔画的渲染视觉特征。该算法对工笔人物画的线描画稿图像提取轮廓,通过交互得到绘画人物的脸部、头发、四肢、衣服所在区域。对于脸部,先交互指定简单的辅助线定义明暗特征位置,再根据一个阻尼弹簧扩散模型进行扩散,生成整个区域的明暗变化灰度图;对于四肢和衣服,提出一种自动确定其明暗关系的算法;对于头发,将线描画稿图像的线条细节作为头发的高频分量,然后对高频分量进行高斯模糊,得到头发的低频分量,再将两者融合得到最终的头发渲染效果;对于其他如头饰等小的部位,采用简单交互实现绘制。将采用文中方法得到的渲染结果与人工渲染作品相比较,效果令人满意。%Meticulous figure painting is a traditional Chinese art form in which objects are depicted with fine details. Coloring objects in meticulous figure painting by hand is however tedious and time consuming. This paper presents a rendering algorithm to speed up this coloring process and the resulting renders still retain the style of Chinese meticulous figure paintings. We first extract the contour line and obtain regions for the face, hair, limbs and clothes of painted figures interactively. For the face region, we add simple auxiliary lines interactively to specify the light and dark areas, and then use a simple iterative dampened-spring dif-fuser to generate the gray scale shading of the whole area. For the regions of limbs and clothes, an automatic method is proposed to render their shadings. For the hair region, we take the hand drawn hair lines as the high frequency components, and then smooth it with a Gaussian filter to obtain the low frequency compo-nents, and blend them to get the final rendered hair. For

  19. 中国意笔人物画的发展历史与现状%History and Present Situation of Chinese Freehand Figure Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸键

    2012-01-01

    Chinese freehand figure painting is a kind of visual Art of distinctive ethnic and cultural characteristics. But until in the early twenties century, when the feudal society fell apart accompanied with the prevalence of"making the foreign things serve China",Chi- nese freehand figure painting was prosperous and developing. Especially since 1980s,implementing the reform and open policy, it has been developing with diversity and blow-up, owing to the influence of western philosophy, the theory of literature and art, international contemporary art information. Although pursuing new materials, new techniques, and Western artistic concepts brought Chinese freehand figure painting on confusion of vanishing of the identity and characteristics, "rather to creating the imperfect new style, do not keep a perfect old style'is the inevitable law of development of the fine arts.%中国意笔人物画是具有鲜明民族文化特色的视觉艺术,其繁荣和发展却迟至“洋为中用”观念盛行、封建社会土崩瓦解的二十世纪初期,而自上世纪80年代初改革开放以来,受西方哲学思想、文艺理论以及国际当代艺术信息的影响,中国意笔人物画开始呈“井喷式”多元发展形态,虽然其中对新材料、新技法以及西方艺术观念的追捧给中国意笔人物画带来画种身份和特征消解的困惑,但是“宁要创不完美的新,也不要守完美的旧”才是艺术发展的必然规律。

  20. 浅谈新彩人物画的形神表现%Formal and Spiritual Representation of New Colored Figure Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪龙苗

    2011-01-01

    新彩是有别于古、粉彩的新的彩绘形式,具有发色稳定、颜色品种多、附着力强以及彩绘技法多样,艺术表现力强等工艺特色。画好新彩人物,不仅需要扎实的绘画技巧,而且需要全面的艺术修养。%New color has been a new decorative form for it differs from antique-color and famille rose in the treatment of decorative pigments and the, application technique. New colored decoration is chromatically stable for the scientific formulation of its pigments; it has a wide palette created with highly adhesive pigments using diversified techniques; its decorative pattern is very expressive. The high artistry of new-colored figure paintings result not only from an artist's solid foundation in painting skills, but also from his comprehensive knowledge of culture.

  1. A Neuroelectrical Brain Imaging Study on the Perception of Figurative Paintings against Only their Color or Shape Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton G. Maglione

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively. Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1 Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2 Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1 emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2 Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas.

  2. A Neuroelectrical Brain Imaging Study on the Perception of Figurative Paintings against Only their Color or Shape Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Anton G.; Brizi, Ambra; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Rossi, Dario; Trettel, Arianna; Modica, Enrica; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset) plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively). Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1) Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2) Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1) emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2) Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas. PMID:28790907

  3. 工笔人物画色彩的情感表现和色彩语言拓展探析%The Emotion Expression and Color Language Development of Chinese Meticulous Figure Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利丹

    2015-01-01

    色彩是工笔人物画艺术表现的重要语言和主要手段。工笔人物画的色彩语言有着丰富的文化内涵,在作品中能够表情达意,传递不同情感。伴随时代发展和审美意识的提高,作为工笔人物画艺术中最感情化因素的色彩,受西方色彩学发展的影响,加之新材质和多种设色技法的探索应用及设色观念的变化,工笔人物画的色彩语言表现领域拓宽,表现手法与表现手段趋于多元,色彩运用更自由丰富,表现力更强,在工笔人物画作品中的情感表现作用也更突出。%Color is an important language of meticulous figure paintings and the main means of artistic expres-sion .The language of color meticulous figure painting has a rich cultural connotation , to express different emotions in his works , transfer .Along with the era development and aesthetic awareness raising , as the most emotional fac-tors of fine brushwork figure painting in color , influenced by Western color science development , application and design changes to explore ideas and new materials and a variety of color techniques , so that the fine brushwork fig-ure painting color language is widening , the technique of expression and the expression means more multivariate the use of color , more abundant and free , powerful , emotional performance function in the fine brushwork figure paint-ing works are more prominent .

  4. Tangka Painting of Gesar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAMBIAN; GYAMCO

    2002-01-01

    Rope and other patterns on pottery unearthed from the Karub cultural sites, dating back some 5,000 years, are considered to be the earliest examples of painting art known so far. Rock paintings believed to have come later constitute the embryo of Tibetan painting art.Tangka painting is closely related to frescoes in terms of painting art. Tangka is created to reproduce what is painted in the fresco. Cultures prevalent in China’s hinterland, India and Nepal exerted deep influence on Tibetan painting art.Both Princess Wencheng and Princess Jincheng brought the Han Chinese culture into Tibet, which proved to be a boon for the development of Tibetan painting art. With construction of the Potala Palace, Jokhang, Qamzhub and other monasteries, Tibetan painting art developed apace. Frescoes in Jokhang Monastery, Qamzhub Monastery and Potala Palace, still visible today, feature a simple nature, with rich colors and concise lines, while figures were painted in an

  5. 论装饰性在朱理存工笔人物画中的运用%View on the Application of Ornamental Character in the Realistic Figure Paintings of Zhu Li-cun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰侠

    2012-01-01

    在当代中国画坛上活跃着众多出色的女画家,朱理存就是其中之一。朱理存早年在美院时学的是写意画,她毕业后创作的一系列作品如《四不要》、《叔叔喝水》等都是写意画。后来,为了表现的需要她又画起工笔画。她的作品多以少女、儿童生活篇为题材,形象饱满,色调清雅。朱理存的作品是极具特色的,她的工笔人物画工中含写、写中有工,同时又体现着一种不失传统又有一定装饰味道的特征,充满人情味和浪漫的生活情趣。%Many outstanding women painters are active in the Contemporary Painting Community.Zhu Licun,as one of those women painters,majored in free-style paintings in her early years in Fine Arts Institute.After her graduation,she created a series of artistic works,like "Four Don'ts" "Uncle Drinks",which are all free-style paintings.Afterwards,she paints the realistic figure painting again in order to meet the needs of expression.Therefore,her paintings mainly take the lives of maids and children as themes,whose image is full and tone is refined.Zhu Licun's paintings have good features with good combination of features of realistic figure painting and free-style painting in a single one painting.At the same time,these paintings also exhibit the traditional and ornamental character which is full of human kindness and romantic life zest.

  6. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation.

  7. References to Gauguin paintings in Somerset Maugham’s The moon and sixpence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has not before been noticed that in describing works of art painted by his fictional anti-hero,Charles Strickland, in the novel The moon and sixpence, which is loosely based on the life of Paul Gauguin, Somerset Maugham drew on actual works by Gauguin in his verbal descriptions. Sometimes the references are to specific paintings, at others to phases in his work. For readers familiar with Gauguin’s artistic output, his writings on art and his biography, the effect of this insistent visual ‘quotation’ is to create a disturbing sense of aesthetic dissonance, in that it becomes difficult to accept the inarticulate, surly, impassioned but utterly grim and joyless figure of the fictional Charles Strickland as the source of these vivifying paintings, which possess their own real history and provenance. There is nothing in Strickland of Gauguin’s child-like zest for life, his exuberance, his fantasies, his extrovert willingness to explain his art to friends and the public through fascinating if deeply unreliable writings. The reader must either attempt to blot all knowledge of Gauguin and his art from consciousness, there by denying that Maugham is ‘quoting’ Gauguin’s oeuvre, or else submit to an intolerable level of fictional incredulity and disbelief.

  8. grim: A Flexible, Conservative Scheme for Relativistic Fluid Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Mani; Foucart, Francois; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-03-01

    Hot, diffuse, relativistic plasmas such as sub-Eddington black-hole accretion flows are expected to be collisionless, yet are commonly modeled as a fluid using ideal general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Dissipative effects such as heat conduction and viscosity can be important in a collisionless plasma and will potentially alter the dynamics and radiative properties of the flow from that in ideal fluid models; we refer to models that include these processes as Extended GRMHD. Here we describe a new conservative code, grim, that enables all of the above and additional physics to be efficiently incorporated. grim combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using an algorithm that only requires the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This algorithm enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexibility regarding time-stepping schemes. grim runs on CPUs, as well as on GPUs, using the same code. We formulate a performance model and use it to show that our implementation runs optimally on both architectures. grim correctly captures classical GRMHD test problems as well as a new suite of linear and nonlinear test problems with anisotropic conduction and viscosity in special and general relativity. As tests and example applications, we resolve the shock substructure due to the presence of dissipation, and report on relativistic versions of the magneto-thermal instability and heat flux driven buoyancy instability, which arise due to anisotropic heat conduction, and of the firehose instability, which occurs due to anisotropic pressure (i.e., viscosity). Finally, we show an example integration of an accretion flow around a Kerr black hole, using Extended GRMHD.

  9. Homesickness (Decorative Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally. nchly colored Chinese painting is widely recognized for its line and rhythm. As early as 1.1000 years ago. the Dunhuang frescos of the Tang Dynasty (618907) reached a high level. "Homesickness" represents a female figure thinking about the motherland. The painter uses traditional painting techniques in reference to linn and color. The dragon and phoenix motif in the background represents the 5.000 year-old cultural history of

  10. The trade with the EU was facing a grim situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to customs statistics, January-May2012, China’s textile and apparel exports valued at USD 93.523 billion. Compared with the same period in 2011 increased 2. 63%. Among them, The exports to European Union( the EU) valued at USD 16.756 billion, accounted for 17.92 % of total exports to the global in textile and apparel, down 11. 17% y/y. e EU is one of the main markets for China’s textile and apparel exports. e negative growth highlights the grim situation of the European Union market . Market share declined in the EU The EU, the United States, and Japan had

  11. Status Changing of “Color” and “Ink” in Ink Figure Painting%水墨人物画中“色”“墨”身份的游移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛书琴

    2016-01-01

    Relationship of ink and color were analyzed from a macroscopic point in this paper. Owing to the impact and traditional Chinese culture and the conflicts properties of color and ink tend to cause,“Emphasizing ink while ignoring color” is a common occurrence in traditional Chinese ink figures painting. However, color was very much enhanced during the consequent evolution lasting for nearly a century. Various new patterns emerged combing the color and ink, together with many questions too obvious to ignore. Contemporary ink figure painters have calm and mature ways in dealing with the relation between ink and color. Improvements are made, but there is still a huge space for further improvement in the emotional and spiritual expression on colors.%由于文化及“色性”与“墨性”间易发冲突等原因,导致了中国传统水墨人物画的“重墨轻色”。之后的将近一个世纪的“改良”浪潮中,“色”在水墨人物画创作中得到了空前的强化,出现了许多“色”“墨”结合的新样式,但同时也引发了许多显在的问题。当代水墨人物画创作则在某种程度的传统回归的基础上,对“色”与“墨”的关系采取了较为冷静与成熟的处理方式,但在色彩的情感空间与精神层面的表现上,尚存巨大空间,有待进一步探索。

  12. Scorched earth strategy: Grim Reaper saves the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzaczek, Michael; Brosché, Mikael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2009-07-01

    Programmed cell death is a common feature of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in many multicellular organisms. Examples of programmed cell death in plants are leaf abscission in autumn and the hypersensitive response during pathogen attack. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the regulation of various types of cell death. However, the precise mechanics of the involvement of ROS in the processes leading to initiation of cell death and subsequent containment are currently unknown. We recently showed the involvement of an Arabidopsis protein GRIM REAPER in the regulation of ROS-induced cell death under stress conditions. Our results indicated that the presence of a truncated protein primes plants for cell death in the presence of ROS leading to ozone sensitivity and increased resistance to hemibiotrophic pathogens.

  13. GRIM-19 inhibits v-Src-induced cell motility by interfering with cytoskeletal restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Nallar, Shreeram C.; Kalakonda, Sudhakar; Lindner, Daniel J.; Martin, Stuart S.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.

    2008-01-01

    GRIM-19 (Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality 19) is a novel tumor suppressor regulated by Interferon/retinoid combination. We have recently shown that GRIM-19 inhibits v-Src-induced oncogenic transformation and metastatic behavior of cells. Oncogenic v-Src induces cell motility by cytoskeletal remodeling especially the formation of podosomes and. Here we show that GRIM-19 inhibited the v-Src-induced cell motility by inhibiting cytoskeletal remodeling i.e., podosome formation. We also show that the N-terminus of GRIM-19 played a major role in this process and identified critical residues in this region. More importantly, we show that tumor-associated GRIM-19 mutations disrupted its ability to inhibit v-Src-induced cell motility. These actions appear to occur independently of STAT3, a known target of GRIM-19-mediated inhibition. Lastly, tumor-associated GRIM-19 mutants significantly lost their ability to control v-Src-induced metastases in vivo, indicating the biological and pathological significance of these observations. PMID:19151760

  14. Past to Present: Undergrowth with Two Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the historical, cultural, and artistic elements of Vincent van Gogh's oil on canvas "Undergrowth with Two Figures" of 1980. The article concludes with questions for students to consider in relation to these aspects of the painting.

  15. Figure5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an R statistics package script that allows the reproduction of Figure 5. The script includes the links to large NetCDF files that the figures access for O3,...

  16. Painted Pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a six week art class project for elementary school children that lasted for six weeks. Explains that the students painted sunflowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh over the rust spots of a pickup truck. Reports that the painting served as great publicity for the art classes. (CMK)

  17. Monster Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  18. Painted Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  19. Monster Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  20. Figure 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Two files provided. The ENS.tar file contains text data files (*.csv) used to create Figure 7 and Figure 8. The Figure7.txt is an R script that reads these files and...

  1. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  2. Regular figures

    CERN Document Server

    Tóth, L Fejes; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1964-01-01

    Regular Figures concerns the systematology and genetics of regular figures. The first part of the book deals with the classical theory of the regular figures. This topic includes description of plane ornaments, spherical arrangements, hyperbolic tessellations, polyhedral, and regular polytopes. The problem of geometry of the sphere and the two-dimensional hyperbolic space are considered. Classical theory is explained as describing all possible symmetrical groupings in different spaces of constant curvature. The second part deals with the genetics of the regular figures and the inequalities fo

  3. Structural analysis of a functional DIAP1 fragment bound to grim and hid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J W; Cocina, A E; Chai, J; Hay, B A; Shi, Y

    2001-07-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP1 suppresses apoptosis in Drosophila, with the second BIR domain (BIR2) playing an important role. Three proteins, Hid, Grim, and Reaper, promote apoptosis, in part by binding to DIAP1 through their conserved N-terminal sequences. The crystal structures of DIAP1-BIR2 by itself and in complex with the N-terminal peptides from Hid and Grim reveal that these peptides bind a surface groove on DIAP1, with the first four amino acids mimicking the binding of the Smac tetrapeptide to XIAP. The next 3 residues also contribute to binding through hydrophobic interactions. Interestingly, peptide binding induces the formation of an additional alpha helix in DIAP1. Our study reveals the structural conservation and diversity necessary for the binding of IAPs by the Drosophila Hid/Grim/Reaper and the mammalian Smac proteins.

  4. Expression and functional characterization of a gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Zhu, Xinping; Chen, Kunci; Zhang, Qiya

    2013-01-01

    GRIM-19 is a nuclear encoded subunit of complex I that has been implicated in apoptosis. The protein participates in multiple functions including the innate immune response. GRIM-19 has been studied in humans and other mammals; however, fish GRIM-19 has not been well characterized. In this study, a new GRIM-19 gene, EcGRIM-19, was isolated from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) cDNA library, which was constructed following LPS treatment. EcGRIM-19 is a 582-bp gene that encodes a 144-amino acid protein. The gene is a true ortholog of mammalian GRIM-19. EcGRIM-19 exhibits ubiquitous and constitutive expression in the different tissues of the orange-spotted grouper. The expression levels of EcGRIM-19 are altered in the gill, spleen, kidney and liver after induction with LPS. The subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that the EcGRIM-19 protein is localized predominantly in the mitochondria. In addition, amino acids 30-50 of the protein are responsible for the mitochondrial localization of EcGRIM-19. The caspase assay demonstrated that the overexpression of GRIM-19 enhanced the cellular sensitivity to interferon(IFN)-β- and retinoic acid (RA)-induced death in HeLa cells. The data presented in this study are important for further understanding the EcGRIM-19 gene function in fish.

  5. Figure6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R script for the reproduction of Figure6. This script accesses archived CMAQ and WRF model output on US EPA's HPC sol computer system and plots forward trajectories...

  6. Graffiti (Figural)

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Uribe, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Some of the earliest evidence for written communication in Egypt derives from figural graffiti—a variation of rock art. These texts are evidenced from many sites in Egypt, especially the Western Desert.

  7. Figure 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Figure.tar.gz contains a directory for each WRF ensemble run. In these directories are *.csv files for each meteorology variable examined. These are comma...

  8. Jade Figures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Jade carved figures,the tallest 4 cm high,the lowest2.5cm,were unearthed from the tomb of a nobleman fromthe Zhongshan Kingdom in the Warring States Period.Allthe figures,of solemn expression,have clear and simplefacial features,The one with hair worn in a small bun is aboy and the two with hair shaped into ox horns are female

  9. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  10. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  11. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  12. Figure 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Figure.tar.gz contains a directory for each WRF ensemble run. In these directories are *.csv files for each meteorology variable examined. These are comma delimited text files that contain statistics for each observation site. Also provided is an R script that reads these files (user would need to change directory pointers) and computes the variability of error and bias of the ensemble at each site and plots these for reproduction of figure 3.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gilliam , R., C. Hogrefe , J. Godowitch, S. Napelenok , R. Mathur , and S.T. Rao. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 120(23): 12,259–12,280, (2015).

  13. On Embody the Traditional Figure Painting Artistic Conception in Modern Chinese Wash Cartoon%现代水墨动画艺术形式中如何体现传统水墨人物画的意境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乌云; 刘天婕; 曲猛

    2011-01-01

    China is the most distinct wash cartoon ethnic styles,the form of the cartoon creation meaningful.Wash cartoon visual language originates from our country in one thousand years history of the traditional water-ink paintings art form.The traditional aesthetic subject matter and the artistic conception,inevitable meeting as audio-visual art form in wash cartoon in,as the most characteristic of Chinese animation art form of ink painting animation it is traditional culture in China foreign animation art with the outcome of the combination of research,wash cartoon must study it and the traditional Chinese paternity.%中国水墨动画是最具有鲜明民族风格的动画片,其创作的形式充满诗情画意。水墨动画的视觉语言来源于我国千年来历史的传统水墨画艺术形式。传统的题材和审美意境,必然会作为视听的艺术形式介入水墨动画中来,作为最具本土特色的动画艺术形式的水墨动画它是我国传统文化同外来动画艺术相结合的产物,研究水墨动画必须研究它与中国传统的亲缘关系。

  14. Expression of GRIM-19 in human tissues of hepatocel1ular carcinoma and hepatic cirrhosis%GRIM-19在肝细胞癌和肝硬化中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 冯其柱; 姚磊; 王清华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of GRIM-19 proteins in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma( HBV-HCC ) , post-hepatitis B hepatic cirrhosis( HBV-hepatic cirrhosis )and normal hepatic tissues specimen, and explore their correlation between HBV-HCC and HBV-hepatic cirrhosis tissues. Methods Using immunohistochemistry , the expression of GRIM-19 proteins in 52 cases of HBV-HCC and their para-carcinoma tissues ,26 cases of HBV-hepatic cirrhosis and 10 cases of normal liver tissues specimen were detected and compared. Results The positive rate of GRIM-19 expression was significantly higher in HBV-hepatic cirrhosis tissues than that in HBV-HCC tissues , para-carcinoma tissues and normal liver tissues( P < 0. 05 ), but GRIM-19 expression was no significant between HBV-HCC tissues and para-carcinoma tissues,its expression was also no significant between HBVHCC tissues and normal liver tissues. The expression of GRIM-19 was related to TNM stage of HBV-HCC( P < 0. 05 ), the relative amount of GRIM-19 proteins expression of stage I - n were significantly higher than those of stage Ⅲ - Ⅳ. Conclusion The overexpression of CRIM-19 in HBV-hepatic cirrhosis suggests that it may participate in the tumorigenesis and development of HCC and hepatic cirrhosis. GRIM-19 may be as a new tumor marker to HBV-HCC early screening.%目的 探讨GRIM-19蛋白在乙肝病毒相关性肝细胞癌、乙型病毒性肝炎后肝硬化及正常肝组织标本中的表达差异、相关性及意义.方法 收集乙肝病毒相关性肝细胞癌组织和对应的癌旁组织各52例、乙型病毒性肝炎后肝硬化26例、正常肝组织标本10例,用免疫组化检测GRIM-19蛋白表达水平,并进行比较.结果 乙型病毒性肝炎后肝硬化组织中GRIM-19蛋白表达强度显著高于乙肝病毒相关性肝细胞癌组织﹑癌旁肝组织和正常肝组织(P<0.05),乙肝病毒相关性肝细胞癌组织中GRIM-19蛋白表达强度与癌周肝组织及正

  15. Hid, Rpr and Grim negatively regulate DIAP1 levels through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soon Ji; Huh, Jun R; Muro, Israel; Yu, Hong; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Susan L; Feldman, R M Renny; Clem, Rollie J; Müller, H-Arno J; Hay, Bruce A

    2002-06-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins suppress apoptosis and inhibit caspases. Several IAPs also function as ubiquitin-protein ligases. Regulators of IAP auto-ubiquitination, and thus IAP levels, have yet to be identified. Here we show that Head involution defective (Hid), Reaper (Rpr) and Grim downregulate Drosophila melanogaster IAP1 (DIAP) protein levels. Hid stimulates DIAP1 polyubiquitination and degradation. In contrast to Hid, Rpr and Grim can downregulate DIAP1 through mechanisms that do not require DIAP1 function as a ubiquitin-protein ligase. Observations with Grim suggest that one mechanism by which these proteins produce a relative decrease in DIAP1 levels is to promote a general suppression of protein translation. These observations define two mechanisms through which DIAP1 ubiquitination controls cell death: first, increased ubiquitination promotes degradation directly; second, a decrease in global protein synthesis results in a differential loss of short-lived proteins such as DIAP1. Because loss of DIAP1 is sufficient to promote caspase activation, these mechanisms should promote apoptosis.

  16. Long term fine aerosols at the Cape Grim global baseline station: 1998 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jagoda; Cohen, David D.; Stelcer, Eduard; Atanacio, Armand J.

    2017-10-01

    When air masses were arriving from the baseline sector, the maximum concentration of aged sea salt was 1.3 μg/m3, compared to overall maximum of 4.9 μg/m3. For secondary sulfates and nitrates the maximum concentrations were 2.5 and 7.5 μg/m3 from the baseline sector and overall, respectively. While measurements at Cape Grim can be affected from long range transport from mainland Australia and some local Tasmanian sources, the average concentrations of anthropogenic sources are still considerably lower than those measured at more populated areas. For example, at Lucas Heights (located south-west of the Sydney central business district, with little local sources) the average concentrations of secondary sulfates/nitrates and aged sea air were 1.4 and 1.0 μg/m3, respectively; compared to average concentrations of 0.8 and 0.6 μg/m3, at Cape Grim. The average concentrations of smoke were compatible at the two sites. The impact of primary aerosols from vehicle exhaust at Cape Grim was limited and no corresponding fingerprint was resolved.

  17. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  18. Huashan rock paintings and other simitar paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the countries with the rechest rock paintings in the world. The Huashan rock paintings features color paintings, quite different from those in the North China areas where petroglyphs were created by engraving, chiseling,incising,or grinding,such as those in Inner Mongolia and Helan Mountains in Gansu.The rock paintings at Ulanchabu of Inner Mongolia are regarded as works of the Neolithic age,bronze age and iron age ,featuring mainly such grassland animals as

  19. GRIM-19及其靶基因产物STAT3在人乳腺癌组织中的表达%Expression of GRIM-19 and its target gene product STAT3 in human breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敏; 汪英; 刘骁蕾; 王本忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) expression levels and the correlation with its target gene product signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)in human breast cancer tissues and normal gland tissues,and to analyze their roles in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer.Methods The expression of GRIM-19 and STAT3 protein and mRNA in 40 cases of breast cancer tissues and 40 cases of normal gland tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot.The correlation of the expression of GRIM-19 and STAT3 to various clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer were analyzed statistically.The mRNA expression and gene mutation of GRIM-19 in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and 25 specimens of breast cancer and normal gland tissue were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and sequencing.Results The protein and mRNA expression of GRIM-19 was obviously lower in breast cancer than in normal gland tissues (P < 0.05) while the protein and mRNA expression of STAT3 was obviously higher in breast cancer than in normal gland tissues(P <0.05).The expression of GRIM-19 and STAT3 was negatively correlated with each other(x2 =8.25,P <0.01).Breast cancer samples exhibited low level of GRIM-19 and moderate to high level of STAT3 expression.In contrast,the normal gland tissue was characterized by high level of GRIP-19 and low level of STAT3 expression.The protein expression of GRIM-19 was correlated with the histological grading and clinical stage of breast cancer(P < 0.05).STAT3 was not correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer (P > 0.05).No mutation of GRIM-19 gene was detected in breast cancer tissues,normal gland tissues or MCF-7 breastcancer cells.Conclusions The low expression of GRIM-19 and the high expression of STAT3 co-exist in breast cancer.Downregulation of GRIM-19 was closely correlated with increased histological grade

  20. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  1. Example based painting generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-wen; YU Jin-hui; XU Xiao-dong; WANG Jin; PENG Qun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for generating paintings on photographic images with the style encoded by the example paintings and adopt representative brushes extracted from the example paintings as the painting primitives. Our system first divides the given photographic image into several regions on which we synthesize a grounding layer with texture patches extracted from the example paintings. Then, we paint those regions using brushes stochastically chosen from the brush library, with further brush color and shape perturbations. The brush direction is determined by a direction field either constructed by a convenient user interactive manner or synthesized from the examples. Our approach offers flexible and intuitive user control over the painting process and style.

  2. GRIM-19及其相关蛋白促凋亡机制的研究进展%Research advancement of pro-apoptotic mechanisms of GRIM-19 and its related proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国华; 蔡华伟(综述); 赵祯(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer development is a complex process that involves multiple genetic changes and multiple signaling pathways . Recent findings show that the GRIM-19 is a novel apoptosis regulation gene , and its gene mutations and loss of protein expression have been observed in many tumor types such as urinarysystem tumor , digestive system neoplasm , which are closely related to cancer devel-opment.Thus, GRIM-19 may be a potential target for gene therapy .Pro-apoptotic mechanisms of GRIM-19 and its related proteins such as STAT3,GW112,p16INK4aare overviewed in this article.%肿瘤的发生发展是一个涉及多基因改变、多信号通路的过程。 GRIM-19是一个新的细胞凋亡调控基因,其基因的突变、蛋白表达的缺失发生在泌尿系统肿瘤、消化系统肿瘤等多种肿瘤中,与肿瘤的发生发展密切相关,并有可能成为基因治疗的一个潜在靶点。文中就GRIM-19及其相关蛋白STAT3,GW112,p16Ink4a等促凋亡的作用机制作一综述。

  3. Oxidation States of Grim Glasses in EET79001 Based on Vanadium Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S. R.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses in SNC meteorites are very rich in Martian atmospheric noble gases and sulfur suggesting a possible occurrence of regolith-derived secondary mineral assemblages in these samples. Previously, we have studied two GRIM glasses, 506 and 507, from EET79001 Lith A and Lith B, respectively, for elemental abundances and spatial distribution of sulfur using EMPA (WDS) and FE-SEM (EDS) techniques and for sulfur-speciation using K-edge XANES techniques. These elemental and FE-SEM micro-graph data at several locations in the GRIM glasses from Shergotty (DBS), Zagami 994 and EET79001, Lith B showed that FeO and SO3 are positively correlated (SO3 represents a mixture of sulfide and sulfate). FE-SEM (EDS) study revealed that the sulfur-rich pockets in these glasses contain numerous micron-sized iron-sulfide (Fe-S) globules sequestered throughout the volume. However, in some areas (though less frequently), we detected significant Fe-S-O signals suggesting the occurrence of iron sulfate. These GRIM glasses were studied by K-edge microXANES techniques for sulfur speciation in association with iron in sulfur-rich areas. In both samples, we found the sulfur speciation dominated by sulfide with minor oxidized sulfur mixed in with various proportions. The abundance of oxidized sulfur was greater in 506 than in 507. Based on these results, we hypothesize that sulfur initially existed as sulfate in the glass precursor materials and, on shock-impact melting of the precursor materials producing these glasses, the oxidized sulfur was reduced to predominately sulfide. In order to further test this hypothesis, we have used microXANES to measure the valence states of vanadium in GRIM glasses from Lith A and Lith B to complement and compare with previous analogous measurements on Lith C (note: 506 and 507 contain the largest amounts of martian atmospheric gases but the gas-contents in Lith C measured by are unknown). Vanadium is ideal for addressing this re

  4. 莫高窟唐五代壁画供养人服饰领型研究%On the Collar Styles of the Donor Figures in the Tang and Five Dynasties Wall Paintings at the Mogao Grottoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波

    2014-01-01

    对莫高窟唐五代供养人服饰中出现的领型形制进行了分析,归纳出六种领型,它们是直领、交领、圆领、绻领、袒领、方心曲领;并就这六种领型与服装款式搭配关系和领型与性别、等级之间的关系、领型形成的渊源进行了研究探索。%This paper analyzes the collar styles of the Tang dynasty donor figures at the Mogao Grottoes and classifies them into seven types:straight, crossed, round, turned-down, flat, and collars with a round top and a lower square. It also attempts to explore how these collar types had been used, what the relation was between collar types and gender or social ranks, and how the different styles had been developed.

  5. Figuring Out Art History

    CERN Document Server

    Schich, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    World population and the number of cultural artifacts are growing exponentially or faster, while cultural interaction approaches the fidelity of a global nervous system. Every day hundreds of millions of images are loaded into social networks by users all over the world. As this myriad of new artifacts veils the view into the past, like city lights covering the night sky, it is easy to forget that there is more than one Starry Night, the painting by Van Gogh. Like in ecology, where saving rare species may help us in treating disease, art and architectural history can reveal insights into the past, which may hold keys to our own future. With humanism under threat, facing the challenge of understanding the structure and dynamics of art and culture, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is more crucial now than it ever was. The purpose of this article is to provide perspective in the aim of figuring out the process of art history - not art history as a discipline, but the actual history of all made things, in t...

  6. Er gulvet grim og skummel, så ring til Hummel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    ”Er gulvet grim og skummel, så ring til Hummel” ”Skal De feste, så ring til Eske” ”De sidder og prutter, vi kommer og sutter” Hvem har ikke på et eller andet tidspunkt mødt den slags sjove og ofte kiksede slogans på en varebil. Men hvad er det egentlig for noget? Det sætter denne bog sig for at k......”Er gulvet grim og skummel, så ring til Hummel” ”Skal De feste, så ring til Eske” ”De sidder og prutter, vi kommer og sutter” Hvem har ikke på et eller andet tidspunkt mødt den slags sjove og ofte kiksede slogans på en varebil. Men hvad er det egentlig for noget? Det sætter denne bog sig...... for at komme med et bud på. Bogen bygger på over 300 slogans, som forfatteren har indsamlet gennem flere år. Niels Brügger er lektor i medievidenskab ved Institut for Informations- og Medievidenskab, Aarhus Universitet. Til daglig forsker han i internettets historie — de sjove slogans er en hobby....

  7. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  8. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  9. Francis Bacon: The Real's Brutality. The Figure and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mannucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Getting in front of painting by Francis Bacon touches you deeply. I’m talking about aesthetics, sensations: resounding flow that strikes abruptly, making futile any search for meaning. Francis Bacon circumvents the figurative, the meaning, he aims to the figural: to feelings, not words. Beauty, in his paintings, shows itself in the peaceful union of the positive and of its contrary; if the negative wasn’t there, though, his paintings wouldn’t exude such a brutal sense of reality. This essay investigates the figure of Francis Bacon and the spectator – the Other – as he tries to confront the painting. Bacon will be analysed using a purely phenomenological approach, with references that range from Merleau-Ponty to Martin Heidegger; the meeting-collision between the spectator and the painting, instead, will be examined taking inspiration from the Winnicott’s thesis on the relationship between Bacon and mirrors in the painter’s childhood. In order to take distance from Winnicott’s psychoanalytical approach, this essay will focus on the relationship between spectator and painting from a more anthropological point of view. 

  10. Judgments of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure of the judgements of paintings was investigated. In the preliminary study, the subjects were asked to describe their subjective experience of paintings producing a list of attributes. The set of 76 most frequent attributes was selected and transformed into a bipolar 7-step scale (e.g. beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, interesting-boring etc. In the central part of the study, 200 subjects judged paintings on 76 scales. The paintings were grouped into two subgroups, A (200 paintings and B (200 paintings. This part of the study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, 200 subjects judged one of the 200 paintings from the subgroup A (each painting was judged only by one subject, whereas in the second step the same 200 subjects judged 200 paintings from the subgroup B (each painting was judged only by one subject.. Two simple data matrices, A and B, and one complex matrix A + B (string out matrix: matrix B is continued under the matrix A were obtained. The factor analyses (Promax and Orthoblique rotation have shown the consistency of a four factor extraction for three matrices (A, B i A+B using both rotation methods: Evaluation (clever, balanced, interesting, etc., Potency (rich, dense, relaxing etc., Cognitive factor (clear, ordinary, stimulative, etc. and Dynamics (provoking, tense, creative.

  11. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  12. The female images in the tang dynasty painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽霞

    2014-01-01

    the tang dynasty is the most prosperous dynasties in ancient China. Both in the cultural, economic, political and artistic performance is very outstanding. Historical development of the era makes unprece-dented open people's minds, such open also natural y seep into the woman's behavior, they have a certain personal freedom and individuality liberation, the status of women is rising. This painting in the tang dy-nasty has very good reflected in the female image. At times like these, had appeared Zhang Xuan, zhou-fang painter, their painting art has ex-erts a far-reaching influence on the later tang dynasty figure painting.

  13. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  14. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  15. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  16. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  17. All-polymer photovoltaic devices of poly(3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Thomas W; Woo, Claire H; Kavulak, David F J; Thompson, Barry C; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2009-10-14

    The synthesis of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) is reported. GRIM POPT is found to have favorable electronic, optical, and processing properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-charge limited current and field effect transistor measurements for POPT yielded hole mobilities of 1 x 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s) and 0.05 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Spincasting GRIM POPT from chlorobenzene yields a thin film with a 1.8 eV band gap, and PC(61)BM:POPT bulk heterojection devices provide a peak performance of 3.1%. Additionally, an efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in an all-polymer, bilayer OPV using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (CNPPV) as an acceptor. This state-of-the-art all-polymer device is analyzed in comparison to the analogous poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/CNPPV device. Counter to expectations based on more favorable energy level alignment, greater active layer light absorption, and similar hole mobility, P3HT/CNPPV devices perform less well than POPT/CNPPV devices with a peak efficiency of 0.93%.

  18. Plasmid-based Survivin shRNA and GRIM-19 carried by attenuated Salmonella suppresses tumor cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Bo Liu1; De-Qi Xu; Ling Zhang1; Ya-Xiong Guo; Li-Fang Gao; Xi-Chun Liu; Li-Juan Zhao; Bao-Feng Guo; Li-Jing Zhao; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Persistent activation of Survivin and its overexpression contribute to the formation,progression and metastasis of several different tumor types.Therefore,Survivin is an ideal target for RNA interference mediated-growth inhibition.Blockade of Survivin using specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) can significantly reduce prostate tumor growth.RNA interference does not fully ablate target gene expression,owing to the idiosyncrasies associated with shRNAs and their targets.To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Survivin-specific shRNA,we employed a combinatorial expression of Survivin-specific shRNA and gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19).Then,the GRIM-19 coding sequences and Survivin-specific shRNAs were used to create a dual expression plasmid vector and were carried by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S.typhimurium) to treat prostate cancer in vitroand in vivo.We found that the co-expressed Survivin-specific shRNA and GRIM-19synergistically and more effectively inhibited prostate tumor proliferation and survival,when compared with treatment with either single agent alone in vitro and in vivo.This study has provided a novel cancer gene therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.

  19. All-Polymer Photovoltaic Devices of Poly(3-(4- n -octyl)-phenylthiophene) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Holcombe, Thomas W.

    2009-10-14

    (Graph Presented) The synthesis of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) is reported. GRIM POPT is found to have favorable electronic, optical, and processing properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-charge limited current and field effect transistor measurements for POPT yielded hole mobilities of 1 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) and 0.05 cm2/(V s), respectively. Spincasting GRIM POPT from chlorobenzene yields a thin film with a 1.8 eV band gap, and PC61BM:POPT bulk heterojection devices provide a peak performance of 3.1%. Additionally, an efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in an all-polymer, bilayer OPV using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene) phenylene] (CNPPV) as an acceptor. This state-of-the-art all-polymer device is analyzed in comparison to the analogous poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/CNPPV device. Counter to expectations based on more favorable energy level alignment, greater active layer light absorption, and similar hole mobility, P3HT/CNPPV devices perform less well than POPT/CNPPV devices with a peak efficiency of 0.93%. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  1. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  2. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G BLUSTEIN; C DEYÁ; R ROMAGNOLI

    2016-06-01

    The present work depicts synergism anticorrosive behaviour between zinc hypophosphite and zinc phosphate in a commercial pigment mixture. Also, the performance of anticorrosive paints was evaluated. Synergism anticorrosive behaviour was evaluated by corrosion potential and linear polarization measurements in pigment suspensions. The protective layer obtained with this pigment mixture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the anticorrosive properties of the pigment were assessed by incorporating it into alkyd and epoxy paints which were evaluated by salt spray test and electrochemical noise technique. The morphology and the nature of the protective layer grown under the paint film were also studied by SEM. Experimental results showed that improved anticorrosion protection is achieved in paints with reduced zinc phosphate contents as a consequence of the synergistic interaction between zinc hypophosphite and the other components of the pigment mixture. The electrochemical noise technique proved to be adequate to monitor corrosion in painted panels and is able to detectcorrosion under the paint film from very early stages. This paper identified the need to study synergism between anticorrosive pigments to try to reduce the phosphate content in anticorrosive paints.

  3. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

  4. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  5. Paint for Motherland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On August 15, the Chinese Outstanding Art Exhibition in calligraphy and painting will bc held in mid-ring of Hong Kong, where Olympic equestrian events co-hosted, representing the masterpieces of China mainland artists. The event is a part of exchange during the 2008 Olympic period among Olympic co-hosting cities. The most eyeball-attracting showpiece will be a 960 m2 painting. "Ten Thousand Miles of Motherland", from the hand of Zhao Xiufeng.

  6. Diseases of Old Age in Two Paintings by Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two paintings of older men by Rembrandt (1609–1669 are examined to demonstrate that historical attitudes toward diseases of old age and the ageing person’s response to illness can be investigated in paintings. The works selected are of different genres and date from different stages of Rembrandt’s own life, one from his youth and one from his old age. Both paintings show figures who have joint pathologies typically associated with the ageing process, the first involving the subject’s foot and the second involving the subject’s hand. Despite the sometimes painful nature of these conditions, the subjects are shown accommodating their illnesses while maintaining both their intellectual and social engagement and their emotional composure. Although the seventeenth century offered older people very little effective medical treatment in comparison with what is presently available, these paintings nevertheless present a view of illness as a subsidiary rather than a dominant feature of old age.

  7. Essential role of grim-led programmed cell death for the establishment of corazonin-producing peptidergic nervous system during embryogenesis and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyunghee Lee

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, combinatorial activities of four death genes, head involution defective (hid, reaper (rpr, grim, and sickle (skl, have been known to play crucial roles in the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD of various tissues. However, different expression patterns of the death genes also suggest distinct functions played by each. During early metamorphosis, a great number of larval neurons unfit for adult life style are removed by PCD. Among them are eight pairs of corazonin-expressing larval peptidergic neurons in the ventral nerve cord (vCrz. To reveal death genes responsible for the PCD of vCrz neurons, we examined extant and recently available mutations as well as RNA interference that disrupt functions of single or multiple death genes. We found grim as a chief proapoptotic gene and skl and rpr as minor ones. The function of grim is also required for PCD of the mitotic sibling cells of the vCrz neuronal precursors (EW3-sib during embryonic neurogenesis. An intergenic region between grim and rpr, which, it has been suggested, may enhance expression of three death genes in embryonic neuroblasts, appears to play a role for the vCrz PCD, but not for the EW3-sib cell death. The death of vCrz neurons and EW3-sib is triggered by ecdysone and the Notch signaling pathway, respectively, suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms of grim expression in a cell- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  8. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  9. Experiments on Paint Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

  10. Drosophila Bruce can potently suppress Rpr- and Grim-dependent but not Hid-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, Stephanie Y; Chow, Vivian; Su, Julius; Verbrugghe, Koen; Yang, Jennifer; Cole, Susannah; Olson, Michael R; Hay, Bruce A

    2002-07-09

    Bruce is a large protein (530 kDa) that contains an N-terminal baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) and a C-terminal ubiquitin conjugation domain (E2). BRUCE upregulation occurs in some cancers and contributes to the resistance of these cells to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. However, it is still unknown whether Bruce inhibits apoptosis directly or instead plays some other more indirect role in mediating chemoresistance, perhaps by promoting drug export, decreasing the efficacy of DNA damage-dependent cell death signaling, or by promoting DNA repair. Here, we demonstrate, using gain-of-function and deletion alleles, that Drosophila Bruce (dBruce) can potently inhibit cell death induced by the essential Drosophila cell death activators Reaper (Rpr) and Grim but not Head involution defective (Hid). The dBruce BIR domain is not sufficient for this activity, and the E2 domain is likely required. dBruce does not promote Rpr or Grim degradation directly, but its antiapoptotic actions do require that their N termini, required for interaction with DIAP1 BIR2, be intact. dBruce does not block the activity of the apical cell death caspase Dronc or the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Debcl/Drob-1/dBorg-1/Dbok. Together, these results argue that dBruce can regulate cell death at a novel point.

  11. Nanjing Painting & Calligraphy Academy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FOUNDED in 1979,the Nanj-ing Painting and CaligraphyAcademy consists of 20 profes-sional painters,over 40 invited paintersand a few brilliant graduates from sev-eral art schools.The academy hasemerged as a major art force,withmost of its members being young andmiddle-aged painters.The academy is composed of aChinese painting research studio,anexhibition section,arts and crafts salessection and an administrative office.In1992 the Nanjing municipal govern-ment made cotributions to the acade-my for the construction of a paintingstudio and an exhibition hall coveringa combined floor area of 1,000 square

  12. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an interior decorative finish in which the pigment is bound with water- soluble glue or size. It is cheap and is sold in powder form for mixing with water. It cannot be used out of doors and will rub off if washed. Where a paint of a different kind has been... galvanised steel. The first is caused by the reactive nature of the zinc surface which damages alkyd paints and the second by the preservative that is often applied to the surface of sheet material during production. Once the steel has been exposed...

  13. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  14. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  15. Oil Paintings by Ou Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ou Yang, professor of the Oil Painting Department of Guangdong Art College, has been pursuing perfection in the field of art for many years. With their rich emotional color, paintings by her do not simply

  16. A Painting Tells Its Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Separated parts of an ancient Chinese painting to be displayed together Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao told a story about a famous Chinese painting Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains at a press conference after the Third Session of the

  17. Estimating the colors of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M. M., ed. lit.; João, Catarina A. R.; Amano, Kinjiro; Montagner, Cristina; Melo, Maria J.; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Observers can adjust the spectrum of illumination on paintings for optimal viewing experience. But can they adjust the colors of paintings for the best visual impression? In an experiment carried out on a calibrated color moni- tor images of four abstract paintings obtained from hyperspectral data were shown to observers that were unfamiliar with the paintings. The color volume of the images could be manipulated by rotating the volume around the axis through the average (a*, b*) point for eac...

  18. Figure_2_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for Figure 2. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sarwar, G., D. Kang, K. Foley, D. Schwede, B. Gantt, and R. Mathur. Technical note:...

  19. data for figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figures 1-10 and Table 1. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, S.Y., S. Arunachalam, A. Valencia, B. Naess, V. Isakov , M. Breen , T....

  20. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a 4 h enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. A wind direction change lead to a dramatic reduction in BB tracers and a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm. The dominant mode increased in size to 80 nm over 5 h in calm sunny conditions, accompanied by an increase in ozone. Due to an enhancement in BC but not CO during particle growth, the presence of BB emissions during this period could not be confirmed. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 ± 8 %), higher during the particle growth period (77 ± 4 %) and higher still (104 ± 3 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000 and 5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed

  1. Judgement of paintings belonging to different tendencies in the 20th century painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Trifunović’ hypothesis that there are three objective lines in the development of modern art was psychologically evaluated. According to Trifunović, in the first line (Cézanne - cubism - neoplasticism - suprematism the geometrization of form prevails, in the second (Van Gogh - expressionism - abstract expressionism the use of color is dominant, whereas the main features of the third line (Gauguin - fauvism are symbolic use of color and reduction of perspective. Fifteen reproductions of paintings that represent the three developmental lines were used as stimuli. The subjects were asked to judge the stimuli on nine bipolar 7-step scales. These scales constitute the three factors of instrument SDF 9: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity (3 scales x 3 factors = 9 scales. Four clusters of paintings were obtained: Abstract-expressionistic (moderate Evaluation, high Arousal and low Regularity, Figural-expressionistic (very low Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity, Constructivistic (moderate Evaluation, low Arousal and high Regularity and Realistic (high Evaluation, high Arousal and high Regularity. The results partially confirm Trifunović’ hypothesis indicating that, besides the formal features, the content (abstract vs. figural is also significant factor of subjective clustering of paintings.

  2. Impact of paint matrix composition and thickness of paint layer on the activity of photocatalytic paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicate, acrylic and latex photocatalytic paints were analyzed in regards to impact of paint matrix composition and paint layer’s thickness on performance in two photocatalytic tests. These included performances in photocatalytic decomposition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and assessment of photocatalytic activity through use of smart ink test. Silicate photocatalytic paints displayed lower photocatalytic activity in comparison to acrylic and latex photocatalytic paints in both tests, despite the similar content of nanocrystalline TiO2. Measurements of depth of UV light penetration through the paints layer were performed and it appeared, that more porous structure of coating resulted in deeper penetration of UV light. In the case of acrylic paint, the thickness of the photocatalytic layer was around 9 μm, but for silicate paint DR this thickness was higher, around 21 μm.

  3. Paint it nanoblack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2016-08-01

    Ever since our ancestors painted images on the walls of caves, artists have sought pigments to represent the 10 million tints that humans can differentiate. Now they have a new ally: researchers who are using optical design principles, nanotechnology and inspiration from nature to create deeper blacks and purer whites.

  4. Improved Paint Removal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-25

    4 (Phenol)1: p1P4 ji:i Condition of Point Surface Condition of Paint: Surface 4 after 45 minutes ufter 25 minutes Ten~t Pronsidure No. I. on~ Tent ...the ,.I .- pit so high velume water flow can be used to flush the pit floor clean at I the end of each day. Installation of removable grating is also

  5. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  6. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  7. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  8. The Farmers’ Woodcut Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Folk art is not constrained by scholastic regulations such as proportion and perspective. Taking rural life as their subject matter, farmers from the Hubei mountains by the Yangtze River’s Xiling Gorge create woodcut paintings with a humorous and unpretentious charm. Recently, more than a hundred works created by these farmer painters were exhibited in the China Art Gallery in Beijing.

  9. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...

  10. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  11. Painting for public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

  12. Art expertise reduces influence of visual salience on fixation in viewing abstract-paintings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Koide

    Full Text Available When viewing a painting, artists perceive more information from the painting on the basis of their experience and knowledge than art novices do. This difference can be reflected in eye scan paths during viewing of paintings. Distributions of scan paths of artists are different from those of novices even when the paintings contain no figurative object (i.e. abstract paintings. There are two possible explanations for this difference of scan paths. One is that artists have high sensitivity to high-level features such as textures and composition of colors and therefore their fixations are more driven by such features compared with novices. The other is that fixations of artists are more attracted by salient features than those of novices and the fixations are driven by low-level features. To test these, we measured eye fixations of artists and novices during the free viewing of various abstract paintings and compared the distribution of their fixations for each painting with a topological attentional map that quantifies the conspicuity of low-level features in the painting (i.e. saliency map. We found that the fixation distribution of artists was more distinguishable from the saliency map than that of novices. This difference indicates that fixations of artists are less driven by low-level features than those of novices. Our result suggests that artists may extract visual information from paintings based on high-level features. This ability of artists may be associated with artists' deep aesthetic appreciation of paintings.

  13. Student figures in friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.

      This thesis analyses how ‘the student', as a contested figure, is negotiated and enacted in a period of extensive university reform in Denmark. Through a combination of historical and anthropological research, it focuses on students' changing participation in the shaping of Danish society......, students' room for participation in their own learning, influenced by demands for efficiency, flexibility and student-centred education. The thesis recasts the anthropological endeavour as one of ‘figuration work'. That is, ‘frictional events' are explored as moments when conflicting figures......, the university and their own education. Detailed studies explore, first, politically active students' various attempts to influence national educational policies; second, student participation in the development of the university, especially regarding debates over consumer conduct versus co-ownership; and third...

  14. The Visual Poetry of Chinese Bamboo: Some Notes on Traditional Chinese Xieyi Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maningning C. Miclat

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese painting (Huo Hua which dates back to the Han Dynasty (25 A.D.-135 A.D. has two traditions: the Xieyi and the Gong Pi. Xieyi means "writing the meaning down" and its practitioners are literati artists who execute expressionistic and gestural strokes. Gong Pi painting is known for its application of colors and fine strokes. It is a naturalistic rendition of the subject that imitates the superficial likeness of the world. While Xieyi painting aims to capture the Qi or the vital spirit in the practice of painting and calligraphy,1 the naturalistic rendition of Gong Pi painting exhibits the dexterity of the artist. However, capturing the Qi is a more sophisticated preoccupation as far as the Chinese scholars of the classical times are concerned.Xieyi painting is associated with literati paintings or the Wen Ren Hua practiced by scholars. It includes mainly landscapes, flora and fauna, human figures, and the Si Jun Zi Hua2 or the Four Noblemen Painting. In the Si Jun Zi Hua painting of the Bamboo, the different brushstrokes of Chinese calligraphy are applied.3 Unlike Gong Pi painting, which takes many days or weeks to finish,4 the Xieyi painting is finished in one sitting. A Xieyi painting is composed by the artist on the spot. The blank paper signifies Yin and the brush strokes signify Yang. To balance a composition is to achieve harmony and wholeness. A good composition is achieved when the spirit or the essence of the subject is captured with the masterful brush strokes and a good sense of balance in the composition.In this paper, I will examine the history of Chinese literati painting, its materials, its tradition and milieu, the symbolism of its themes, and its practice in post-Cultural Revolution China.

  15. OECD in Figures, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…

  16. Figures of transversality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    affective and embodied aspects. Seeing the anomalous fetus as a "figure of transversality," as a critical focus for powerful imaginings and desires, I show how state–society relations in Vietnam are suffused by visceral affectivity and moral engagement. In the realm of reproduction, intense sentiments...

  17. On the Creation of Ink-and-wash Figure Painting on Folk Themes——Taking the Shows of Xunbu Women as an example%浅谈民俗题材的水墨人物画创作——以蟳埔女表现为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞薇绮

    2015-01-01

    Because of the unique character and style, Xunpu women are known as one of the Fujian three fisher girls. Xunpu women usually wear a tiara called "the head of the garden", dress in unique costumes and work hard,carrying through the neighborhood market. This paper attempts to start from the xunpu women's unique life forms, through the understanding of South Fujian culture, mining xunpu women folk custom features and cultural connotation, and combined with the ink painting method, and strive to explore suitable xunpu women ink painting language performance. Through the theoretical study and practice, for the future to continue the theme of creation, painting or other performance, provide the experience.%蟳埔女以其独特的风貌,与惠安女、湄洲女并称为福建三大渔女形象. 她们头戴被誉为"头上花园"的花饰,身着独特的服饰,挑担穿行于街坊集市. 从蟳埔女独特的生活形态入手,通过对闽南文化的了解,挖掘蟳埔女民俗风情特色及其人文内涵,并结合水墨人物画创作方法,力求探寻适合蟳埔女水墨人物画创作的表现语言. 通过理论学习和创作实践,为今后继续这一题材的创作,或其他人物画的表现,提供了经验.

  18. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  19. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  20. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transfor...

  1. 浅谈中国画的设色%A Brief Discussion on the Color Design in Chinese Paint-ing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静雯

    2014-01-01

    中国画的色彩有其自身的独特性,一幅好的绘画作品,色彩的表现是尤为重要的,设色可以说是一幅绘画作品的主题,内容表现也是很重要的。一幅作品的好坏,成功与否,大部分都是色彩所决定的。尤其是一张以色彩来突出主题的画,例如:中国画中的工笔重彩的人物画、工笔花鸟以及一些青山绿水画更是突出色彩的重要性。在画面上也是起到了举足轻重的作用。[1]%The color of Chinese painting possess its own inde-pendence. For a good painting, color performance is particular-ly important, and the painting design can be said to be the theme of the painting, and the content expression is also very important. What determines whether a painting is successful or not is mostly the color, especially a painting with its color to highlight the theme, such as claborate-style figure painting in the Chinese painting, claborate-style painting of flowers and birds and some paintings of mountains and rivers, in which the importance of colors is highlighted. In addition, it also plays an important role in the frame of a painting.

  2. Aesthetic experience and the emotional content of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Marković

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relationship between aesthetic experience and other emotional qualities judged in paintings. Aesthetic experience was defined as an exceptional state of mind in which a person is focused on a particular object, transcending its everyday uses and meanings and losing the awareness of surroundings and even of himself/herself. In this state a person has an exceptional emotional experience, that is a feeling of unity with the object. Our basic idea is that aesthetic experience is not reducible to pleasure or a positive hedonic tone, but a person can equally be fascinated with both pleasant and unpleasant objects. In preliminary studies we specified the stimulus set of figural and semi-figural paintings, and a set of descriptors of emotions, feelings and aesthetic experience. Participants judged the paintings on descriptors (seven-point scales. Factor analysis revealed two large factors: the bipolar factor Affective Tone (descriptors on the positive pole: lovely, charming, cheerful, etc; descriptors on the negative pole: scary, disgusting, hateful etc. and Aesthetic Experience (descriptors: exceptional, profound, unique, etc.. Additional analyses have shown no significant correlation between the two factors. These findings confirmed our idea that aesthetic experience is independent of pleasure or affective attraction, and that it can be induced by both pleasant and unpleasant paintings.

  3. Shang Yang’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shang yang is a highly representative painter in the contemporary Chinese oil painting circle. In the past few decades, his painting style has changed several times; he abandoned his successful original style and familiar subjects when he turned from realism to abstraction. In the two pieces shown here, the people of the Loess Plateau are depicted as existing as an integral whole with nature, mutually inside and outside of it. Beholden to some techniques from traditional Chinese painting Shang’s

  4. Breath Figures Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental observations of Breath Figures (BF) which are formed by the dew of water when it condenses on a cold surface. The experiments were done in specific conditions and configurations of temperature, surfaces and mixes in controlled concentration of miscibles and immiscibles substances like the salt saturated solution, alcohol and silicon oil (C_6H_18O_2Si). The hydrophobic surfaces used on those observations are thin glasses coated with ITO (Indium Tin Oxide), 3M ECG-1700 w...

  5. 绘画的书法性用笔%Calligraphic Strokes in Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云飞

    2003-01-01

    In ancient China, people believed that calligraphy and painting are of common origin, which was described early as Sbu Hua Tong ruan in Tang dynasty by Zhang Yanyuan in his art book,Li Dai Ming Hua fi. Strokes in painting changed step by step in blending with those in calligraphy in different historic periods.Here, the writer traces the history of calligraphic strokes from the inscriptions on bones to Da Zbuan and Xiao Zbuan, and then Li Sbu, which affected the stroke patterns in painting before Sui Dynasty, such as fine line drawing in figures on a basket and Gu Kaizhi's works. When they summarized eight special strokes of character Tong in the time between Sui and Tang dynasty,Cun in landscape painting was born and developed into various applications...Calligraphic strokes feature Chinese painting and form its special aesthetics in art.

  6. Vision of Spaces in the Paintings of the Asháninka sheripiare Noe Morales Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Elvira Belaunde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian shamanic painting is a hybrid art born from the coming together of Western figurative techniques, indigenous body painting and visionary shamanic experiences. It is a testimonial art by which painters express their visionary experiences to a foreign public aiming to understand the Amazonian universe. In his watercolors and drawings, the Asháninka healer Noé Silva Morales bears witness to his life as a sheripiare through the construction of visionary spaces carefully painted with skins of luminous designs.

  7. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  8. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  9. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  10. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  11. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  12. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  13. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  14. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based......, it is imperative to strengthen scientific research into the production methods, ageing and future behaviour of panel paintings, being an intricate interplay between different materials. A deeper understanding of the processes that adversely affect panel paintings over time will contribute to the improved care...

  15. A method of shadow puppet figure modeling and animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fang HUANG; Shou-qian SUN; Ke-jun ZHANG; Tian-ning XU; Jian-feng WU; Bin ZHU

    2015-01-01

    To promote the development of the intangible cultural heritage of the world, shadow play, many studies have focused on shadow puppet modeling and interaction. Most of the shadow puppet figures are still imaginary, spread by ancients, or carved and painted by shadow puppet artists, without consideration of real dimensions or the appearance of human bodies. This study proposes an algorithm to transform 3D human models to 2D puppet figures for shadow puppets, including automatic location of feature points, automatic segmentation of 3D models, automatic extraction of 2D contours, automatic clothes matching, and animation. Experiment proves that more realistic and attractive figures and animations of the shadow puppet can be generated in real time with this algorithm.

  16. Figure out the Rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    Thinking in numbers, figures and systems plays a central part in our - at least scientific – understanding of musical matters. The kind of pre-order that the numbers - and also the systemic thinking - bring along seem to facilitate the access to and dealings with what we understand as fundamental...... to reflect. By means of a critical resume of an earlier analysis of rhythmical implications in Michael Jackson's "Give In To Me" this paper discusses these matters further and reflects upon arithmetic's influences and relevance for our understanding of music.......Thinking in numbers, figures and systems plays a central part in our - at least scientific – understanding of musical matters. The kind of pre-order that the numbers - and also the systemic thinking - bring along seem to facilitate the access to and dealings with what we understand as fundamental...... musical conditions. The number stands out as constituent of understanding in our views upon and dealings with frequency and relations between frequencies. The number as such becomes the lifeless agent of movement that without further notice is allowed to include - and systematise - the 'slow' frequencies...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on ...

  18. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative work between painters and writers was a common activity among the New York School poets in the 1950s. Its popularity was a combined result of circumstance and choice. Artistic collaboration served Frank O’Hara and his New York School colleagues in their attempt to escape from...... the academic orthodoxies of New Criticism, the latter decreeing the autonomy of poetry and the harmonious integration of form and content in a signifying poetic whole. By experimenting with the interplay between poetry and other artistic genres, their collaborations with painters seriously tested the limits....... This double strategy contributes to a re-inscription of poetry and painting as sheer physical matter and means of artistic production within that world which they purport to represent in the first place. Thus, it seeks to point to the complicity of both genres in the material processes of cultural production...

  19. The Theory of Figural Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1993-01-01

    The main thesis of the paper is that geometry deals with mental entities (the so-called geometrical figures) which possess simultaneously conceptual and figural characters. The paper analyzes the internal tensions which may arise in figural concepts because of their double nature, developmental aspects, and didactical implications. (Author/MDH)

  20. Picasso's prolonged adolescence, Blue Period, and blind figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores early issues of separation-individuation, unconscious conflict, and trauma, revived and reworked in Picasso's turbulent protracted adolescence. During this critical period Picasso traveled between Barcelona and Paris four times, from age 19 to 23. His melancholic mood, related both to separation conflict and the current realities of his uprooted life and emerging career, was expressed in his painting of emaciated, despondent figures, the predominance of monochromatic blue, and his choice of social outcasts as subjects. Of particular significance are his paintings of blind persons. Separation and loss, his depressive disposition, and his choice of blind subjects were psychologically interrelated. Picasso's developmental transformation from adolescence to adulthood, marked by his finally settling in Paris, encompassed change in his personal and artistic identity.

  1. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based...

  2. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  3. The “Nationalization” of Oil Painting and Cartoons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; Tan Mingxiang; Sun Hong

    2013-01-01

    process of history, Chinese figure painting s changed dramatically.For exam-ple, Xu Beihong, Jiang Zhaohe, Ye Qianyu, Li Hu, Lu Chen, Liu Dawei, Shi Guoliang, He Jiay-ing, etc.absorbed the techniques of western oil painting, and created a new system of Chinese fig-ure painting that is quite different from original Chinese figure painting.Hence, the “nationaliza-tion” of painting existed in name only. 2.Direction of Cartoon The “nationalization” of cartoons reflects the needs of popularization and education in a specific period of China, and is a product stimulated by the“nationalization” of oil painting.In the period of the Great Leap Forward and planned economy after the liberation , “nationalization” was defined as“a mature symbol of art and literature of an era and a class.” Even though education -oriented cartoons have been changed into “artistic car-toons” and received many prizes in international competitions through the efforts of the old genera-tion of cartoon artists, it still strayed away from the entertainment function of cartoons .For a long peri-od, cartoon animations could not reflect reality, that “constraint our creative mind , and the themes of cartoon films were limited in a very narrow cir-cle.” This created five problems as follows: 1) Lack of themes which reflected reality and the future: Traditional folk stories, historical sto-ries, myths, etc.are not able to satisfy present - day teen -agers’ education.Children not only need to have an education in ancient cultural con-cepts, but they also need to think about their real life, including imaging and explorating the fu-ture technological society. 2) Misdirection in the restoration of historical materials : the repeated interpretation of history limits the creativity and imagination of cartoons. Historical material must be combined with a realis-tic spirit.Only innovation based on tradition is the key for the cartoon’ s success. 3) The differences between ancient arts

  4. Overview of paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  5. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenesis of the perception of hidden figures was investigated. The primed matching paradigm and the same-different task were used. In each experiment two types of test figures were contrasted: the more frequent and the less frequent ones. There were two prime types: identical (equal to test figures and complex (the pattern with hidden test figures. The prime duration was varied, 50 ms and 400 ms. The main result indicates that in the case of complex priming the more frequent test figures were processed significantly faster than the less frequent ones in both prime duration conditions. These results suggest that the faster the processing of a figure, the more probable the perceptual generation of this figure.

  6. Insight into Sam Francis' painting techniques through the analytical study of twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyt, Catherine; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta; Burchett-Lere, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the painting materials experimented with over the years by Sam Francis, leading figure of the post-World War II American painting, through the analytical study of an extended number of paint samples supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation. In total, 279 samples taken from twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992, were analyzed by Raman, FTIR and Py-GC/MS techniques. The obtained results revealed the Francis' preference in terms of pigments, i.e., phthalocyanine blues and greens, and outlined unconventional combination of binder media.

  7. Differences in cognitive processing when appreciating figurative and abstract art can be detected by integrating EEG and eye-tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baceviciute, Sarune; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Burelli, Paolo

    figurative or abstract art that has been manifestly reported as pleasant or unpleasant by the subject. The experiment measures the absolute power of different EEG frequency bands (i.e. delta, theta, alpha, beta & gamma) in two experimental conditions: i) abstract paintings and ii) figurative paintings. Eye...... and existing tendencies in the EEG literature, it can be postulated that figurative art viewing involves higher mental engagement, more demanding information retrieval and memory-related cognitive processes than abstract art. Therefore, it could seem to be counter-intuitive the fact that abstract art...

  8. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  9. Real-Time Processing of Pressure-Sensitive Paint Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    condition, i.e., at zero pitch, yaw, and roll. Typically, it is adequate to express xm and Rm as ,)1,1,1(,),0,( −+−== DRx mmmm zx (21) where xm and...State (S0) “2” Ex ci ta tio n Ex ci ta tio n Figure 59. Schematic of Proposed Sequential Decay Process Now assume that the rates γ12 and γ2 are...Signal Ratio on Pressure and Temperature If the paint response can be characterized by a single time constant, τ, the ratio Rij may be written

  10. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  11. NGAWANG JIGME'S MODERN WASH PAINTINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KELZANG; DORJE

    2007-01-01

    Having received a thorough college education.Ngawang Jigme naturally expresses his academic knowledge and skills through his washing paintings.Though he grew up on the plateau cating Tsampa and yak flesh,drinking yak buttered tea,living in the clear atmosphere,sunny sky and mountain scenery,he would hardly be expected to tolerate the monotone world of wash painting,which adopts black and white as its principal theme and acknow ledges"blur impression"as the ultimate aim.He strives for total absorption int...

  12. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...... and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting...

  13. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  14. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  15. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Taube, Michelle; Vila, Anna

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight...

  16. Enhanced multifunctional paint for detection of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Moses, Edward Ira; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2017-03-07

    An enhanced multifunctional paint apparatus, systems, and methods for detecting radiation on a surface include providing scintillation particles; providing an enhance neutron absorptive material; providing a binder; combining the scintillation particles, the enhance neutron absorptive material, and the binder creating a multifunctional paint; applying the multifunctional paint to the surface; and monitoring the surface for detecting radiation.

  17. Rupestral painting in the superior gallery of Altxerri cave (Aia, Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús ALTUNA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe new details of a complex figure made with red paint in a superior gallery of Altxerri cave. The head of a bison with a corniform motif stands out among other strokes of difficult interpretation. This collection of paintings has no correlation with the numerous engravings and black paintings of the main gallery of this cave. There is no access to this superior gallery from the main gallery of the cave so the Paleolithic artist would have gained access through another entry from the mountain that is unknown in the present. Near the collection of paintings described there is a bison vertebra stuck by its spinous apophysis in a crack on the rock. The C14 dating of the vertebra has not been possible due to the lack of collagen in the sample. Underneath this figure, tarsal remains of two individuals of Rupicapra rupicapra were found dated 34195 ± 1235 y 29940 ± 745 BP. The contemporaneity of the remains and the figure cannot be established.

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download ... spending. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, ...

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full ... in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family and friends provided 18. ...

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download the ... Costs Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans ...

  2. R-X Modeling Figures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Joetta Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grogan, Brandon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This document contains figures that will be included in an ORNL final report that details computational efforts to model an irradiation experiment performed on the Godiva IV critical assembly. This experiment was a collaboration between LANL and ORNL.

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every state across the ... c)(3) organization. Copyright © 2017 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's ...

  5. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Slobodan S.; Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenes...

  6. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  7. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  8. The Painting on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  9. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  10. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  11. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  12. 紫外线照射对果蝇凋亡相关基因reaper、grim、hid表达的影响%Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the expressions of apoptosis related genes reaper,grim,hid in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应琼琼; 刘婷; 顾蔚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect on the expressions of apoptosis related genes reaper(rpr), grim, hid in Drosophila mela-nogasler after ultraviolet irradiation. Methods The flies of Drosophila were collected within 8 hours after eclosion. After cultured on standard medium for 10 days,flies were exposed to ultraviolet for different times (0.0 ,0. 5 ,1.0,1. 5,2. 0 h). Then the total RNA from flies were extracted. The expressions of genes rpr,grim,hid were detected by Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results In the control group,the expressions of apoptosis related genes rpr,grim,hid in Drosophila were weak. After ultraviolet irradiation,the expressions of genes rpr,grim, hid were increased at first and then decreased. Conclusions Ultraviolet irradiation can enhance the expressions of apoptosis related genes rpr, grim, hid in Drosophila, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by ultraviolet But after a certain time exposure, expressions are decreased, which may be the cause of aging.%目的 探讨紫外线照射对果蝇凋亡相关基因reaper(rpr),grim,hid表达的影响.方法 收集8h内羽化果蝇,雌雄分开培养至10日龄,紫外线照射0,0.5,1,1.5,2h.提取果蝇总RNA,运用逆转录PCR(RT-PCR)方法检测各组果蝇rpr、grim、hid基因的表达.结果 对照组果蝇rpr、grim、hid基因表达较弱,照射后rpr、grim 、hid基因的表达量呈现先增后减的趋势.结论 紫外线照射可增加果蝇凋亡相关基因rpr,grim,hid的表达,可能是其诱导细胞凋亡的分子机制之一,但照射达到一定时间,基因表达减弱,可能是其引起衰老的原因.

  13. But when was it painted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstad, E.; Woll, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway, is dedicated to the visual works of the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944). Edvard Munch was a symbolist, expressionist painter and printmaker from Oslo, Norway. He was regarded as the pioneer of the amazing Expressionist movement. His art work from the late 1800's is the most well known, but his later work is gradually attracting more attention and is quite an inspiration of many of today's artists. The Munch Museum catalogue for 2008 contains about 1700 paintings of which virtually very few have a precise date. Even when the artist has written the year on the painting itself, there may be a significant uncertainty about this date, and partly due to unclear writing making it difficult to interpret the numbers. This means that other sources need to be applied to verify an accurate date. The climatologist at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can help dating paintings of Munch. E. g. the painting "Standing Woman with Arms Folded". The painting shows a woman in front of a hill with much snow. The location is almost certainty Grimsrød on Jeløya, a property Munch began renting on March 1, 1913. Jeløya is an island at the southeastcoast of Norway near the town Moss. Jeløya has usually not so much snow because it is near by the sea and windy. The last digit in the date is unclear and has been read as both '3' and '5'. The woman in the portrait, Ingeborg Kaurin, was Munch's model up to the beginning of 1915, so both dates are possible. The year written on the painting has been read as both 1913 and 1915, and since 1974 it has usually been interpreted as 1913 (Stenersensamlingen's catalogue 1974). In the project "But when was it painted?" disclose that it could be another year. One way to reconsider when a painting was painted is to study geophysical characteristics and consider historical observations of snow. The method that is used here is to study daily meteorological snow data from this period from the

  14. The wall painting in the church of St. Nicholas tes Rhodias near Arta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundić Leonela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the wall paintings in the Church of St. Nicholas tes Rhodias near Arta. Many scenes and individual figures are identified for the first time, and the majority of inscriptions on the frescoes are deciphered. A significant part of the text consists of a detailed analysis of the iconographic program, with particular emphasis on the iconography and style of certain depictions, which are seldom encountered in Byzantine wall painting, or possess specific features. The findings suggest that the decoration should be dated in the second half of the thirteenth century.

  15. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Lawson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs (PTR-MS, particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN > 3 nm, black carbon (BC concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number, ozone (O3, methane (CH4, carbon monixide (CO, hydrogen (H2, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O, halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1, a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb, BC (~ 1400 ng m−3 and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm−3 with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80 to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %, higher during the particle growth event (77 % and higher still (104 % in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000–5000 CCN cm−3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6–34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2 CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001–0.074. A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10

  16. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monixide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %), higher during the particle growth event (77 %) and higher still (104 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000-5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded

  17. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  18. Vagabond Figures in Slovenian Visual Art and Literature at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Simonišek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between visual and literary motifs in Slovenian painting (and illustration, graphics, and drawing and literature (both prose and poetry at the beginning of the twentieth century. It uses examples to show the popularity and rich variety of vagabond figures and their transformations and reciprocity at the level of the painting/text. However, a distinctive feature of this article is that it places the subject within the context of hermeneutics, a method that has not been used in Slovenian art history. In addition, it also reveals the symbolic complexity of the vagabond figure in the context of writers, other works, and social-historical circumstances. The emphasis is placed on artists that showed enthusiasm for this figure as a subject during the Belle Époque and also those that followed the very popular bohemian lifestyle in their everyday lives. The reception of Slovenian folk and traditional motifs from the past produced visual and semantic oscillation in which the phenomena of vagabond figures were systematized and interpreted. Many painters (e.g., Gvidon Birolla, and Maksim Gaspari and writers (e.g., Oton Župančič, Cvetko Golar, and Ivan Cankar clung to the Slovenian tradition with romantic overtones and, in line with their artistic atmosphere, integrated vagabond figures into typical Slovenian landscapes or environments. Some of them followed Symbolism and modernized the figures with autobiographical references (e.g., Fran Tratnik. The situation among the youngest generation of artists in particular showed that they managed to “escape” from copying traditional motifs and instead used them in a modern form in the “here and now” (e.g., Ivan Cankar. The discrepancy between the lack of the vagabond theme in oil painting and strong diversification in illustration, drawing, graphics, and literature could be explained by consumers’ perceived difference between “high” and “popular” art.

  19. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016.

  20. PCBs in Caulk and Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    4 ~~ I Qi I "!~~~ ~~4 4.00 r· 1 - -OSA (85 %) 7.11 3.27 Raw linseed oil 6.40 Linseed oil , heat-bodied, viscosity Z3 6.40 Titanium dioxide 15.20...Potential PCB sources  Any of these products if manufactured before 1979: ►Capacitors or transformers ►Mineral- oil filled electrical equipment...rubber parts ► Applied dried paints ► Oil -based paints ► Coatings/Sealants ► Caulking ► Adhesives and tapes ► Carbonless copy paper ► Galbestos ► Sound

  1. Paint or color? Bursa example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Susan; Cetinturk, Nihal

    2002-06-01

    While traditional/vernacular color scheme of a city in historical regions should be protected, changes in life style reflect on cityscapes in all ways, in which the role of new materials, paints, etc. cannot be denied. Lack of architectural and urban design studies in this field added to existing countless opportunities of new technology, with the strong desire to trying those by building owners, users and contractors have caused a chaotic situation in the use of color in cities; Bursa with its historical colorful background is no exception. All these form a trial and error phase, with painted or materials applied on surfaces without a sensitive touch to transform them to color. This must be taken in mind that color with its inherent power can bind past, present and future of the city and create an urban sense of place.

  2. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  3. Concepts and Figures in Geometric Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim; Nachlieli, Talli

    1998-01-01

    Opens with the theoretical construct of figural concepts. Argues that geometrical figures are characterized by both conceptual and sensorial properties. Investigates the effects of interaction between conceptual and figural components. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  4. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-07

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  5. Washi Painting Exchanges Promote Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2014-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA),a washi painting exchange delegation headed by Umeko Iwai,President of Rainbow Society of Japan,a Hiroshima-based non-profit organization,visited Sichuan Province from November 3 to 5,2013.Rice paper was invented in China in ancient times.When the paper-making

  6. Color signatures in Amorsolo paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Maricor N.; Palomero, Cherry May; Cruz, Larry; Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister; Dado, Julie Mae; Salvador-Campaner, Janice May

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a two-year project aimed at capturing quantifiable color signatures of oil paintings of Fernando Amorsolo, the Philippine's first National Artists. Color signatures are found by comparing CIE xy measurements of skin color in portraits and ground, sky and foliage in landscapes. The results are compared with results of visual examination and art historical data as well as works done by Amorsolo's contemporaries and mentors.

  7. [Abstract painting, a mental esthetic construction without exact correspondence with reality (José Guerrero: manuel and corporal expressions in his paintings)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portera Sánchez, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    It is desirable that a truthful aesthetic experience should be the consequence of a complete observation detached from all sorts of commercial, social, political or cultural ties. If during this period of admiration of a work of art a personal concentration is reached, the admirer perceives a liberation from all sorts of limiting ties and a rewarding artistic feeling. A similar type of mental freedom must be reached by the artist and prevail during the process of creation which must reach its greatest dimension in abstract paintings because not being illustrations they demand from the spectator a well developed habit to detect its esthetic values, difficult to perceive because they are in the abstract order. The dimensions such as perspective, symmetry, lights and shadows, usually integrated in figurative paintings to create well defined tridimensional spaces are not included in abstractions because this type of geometrical composition is not needed. In contemporary abstraction the design itself has lost its formal meaning and its protagonist role. It is frequently replaced by abrupt gestures as it is the case in the styles named "action painting" (Jackson Pollack) or "abstract expressionism" (Antonio Saura). Other abstract painters close to "minimalism" simply drop the colors on the canvas without any attempt to design but full of aesthetic energy and even single colors uniformly bathe the surface of the linen (Rothko). Other american artists of the sixties (Monis Louis) are also to be admired. They allow that the deposited and sliding colors themselves initiate and finish interesting artistic compositions. They become esential creative agents in the painting without being forced to be figurative nor to follow the creative will of the artist who, is simply acting as the first observer and only intervenes "a posteriori" accepting or rejecting the results. Only the colors and under the single influence of their sliding density create the shapes and artistic

  8. Combas & Co. or the Figure and the Great Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Yaari

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The young painter, Robert Combas, leader of the 1980s "figuration libre" 'free figuration' movement, is seen here both as representative of stylistic and thematic trends in contemporary French art, and as illustrative, through the unfolding of his career, of the object "painting" and its sociology in contemporary France. Examined are: first, the "Postmodern convergence" of figurative, indeed narrative art, with the collapse of the "great divide" between elite and popular art forms; and second, traits such as hypertrophic verbal paratext, high erotic content, and political stand. Similar threads are followed in the work of a number of other artists, old and young, established or not, female and male—hence the "& Co." of the title. The essay raises, without claiming to solve, a set of sociologically and politically informed questions: What forces have shaped Combas' sensibility and style? What forces have made him a minor celebrity domestically, one that France's awesome cultural apparatus considers worthy of export? What, in the formation of contemporary mentalities and tastes, may account for the parallels found among artists as diverse as Combas, Quardon, Pierre and Gilles, Ben, and Klossowski?

  9. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  10. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the International Work Group ( ... More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data ...

  12. Retorical figures in advertising language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.

  13. The estimate on lunar figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  14. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched

  15. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635–1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depic...

  16. Ernst H. Gombrich on Abstract Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Caldarola

    2015-01-01

    Ernst H. Gombrich criticized abstract painting with several remarks scattered around his wide oeuvre. I argue that his view of abstract paintings is coherent with the account of pictorial representation he put forward in Art and Illusion, show some limits of such view, and maintain that, although several of Gombrich’s criticisms of abstract painting should be rejected, some of his remarks are insightful and worth of consideration.

  17. Ernst H. Gombrich on Abstract Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caldarola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ernst H. Gombrich criticized abstract painting with several remarks scattered around his wide oeuvre. I argue that his view of abstract paintings is coherent with the account of pictorial representation he put forward in Art and Illusion, show some limits of such view, and maintain that, although several of Gombrich’s criticisms of abstract painting should be rejected, some of his remarks are insightful and worth of consideration.

  18. The magnetic imaging of oil paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P Costa [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, H Lins de [CBPF, R. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Portinari, J C [Projeto Portinari, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wolff, C S [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kafensztok, S M [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, H R [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Acosta-Avalos, D [IP and D-UNIVAP, Av. Shihima Hifumi 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Symko, O G [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 84112 UT (United States); Bruno, A C [Department of Physics, PUC-Rio, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-06-01

    We propose a new technique for authentication of oil paintings, using a scanning SQUID technique to measure its magnetic field. The paintings are pre-magnetized in an homogeneous field of 100 G. It was observed that the response depends on the ferromagnetic properties of each paint independent of its colour. This shows that a magnetic image could be used as a magnetic signature for authentication purposes. (rapid communication)

  19. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...... that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond...

  20. Three-dimensional survey of paint layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Enrico; Bellucci, Roberto; Carcagni, Pierluigi; Casaccia, Antonella; Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Piccolo, Roberta; Pingi, Paolo; Pezzati, Luca

    2007-07-01

    The quantitative morphological analysis of a painting surface allows to evidence form defects and to study, thus, their influence on the stability of the paint and preparatory layers, as well as of the support. Therefore a three-dimensional survey can be very useful in planning the restoration intervention of a painting. In this work we present the results of the surface analysis carried out on the painting "Ultima Cena" by Giorgio Vasari. This panel painting is severely affected by paint film wrinkling produced as a consequence of the flood that occurred in Florence in 1966. Our analysis, accomplished to quantify the lengthening of the paint layer with respect to the one of the support in order to plan the restoration intervention, was performed on 25 profiles separated each by 10 cm in order to cover the whole painting surface. A data analysis, based on morphological filtering named "Rolling Ball" transformation, was used to evaluate the length difference between the paint layer and the panel support along each profile.

  1. Order-Fractal transition in abstract paintings

    OpenAIRE

    De la Calleja, E. M.; Cervantes, F.; De la Calleja, J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the degree of order of twenty-two Jackson Pollock's paintings using \\emph{Hausdorff-Besicovitch fractal dimension}. Through the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks are classify by the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock's paintings are fractal and it increased on his latest works. However our results show that fractal dimension of the paintings are on a range of fractal dimension with values close to two. We identify this behavio...

  2. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resins. 173.173 Section 173.173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  3. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica de pigmentos y soportes en pinturas murales: caso Mayapan, Yucatan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, B.; Cobo, J.; Schorr, M. [Area de Corrosion y Materiales, Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez, S/N, 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico); Cota, L. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Oviedo, F. [Centro INAH - BC, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)]. e-mail: benval@iing.mxl.uabc.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called {sup s}tone on stone{sup ,} explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  4. Melody of Autumn (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps because of the nature of a woman, I take great interest in painting flowers and plants. But the difference is I prefer instead of the blooming flowers the dry flowers surviving the blossom. The dry cockscomb, sunflower, lotus and the wild flowers whose names I don’t know can always remind me of past stories. In recent years, my dried flawers have been displayed at exhibitions both at home and abroad and won appraisal and the top prize at the 1995 Eighth National Arts Exhibition. Some works have been collected by the China Art Gallery and private collectors from Hang Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Europe.

  5. Monitoring temperature and pressure over surfaces using sensitive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Viramontes, J. Ascención; Moreno Hernández, David; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Morán Loza, José Miguel; García Arreola, Alicia

    2007-03-01

    Two techniques for monitoring temperature and pressure variations over surfaces using sensitive paints are presented. The analysis is done by the acquisition of a set of images of the surface under analysis. The surface is painted by a paint called Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) for pressure measurements and Temperature Sensitive Paints (TSP) for temperature measurements. These kinds of paints are deposited over the surface under analysis. The recent experimental advances in calibration process are presented in this paper.

  6. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  7. Painting with Clay Van Gogh Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" and describes a lesson where fifth- and sixth-grade students created their own version of the artwork. Explains that the students utilized four colors of Permoplast clay, using their hands and fingers as brushes and blending tools and the clay as paint. (CMK)

  8. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  9. Painted Beauties-East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Chinese painting, specifi-cally painting with ink or watercolors, has a different perspective from the way Western artists create images:" said my friend Ting Ting. She's a professional editor and she loves classical Chinese art. Ting Ting often invites me to attend gallery openings around Beijing.

  10. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...... in depth of the lime-based historical plaster....

  11. Mural paintings deterioration – a multianalytical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, T; J. Mirão; Candeias, A J; Caldeira, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel microanalytical approach in the mural paintings microbial diversity characterisation and identification of the damages promoted by their biological activity. Mortar microfragments, removed from visually biodegraded mural paintings, were analysed by several microscopic/spectroscopy techniques: variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (VP-SEM-EDS), raman microspectrometry and infrared spectrometry in ...

  12. Digital color restoration of old paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, M; Pitas, I

    2000-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes can degrade the visual color appearance of old paintings. Five digital color restoration techniques, which can be used to simulate the original appearance of paintings, are presented. Although a small number of color samples is employed in the restoration procedure, simulation results indicate that good restoration quality can be attained.

  13. Structural color painting by rubbing particle powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-09

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  14. Subsurface Raman analysis of thin painted layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Claudia; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Zerbi, Giuseppe; Matousek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Here we present, for the first time, an extension of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy to thin (tens of micrometers thick), highly turbid stratified media such as those encountered in paintings. The method permits the non-destructive interrogation of painted layers in situations where conventional Raman microscopy is not applicable due to high turbidity of the top layer(s). The concept is demonstrated by recovering the pure Raman spectra of paint sub-layers that are completely obscured by paint over-layers. Potential application areas include the analysis of paintings in art preservation and restoration avoiding the cross-sectional analysis used currently with this type of samples. The technique also holds promise for the development as a non-destructive subsurface tool for in situ analysis using portable instruments.

  15. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  16. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  17. Foot deformities in Renaissance paintings. A mystery of symbolism, artistic licence, illusion and true representation in five renowned Renaissance painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, D; Castello, M F; Grassetti, L; Dashti, T; Zhang, Y X; Persichetti, P

    2015-01-01

    Although Renaissance artists were skilled in representing normal anatomy, a close look at some paintings reveals anatomical variations in the depiction of the feet of human figures. A systematic review has identified 25 paintings by five artists in which the presumptive medico-artistic diagnosis of congenital or acquired foot deformity seems to be varyingly present. The connection between these five painters and what factors have influenced artists' style in the depiction of such deformities is discussed. The possible iconography and medical-historical meaning of such variations, as well as the possibility of artistic licence and real representation that drove the painters to depict these deformities, is explored and debated.

  18. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  19. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers. Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI and damage frequency (DF observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group ( P≤0.05. In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF were significantly greater than that for the control group ( P≤0.05. Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers.

  20. Brainhood, anthropological figure of modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    If personhood is the quality or condition of being an individual person, "brainhood" could name the quality or condition of being a brain. This ontological quality would define the "cerebral subject" that has, at least in industrialized and highly medicalized societies, gained numerous social inscriptions since the mid-20th century. This article explores the historical development of brainhood. It suggests that the brain is necessarily the location of the "modern self," and that, consequently, the cerebral subject is the anthropological figure inherent to modernity (at least insofar as modernity gives supreme value to the individual as autonomous agent of choice and initiative). It further argues that the ideology of brainhood impelled neuroscientific investigation much more than it resulted from it, and sketches how an expanding constellation of neurocultural discourses and practices embodies and sustains that ideology.

  1. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  2. The Translation of Figures in Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹

    2011-01-01

    Figure has always been a "bottleneck" of high-quality interpretation.This paper attempts a theoretical analysis of the main causes of the bottleneck and discusses the skill of interpreting figures.It also sums up intensively various forms related to interpreting figures for interpreters to achieve a high-quality interpretation.

  3. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  4. Nanjing Children’s Painting & Calligraphy Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE Nanjing Children’s Painting and Calligraphy Association,founded in 1982,is an organization engaged in the training, composition.exhibition and exchange of children’s painting and calligraphy.The association boasts a group of prestigious painters and calligraphers at home and abroad as its consultants,its membership exceeding 400.The Nanjing Children’s Painting and Calligraphy Association has had a collection of over 6,000 art works attend exhibitions held in more than 30 countries and regions worldwide.

  5. The Vanished Child: An inquiry into figures and their modes of appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Gervais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Calle's texts are elaborate devices that facilitate the production of figures, of complex symbolic entities. In fact, her work enables us to better understand how figures emerge and unfold in the imaginary. Thus, we find in her Disparitions (Disappearances, a startling figure, which we can name the "Vanished Child". I will present this figure and explain how it stems from the description of a painting by Rembrandt, stolen at the Gardner Museum in Boston. I will start by identifying some of the essential processes implied in the identification of a figure, and, to do so, I will give two short examples, drawn from Witold Gombrowicz and Don DeLillo. Then, after having described in details the figure of the Vanished Child, I will argue, following the French art historian Georges Didi-Huberman in his reading of Walter Benjamin, that figures are auratic objects. Dans ses textes, Sophie Calle emploie des techniques détaillées qui facilitent la production de figures, d'entités symboliques complexes. Son œuvre nous permet effectivement de mieux comprendre comment les figures émergent et se déploient dans l'imaginaire. Ainsi, nous trouvons dans ses Disparitions (Disappearances une figure surprenante que nous pouvons désigner comme « l'enfant disparu ». Je présenterai cette figure en expliquant comment elle découle de la description d'un tableau de Rembrandt volé au musée Gardner à Boston. J'identifierai d'abord quelques-uns des procédés essentiels à l'identification d'une figure, et pour ce faire je donnerai deux exemples, tirés des œuvres de Witold Gombrowicz et Don DeLillo. Puis je décrirai de façon détaillée la figure de l'enfant disparu, avant de démontrer le caractère auratique des figures à partir de la lecture de Walter Benjamin qu'exécute l'historien de l'art français Georges Didi-Huberman.

  6. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wires, as the color coding may be obliterated by the paint. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to...

  8. Edge-Based Shading as a Depth Cue in Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, M. E.; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J; te Pas, Susan F

    2015-01-01

    We explored how an artist who uses a particular monochrome modern painting style generates the impression of relief in paintings. Three portraits, painted after model, were created especially for the experiment. Photographs of the paintings were presented on a computer screen. To investigate the per

  9. Historical origins of Petrykivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting is a part of Ukrainian folk art. Domestic science of folk art has originated and has been developing primarily as a study of archaeological antiquities and artistic monuments of the past. Scientific papers, which comprehended the process of folk art development, began to appear in the late nineteenth century, Archaeological Congresses became the impetus for their appearance. Being a representative of the decorative painting, Petrikivsky decorative painting is rooted by its murals to Tripoli. It was created as a peasant domestic drawing. Inexhaustible diversity of local variants of Petrikivsky decorative painting, its evolutionary change, the individual characteristics of paintings of hundreds of famous Ukrainian artists do not even allow comparing it to any other European counterparts, each of which is characterized only by some individual techniques. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the significant boost in its distribution and development when it «came down» from walls to paper. Paper pictures - malyovky - were stucked to walls following the traditional rules of domestic interior’s decoration. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the official status in 1913, when E. Evenbah, by the initiative of D.I. Yavornytsky, gathered the collection of Petrikivsky decorative painting’s malyovkas and organized the exhibition in St. Petersburg. Motives of painting are rooted into the local flora and fauna and into the historical tradition. However, Petrikivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist, it is the stylization of local flowers, fruits and birds. First names of Masters of Petrikivsky decorative painting, which appeared in historical sources, were T. Pata, N. Bilokin, I. Pavlenko. Their official recognition happened in 1930 after their participation in the first republican exhibition, which was later shown

  10. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  11. Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. B.; Mourou, M.; Whitaker, J. F.; Duling, I. N.; Williamson, S. L.; Menu, M.; Mourou, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The feasibility of applying time-domain, terahertz spectroscopic imaging to the evaluation of underdrawings and paint layers embedded within wall paintings is demonstrated. Metallic and dielectric paint patterns and a graphite drawing are resolved through both paint and plaster overlayers using a pulsed-terahertz reflectometer and imaging system. We calculated the bulk refractive indices of four common pigments and used them to confirm color domains in a terahertz-beam spectral image of a painting.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  13. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Laporte, Luc; Gouezin, Philippe; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; Hernanz Gismero, Antonio; Gavira-Vallejo, José M.; Iriarte Cela, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding pan...

  14. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  15. Implicit and explicit features of paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Slobodan; Radonjić, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Implicit features of the paintings are properties that are imposed by the observer (e.g. how pleasant, interesting, tense a painting appears), whereas explicit features refer to properties that can be directly perceived (form, color, depth, etc.). The aim of Experiments 1 and 2 was to investigate the underlying structure of implicit and explicit features of paintings using the factor analysis of elementary judgments. In the preliminary studies, representative sets of paintings and elementary implicit and explicit dimensions (in the form of bipolar scales) were selected. Four implicit factors were extracted: Regularity, Relaxation, Hedonic Tone and Arousal. Four explicit factors were extracted: Form, Color, Space and Complexity. The following significant correlations between implicit and explicit factors were obtained: Regularity-Form, Regularity-Space, Hedonic Tone-Form and Arousal-Complexity. In Experiment 3 the role of implicit and explicit factors in similarity-dissimilarity ratings was specified. Significant correlations between the position of paintings in MDS space and mean judgments of explicit factors Color, Space and Complexity and implicit factor Relaxation were obtained, suggesting that similarity ratings of paintings are primarily based on explicit features. The causal relation of explicit and implicit features is discussed.

  16. Chladni figures in Andreev billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libisch, F.; Rotter, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2007-06-01

    We study wave functions and their nodal patterns in Andreev billiards consisting of a normal-conducting (N) ballistic quantum dot in contact with a superconductor (S). The bound states in such systems feature an electron and a hole component which are coherently coupled by the scattering of electrons into holes at the S-N interface. The wave function “lives” therefore on two sheets of configuration space, each of which features, in general, distinct nodal patterns. By comparing the wave functions and their nodal patterns for holes and electrons detailed tests of semiclassical predictions become possible. One semiclassical theory based on ideal Andreev retroreflection predicts the electron- and hole eigenstates to perfectly mirror each other. We probe the limitations of validity of this model both in terms of the spectral density of the eigenstates and the shape of the wavefunctions in the electron and hole sheet. We identify cases where the Chladni figures for the electrons and holes drastically differ from each other and explain these discrepancies by limitations of the retroreflection picture.

  17. Painted or printed? Correlation analysis of the brickwork in Jan van der Heyden's View of Oudezijds Voorburgwal with the Oude Kerke in Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.; Meador, Sean; Nobel, Petria

    2009-02-01

    The title painting, in the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis in The Hague, is remarkable in that every figure and every part of every building is clearly discernible in the minutest detail: decorations, weathercock, bells in the church tower, and so on. Thousands of individual bricks are visible in the buildings at the left and the question has been posed by art scholars as to whether these bricks were laboriously painted individually or instead more efficiently pressed to the painting by some form of template, for instance by pressing a wet print against the painting. Close inspection of the painting in raking light reveals that the mortar work is rendered in thick, protruding paint, but such visual analysis, while highly suggestive, does not prove van der Heyden employed counterproofing; as such evidence must be sought in order to corroborate this hypothesis. If some form of counterproofing was employed by the artist, there might be at least some repeated patterns of the bricks, as the master print master was shifted from place to place in the painting. Visual search for candidate repeated passages of bricks by art scholars has proven tedious and unreliable. For this reason, we instead used a method based on computer forensics for detecting nearly identical repeated patterns within an image: discrete crosscorrelation. Specifically, we preprocessed a high-resolution photograph of the painting and used thresholding and image processing to enhance the brickwork. Then we convolved small portions of this processed image of the brickwork with all areas of brickwork throughout the painting. Our results reveal only small regions of moderate cross-correlation. Most importantly, the limited spatial extent of matching regions shows that the peaks found are not significantly higher than would occur by chance in a hand-executed work or in one created using a single counterproof. To our knowledge, ours is the first use of cross-correlation to search for repeated patterns in a

  18. Colloquium paper: where does biodiversity go from here? A grim business-as-usual forecast and a hopeful portfolio of partial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R; Pringle, Robert M

    2008-08-12

    The threats to the future of biodiversity are many and well known. They include habitat conversion, environmental toxification, climate change, and direct exploitation of wildlife, among others. Moreover, the projected addition of 2.6 billion people by mid-century will almost certainly have a greater environmental impact than that of the last 2.6 billion. Collectively, these trends portend a grim future for biodiversity under a business-as-usual scenario. These threats and their interactions are formidable, but we review seven strategies that, if implemented soundly and scaled up dramatically, would preserve a substantial portion of global biodiversity. These are actions to stabilize the human population and reduce its material consumption, the deployment of endowment funds and other strategies to ensure the efficacy and permanence of conservation areas, steps to make human-dominated landscapes hospitable to biodiversity, measures to account for the economic costs of habitat degradation, the ecological reclamation of degraded lands and repatriation of extirpated species, the education and empowerment of people in the rural tropics, and the fundamental transformation of human attitudes about nature. Like the carbon "stabilization wedges" outlined by Pacala and Socolow [Pacala S, Socolow R (2004) Stabilization wedges: Solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science 305:968-972] (1), the science and technologies needed to effect this vision already exist. The remaining challenges are largely social, political, and economic. Although academic conservation biology still has an important role to play in developing technical tools and knowledge, success at this juncture hinges more on a massive mobilization of effort to do things that have traditionally been outside the scope of the discipline.

  19. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. METHODOLOGY: We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36

  20. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Electron Microscope SERDP - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Tg – Glass Transition TGA – Thermal Gravimetric Analysis UV... analysis , visible microscopy and spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy to understand the mechanism of how methylene chloride based paint removers...allowed for analysis of the different components of methylene chloride based paint strippers. Methocel is the trade name of hydroxypropyl

  1. Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings--experiments with real paintings and real illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Masuda, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study based on monitor simulations of artistic paintings, it was found that the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of daylight preferred by a large set of observers to illuminate paintings was around 5100 K. The goal of the present study was to test if this result holds in real viewing conditions, i.e., with real paintings and real light sources. The same 11 paintings were tested in real conditions illuminated by a spectrally tunable light source and with accurate monitor simulations. To ensure uniform illumination across the paintings, only a central part of the paintings was visible to the observers. It was found that the average CCT preferred for real and monitor viewing conditions were very similar, 5500 and 5700 K, respectively. The somewhat larger CCT obtained with monitor viewing in relation to the former study was only observed in some paintings and was attributed to the smaller viewing area. These results confirm that CCT for best appreciation of paintings is higher than normally used in museums, and the viewing conditions, real or simulated, have only a minor effect.

  2. A ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini: novel insights into the working methods and painting practices in a painted wall-hanging factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verslype, I.; Verhave, J.; Smelt, S.; Keune, K.; Sigmond, H.; van Eikema Hommes, M.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of the ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini instigated an in-depth technical study of the room and its painted canvas wall hangings. Through close observation with the naked eye, ultraviolet light, infrared reflectography and the study of paint samples in combi

  3. A ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini: novel insights into the working methods and painting practices in a painted wall-hanging factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verslype, I.; Verhave, J.; Smelt, S.; Keune, K.; Sigmond, H.; van Eikema Hommes, M.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of the ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini instigated an in-depth technical study of the room and its painted canvas wall hangings. Through close observation with the naked eye, ultraviolet light, infrared reflectography and the study of paint samples in

  4. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  5. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903).

  6. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/.

  7. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  8. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  9. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  10. Paint indusry and environmental problem. Toryo kogyo to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, A. (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-11

    Relating to the paint industry, introduction was made of environmental problem, particularly trend of the hydrocarbonexhaust regulation, and problem against the global warming gas and acid rain. Environmental pollution matter produced by the paint industry and painting industry being mainly hybrocarbon (organic solvent), the worldwide quantity of hydrocabon exhausted in the atmosphere is estimated to be annually 20 million tons, of which 18%, i.e., an annual quantity of 3.5 million tons is exhausted from the field of paint industry. The role to be played by the paint industry is important for the lowering in pollution by the hydrocarbon. Useful paints for the environmental maintenance comprise high solid paint, aqueous paint, slurry paint, powder paint and UV-hardened paint. The automobile coating is being also changed from the metallic coating to the aqueous coating. Low temperature hardening paint is used for the countermeasures against the global warming gas. For those against the acid rain, urethane hardening, hardening by the acid-epoxy group reaction, hardening by the alkoxyl froup reaction and other hardenings are developed to replace the conventional hardening by the melamine resin for heightening in acidproofness of paint film. 5 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  12. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  13. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints...... of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  14. The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  15. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  16. The genesis of Jan Steens painting “As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe” from the Gemäldegalerie Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, A.; Kleinert, K.; Laurenze-Landsberg, C.; Reimelt, M.; Schröder-Smeibidl, B.

    2011-09-01

    In collaboration with the research reactor of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, the Gemäldegalerie Berlin is the only institute worldwide, which systematically employs the method of Neutron-Activation-Autoradiography to analyze paintings and painting techniques. To date more than 70 paintings were investigated with this effective, non-destructive, and exceptional method. It allows the visualization of structures and layers beneath the top surface and, in addition, enables the identification of elements contained in the pigments. The instrument B8 at the research reactor BER II is dedicated to this research. Jan Steen is one of the prolific artists from the 17th century. Like other artists from that time he produced several versions of one specific topic during life-time. The topic "As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" was painted by Jan Steen in 13 versions. The painting from the Gemäldegalerie is an exception in this series as it differs in style and content from the other oeuvres. The question arises: why did the artist deviate from his usual scheme? The possible answer is provided by X-ray images and neutron autoradiographs made of the painting, allowing insight into hidden paint layers and, therefore, in the genesis of the painting. Jan Steen did not simply change the composition of the room and the figures. He originally intended an altogether different topic. Assumedly it was supposed to be a so-called merry company, located in a generous, stately room. Many pieces of this sophisticated ambiance have been eliminated from the version visible today; others were modified and integrated into the composition of the new painting. Thus, Jan Steen commenced the topic "As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" from a different context.

  17. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  18. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lazzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works.

  19. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-04-19

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works.

  20. Painting the Soul of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chen Kezhi:a prestigious oil painter and a household name in Chinese fine arts circles,is add- ing luster to the cultural prosperity of the country with his artistic efforts.The latest sensation is over his masterpieces of the Three Gorges area.Since 1996,he has devoted himself to the Three Gorges series.These paintings reproduce the original impression of the Three Gorges area that will never be seen again.The paintings deliver the mystic atmosphere of the orient and the majestic scenery of China.Chen recently sat down with Beijing Review reporter Huang Jun to share his views and experience on these masterpieces.

  1. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  2. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  3. Pigeons' discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi

    1995-01-01

    Pigeons successfully learned to discriminate color slides of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Following this training, they discriminated novel paintings by Monet and Picasso that had never been presented during the discrimination training. Furthermore, they showed generalization from Monet's to Cezanne's and Renoir's paintings or from Picasso's to Braque's and Matisse's paintings. These results suggest that pigeons' behavior can be controlled by complex visual stimuli in ways that suggest cat...

  4. Using Figure and Concept Knowledge in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Karpuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to investigate how students build interaction between concepts and figure in geometry. For this purpose we developed two type data collection tool. First one called shapely is formed eight open ended question which has concepts and figure. Second one called shapeless is formed eight open ended question which has only concepts. To prepare this data collection tools’ difficulty level we took two math teachers’ opinions. Developed data collection tools were applied 120 students at 9th grade and 11th grade in Trabzon Gazi Anatolian High School. First of all we applied shapeless questions. One month later we applied shapely questions. We investigated students’ answer and the data showed that students more succeed in shapely questions than shapeless questions. We concluded that the difficulty of solving shapeless question result from students didn’t manage to draw figure representing concept knowledge or draw wrong figure, figure drawn by students can’t fulfıl generalizability condition and students who have little knowledge of concept in geometry is under the influence of prototype figure.Key Words:    Figural concepts theory, geometrical reasoning, geometry teaching

  5. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis aim

  6. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  7. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lighting equipment and paint. The lighting equipment, color or filters, and shade of paint referred to in... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17... (Color No. 17875, FS-595). Aviation surface orange TT-P-59 1 (Color No. 12197, FS-595). Aviation...

  8. Annunciations - Figuring the Feminine in Renaissance Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Viewers of Renaissance representations of the Annunciation miss an important irony. Where Mary is figured as unimpressed by Gabriel's proposal, she is upholding a masculinist ideal of female virtue. Where she is figured as delighted by the news, she represents an alternative feminine ideal that continues to be attractive to women and feminists, today. Inspired by the writings of Luce Irigaray and Julia Kristeva, I figure Mary in Renaissance representations of the Annunciation as contesting an ideal of feminine virtue that would deny her sexual difference and deny her pleasure in fulfilling her role as the bride and mother of God.

  9. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K;

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning stu...

  10. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  11. Computer simulation of backscattering spectra from paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Silva, T. F.

    2017-09-01

    To study the role of lateral non-homogeneity on backscattering analysis of paintings, a simplified model of paint consisting of randomly distributed spherical pigment particles embedded in oil/binder has been developed. Backscattering spectra for lead white pigment particles in linseed oil have been calculated for 3 MeV H+ at a scattering angle of 165° for pigment volume concentrations ranging from 30 vol.% to 70 vol.% using the program STRUCTNRA. For identical pigment volume concentrations the heights and shapes of the backscattering spectra depend on the diameter of the pigment particles: This is a structural ambiguity for identical mean atomic concentrations but different lateral arrangement of materials. Only for very small pigment particles the resulting spectra are close to spectra calculated supposing atomic mixing and assuming identical concentrations of all elements. Generally, a good fit can be achieved when evaluating spectra from structured materials assuming atomic mixing of all elements and laterally homogeneous depth distributions. However, the derived depth profiles are inaccurate by a factor of up to 3. The depth range affected by this structural ambiguity ranges from the surface to a depth of roughly 0.5-1 pigment particle diameters. Accurate quantitative evaluation of backscattering spectra from paintings therefore requires taking the correct microstructure of the paint layer into account.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Marvin W

    2009-03-01

    A technique based on cold argon and oxygen plasmas permits radiocarbon dates to be obtained on paintings that contain inorganic pigments. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry website at http://pubs.acs.org/journal/ancham.).

  13. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  14. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  15. The Beauty of Painting in English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝艳慧

    2016-01-01

    English writing ability is emphasized in English teaching without any doubt. And this article attempts to reexamine the teaching of writing and explain the nature of writing from an aesthetic perspective-its beauty of painting. Hope either teachers or students could make a deep aesthetic understanding of English writing from this article.

  16. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  17. Early Netherlandish Paintings : Rediscovery, Reception and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderbos, Bernhard; Buren, van Anne; Veen, van Henk

    2004-01-01

    The so-called Flemish Primitives, a group of 15th-century painters from the Southern Netherlands, acquired their name in the 19th century. Among them were the world-famous artists such as Rogier van der Weyden, Hans Memling, the brothers Van Eyck, and Hugo van der Goes. Their masterpieces, oil paint

  18. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  19. Piezoelectric paint sensor for ultrasonic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with a distributed acoustic emission sensing method, which is especially suitable for piezoelectric paint. Piezoelectric paint is a composite piezoelectric material that is comprised of tiny piezoelectric particles randomly dispersed within a polymer matrix phase. An overview of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for defect monitoring is given in this paper. The use of piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic signal measurements is next discussed along with a series of ultrasonic tests performed to verify the ultrasonic sensing capability of piezoelectric paint. To examine the mechanism of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for crack initiation detection, the results of a finite element simulation based study is presented in this paper. The finite element model used in the parametric study is calibrated with experimental data. The effect of sensor numbers included in the array has been studied using both simulation and experimental data. Based on the preliminary results of this study, piezoelectric paint sensor appears to hold a potential for use in on-line monitoring of cracks such as those caused by fatigue in metal structures although more work is still needed before successful practical application can be made.

  20. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  1. Simulations of color development in tinted paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent, w

  2. Integrate Art! Match Poetry to Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1994-01-01

    It is possible to connect art and language arts using traditional Japanese art. After explaining the Japanese art forms of Haiku poetry and sumi-e painting, the article describes a project in which students write haiku on special paper then illustrate their poems with gung and shey strokes. (SM)

  3. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art o

  4. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art

  5. Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2010-02-01

    While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

  6. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  7. Personnel Exposure to Airborne Isocyanates and Solvents During Shipboard Painting With 2-Pack Polyurethane Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    contain low volatility isocyanate prepolymers in addition to small quantities of volatile isocyanate monomers [2,3]. The monomers may become airborne as...vapour whilst the non-volatile prepolymers and partially cured oligomers may form aerosols during spray painting and sanding of the painted surface...JL (1992) “ Prepolymers of hexamethylene diisocyanate as a cause of occupational asthma” J. Allergy Clinical Immunol. 91 850-61. 5. Redlich CA, Bello

  8. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  9. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-7 - Lead-containing paint and items bearing lead-containing paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exempted by 16 CFR part 1303, are banned hazardous products: (i) Paint and other similar surface coating... paint may be stripped and refinished with a nonhazardous coating in lieu of destruction. Stripping shall... and the following statement: Contains Lead. Dried Film of This Paint May be Harmful If Eaten or Chewed...

  10. Noise Figure Evaluation Using Low Cost BIST

    CERN Document Server

    Negreiros, Marcelo; Susin, Altamiro A

    2011-01-01

    A technique for evaluating noise figure suitable for BIST implementation is described. It is based on a low cost single-bit digitizer, which allows the simultaneous evaluation of noise figure in several test points of the analog circuit. The method is also able to benefit from SoC resources, like memory and processing power. Theoretical background and experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  11. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  12. Architectural History and Painting Art at Ajanta: Some Salient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manager Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the period of India’s greatest cultural fluorescence, The Golden Age. A lively intellectual debate has been going on among historians and archaeologists on the subject of the chronology of the caves at Ajanta. The study shows addition of many iconographic styles from Ajanta to Bagh caves and vice-versa due to movement of skilled workers and craftsmen between these two Buddhist sites. Many iconographic figures were added / deleted depending on the local condition of rock at both the sites. The art and architecture of these sites reflects India’s great materials culture. The Ajanta paintings are not just a milestone in the history of development of world art but they also convey unique insights about the life of ancient Indians and their culture. This paper outlines some of the architectural features introduced from Ajanta into the other cultures. Furthermore, structural conservation measures and scientific methodology adopted for the preservation of Ajanta murals have also been highlighted.

  13. Ion beam figuring of high-slope surfaces based on figure error compensation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifan; Liao, Wenlin; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Shanyong; Xie, Xuhui

    2010-12-01

    In a deterministic figuring process, it is critical to guarantee high stability of the removal function as well as the accuracy of the dwell time solution, which directly influence the convergence of the figuring process. Hence, when figuring steep optics, the ion beam is required to keep a perpendicular incidence, and a five-axis figuring machine is typically utilized. In this paper, however, a method for high-precision figuring of high-slope optics is proposed with a linear three-axis machine, allowing for inclined beam incidence. First, the changing rule of the removal function and the normal removal rate with the incidence angle is analyzed according to the removal characteristics of ion beam figuring (IBF). Then, we propose to reduce the influence of varying removal function and projection distortion on the dwell time solution by means of figure error compensation. Consequently, the incident ion beam is allowed to keep parallel to the optical axis. Simulations and experiments are given to verify the removal analysis. Finally, a figuring experiment is conducted on a linear three-axis IBF machine, which proves the validity of the method for high-slope surfaces. It takes two iterations and about 9 min to successfully figure a fused silica sample, whose aperture is 21.3 mm and radius of curvature is 16 mm. The root-mean-square figure error of the convex surface is reduced from 13.13 to 5.86 nm.

  14. Presenting Fake Figures: A Tool to Teach Effective Scientific Figure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Segarra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As trained scientists, we become adept not only at analyzing and understanding figures in the scientific literature, but also at designing figures to effectively represent our own data and findings. As educators, we strive to pass on these skills to our students, some of whom will ultimately become scientists themselves. Conveying the principles of effective figure design can be challenging, particularly when students have had little exposure to the process of reading scientific literature, much less writing a piece of scientific literature. Improvisational activities in the classroom reinforce teaching goals such as spontaneity, risk-taking, creativity, communication skills, team-building, and critical thinking (2. Indeed, improv training for scientists is becoming more common, helping scientists to communicate more spontaneously about their work and connect with their audience (1. In this article, we present an improvisational game that can aid in the teaching of effective scientific figure design. This “Present-a-Fake-Figure Exercise” is applicable to both the classroom and laboratory settings. In this learning activity, students improvise presenting fake scientific figures to an audience of their peers. These fake figures are prepared beforehand by the instructor and exemplify the do’s and don’ts of scientific figure design. Some of the learning outcomes of the activity include (1 identifying what makes a scientific figure cohesive, easy to analyze, and reader-friendly, and (2 identifying strategies that are useful in the design of a multi-panel figure to convey a scientific story.

  15. [Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J; Doniec, J

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  16. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  17. High mass and spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging of Nicolas Poussin painting cross section by cluster TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noun, M; Van Elslande, E; Touboul, D; Glanville, H; Bucklow, S; Walter, P; Brunelle, A

    2016-12-01

    The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue. This study paves the way to a wider use of ToF-SIMS for the analysis of ancient cultural heritage artefacts. Dr. Walter is the Director of the Molecular and Structural Archeology Laboratory (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France). Dr. Brunelle is Head of the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory at the Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). Their long standing collaboration has led to several seminal publications on the analysis of ancient artefacts by mass spectrometry.

  18. Fresco paintings studied by unilateral NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, N.; Capitani, D.; Lamanna, R.; Presciutti, F.; Rossi, E.; Segre, A. L.

    2005-11-01

    Unilateral NMR has been used to monitor the state of conservation of frescoes in the Vasari's house in Florence. The causes of deterioration of ancient frescoes are varied, which result in the detachment and crumbling of the painted film from the supporting plaster and in the outcropping of salts. Unilateral measurements of Hahn echo performed on such frescoes have allowed a perfect identification of the detachment of the painted film from the plaster. The presence of soluble salts on the pictorial film affects the spin-spin relaxation times, T2. It is then possible using this technique, to characterize the effect of chemical treatments, of cleansing and consolidation procedures using the distribution of T2 spin-spin relaxation times.

  19. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC, established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behavior than a paint prepared with commercial hematite.

    Con el propósito de profundizar en el entendimiento de los mecanismos de protección de los pigmentos anticorrosivos a base de óxidos de hierro, se sintetizaron y caracterizaron magnetitas puras y dopadas con cobre y cromo, con las cuales se prepararon pinturas anticorrosivas que fueron evaluadas en ensayos acelerados de campo y laboratorio. Las pinturas fueron especialmente preparadas con una resina libre de solvente manteniendo la Concentración Pigmentaria en Volumen cercana al valor Crítico (CPVC, establecida para cada pigmento. Las pinturas fueron aplicadas sobre acero pulido y evaluadas con técnicas electroquímicas en condiciones de inmersión total. Para complementar el estudio se realizaron medidas de permeabilidad e impedancia sobre las películas libres. Los datos de impedancia se simularon con el programa Boukamp. Los resultados muestran que las pinturas pigmentadas con magnetitas dopadas presentan mejor comportamiento que las preparadas con hematita comercial.

  20. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solvent. In addition, hydrocarbon mixtures, aromatic hydrocarbon, and Medium Aliphatic Solvent Naphtha are descriptors used by the manufactures to...Enamel Aromatic Hydrocarbon 14 Mineral Spirits 10 Naphtha 10 Ethyl Benzene 0.21 Xylene 1.0 Sherwin Williams Co Enamel Mineral Spirits 49...Solvent Naphtha 31.5 Non-hazardous Ingredients 68 Parker Paints Enamel Mineral Spirits 17 Naphtha 7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 3 1,2,4

  1. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    GAC granular activated carbon H2O water HP horsepower IWG inches of water gauge IWTC Industrial Wastewater Treatment Complex JGDM Joint...biofiltration system) were procured, installed, and tested over a 1-yr period in cooperation with the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Complex (IWTC) in...were steam reforming, incineration, ultrafiltration , activated carbon, and photochemical oxidation. Because the paint is not suspended in water, its

  2. Role of microorganisms in mural paintings decay

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, T; J. Mirão; Gil, M.; Candeias, A.; Caldeira, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The action of microbial communities on mural paintings, particularly in mortars and in pictorial layers, triggered numerous studies to identify the main biodeteriogenic agents and to better understand the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration/biodegradation of these artworks. The biodegradation phenomenon is an important issue for the conservation of cultural heritage that needs urgent answers to their rehabilitation. Microbial activity and their ability to obtain elements by bios...

  3. Stylometry of Painting Techniques - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz keshvari; Abdolah Chalechale

    2016-01-01

    To discover a scientific relationship for art is an interesting and challenging problem. Recognition of artist Identification and stylometry of painting have been important issues at artwork. Image processing techniques can be an effective solution for resolving these problem. To the best of our knowledge, these problems have not been widely investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive survey about both proposed stylometry approaches and artist identification. Finally, It also compares a...

  4. Stylometry of Painting Techniques - A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz keshvari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To discover a scientific relationship for art is an interesting and challenging problem. Recognition of artist Identification and stylometry of painting have been important issues at artwork. Image processing techniques can be an effective solution for resolving these problem. To the best of our knowledge, these problems have not been widely investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive survey about both proposed stylometry approaches and artist identification. Finally, It also compares and summarizes all reviewed methods.

  5. Engineering macrocyclic figure-eight motif

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Haridas; Harinder Singh; Yogesh K Sharma; Kashmiri Lal

    2007-05-01

    The design and synthesis of figure-eight macrocycles are very scarce owing to the intricacies and lack of predictability from first principles. This review emphasizes on discrete macrocyclic systems both synthetic and natural with a defined figure eight knotted topology. In almost all the helical macrocycles, the helical arrangement is held by intramolecular hydrogen bonding or as a backbone requirement, but in all cases, a planar graph can be drawn and so these compounds are trivial from the topological stand point. Nature presents great deal of complexity in terms of structures in macromolecules like DNA and proteins and also displays intriguing topology in simple natural products. Patellamide, tawicyclamides, nosiheptide and thiostrepton are natural products with figure eight topology which shows interesting biological activity. Expanded porphyrins, Cu(II) complexes of thiomacrocycles, cyclic peptides and oligoesters are synthetic macrocycles showing intriguing topology. Analysis of structure and folding behaviour will enable chemists to design molecules with intriguing topology.

  6. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  7. Blanching of paint and varnish layers in easel paintings: contribution to the understanding of the alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genty-Vincent, Anaïs; Eveno, Myriam; Nowik, Witold; Bastian, Gilles; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Cabillic, Isabelle; Uziel, Jacques; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Menu, Michel

    2015-11-01

    The blanching of easel paintings can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer with a blurring effect. The understanding of the physicochemical and optical phenomena involved in the whitening process remains an important challenge for the painting conservation. A set of ca. 50 microsamples from French, Flemish, and Italian blanched oil paintings, from sixteenth to nineteenth century, have been collected for in deep investigations. In parallel, the reproduction of the alteration was achieved by preparing some paint layers according to historical treatises and altering them in a climatic chamber in a humid environment or directly by immersing in ultrapure water. The observation of raw samples with a field-emission gun scanning electron microscope revealed for the first time that the altered layers have an unexpected highly porous structure with a pore size ranging from ca. 40 nm to 2 μm. The formation mechanism of these pores should mostly be physical as the supplementary analyses (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) do not reveal any noticeable molecular modification. Considering the tiny size of the pores, the alteration can be explained by the Rayleigh or Mie light scattering.

  8. Capability to Paint and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie Miller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although quite many qualitative studies on painting in Alzheimer’s disease (AD have been conducted, there is a lack of quantitative studies, examining the ability to paint in people with AD in relation to disease stages, and to what extent instructions are associated with actual performance. The present study aimed at investigating the capability to paint among nonartist AD participants (N = 17 in an instructed painting condition versus a noninstructed painting condition. Differences in time spent and area of canvas used in the two painting conditions were assessed and related to scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Clock Test. Number of colors used and color preferences were also assessed. A within-subjects experimental design was used. Analyses revealed a statistically significant difference between time and area used in the two painting conditions, where both time and area were used more in the noninstructed condition. MMSE scores and scores on the Clock Test correlated significantly with time spent in both conditions. Higher scores predicted longer painting sessions. Mean number of colors used was 5. Color preferences were bright colors in general and green in particular. Possible artistic development was noted. The overall conclusion is that people with AD have a preserved capability to paint, with and without instructions, even those in the later stages of the disease. The results also indicate that an artistic development is possible and that painting can be used as an appreciated and beneficial activity for people with AD.

  9. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  10. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  11. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  12. [Deafness and mentality in Francisco Goya's paintings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Ossowski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The famous painter Francisco Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) suffered during his life one or several diseases, the nature of which has not been determined with certainty. At age of 46, Goya suffered from severe illness that lasted a few months. It caused loss of vision and hearing, tinnitus, dizziness, a right-sides paralysis, weakness and general malaise. Although he recovered from a cerebral stroke which accompanied it, the deafness remained unaltered. The illness divides Goya's artistic life into two great different periods. After in the painter produces his greatest works. The visual experience after the illness was heightened by the exclusion of acoustics stimuli and the artist's talent rose to the highest level. His character became more withdrawn and introspective and his entire vitality was direscted to his painting. Goya's painting became progressively more gloom and satirical during his long convalescence. The artist suffered a stroke at age 73 that again rendered him paralysed on the right side. The precise cause of his illness has long been debated. Ome medical writers have favored the diagnosis of syphilis, some consider the possibility of an exogenous psychosis, and other suggests that the symptoms of the illness are more congruent with heavy metal poisoning, particulary lead. It is interesting to speculate how the Goya's deafness influenced the artist's mentality and the changes of his painting. Interesting is also the problem of the sensory compensation in fact of disturbance of physiological function of one of the senses.

  13. Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    literature, either in oral or written form but the poetic qualities of African .... 2. Figures of Contrast: examples of which are irony, sarcasm and antithesis. 3. Figures of ..... In the above proverb there is the figurative device called vowel alliteration.

  14. A repertoire of comic figures of the antique theatre in miniatures of Byzantine Psalters with marginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemabò Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations on ninth-century Byzantine Psalters have focused mostly on the impact of the iconoclast controversy on the iconography of the marginal illustrations in these manuscripts. In fact this impact has been greatly exaggerated and the Psalter illustrations that can be connected to the debates on icon are less than a dozen out of a total of a few hundreds. The present article focuses on the iconography of figures illustrating social and moral types in the psalms. These figures cannot be considered as novel inventions of the ninth-century artists who painted our manuscripts. Their origin must be drawn back to late antique prototypes; in particular it is inferred that most of these figures represent characters that were originally modeled after the moral and social types acted on stage in late antique theater, mime and pantomime. A number of examples out of the miniatures in the Carolingian manuscripts of Terence and other media provides parallels to gestures, postures and features of the figures in the Psalter illustrations. The iconographical invention of these characters for the psalms must date from fourth to sixth century, a period during which theater was still very popular, notwithstanding the strong opposition of the Christian Fathers. Chroricius of Gaza' Apologia memoriam and other late antique writings witness the popularity of mime up to the middle sixth century and the ample variety of types that were acted on stage. The figures scissor out of marginal illustrations in the Byzantine Psalters are arranged in five plates collecting examples of, respectively, moral types, emotions caricatures, social types and professions, gods and devils.

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  16. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed by results, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5...... discusses the self-cleaning properties and degradation mechanisms of photocatalytic organic coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 6 discusses the rheological and mechanical properties of such coatings and chapter 7 discusses the durability and weather stability of photocatalytic self......-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro...

  17. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global…

  19. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  20. Learning figurative idioms via cognitive semantic pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In FTL contexts, traditional view treats idiomatic language as essentially arbitrary, which has typically led to the belief that they can only be learned through blind memoriztion. However, the cognitive semantic idea considers that idioms are typically motivated, which can help learners to identify their senses. This paper demonstrates how to learn figurative idioms through cognitive semantic pathway by taking anger as one example.

  1. Michelangelo, Leibniz and the Serpentine Figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tuinen (Sjoerd)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo‟s figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on Michelange

  2. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver...

  3. Shaking Your Way to a Trimmer Figure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    SHAPING is a kind of indoorsport which gives definition to thebeauty of the human body byharmonizing one’s health,figure,carriage,deportment and dressaccoding to one’s character.shapingnot only effectively builds up goodbody shape,but also improves one’sability to dress and apply make-upwith bodily proportions in mind. Shaping is not quite as in vogue

  4. Michelangelo, Leibniz and the Serpentine Figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tuinen (Sjoerd)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo‟s figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on Michelange

  5. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  6. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  7. Figuring Control in the Algorithmic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette; Bossen, Claus

    in particular situations. These are intended as figurations that can help us think through various working patterns of control, including beliefs about control, affective elements of control, enactments of control through specific code operations such as algorithms, making sense of perceived or actual loss...

  8. The extraction and preliminary characterization of paint oil and paint wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yingjie; Wu Maoyu; Zhang Feilong

    2012-01-01

    To study the best technology of extraction of paint wax and paint seed oil, we performed the single factor experiment and analyzed the composition of different varieties of paint oil by infrared analysis. The results show that: the optimum conditions for paint wax, are that, using petroleum ether(30℃ -60℃ ) as extracting agent, extraction temperature 50℃, ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 20, the extraction time 12h, paint seed skin mesh size, greater than 100 ; optimum conditions for paint oil are that, petroleum ether( 30℃ -60℃ ) as extracting agent, extraction temperature 50℃, ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 30, the extraction time 3h, paint seed skin mesh size greater than 100. Extracted paint oil' s IR spectral peak positions are basically the same, which indicates that their chemical compositions are basically the same.%研究漆籽油和漆蜡提取的最佳工艺,进行单因素实验,对不同品种漆油进了红外分析。结果表明:漆蜡的最佳工艺条件是:石油醚(30℃~60℃)作为提取剂,提取温度为50℃,固液比为1∶20,提取时间12h,漆籽皮的目数是大于100目;漆油的最佳工艺条件是:石油醚(30℃~60℃)作为提取剂,提取温度为50℃,固液比为1∶30,提取时间3h,漆籽皮的目数是大于100目。通过萃取所得的漆油在红外图谱上出峰位置基本一致,表明其化学成分基本相同。

  9. Research and Realization for the Virtual Reality of Oil Paintings%油画作品的虚拟现实研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦; 张姝; 娄海涛; 李冬云

    2012-01-01

    The virtual reality of the drawing figures can help users better understand the background of the paintings. How to realize the virtual reality of part of the background story about one of Xu Beihong's oil painting are discussed, and the study of 3D reconstruction of the characters in the painting are carried out, focusing on the figure modeling and motion control. Some suggestions are put forward in view of how to keep oil painting style for the virtual scene and characters.%绘画人物的虚拟现实可以帮助用户更好地理解绘画作品的背景.以徐悲鸿的油画作品为例实现了该油画的部分故事背景,对绘画作品中人物的三维模型重建展开研究,重点就人物建模的各种方法和运动控制展开讨论,并且针对如何令虚拟场景和人物保持油画风格特征提出了几点建议.

  10. INFORMATIONAL MODEL OF MENTAL ROTATION OF FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lyakhovetskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.The subject of research is the information structure of objects internal representations and operations over them, used by man to solve the problem of mental rotation of figures. To analyze this informational structure we considered not only classical dependencies of the correct answers on the angle of rotation, but also the other dependencies obtained recently in cognitive psychology. Method.The language of technical computing Matlab R2010b was used for developing information model of the mental rotation of figures. Such model parameters as the number of bits in the internal representation, an error probability in a single bit, discrete rotation angle, comparison threshold, and the degree of difference during rotation can be changed. Main Results.The model reproduces qualitatively such psychological dependencies as the linear increase of time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for identical figures, "flat" dependence of the time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for mirror-like figures. The simulation results suggest that mental rotation is an iterative process of finding a match between the two figures, each step of which can lead to a significant distortion of the internal representation of the stored objects. Matching is carried out within the internal representations that have no high invariance to rotation angle. Practical Significance.The results may be useful for understanding the role of learning (including the learning with a teacher in the development of effective information representation and operations on them in artificial intelligence systems.

  11. An Estimate on the Lunar Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bu-Xi

    In 1799 Laplace discovered that the three principal moments of the Moon are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state. Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. More than 3 billion years ago, the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster. Then the Moon migrated outwards and its rotation slowed down. During the early stage of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Subsequently the Moon cooled down and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable and as a result we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the sphericalharmonic gravity coefficients, the lengths of three radii a, b and c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure in tidal equilibrium are calculated. We have obtained three main conclusions as follows. (1) In the very early stage the Moon may be very close to the Earth, then it cooled down and solidified about 3 billion years ago. The present Moon is a fossil figure. (2) We demonstrate in this paper that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times larger than that of the equilibrium tide. So a liquid Love number of hf = 1 .934 must be taken into account when calculating the true lunar figure using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients. (3) According to the differences between a, b and c, a Moon-Earth distance (1 .7455 × 10 8 m) and a lunar spin period (3.652 day) at the moment of its coagulation are determined. The lunar orbital period then is calculated (8.34 d). Finally we argue that the Moon was close to a 2:1 spin-orbit resonance when it froze.

  12. Computerized Comparison and Analysis of Vincent van Gogh's Painting Brushstrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James Z.

    2009-03-01

    With advanced digitization techniques, museums have routinely begun to assemble vast digital libraries of images of their collections. These images can be analyzed by computers to assist art historians for a number of tasks. In our work, we focus on three challenges: artist identification, dating of an art work, and finding distinguishing features among artists. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) the analysis of the geometric statistics based on the extracted individual brushstroke, and (2) the modeling of overall brushstroke texture. These approaches aim at assisting art historians in comparing a painting or parts of a painting to a group of paintings based on multiple criteria. Statistical methods have been used to compare groups of paintings. Each painting image is divided into subimages. Individual brushstrokes are segmented automatically. Geometric features, including the curvature, the overall orientation, and the size, are computed for each brushstroke. We also compute the features representing the interactivity of the brushstrokes extracted. The statistics, including average and standard deviation, of those features are used to model certain aspects of the artist's brushstrokes. For capturing the local brushstroke texture, we first apply a wavelet transform to the image. A spatial model, the 2-D hidden Markov model, is used to model the texture features of each subimage. The methods have shown to be able to distinguish van Gogh paintings and non van Gogh paintings to a great extent. The techniques can provide clues for the dating of van Gogh paintings. A comparison of the van Gogh paintings, Monticelli's paintings, and paintings by contemporary artists provides insights on their similarities and differences. The analysis has provided numerical statistics for further studying these and other paintings.

  13. Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    and: PZ 600 N-Methylpyrrolidone >50 100 mg/L Turco:Trco Hydrotreated Napthenic Distillate 15 5 m/r 3 Monoethanol Amine 30 3 mg/L N-Methylpyrrolidone 45... amines . Organic acids such as formic acid hydrolyze ether linkages in the paint film and destroy crosslinking to allow rapid penetration of the primary...as water, acids, and amines in the paint strippers. g. Surfactants Surfactants assist in the removal of the softened paint and stripper residues. 3

  14. 战后荷兰的写实主义绘画%Netherlandish Figurative Painting After WWII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐川克

    2002-01-01

    杨·凡·唐格伦(Jan van Tongeren,1897-1991)的静物有一种冰冷的美感,日常生活中的桌椅、水果、器皿,在他的画里看起来就不像是日常生活的东西,与现实拉开了距离。唐格伦对物体的本身并不感兴趣,他所感兴趣的是物体本身所占的空间,以及它与周围事物彼此之间的关系,追求画面上的颜色和谐,表现了一种冰冷、没有人性、没有文学阐释的调子。他在画画之前,习惯把许多东西摆到桌子上,一件一件地淘汰掉感觉不对的物体,

  15. Trompe l'oeil painting for the scientific illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, G P

    2000-01-01

    Trompe l'oeil is a French term meaning fool-the-eye. When this concept is applied to the art of painting, the painted objects must look as convincingly real as do the actual objects. With the scientific illustrator having a background of rendering concepts which are realistic and accurate, he or she should have no trouble moving into the trompe l'oeil fine art field. The author lists the necessary aspects of why a trompe l'oeil painting is different from a realistic scientific illustration, a still life, or a landscape painting.

  16. A qualitative study of student responses to body painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; McLachlan, John C

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-three preclinical medical students participated in 24 focus groups over the period 2007-2009 at Durham University. Focus groups were conducted to ascertain whether or not medical students found body painting anatomical structures to be an educationally beneficial learning activity. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Five principal themes emerged: (1) body painting as a fun learning activity, (2) body painting promoting retention of knowledge, (3) factors contributing to the memorability of body painting, (4) removal from comfort zone, and (5) the impact of body painting on students' future clinical practice. Students perceive body painting to be a fun learning activity, which aids their retention of the anatomical knowledge acquired during the session. Sensory factors, such as visual stimuli, especially color, and the tactile nature of the activity, promote recall. Students' preference for painting a peer or being painted is often dependent upon their learning style, but there are educational benefits for both roles. The moderate amounts of undressing involved encouraging students to consider issues surrounding body image; this informs their attitudes towards future patients. Body painting is a useful adjunct to traditional anatomy and clinical skills teaching. The fun element involved in the delivery of this teaching defuses the often formal academic context, which in turn promotes a positive learning environment. Copyright 2009 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  18. Revealing pentimenti: the hidden history in a painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Amy A.

    2007-02-01

    Art conservators often explore X-ray images of paintings to help find pentimenti, the artist's revisions hidden beneath the painting's visible first surfaces. X-ray interpretation is difficult due to artifacts in the image, superimposed features from all paint layers, and because image intensity depends on both the paint layer thickness and each pigment's opacity. We present a robust user-guided method to suppress clutter, find visually significant differences between X-ray images and color photographs, and visualize them together. These tools allow domain experts as well as museum visitors to explore the artist's creative decisions that led to a masterpiece.

  19. Astronomical Dating of Edvard Munch's Summer Sky Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ava; Olson, Donald

    2010-02-01

    Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, most famous for The Scream, created many spectacular works depicting the skies of Norway. Our Texas State group used astronomical methods to analyze three of these paintings: Starry Night, The Storm, and Sunrise in Asgardstrand. Astronomical dating of these paintings has some importance because the precise days when Munch visited Asgardstrand are unknown. Our research group traveled to Norway in August 2008 to find the locations from which Munch painted these three works. We then used astronomical calculations, topographical analysis, historical photographs, and weather records to determine the precise dates and times for the scenes depicted in these paintings. )

  20. Did Caravaggio employ optical projections? An image analysis of the parity in the artist's paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.

    2011-03-01

    We examine one class of evidence put forth in support of the recent claim that the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio secretly employed optical projectors as a direct drawing aid. Specically, we test the claims that there is an "abnormal number" of left-handed gures in his works and, more specically, that "During the Del Monte period he had too many left-handed models." We also test whether there was a reversal in the handedness of specic models in different paintings. Such evidence would be consistent with the claim that Caravaggio switched between using a convex-lens projector to using a concave-mirror projector and would support, but not prove, the claim that Caravaggio used optical projections. We estimate the parity (+ or -) of each of Caravaggio's 76 appropriate oil paintings based on the handedness of gures, the orientation of asymmetric objects, placement of scabbards, depicted text, and so on, and search for statistically significant changes in handedness in figures. We also track the direction of the illumination over time in the artist's uvre. We discuss some historical evidence as it relates to the question of his possible use of optics. We nd the proportion of left-handed figures lower than that in the general population (not higher), and no significant change in estimated handedness even of individual models. Optical proponents have argued that Bacchus (1597) portrays a left-handed gure, but we give visual and cultural evidence showing that this gure is instead right-handed, thereby rebutting this claim that the painting was executed using optical projections. Moreover, scholars recently re-discovered the image of the artist with easel and canvas reflected in the carafe of wine at the front left in the tableau in Bacchus, showing that this painting was almost surely executed using traditional (non-optical) easel methods. We conclude that there is 1) no statistically signicant abnormally high number of left-handed gures in Caravaggio's uvre, including

  1. 新石器时代彩陶鸟纹装饰特征探究%ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PAINTED BIRD PATTERNS ON THE NEOLITHIC POTTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嫚

    2013-01-01

    鸟纹是新石器时代彩陶装饰中应用较多的题材,不同文化类型彩陶上的鸟纹形态各异,曲尽其妙.彩陶鸟纹的装饰构成方式,无论是二方连续还是单独纹样形式都是从器皿整体的装饰部位来考虑构图的.彩陶装饰中不同鸟纹以直观的形象特征与其他花纹进行组合形成的图案,是一种象征性的寓意表达,反映出新石器时代人们的社会生活状况和精神方面的需求.%The painted bird is the theme generally expressed on the Neolithic pottery as decoration. Different types of painted birds represent different forms of the pottery culture. The design of the painted bird involves mainly in the patterns. No matter what pattern it is, whether a two-sided continuous figure, a single-painted texture, it is designed from the viewpoint of decorating the utensil as a whole. The design made of painted birds with the characteristics of visual images combined with others patterns is a symbolic expression, reflecting the status of Neolithic social life and spiritual needs.

  2. String figures as mathematics? an anthropological approach to string figure-making in oral tradition societies

    CERN Document Server

    Vandendriessche, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the mathematical rationality contained in the making of string figures. It does so by using interdisciplinary methods borrowed from anthropology, mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics. The practice of string figure-making has long been carried out in many societies, and particularly in those of oral tradition. It consists in applying a succession of operations to a string (knotted into a loop), mostly using the fingers and sometimes the feet, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is intended to generate a final figure. The book explores differ

  3. Rock paintings in Fern Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, California: Not the 1054 A.D. (Crab Nebula) Supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry; Barat, C. [Lava Beds National Monument, Tule Lake, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    On July 4, 1054 A.D. a supernova brighter than Venus appeared in the sky, remaining visible for approximately 23 days and 650 nights. It was chronicled in five independent historic accounts, four in China and one in Japan. For at least 40 years investigators have attributed certain distinctive rock paintings and carvings in the western United States as recordings of the 1054 A.D. supernova. More than twenty such depictions (circle or star-like symbols and a crescent) have been located. Two panels of rock paintings in Lava Beds National Monument, California, one at Fern Cave and one at Symbol Bridge, were listed as recording the 1054 A.D. supernova. The only direct means of assessing the likelihood that a `supernova` representation records the 1054 A.D. event is to date the rock painting or carving. At Texas A and M University, was developed a plasma-chemical extraction technique that permits to analyze the {sup 14}C in rock paintings, whether the pigments used were charcoal or inorganic Fe- and Mn- oxides and hydroxides with organic binder/vehicles. This paper presents direct {sup 14}C age estimates on a rock painting suggested to represent the 1054 A.D. supernova. Charcoal pigment samples were collected from three figures in proximity at Fern Cave: a crescent pointing downward and two nearby circles, one above and one below the crescent. The AMS {sup 14}C analysis on each sample using this technique show that these images do not represent the 1054 A.D. supernova. Paper no. 59; Extended abstract. 1 tab.

  4. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

    La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

  5. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  6. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  7. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Chiaradia, Massimo; Davis, Jeffrey; O'Connor, Gary

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using (206)Pb/(208)Pb vs (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation.

  8. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks.

  9. Flood Overflows Jinshan Temple (Chinese Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese painting Flood Ouerflows Jinshan Temple draws its subject from a beautiful and well-known legend,The white Snake.In the tale Jinshan was an islet in the Yangtze River of yesteryear.Inorder to aave her husband kept in a temple at the top of the isle.Bai Niangzi.incarnation of the whitesnake.bravely fought Monk Fahat.She borrowed the Yangtze River’s water to overcome Jinshan Templeand force Fahai to release her husband.

  10. Mural Paintings in A Liao Tomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    It was a custom in the Liao Dynasty to decorate tombs with murals. The paintings in Zhao Dejun’s tomb, excavated in Beijing, provide a well-known example. During the Five Dynasties period, Zhao Dejun was a warlord in Youzhou, which became the southern capital of Nanjing in the Liao Dynasty (and even later, was renamed Beijing). The Zhaos grew to become a very powerful family in the area, as can be seen from the size of Zhao’s tomb and the value of the funerary objects buried with him. His tomb

  11. Immunodetection of proteins in ancient paint media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartechini, Laura; Vagnini, Manuela; Palmieri, Melissa; Pitzurra, Lucia; Mello, Tommaso; Mazurek, Joy; Chiari, Giacomo

    2010-06-15

    Diagnostic immunology is a powerful tool, widely used in clinical and biochemical laboratories for detecting molecules. In recent years, the technique has been adapted to materials sciences as a result of the extensive advances achieved in immunology. Today, many companies supply custom antibodies as well as new high-performance bioprobes for virtually any use. The idea of using immunodetection in the field of conservation science is not new. This analytical methodology is, in fact, particularly attractive for investigating biopolymers in painting materials; it is highly sensitive and selective with respect to the biological source of the target molecules. Among biopolymers, proteins have been widely used in the past as painting binders, adhesives, and additives in coating layers. An accurate assessment of these materials is necessary to obtain deeper insights into an artist's technique as well as to design proper restoration and conservation methods. In spite of the diagnostic potential offered by immunodetection-based techniques, some analytical drawbacks had, until recently, limited their use in routine applications in conservation science. In this Account, we highlight the most important results achieved in our research on the development of analytical methodologies based on the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM) techniques for the highly sensitive and specific identification of proteins in artistic and archeological materials. ELISA and IFM offer two alternative analytical routes to this final goal: ELISA provides a fast, cost-effective, quantitative analysis of microsamples put in solution, whereas IFM combines the immunodetection of the targeted molecules with the characterization of their spatial distribution. The latter approach is of great value in the stratigraphic investigation of paintings. We discuss the limits and strengths of these methodologies in the context of the complex matrixes usually

  12. Tangka Painting Art of the Tibetan Race (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Tibetan painting art is mainly revealed in mural paintings aswell as tangka. Tangka incarnates not only the special character of Tibetan painting art but also the features of Tibetan traditional crafts and mounting.

  13. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  14. Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James

    2016-10-01

    The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.

  15. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  16. Figurative Expressions In Karonesesociety: Nure-Nure

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Nora Br Purba

    2009-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul “Figurative Expression In Karonese Society Nure-Nure” ini membahas ungkapan figuratif yang mencakup metapora, simile, personifikasi, hiperbola, metonm, dan sinekdoke.. Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah menganalisis penggunaan ungkapan figuratif dalam Buadaya Nure-Nure pada Masyarakat Karo berdasarkan teori semantik dari beberapa ahli seperti Siregar (1992), F. R Palmer (1976), Kennedy (1983), John Lyons (1971). Studi kepustakaan diterapkan dalam penulisan skripsi ...

  17. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver on...... on - and adapt to - the challenges and opportunities related to the customer-centric, omnichannel experience. View this report as a data-freeze and analysis on the status of omnichannel in Denmark as of 2017....

  18. Figure-Ground Segmentation Using Factor Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr

    2009-06-04

    Foreground-background segmentation has recently been applied [26,12] to the detection and segmentation of specific objects or structures of interest from the background as an efficient alternative to techniques such as deformable templates [27]. We introduce a graphical model (i.e. Markov random field)-based formulation of structure-specific figure-ground segmentation based on simple geometric features extracted from an image, such as local configurations of linear features, that are characteristic of the desired figure structure. Our formulation is novel in that it is based on factor graphs, which are graphical models that encode interactions among arbitrary numbers of random variables. The ability of factor graphs to express interactions higher than pairwise order (the highest order encountered in most graphical models used in computer vision) is useful for modeling a variety of pattern recognition problems. In particular, we show how this property makes factor graphs a natural framework for performing grouping and segmentation, and demonstrate that the factor graph framework emerges naturally from a simple maximum entropy model of figure-ground segmentation.We cast our approach in a learning framework, in which the contributions of multiple grouping cues are learned from training data, and apply our framework to the problem of finding printed text in natural scenes. Experimental results are described, including a performance analysis that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  19. Figures and First Years: An Analysis of Calculus Students' Use of Figures in Technical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Antonacci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures in technical reports. In each year, these calculus students wrote a technical report as part of the Polar Bear Module, an educational unit developed for use in partner courses in biology, computer science, mathematics, and physics as part of the Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education (MSE project at Ithaca College. In the first year of the project, students received basic technical report guidelines. In year two, the report guidelines changed to include explicit language on how to incorporate figures. In year three, a grading rubric was added to the materials provided to one of the two classes. In all three years, the students performed below expectations in their use of graphs in their reports. Reviews of the figures in the 78 technical reports written by the 106 students showed repeated deficiencies in the figures and how the students used them in the discussion sections and in evidence-based arguments. In year three the student’s quantitative literacy (QL skills were assessed using an extract from a QL assessment instrument published in Numeracy. The results indicated that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with QL were not the main contributor to student difficulty with written discussion about graphs. The study underscores the need that explicit instructional attention be given to developing student knowhow in the use of figures in technical reports.

  20. Figurative Language on Maya Angelou selected Poetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma Hayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the kinds of figurative language in the five selected poetries of Maya Angelou, the titles are: Alone, Caged Bird, Old Folks Laugh, Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise. The focus of this study is figurative language which involves: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Simile, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Irony, Antithesis, Symbolism, and Paradox. Qualitative approach with design of content analysis was used in this study. The researcher acted as the main instrument since she was the one who analyzed the figurative language. Moreover checklist was also used to support her data collection. The data was analyzed through three stages; 1. Data reduction, 2. Data representation, 3. Conclusion. The result of her study showed there were 40 sentences that containing figurative language in five selected poetries of Maya Angelou. They were; Metaphor (13 sentences, Personification (9 sentences, Hyperbole (1 sentence, Simile (8 sentences, Synecdoche (1 sentence, Antithesis (1 sentence, Symbolism (5 sentences, and Paradox (2 sentences. The researcher conclude, if the figurative language used by Angelou to compare, or even symbolize the sentences to bring the meaning come up with beautiful language. Mostly of her poetries told about her experience in the past that rooted to history of the discrimination of American-African.

  1. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  2. The social lives of paintings in Sixteenth-Century Venice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Elisabeth Johanna Maria van

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Venetian painting in its golden age, the sixteenth century, from an unconventional, anthropological point of view. Paintings of masters like Titian are demonstrated to have had social lives. Together with human beings they were embedded in social networks in which humans and pain

  3. Chromosome-specific painting in Cucumis species using bulked oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome-specific painting is a powerful technique in molecular cytogenetic and genome research. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting technique in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that will be applicable in any plant species with a sequenced genome. Oligos specific to a sing...

  4. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three...

  5. Quantitative imaging of heterogeneous dynamics in drying and aging paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Van Der Hanne M.; Fokkink, Remco; Gucht, Van Der Jasper; Sprakel, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Drying and aging paint dispersions display a wealth of complex phenomena that make their study fascinating yet challenging. To meet the growing demand for sustainable, high-quality paints, it is essential to unravel the microscopic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Visualising the governing

  6. SUBSTRATE EFFECTS ON VOC EMISSIONS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two substrates -- a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board -- on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to...

  7. Artists' Perception of the Use of Digital Media in Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Painting is believed to predate recorded history and has been in existence for over 35,000 (Ayres, 1985; Bolton, 2013) years. Over the years, painting has evolved; new styles have been developed and digital media have been explored. Each period of change goes through a period of rejection before it is accepted. In the 1960s, digital media was…

  8. Replicas in Caravaggio's paintings: the correct use of scientific analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Maurizio; Moioli, Pietro; Seccaroni, Claudio

    1998-05-01

    Painting techniques and materials employed by Caravaggio are analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and radiography of unquestioned genuine works and compared to replicas of his earlier work. This approach is important in the attribution of recently discovered paintings and copies from the XVII century.

  9. 75 FR 39706 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... the antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China (75 FR 21347, April 23, 2010... revoke the order on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34097). In light of these developments, the Commission is... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  10. Reconsidering Chinese Painting%中国画再审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁耀

    2001-01-01

    Reconsidering the traditional painting, including its philosophy and techniques, is always done by contemporary artists. The result is not very important. What we can concern is the expression in the painting, which would show the thinking progress, of the artist. Let's appreciate works of Mr. Liang Yao.

  11. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or alkalies, employees shall be protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall...

  12. New biocide-free anti-fouling paints are toxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Eklund, Britta

    2004-09-01

    A number of new anti-fouling paints claimed to be more friendly to the environment, have entered the market since prohibition of biocide containing paints have been enforced in many areas. Leakage waters from five new anti-fouling paints were tested for toxic effects to the macro algae Ceramium tenuicorne and Ceramium strictum and to the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. A banned copper and irgarol 1051 containing anti-fouling paint was used as reference. Five of the six paints tested were toxic to all or some of the organisms after two weeks of leakage with EC50 ranging from 0.08 to around 2% leakage water and LC50 ranging from 1.1% to 88%. The toxicity of leakage water from these paints was still high after 16 weeks. We conclude that these paints contain substances toxic to common organisms in the coastal Baltic ecosystem. A silicone based paint did not exhibit toxic effects to the two organisms. We recommend that biological tests should be used to identify the most harmful products before they are released on the market.

  13. The painting collection of baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M

    2004-01-01

    The Catholic Baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst (1613-1674) from Utrecht was an enthusiastic collector of paintings. In his translation of Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, Hendrick Bloemaert even lauded Willem Vincent's 'Lofweerdigh cabinet' (commendable cabinet) of paintings. The inventory Wyttenhorst

  14. UN to lssue Stamps of Chinese Children’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A set of stamps designed by Chinese children who took peace as their theme will be issued by the United Nations on October 25, 1996. This will be the first time the United Nations has used children’s paintings in its stamps. The paintings chosen are prize-winners of the Chinese national stamp-designing

  15. The painting collection of baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M

    2004-01-01

    The Catholic Baron Willem Vincent van Wyttenhorst (1613-1674) from Utrecht was an enthusiastic collector of paintings. In his translation of Guarini's Il Pastor Fido, Hendrick Bloemaert even lauded Willem Vincent's 'Lofweerdigh cabinet' (commendable cabinet) of paintings. The inventory Wyttenhorst m

  16. SPARK MACHINING FOR STEEL SURFACES TO IMPROVE PAINT COATINGS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Levchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spark machining of steel surfaces enhances the subsequent paint coatings adhesion and protective properties. These factors improvement was confirmed at the salt-spray chamber testing and by both adhesion to the surface and depth of corrosion penetration below the paint coating layer measurements.

  17. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings : From Realism to Magritte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; van Houte, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period 19

  18. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  19. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their handli

  20. Artists' Perception of the Use of Digital Media in Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Painting is believed to predate recorded history and has been in existence for over 35,000 (Ayres, 1985; Bolton, 2013) years. Over the years, painting has evolved; new styles have been developed and digital media have been explored. Each period of change goes through a period of rejection before it is accepted. In the 1960s, digital media was…

  1. Population densities of painted buntings in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The eastern population trend of Passerina ciris (Painted Bunting) declined 3.5% annually during the first 30 yrs of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS, 1966–1996). Recently, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed Painted Buntings as a focal species. Surveys for this focal species for the next 10 yrs (BBS, 1997–2007), however, are too low (2 in young pine plantations to 42 per km2 in maritime shrub. Effective detection radii for habitats varied from 64 to 90 m and were slightly higher in developed than in undeveloped habitats. Distance sampling is recommended to determine densities of Painted Buntings; however, large sample sizes (70–100 detections/habitat type) are required to monitor Painted Bunting densities in most habitats in the Atlantic coastal region of the southeastern United States. Special attention should be given to maritime shrub habitats, which may be important to maintaining the Painted Bunting population in the southeastern US.

  2. Quantitative imaging of heterogeneous dynamics in drying and aging paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Hanne M; Fokkink, Remco; van der Gucht, Jasper; Sprakel, Joris

    2016-09-29

    Drying and aging paint dispersions display a wealth of complex phenomena that make their study fascinating yet challenging. To meet the growing demand for sustainable, high-quality paints, it is essential to unravel the microscopic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Visualising the governing dynamics is, however, intrinsically difficult because the dynamics are typically heterogeneous and span a wide range of time scales. Moreover, the high turbidity of paints precludes conventional imaging techniques from reaching deep inside the paint. To address these challenges, we apply a scattering technique, Laser Speckle Imaging, as a versatile and quantitative tool to elucidate the internal dynamics, with microscopic resolution and spanning seven decades of time. We present a toolbox of data analysis and image processing methods that allows a tailored investigation of virtually any turbid dispersion, regardless of the geometry and substrate. Using these tools we watch a variety of paints dry and age with unprecedented detail.

  3. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  4. Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M.

    1999-07-01

    Houses painted with lead-based paints are ubiquitous in the United States because the houses and the paint have not worn out two decades after federal regulations prohibited inclusion of lead in paint. Remodeling older homes thus poses a health threat for infants and small children living in those homes. In a service-learning general chemistry class, students disseminate information about this health threat in an older neighborhood. At some of the homes they collect paint samples that they analyze for lead both qualitatively and quantitatively. This service-learning experience generates enthusiasm for general chemistry through the process of working on a "real" problem. Sample collection familiarizes the students with the concept of "representative" sampling. The sample preparation for atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analysis enhances their laboratory skills. The focus of this paper is on the mechanics of integrating this particular service project into the first-term of the normal general chemistry course.

  5. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  6. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu [Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  7. Transmittance spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging to map covered paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmitted spectroscopy and transmitted multispectral imaging in the 400-900 nm range have been applied for the mapping and tentative identification of paints covered by a white preparation as in the case of a ground laid for reusing a canvas for another painting. These methods can be applied to polychrome works of art, as long as their support and new preparation are sufficiently translucent. This work presents the transmittance spectra acquired from a test board consisting of a prepared canvas with swatches of 54 pigments covered with titanium white and the multispectral images realized with transmitted light to map covered paints on a mock-up painting. It was observed that 18 out of 54 historical pigments provide characteristic transmittance spectra even underneath a titanium white preparation layer and that transmitted light multispectral imaging can map hidden paint layers.

  8. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  9. Iconology analysis of "Procession to Calvary" painting and "The Mill and the Cross" film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rasta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We encounter countless images of great artists while turning the pages of art history and great Western painters' books. These beautiful and various images have different combinations and styles. Some of them, which are called the iconography, show Mary and her son, Jesus's life of and have depicted different periods. Search icon image is of such research studies. Its history dates back to the Renaissance, started as a systematic tendency for examining image can be linked to the early twentieth century and Warburg school. Figure this school, Erwin Panofsky and his studies as a way of iconography and icon is steady. Iconological look at the videos on the theme of Christ leads to the creation of beautiful images. This view before seen in paintings and churches.The cinematic works of contemporary filmmakers to introduce the character of Christ to a variety of factors iconological interest.Icons to become part of the scene. Time is the icon of your way to cinematic art has opened.Icons are used in various aspects of their elemental composition or Views and scenes to run some kind of law has become. Using combination of new icons, using a variety of layout stage with images, concept, concept and aesthetics as well as complete the picture. This means that the new headings for the application icon in the creation of films with religious themes (Jesus have come in the modern era. This research represents the Iconographic analysis on Procession to Calvary painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder of Christ. This study investigates the film based on the story of this painting called "the Mill and the Cross" directed by Lech Majewski in terms of iconography. This paper has descriptive-analytical method. Finally, the applied icons in both artworks and their roles are interpreted in creating content and meaning.

  10. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access wit...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

  13. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  14. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  15. An example of the influence of the gospel lectionary on the iconography of medieval wall painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Gospel lectionary (evangelistarion on the iconography of medieval wall painting was rather sporadic. One of the rare testimonies that it did exist, nevertheless, is the specific iconographic formula for the scene of Christ in the house of Martha and Mary, preserved in a number of King Milutin's foundations - Gračanica (ca. 1320, Chilandar katholikon (1321 and St. Nicetas near Skopje (ca. 1324. In all three churches, the iconographic formula corresponds for the most part to the description in the Gospel (Lk 10, 38-42. A large number of figures were painted against an architectural background, intimating that the action in the event was taking place indoors (draw. 1, figs. 1, 2. Among the figures, only Christ is marked by a halo. He is sitting on a small wooden bench, and addressing a woman, who is standing in front of him. This is certainly Martha. Her sister Mary is sitting at the feet of Christ. Next to Christ is Peter, and one or two more disciples, while numerous onlookers, men and women, are depicted behind Martha. There is no mention of either them or the apostles in the Gospel of Luke. The appearance of the disciples' figures, however, is easy to explain because they appear usually in greater or lesser numbers with Christ, in the scenes from the cycle of Christ's Public Ministry. In addition to this, this passage from the Gospel intimates that Christ entered the village in the company of his disciples. As for the figures behind Martha, at a first glimpse, one would assume that they are Judeans, the same ones that sometimes, according to the Gospel of John (11:19-31, appear in the house of Martha and Mary in the episodes painted next to the Raising of Lazarus. Still, such an assumption is not plausible because among the mentioned figures in the depictions in Gračanica, Chilandar and St. Nicetas, one can distinguish a woman above the other figures, her right arm raised, addressing Christ. This figure enables an

  16. Typical Women Figures in Hemingway's Fictional World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春会; 范璐

    2008-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway is widely regarded as a giant figure in American literature, but meantime he is often criticized for his prejudice against women. However, whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist writer or not, I believe is largely depended on readers' comprehension of his works. This paper launched an interesting study on typical women characters in Hemingway's fictional world. The study also reveals that fact that far from being a misogynist writer, Hemingway shows great concern to women as a group. Not only did he own strong insight on women but also expressed his sympathy towards women.

  17. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  18. Theories of figures of celestial bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jardetzky, Wenceslas S

    2005-01-01

    Everything in the universe rotates: the meteors, the asteroids, the planets and their satellites, the sun, the stars, the clusters and nebulae, even the galaxies themselves. The problem of the shape of a rotating body is therefore universal in astronomy. Its treatment in this book, which deals with the figures of equilibrium and distortions of rotating bodies, is full and rigorous.Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text was written by a renowned researcher and educator who taught at Columbia University and served for many years as a research associate at the La

  19. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    Polyurethane 31 Cobalt titanate spinel 0.4 Dispersant 1 Methyl isoamyl ketone 23.5 Rheology modifier 0.1 VM&P naptha 3.2 Flow modifier ɘ.1 Xylene...partial formulation films, with pigments and no fillers, and full formulation films of current military polyurethane coatings were analyzed in this...time of the solvents. 22-01-2014 Memorandum Report Paint stripper Methylene chloride Phenol Polyurethane 7 June 2012 – 6 June 2013 SERDP WP-2244

  20. Diuretic plants in the paintings of Pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, L

    1994-01-01

    The plants that appear in the paintings and mosaics of Pompeii are chiefly edible and medicinal, though flowers with purely esthetic appeal are also shown. An important example is one of the floor mosaics from the House of the Faun, in which it is possible to identify lemon, cherry, strawberry, pomegranate, grape and olive, leaves of grape, fig, apple and olive, and flowers of corn cockle. The diuretic properties of some of these plants are mentioned in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder. A silver cup from the House of Menandro, one of the most refined examples of plant decoration in antiquity, shows olive branches and fruits. The presence of plants in such artefacts confirms that people of classical times were conscious that plants were important producers of food, oils, fibers, woods and medicines.

  1. Ikuo Hirayama Painting Exhibition Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 30th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the Ikuo Hirayama Painting Exhibition jointly sponsored by the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA), the China International Culture Association (CICA) and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA), was held in the National Art Museum of China from April 17 to 26. At the invitation of the CJFA, Tomiichi Murayama, former Japanese prime minister, and Ikuo Hirayama, president of the JCFA and famous painter, who led a delegation of over 200 people of various circles, paid a visit to China to attend the opening ceremony of the exhibition and take part in the relevant activities from April 16 to 20.

  2. Iron-containing pigment from an archaeological rupestrian painting of the Planalto Tradition in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresta, D. L.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Ardisson, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    Archaeological rupestrian arts of the Planalto Tradition are of relatively widespread occurrence all over the land area of the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. They are typically composed by monochromic zoomorphic figures, especially of cervids, mainly in red or orange color. A fragment of a rock wall containing an archaeological painting was collected at the Itanguá site, in the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves (geographical coordinates, 17° 56' 51″ S 43° 13' 22″ W), MG. The rock piece was covered with an archaeological painting with pigments of two different hues of red. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed only a slight difference in Fe and P content for the two different color zones. The pigment materials on this small fragment of rock were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on the conventional incidence mode (XRD) and on grazing incidence X-ray mode (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray detector (SEM/EDS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) at room temperature. Results indicated the occurrence of mainly hematite but also of diopside in the pigment. CEMS at RT reveal the presence of hematite and (super)paramagnetic ferric components. In order to confirm these results a small amount of powder from the painting pigments was also analyzed by transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 20 K.

  3. The use of abstract paintings and narratives to foster reflective capacity in medical educators: a multinational faculty development workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkabi, Khaled; Wald, Hedy S; Cohen Castel, Orit

    2014-06-01

    Reflective capacity is integral to core healthcare professional practice competencies. Reflection plays a central role in teacher education as reflecting on teaching behaviours with critical analysis can potentially improve teaching practice. The humanities including narrative and the visual arts can serve as a valuable tool for fostering reflection. We conducted a multinational faculty development workshop aiming to enhance reflective capacity in medical educators by using a combination of abstract paintings and narratives. Twenty-three family physicians or physicians-in-training from 10 countries participated in the workshop. Qualitative assessment of the workshop showed that the combined use of art and narrative was well received and perceived as contributing to the reflective exercise. Participants generally felt that viewing abstract paintings had facilitated a valuable mood transformation and prepared them emotionally for the reflective writing. Our analysis found that the following themes emerged from participants' responses: (1) narratives from different countries are similar; (2) the use of art helped access feelings; (3) viewing abstract paintings facilitated next steps; (4) writing reflective narratives promoted examination of educational challenges, compassion for self and other, and building an action plan; and (5) sharing of narrative was helpful for fostering active listening and appreciating multiple perspectives. Future research might include comparing outcomes for a group participating in arts-narrative-based workshops with those of a control group using only reflective narrative or in combination with figurative art, and implementing a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of assessment.

  4. Iron-containing pigment from an archaeological rupestrian painting of the Planalto Tradition in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floresta, D. L., E-mail: denise.floresta@ifmg.edu.br [Instituto Federal Minas Gerais campus Santa Luzia (Brazil); Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D. [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (Brazil); Ardisson, J. D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Archaeological rupestrian arts of the Planalto Tradition are of relatively widespread occurrence all over the land area of the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. They are typically composed by monochromic zoomorphic figures, especially of cervids, mainly in red or orange color. A fragment of a rock wall containing an archaeological painting was collected at the Itanguá site, in the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves (geographical coordinates, 17° 56′ 51″ S 43° 13′ 22″ W), MG. The rock piece was covered with an archaeological painting with pigments of two different hues of red. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed only a slight difference in Fe and P content for the two different color zones. The pigment materials on this small fragment of rock were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on the conventional incidence mode (XRD) and on grazing incidence X-ray mode (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray detector (SEM/EDS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) at room temperature. Results indicated the occurrence of mainly hematite but also of diopside in the pigment. CEMS at RT reveal the presence of hematite and (super)paramagnetic ferric components. In order to confirm these results a small amount of powder from the painting pigments was also analyzed by transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 20 K.

  5. Figure-ground organization in real and subjective contours: a new ambiguous figure, some novel measures of ambiguity, and apparent distance across regions of figure and ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, M D; Walker, J T

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of organization, luminance contrast, sector angle, and orientation on a new, highly ambiguous Cs-keyhole figure. Organization and contrast were the most important factors, and sector angle also influenced figure-ground relationships. There was no significant effect of orientation, nor was there any significant interaction between any of the factors. Several new measures of figure-ground organization were developed, such as ambiguity ratios based on reaction times and on ratings of the strength of perceived organizations, providing new quantitative measures of figure-ground relationships. Distances measured across figural regions appeared smaller than equal distances across the ground in the new reversible figure, and also in Rubin's classic vase-face figure presented in real and subjective contours. Inducing a perceptual set to see a particular organization in a reversible figure influenced the apparent distance across that organization. Several possible explanations of the observed effects are considered: (1) an instance of Emmert's law, based on the difference in apparent depth of figure and ground; (2) an aspect of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (3) a feature-detector model of contour attraction; (4) a natural set or predisposition to see a figure as smaller; and (5) framing effects. The first two explanations appear the most promising.

  6. Paint removal and surface cleaning using ice particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry; Visaisouk, S.

    1995-04-01

    Research into the possibility of using ice particles as a blast medium was first initiated at Defence Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) in an effort to develop a more environmentally acceptable paint removal method. A paint removal process was also required that could be used in areas where normal grit blasting could not be used due to the possibility of the residual blasting grit contaminating machinery and other equipment. As a result of this research a commercial ice blasting system was developed by RETECH. This system is now being used to remove paint from substrates that cannot be easily blasted by conventional techniques and also to clean soiled or contaminated surfaces. The problems involved in the development of an ice blast system and its components and their functions are described. Due to the complexity of paint removal using ice blasting, parameters such as air pressure, ice particle size and ice particle flow rate were studied and adjusted to suit the nature of the particular coating and substrate of interest. The mechanism of paint removal by ice particles has also been investigated. A theoretical model has been developed to explain the different paint removal mechanisms such as erosion by abrasion and erosion by fracture as they relate to ice blasting. Finally, the use of ice blasting to removal paint from a variety of substrates is presented as well as examples of surface cleaning and surface decontamination.

  7. Investigation on the hazing of a Brazilian contemporary painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglieri, Thiago S.; Lavezzo, Ariane S.; Santos, Isabela F. S. dos; de Faria, Dalva L. A.

    2016-04-01

    A whitish crystalline-like coating was observed on the surface of the painting "Incêndio", 1990, produced by Emmanuel Nassar and awarded at the 6th Biennial of Cuenca. This work belongs to the Contemporary Art Museum of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP) and such coating modified the artwork characteristics, causing an unpleasant effect and compromising its exhibition. The choice of the proper conservation and restoration strategies involves the understanding of the degradation process, demanding the identification of the chemical compounds formed on the painting surface, as well as of the other components in the painting. The results here obtained from Raman and optical microscopies, FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDS and GC-MS, revealed that the efflorescence chemical composition is almost only palmitic acid, with minor contents of stearic acid and their methyl esters, and that the paints are composed by chrome yellow, amorphous carbon and toluidine red pigment; an aluminum silicate filler in the black paint applied on the aluminum ground was also detected. Hierarchical Cluster Analyses (HCA) of the Raman spectra also revealed that the concentration of the efflorescence minor components depends on the paint composition. It was suggested, therefore, that the degradation process resulted from segregation and migration of mainly palmitic acid from the dried paints. Restoration methodologies used in similar cases, as well as factors that contribute to this process, were discussed.

  8. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test.

  9. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  10. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  11. Karna Particle Size Dataset for Tables and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 1) table of bulk Pb-XAS LCF results, 2) table of bulk As-XAS LCF results, 3) figure data of particle size distribution, and 4) figure data for...

  12. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Haack Christensen, Anne

    it give more flexibility to the painting support? Was it connected to the tile industry? Was it a waste/reuse from the ceramic production? To better understand the role of clay ground as a material and its influence on painting techniques, a number of Danish and Italian 17th century paintings from...... of the period, the transmission of technology and knowledge of employing this type of clay grounds and, possibly, tracing the origin of the raw materials employed in the grounds. [1] K. M. Groen, ArtMatters - Netherlands Technical Studies in Art, 3, 2005, 138-154. Waanders, Zwolle. [2] K. M. Groen, "Grounds...

  13. Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

  14. Multispectral infrared reflectography to differentiate features in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, Claudia; Fontana, Raffaella

    2011-10-01

    Infrared reflectography is a well-known technique based on wideband imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) range used for painting diagnostics in conservation laboratories.. This work is focused on the application of multiband reflectography for analysis of pictorial layers and differentiated detection of painting features. This technique generates a set of narrowband NIR images of the painting. Starting from a dataset that is registered, metrically correct, and calibrated, the capability of collecting both spectral and spatial information has been exploited by processing the image cube with interplane techniques. Examples on artworks by Caravaggio, Veronese, Bronzino, and Schiavone are presented.

  15. An environmentally safe and effective paint removal process for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Joseph

    2001-03-01

    To reduce hazardous waste from fleet and depot aircraft paint stripping and to conform to regulations banning toxic chemical paint strippers, the U.S. Naval Air Systems Team (materials division, depots, and head-quarters) teamed with the U.S. Air Force at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center for concept development, characterization, and demonstration of a mature, advanced paint-removal system, the Boeing xenon/flashlamp CO2 (Flashjet®) process. Extensive metallic and composite-materials testing was conducted. This paper describes the development and characterization program leading to authorization of the process for use on fixed-wing navy aircraft.

  16. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    CERN Document Server

    Allada, K; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Shahinyan, A; Wojtsekhowski, B

    2015-01-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-inch PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by $^{106}$Ru electrons on a `table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-inch PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO$_2$ gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  17. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavcheva, Z.; Yancheva, D.; Velcheva, E.; Stamboliyska, B.; Petrova, N.; Petkova, V.; Lalev, G.; Todorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials.

  18. Study of multilayers by PIXE technique. Application to paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Ivan; Lagarde, Gérard; Midy, Pierre

    1996-08-01

    In this article we propose the application of a new algorithm to determine the concentration profile of colour pigments in painting. This is performed by PIXE technique at different proton energies. The algorithm is based on the singular value decomposition of the matrix obtained by discretization of the integral equation for the concentration profile. To check this method, many paint multilayers of acrylic colours were prepared. First results obtained from different experiments at the AGLAE accelerator in the Palais du Louvre at Paris are presented: the nature and the thickness of each colour layer were determined with a good agreement. The analysis of easel paintings is in progress.

  19. Method for simulating paint mixing on computer monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabott, Ferdinand; Lewis, Garth; Piehl, Simon

    2002-06-01

    Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop can generate a mixture of two 'computer' colors by using the Gradient control. However, the resulting colors diverge from the equivalent paint mixtures in both hue and value. This study examines why programs like Photoshop are unable to simulate paint or pigment mixtures, and offers a solution using Photoshops existing tools. The article discusses how a library of colors, simulating paint mixtures, is created from 13 artists' colors. The mixtures can be imported into Photoshop as a color swatch palette of 1248 colors and as 78 continuous or stepped gradient files, all accessed in a new software package, Chromafile.

  20. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  1. Spotless, Jade-like Personality (traditional Chinese painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of the traditional Chinese paintings done by Xie Lijun vividly expresses a woman’s tolerance and silence. In traditional Chinese paintings black is the main component and the function of the color red is only to provide a striking contrast, so it is only used occasionally. On the contrary, in "Spotless. ,Jade-Like Personality." the color red is the main color in the painting. So different from its usual function, the red set against the quiet internal world passes from the expression of the figure’s eyes. The red color adds more elegance and inlplicit meaning to the work.

  2. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF WATER-THINNABLE PAINT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticorrosion protection on the basis of water-thinnable paint systems belongs among one of ecological ways of protection of metal parts. The aim of the experiment was to test corrosion resistance of water-thinnable systems Eternal antikor speciál V9503 and Colorlak aquarex V2115 in the salt spray environment according to the norm ČSN ISO 9227. Ductility of used paint systems in complience with the norm ČSN EN ISO 1520 will be also tested, it is a test according to Erichsen. At the end of the experiment measurement, the corrosion speed depending on paint coating thickness was analyzed.

  3. La triade femminile: figure della donna ed espressioni del tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tre figure femminili ossessionano il nostro immaginario: l'amante, la sposa, la strega. Figure contemporaneamente opposte e complementari, esse ci parlano del 'continente oscuro', di quelle figure che ancora ci sollecitano costantemente a non lasciare che si aggroviglino alle nostre spalle i percorsi del desiderio, del nostro rapporto con il Tempo. Esplorando queste figure della donna, tali che la letteratura le ha socializzate dal Medioevo ai nostri giorni, noi vi ritroviamo la forza pregnante del mito.

  4. Figure summarizer browser extensions for PubMed Central

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Figures in biomedical articles present visual evidence for research facts and help readers understand the article better. However, when figures are taken out of context, it is difficult to understand their content. We developed a summarization algorithm to summarize the content of figures and used it in our figure search engine (http://figuresearch.askhermes.org/). In this article, we report on the development of web browser extensions for Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and Apple Saf...

  5. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H. E.; Andolina, I.M.; Shipp, S. D.; Adams, D. L.; J. Cudeiro; Salt, T. E.; Sillito, A M

    2015-01-01

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground...

  6. Effects of Tactile Sensations during Finger Painting on Mindfulness, Emotions, and Scope of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja; Kaczmarek, Lukasz D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that creative performance, such as painting, influences affective and cognitive processes. Yet little is known about how tactile sensations experienced during painting determine what individuals feel and how they think while they create. Based on prior research, finger painting (compared to brush painting) was expected to…

  7. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint...

  8. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  9. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical U.S. Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sheppard

    Full Text Available Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207 collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable, and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother

  10. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical U.S. Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother-absent households

  11. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  12. FIGUR WANITA SEBAGAI PENARIK PANDANG DALAM IKLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian D. Hagijanto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain brand awareness effectively%2C advertiser use unusual and sometimes inappropriate form of creatifity to make their ads more memorable such method includes the use of women s sexual attractions which%2C on the other hand%2C causes in fraction of ethical norms. Will this be called a deviations in ads or a compromise approach to the audience taste? Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Untuk mencapai brand awareness yang lebih tinggi%2C pengiklan harus membuat iklannya menarik%2C lewat kreativitas yang tinggi. Ketika kreativitas itu menggunakan pendekatan yang terjebak oleh pelanggaran norma-norma etis kemasyarakatan -lewat eksploatasi figur wanita dan daya tarik yang melingkupinya-. Akankah kreativitas itu disebut sebagai penyimpangan dalam iklan? Ataukah sah-sah saja sebagai suatu bentuk pendekatan yang menuruti selera pasar. advertisement%2C women s sexual attractions%2C body language

  13. Who's bigger? where historical figures really rank

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Is Hitler bigger than Napoleon? Washington bigger than Lincoln? Picasso bigger than Einstein? Quantitative analysts are rapidly finding homes in social and cultural domains, from finance to politics. What about history? In this fascinating book, Steve Skiena and Charles Ward bring quantitative analysis to bear on ranking and comparing historical reputations. They evaluate each person by aggregating the traces of millions of opinions, just as Google ranks webpages. The book includes a technical discussion for readers interested in the details of the methods, but no mathematical or computational background is necessary to understand the rankings or conclusions. Along the way, the authors present the rankings of more than one thousand of history's most significant people in science, politics, entertainment, and all areas of human endeavor. Anyone interested in history or biography can see where their favorite figures place in the grand scheme of things.

  14. Equilibrium figures of inhomogeneous synchronous binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, P.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of the classical theory of equilibrium figures of two rotating liquid masses to the case where bodies exhibit a radially stratified internal density distribution so that they can be considered as inhomogeneous bodies. The derived ellipsoidal shape solutions are applied to five real systems of equal-sized synchronous asteroids. Furthermore, internal inhomogeneity puts strong constraints on the surface grain density. A satisfactory model fit is achieved with internal densities of asteroids steadily increasing outwards. In particular, from such an approach we derived grain densities of the considered systems in agreement with their mineralogical composition inferred from reflectance spectroscopy. According to this new approach, 4492 Debussy, presently of unknown spectral type, is predicted to appear as a C-type object with a grain density on the order of 2 g/cm 3.

  15. Figural Representation in the Arabic Calligraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Teparic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deep analysis of calligraphic works show deep meaning behind each letter. The most important thing when analyzing such calligraphic works is deep symbolism that each letter carries within itself. A combination of calligraphic letters always show a symbolic message. Thus, vision enacted in calligraphic works invites the viewer towards reflection and contemplation. It is hard to determine what is more appealing an image or the text. In reality there is an equal emphasis on the text and form. Both complement each other as there is always harmonious balance between the two poles of diversity, male and female, matter and spirit and exoteric and esoteric. Yet, it is possible to read the image and to understand diverse messages and visual impressions. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to illustrate the scope of Arabic calligraphy by focusing on Arabic letters and their use in presenting various artistic figures.

  16. Digital finger: beyond phenomenological figures of touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Elo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mika Elo is a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer in visual culture at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture (Aalto-ARTS, Helsinki. His research interests include theory of photographic media, philosophical media theory, and artistic research. He is participating in discussions in these areas in the capacity of curator, visual artist and researcher. He has published articles in Finnish, German, and English among others on Benjamin, Nancy, artistic research and photography theory. His doctoral thesis Valokuvan medium [The Medium of Photography] was published in Finnish in 2005 (Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki. In 2009–2011 he worked in the Figures of Touch research project (figuresoftouch.com, and since 2011 he is the director of Media Aesthetics research group at Aalto-ARTS, Department of Media.Author Biography The article reflects on digitality and interface design in terms of the multiple senses of touch. Touching is presented as a “pathic” sense of being exposed, which implies that touching exceeds the tactile and even the phenomenal world. A particular focus is set on Aristotle's and Husserl's ways of thematizing the sense of touch. In this way, two extremes of the phenomenological thinking of touching are articulated: touching as an indistinct and heterogeneous constituent of sensitivity and touching as the guarantor of immediacy of the sense experience. Referring to Derrida's critical notes concerning haptocentrism, the article attempts to problematize the hand and the finger as phenomenological figures of touch and as holds of haptic realism. The article concludes that insofar as digital interface design aims at haptic realism it conceives of the sense of touch in terms of narcissistic feedback and thus tends to conceal the pathic moment of touching.

  17. Development of paint area estimation software for ship compartments and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Yeoun Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The painting process of large ships is an intense manual operation that typically comprises 9–12% of the total shipbuilding cost. Accordingly, shipbuilders need to estimate the required amount of anti-corrosive coatings and painting resources for inventory and cost control. This study aims to develop a software system which enables the shipbuilders to estimate paint area using existing 3D CAD ship structural models. The geometric information of the ships structure are extracted from the existing shipbuilding CAD/CAM system and used to create painting zones. After specifying the painting zones, users can generate the paint faces by clipping structural parts inside each zone. Finally, the paint resources may be obtained from the product of the paint areas and required paint thickness. Implementing the developed software system to real shipbuilders' operations has contributed to improved productivity, faster resource estimation, better accuracy, and fewer coating defects over their conventional manual calculation methods for painting resource estimation.

  18. Development of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation: reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation: reactive blending of methylol urea with soybean oil. ... advantages of this new system are low formaldehyde emission and water reduction characteristics. The polymer blend may ...

  19. Canvas Supports in Paintings by Nicolai Abildgaard: Fabrics and Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the technique and materials in paintings by the Danish artist Nicolai Abildgaard (1743 – 1809) included examination of the canvas supports in a large number of his works. Thread count and weave density were studied by automated weave-mapping computer software, designed...... for working with digital X-radiographs. This was also used for the comparison of weave patterns in order to establish matches between the canvases of various paintings and thereby verify that different canvases originated from the same bolt. The canvas supports in paintings executed by Abildgaard in Rome 1772...... conditions and manufacture circumstances. This applied to the quality of the fabric, i.e. the type of fibre, thread count and tightness of weave, as well as the scale and the formats within which the majority of the paintings fall....

  20. Manganese and Iron Catalysts in Alkyd Paints and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Hage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many paint, ink and coating formulations contain alkyd-based resins which cure via autoxidation mechanisms. Whilst cobalt-soaps have been used for many decades, there is a continuing and accelerating desire by paint companies to develop alternatives for the cobalt soaps, due to likely classification as carcinogens under the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals legislation. Alternative driers, for example manganese and iron soaps, have been applied for this purpose. However, relatively poor curing capabilities make it necessary to increase the level of metal salts to such a level that often coloring of the paint formulation occurs. More recent developments include the application of manganese and iron complexes with a variety of organic ligands. This review will discuss the chemistry of alkyd resin curing, the applications and reactions of cobalt-soaps as curing agents, and, subsequently, the paint drying aspects and mechanisms of (model alkyd curing using manganese and iron catalysts.

  1. A Scheduling Method for Painting Line under Pull Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Kyu; Shinbo, Kojiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    This paper concerns with a scheduling method for painting (preceding) line with much longer production lead-time than assembly (subsequent) line. In general, production schedule of the painting line is made independently based on the forecasted job requirement at the assembly line. When the job requirement changes at the assembly line by virtue of the change of customer order, therefore, production balance is destroyed between the both lines. To avoid the tardiness caused by such unbalance, we need to have many inventories for the painting line. Such countermeasure is taken place in many companies actually. Thus, to avoid the tardiness while keeping small inventory, we propose a scheduling method that makes a Pseudo-Pull production possible for the painting line. We have evaluated the proposed method through computer simulations.

  2. Emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    To measure the temperature of the surface of an opaque object by radiation thermometry, it is necessary to know its surface emissivity. High emissivity black paint can be applied to the inner walls of a cavity to be used as a blackbody radiator. It can also be applied to some highly reflecting metals so that their temperature can be estimated by radiation thermometry. In this work, it is described the emissivity measurement of high-emissivity black paint that has been used for the two applications described above. The average emissivity of the measured paint in the 8 to 14 micrometers wavelength range was estimated as 0.972 ± 0.012. The results obtained may be of use for those using the paint at temperatures from 50 to 150 grades C. (Author)

  3. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  4. Historical restoration recipes: the cleaning of paintings 1600-1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stols-Witlox, M.; Bridgland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about historical cleaning methods and materials is important since remnants may still be presentwithin the paint structure and should be taken into account when interpreting instrumental analyses and deciding about future conservation treatments. This paper provides analyses of historical

  5. Minimal invasive control of paintings cleaning by LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, A.; Apostol, I.; Pascu, A.; Urzica, I.; Pascu, M. L.; Damian, V.

    2016-03-01

    In cultural heritage restoration and conservation, it has been proved that LIBS is an appropriate technique for pigments identification, analysis of multilayered paintings, and quantitative analysis of ancient materials. Generally, experiments involving the use of laser for paint cleaning and LIBS in order to identify the composition of the removed material are made. Here, we report LIBS studies on mastic and dammar varnishes removal using visible (532 nm) and UV (266 nm) laser pulses (5 ns) with fluences in the range 0.6-4.4 J/cm2. The studied varnish layers were on-purpose painted on glass supports or were part of several mock-up samples having dammar or mastic as final layer - gold foil, yellow ochre or cobalt blue egg tempera as painting layer - chalk or acrylic ground as link to an wooden support. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the layers and to analyze their composition.

  6. Investigation of multilayer painting by means of molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadikova, I. F.; Grigorieva, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    The study of paintings' layer structure under microscope was implemented in the early XX century; since that time method of cross-section preparation as well as composition of embedded materials changed and capabilities of optical microscopy broadened. Nevertheless, until recently cross-sections were prepared only for analysis of paintings' layer-specific structure, morphological and technological features, tracks of restoration treatments. Examination of chemical composition required additional sampling as well as division of these samples layer by layer in order to determine pigments and binding media; these procedures didn't always lead to proper results. Micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopy allow carrying out investigation of painting cross-sections without any additional preliminary sampling; this is shown on example of investigation of a number of paintings.

  7. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most...

  8. Method of making superhydrophobic/superoleophilic paints, epoxies, and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2016-05-10

    Superhydrophobic paints and epoxies comprising superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. superoleophilic particles.

  9. Warburg and Poliakoff, Movement and Style (a contribution to the contemporary study of images and paintings)

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira Vale

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of painting on its sources or “influences” serves to achieve its integration in a group of reference from which painting, any true painting that aims at the present, can and should take part. This work aims at an updating of the analysis these influences from the means that serve as references to the pictorial analysis and creation, the images (reproductions) and the paintings themselves, by crossing two major references of Art History and Modern Painting (Aby Warburg and Serge...

  10. A Review on Design & Development of Semi-Automated Colour Painting Machine.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Thakar; Chetan P. Vora

    2014-01-01

    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, colour or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surface as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper ...

  11. APPLICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERBORNE ROAD MARKING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Babić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal road markings are one of the essential safety features of modern roadways. All of the utilised systems consist of a pigmented coating containing partially embedded retroreflective elements such as glass beads. In addition to durability and functionality of the road marking, ease of application and effect on human health and environment are primary considerations for their selection. Road marking systems can be divided into plural component materials that cure due to chemical reaction occurring at the site of application, thermoplastics that require heat for application, and paints, drying upon evaporation of the dissolving medium. The focus of this paper is on road marking paints with a special emphasis on contemporary waterborne materials. Over 100 years old solventborne technology furnishes paints that afford consistent application properties under a variety of conditions such as lower temperatures and high humidity. Their environmental and human health impact is significant and durability quite poor. Modern waterborne paints are based on acrylic resins and incorporate developed in the 1990s quick-set chemical mechanism for drying. Under favourable weather conditions, they dry faster as compared to solventborne. However, their known weakness is risk of washout in case of rain and sluggish development of washout resistance at marginal application conditions like high humidity and low temperature. Impact of waterborne paints on human health and environment is very significantly minimised as compared to other materials. Their durability is significantly higher as compared to solvent-based paints. Analysis of characteristics of waterborne road marking paints and preliminary results from their trial application in Croatia are presented herein. Based on the presented comparison with solventborne materials, after results from test application become available, intelligent decisions regarding future use of waterborne road marking paints in

  12. Critical realism art——On Russia Tour group Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜月英

    2012-01-01

      The Tour group Painting inherited and developed some precious qualities of the early 19th century critical realism. The Tour group Painting artists were deeply influenced by the Russian realistic literature. They cared about reality, the history of the nation, focusing on the expression of personal feelings. They agreed that the art has the responsibility to educate people, to improve their consciousness .In their opinion, artists are also social activists. So they tirelessly fought towards critical realism and national art.

  13. Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pye

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

  14. Bo Painting with Human, Dragon and Phoenix Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    During the period between the Warring States and Qin (221-207 B.C.), Han (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) dynasties in China, silk was called bo, so paintings on silk were called bohua and words on silk boshu. The bohua with a human, dragon and phoenix pattern excavated in 1949 in Changsha, Hunan Province, dates back to the Warring States. It is the earliest painting

  15. Multifractal comparison of the painting techniques of adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.; Fairbanks, M. S.; Taylor, R. P.

    2010-02-01

    Statistical analysis of art, particularly of the abstract genre, is becoming an increasingly important tool for understanding the image creation process. We present a multifractal clustering analysis of non-representational images painted by adults and children using a 'pouring' technique. The effective dimensions (D0) are measured for each, as is the associated multifractal depth ▵D = D0 - DOO. It is shown that children create paintings whose dimensions D0 are less than those created by adults. The effective dimensions for adult painters tend to cluster around 1.8, while those for children assume typical values of 1.6. In a similar fashion, the multifractal depths for images painted by adults and children show statistically-significant differences in their values. Adult paintings show a relatively shallow depth (▵D ~ 0.02), while children's paintings show a much greater depth (▵D ~ 0.1). Given that the 'pouring' technique reflects the body motions of the artist, the results suggest that the differences in the paintings' fractal characteristics are potential indicators of artist physiology.

  16. MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF PAINTING, THEATRE AND EVERYDAY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Suvorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the works of Yu.M. Lotman, the author examines the process of interaction between painting and theater, and their mutual influence on the routine. The emphasis is on identifying the peculiarities of the interaction of theatre and painting in the period from the late XVIII – early XIX century. Theatre using expressive means of painting, created new forms of performing arts. The scenery becomes actors, not serving as a background for the actors. Acting technique was also being changed, the dynamics of the movements was changed into the static of dynamic postures. The identification of the scene and the picture led to the emergence of a new genre of "living paintings". Not only the art of painting influenced a theatre, creating new forms, but the theatre influenced painting too, creating a portrait typifying a model in accordance with the traditional theatrical characters. Gradually the boundary between art and commonplace had been crumbling, the theatre entered the life. It turned out that the theatricality of everyday life became the logical result of the considered process. Real life started to be considered as a performance that opened not only new possibilities in the prescribed range of permitted conduct, but also went beyond and was the legislator of individual behaviors, filled everyday reality with events, and thus, made a person free from the control of custom.

  17. Self-Cleaning Mineral Paint for Application in Architectural Heritage

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    Sudipto Pal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mineral silicate paint has been developed for architectural heritage. To enhance durability, any type of organic additive has been avoided. Potassium silicate was the binder agent intended to give strong adherence and durability to stone and concretes. Incorporation of mainly anatase titanium dioxide was intended to act both as a white, bright pigment and as a photocatalyst. Reflectivity analyses on the paint in the visible-to-near infrared wavelength region show high solar heat reflection. The self-cleaning activity of the mineral paint was evaluated by the degradation of organic dyes under solar light irradiation. Anatase titania was effective in decomposing organic and airborne pollutants with the solar radiation. The optical properties and self-cleaning activity were compared with the organic binder-based paints and commercial paints. Developed paints possess high stability: since they contain only inorganic components that do not fade with exposure to solar radiation, photocatalytic self-cleaning capability further enhances such stability.

  18. Terahertz reflection interferometry for automobile paint layer thickness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aunik; Tator, Kenneth; Rahman, Anis

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive terahertz reflection interferometry offers many advantages for sub-surface inspection such as interrogation of hidden defects and measurement of layers' thicknesses. Here, we describe a terahertz reflection interferometry (TRI) technique for non-contact measurement of paint panels where the paint is comprised of different layers of primer, basecoat, topcoat and clearcoat. Terahertz interferograms were generated by reflection from different layers of paints on a metallic substrate. These interferograms' peak spacing arising from the delay-time response of respective layers, allow one to model the thicknesses of the constituent layers. Interferograms generated at different incident angles show that the interferograms are more pronounced at certain angles than others. This "optimum" angle is also a function of different paint and substrate combinations. An automated angular scanning algorithm helps visualizing the evolution of the interferograms as a function of incident angle and also enables the identification of optimum reflection angle for a given paint-substrate combination. Additionally, scanning at different points on a substrate reveals that there are observable variations from one point to another of the same sample over its entire surface area. This ability may be used as a quality control tool for in-situ inspection in a production line. Keywords: Terahertz reflective interferometry, Paint and coating layers, Non-destructive

  19. Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level

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    Elina ePihko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ aesthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies—reflected in the target, location and path of the fixations—however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings.

  20. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

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    Maurizio Sessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept. Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient′s clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV

  1. The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joanna; Singer, Brian W; Perry, Justin J; Bacon, Anne

    2011-05-01

    A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him.

  2. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  3. Painting Dose: The ART of Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hannah J; Zietman, Anthony L; Efstathiou, Jason A

    2016-11-15

    The discovery of X rays in 1895 captivated society like no other scientific advance. Radiation instantly became the subject not only of numerous scientific papers but also of circus bazaars, poetry, fiction, costume design, comics, and marketing for household items. Its spread was "viral." What is not well known, however, is its incorporation into visual art, despite the long tradition of medicine and surgery as a subject in art. Using several contemporary search methods, we identified 5 examples of paintings or sculpture that thematically feature radiation therapy. All were by artists with exhibited careers in art: Georges Chicotot, Marcel Duchamp, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Robert Pope, and Cookie Kerxton. Each artist portrays radiation differently, ranging from traditional healer, to mysterious danger, to futuristic propaganda, to the emotional challenges of undergoing cancer therapy. This range captures the complex role of radiation as both a therapy and a hazard. Whereas some of these artists are now world famous, none of these artworks are as well known as their surgical counterparts. The penetration of radiation into popular culture was rapid and pervasive; yet, its role as a thematic subject in art never fully caught on, perhaps because of a lack of understanding of the technology, radiation's intangibility, or even a suppressive effect of society's ambivalent relationship with it. These 5 artists have established a rich foundation upon which pop culture and art can further develop with time to reflect the extraordinary progress of modern radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The midwife figure: a historiographical inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Cicatiello

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of midwifery, fairly disregarded by Italian historiography, results crucial in order to fully understand both the role of women and of the foundation of the family in post-unification Italy. It firmly highlights the complexity, the undertones and, sometimes, the contradictions of the female models. The historical research, mainly in the English area, has fully recognized the indisputable significance of the midwives’ role. As a matter of fact, they emerge as representatives of medical professions in the volume by Willem Tousijn, Il sistema delle occupazioni sanitarie (2000, which combines both historical reconstruction and sociological survey. If, on the one hand, the history of midwifery is quite acquainted for the 17th and 18th centuries, thanks to the works by Mireill Laget (1982, and by Jacques Gélis (1988, on the other hand, however, the 19th century still remains to be written for the great part. In Italy, Laura Guidi, Claudia Pancino and Alessandra Gissi have traced an outline of the midwives’ path for their professional achievement throughout the 19th and the 20th centuries. This article briefly reviews these themes, rereading the texts and focusing, in particular, on the question of the professionalization of the midwife and on its actual recognition as a professional figure.

  5. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  6. Evaluation of layback spin in figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastšenjski Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.

  7. Degradation of Emerald green in oil paint and its contribution to the rapid change in colour of the Descente des vaches (1834-1835) painted by Theodore Rousseau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, K.; Boon, J.J.; Boitelle, R.; Shimadzu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Descente des vaches (1836) by Theodore Rousseau in the Mesdag Collection in The Hague is barely readable and its paint layers are in poor condition. The surface of the painting is strongly deformed and cracked, the whole painting has darkened and especially the greens have lost all or most of their

  8. Degradation of Emerald green in oil paint and its contribution to the rapid change in colour of the Descente des vaches (1834-1835) painted by Theodore Rousseau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, K.; Boon, J.J.; Boitelle, R.; Shimadzu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Descente des vaches (1836) by Theodore Rousseau in the Mesdag Collection in The Hague is barely readable and its paint layers are in poor condition. The surface of the painting is strongly deformed and cracked, the whole painting has darkened and especially the greens have lost all or most of their

  9. Forensic aspects of the weathering and ageing of spray paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Cédric; Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the degradation of spray paint samples, illustrated by Optical, FTIR and Raman measurements. As opposed to automotive paints which are specifically designed for improved outdoor exposure and protected using hindered amine light absorbers (HALS) and ultra-violet absorbers (UVA), the spray paints on their side are much simpler in composition and very likely to suffer more from joint effects of solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Six different spray paint were exposed to outdoor UV-radiation for a total period of three months and both FTIR and Raman measurements were taken systematically during this time. These results were later compared to an artificial degradation using a climate chamber. For infrared spectroscopy, degradation curves were plotted using the photo-oxidation index (POI), and could be successfully approximated with a logarithmic fitting (R(2)>0.8). The degradation can appear after the first few days of exposure and be important until 2 months, where it stabilizes and follow a more linear trend afterwards. One advantage is that the degradation products appeared almost exclusively at the far end (∼3000cm(-1)) of mid-infrared spectra, and that the fingerprint region of the spectra remained stable over the studied period of time. Raman results suggest that the pigments on the other side, are much more stable and have not shown any sign of degradation over the time of this study. Considering the forensic implications of this environmental degradation, care should be taken when comparing samples if weathering is an option (e.g. an exposed graffiti compared to the paint from a fresh spray paint can). Degradation issues should be kept in mind as they may induce significant differences between paint samples of common origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aesthetic emotions across arts: A comparison between painting and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971 interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  11. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  12. Body painting as a tool in clinical anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as the primary method of learning is driving changes to more varied and novel learning and teaching methodologies. The present article describes the introduction and evaluation of a range of body painting exercises in a medical curriculum. Body painting was introduced into integrated clinical skills teaching sessions which included clinically important aspects of respiratory system, musculoskeletal system, and topics in regional anatomy including head and neck. Nontoxic body paints, easels, a mixture of brush sizes, and anatomical images were supplied. Students were allowed between 20 and 40 min to complete body painting tasks, in which they were encouraged to alternate between painting and acting as a model. Students were encouraged to use life-like rendering and coloration where appropriate. Evaluation of these sessions was performed at the end of the semester as part of a larger evaluation process. The kinesthetic nature and active participation together with the powerful visual images of underlying anatomy appear to contribute to the value of body painting as a teaching exercise. In addition, it may have the added bonus of helping break down apprehension regarding peer-peer examination. Some practical advice on introducing this method of teaching in medical curricula based on the outcomes of the evaluation is given. On the basis of our experience and student feedback, we strongly advocate the use of body painting as an adjunct to surface anatomy and clinical skills teaching classes.

  13. Schematic Rock Painting: the panel, social space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez García, Julián

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The panel, which is used to support the symbols of a certain social formation, is turned into a space for the representation of this formation. It is used to incorporate or arrange or mess up the elements that circulate in a certain system. Thus, the social action is reflected in a product that is characterised by a symbolic nature. However, it is obvious that this social representation does not have an exclusive nature when dealing with the schematic rock painting. In the following pages we are going to try to analyse the relationship between the organization and configuration of this space, the panel, and the social dynamics, getting information from the different stages of its course, in series of sequences which are arranged by the coordinates of what we have called 'Social Spacial and Time'.

    El panel, utilizado para soportar los símbolos de una determinada formación social, es obvio que se convierte en un espacio de representación de la misma. Se aprovecha para incorporar, ordenar o desordenar los elementos que circulan en un determinado sistema. La acción social queda así reflejada en un producto de carácter simbólico. Aunque, evidentemente, esta representación social no tiene carácter exclusivo en la pintura rupestre esquemática, en las siguientes páginas intentaremos analizar cómo la organización y la configuración de este espacio, panel, tiene que ver con la propia dinámica social, informándonos sobre los diversos estadios de su recorrido, en una secuencia que se ordena bajo las coordenadas de lo que hemos denominado "espacio-tiempo social".

  14. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K.; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kristensen, Claus A.; Rasmussen, Jacob; Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Berthelsen, Anne K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100 (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark and Departments of Human Oncology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study using the optimized dose prescription in 20 patients is performed.Methods: Patients treated at our center have five tumor subvolumes from the center of the tumor (PET positive volume) and out delineated. The spatial distribution of 48 failures in patients with complete clinical response after (chemo)radiation is used to derive a model for tumor control probability (TCP). The total TCP is fixed to the clinically observed 70% actuarial TCP at five years. Additionally, the authors match the distribution of failures between the five subvolumes to the observed distribution. The steepness of the dose–response is extracted from the literature and the authors assume 30% and 20% risk of subclinical involvement in the elective volumes. The result is a five-compartment dose response model matching the observed distribution of failures. The model is used to optimize the distribution of dose in individual patients, while keeping the treatment intensity constant and the maximum prescribed dose below 85 Gy.Results: The vast majority of failures occur centrally despite the small volumes of the central regions. Thus, optimizing the dose prescription yields higher doses to the central target volumes and lower doses to the elective volumes. The dose planning study shows that the modified prescription is clinically feasible. The optimized TCP is 89% (range: 82%–91%) as compared to the observed TCP of 70%.Conclusions: The observed distribution of locoregional failures was used to derive an objective, data-driven dose prescription function. The optimized dose is predicted to result in a substantial increase in local control without increasing the predicted risk of toxicity.

  15. Synthesis of Novel π-Conjugated Rod-Rod-Rod Triblock Copolymers Containing Poly(3-hexylthiophene and Polyacetylene Segments by Combination of Quasi-Living GRIM and Living Anionic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Higashihara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first successful synthesis of a new rod-rod-rod triblock copolymer, polyacetylene(PA-b-poly(3-hexylthiophene(P3HT-b-PA could be synthesized by a combination of quasi-living Grignard metathesis (GRIM and living anionic polymerization. We first confirmed that poly(4-tolyl vinyl sulfoxide (PTVS, which is a soluble precursor for PA, could be synthesized by living anionic polymerization in THF at −78 °C, initiated with 3-methyl-1,1-diphenylpentyllithium as the initiator in the presence of in situ-generated lithium enolate. The molecular weights (MWs and polydispersities (PDIs were well controlled (MW = 5,200–27,000, PDI = 1.10–1.22, respectively. A coil-rod-coil triblock copolymer, PTVS-b-P3HT-b-PTVS, (6,000-12,500-6,000 could also be synthesized, initiated with a P3HT-based difunctional macroinitiator in the presence of lithium enolate. GPC-RALLS and 1H NMR analyses confirmed a high degree of structural homogeneity of PTVS-b-P3HT-b-PTVS. A thermal transformation reaction of the polymer was carried out in the film state at 170 °C for 2 h to afford PA-b-P3HT-b-PA quantitatively, as monitored by TGA and FT-IR analyses. The optical and electronic properties as well as the morphological behavior of the block copolymers were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, conductivity measurement, and AFM observation.

  16. On the figures of speech in Of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧青

    2015-01-01

    Of Study is a masterpiece of Francis Bacon, which is worth reading from generation to generation.In a sense, figures of speech make the work worthwhile to read.Figures of speech pervade and embellish the world of language, making language more colorful, forceful, and explicit.Of Study exemplifies it.The thesis appreciates the great work in the perspective of figures of speech to cultivate a wider appreciation of the rhetoric art.

  17. Translation on Figurative Expressions From English Into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹利华

    2006-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are colorful languagesfull of figurative expressions.Figurative usage isintended to achieve rhetorical effect and frequentlyoccurs in literary works and daily speech.On theother hand,the two languages have a lot ofdifferences in lexical and syntactic aspect and incultural sense.Whether a figurative expression isappropriately transferred or not greatly affects theforce and readability of a translation.Therefore it isvery essential for us to give an intensive study into thetranslation...

  18. Narrative and figurative self-construction in meaningful stories

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferberg,Irit

    2010-01-01

    The present study tests the validity of two claims foregrounded in current qualitative studies of troubled talk. First, single story-internal organizing figurative forms constitute succinct versions of troubled narrators' selves. Second, figurative clusters contribute to the construction of narrators' selves when some external or internal obstacle undermines communication. To explore this link between narrative and figurative self-construction, the study espouses a discourse-oriented approach...

  19. Figure-ground interaction in the human visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Wade, Alex R.; Pettet, Mark W.; Vildavski, Vladimir Y.; Anthony M Norcia

    2008-01-01

    Discontinuities in feature maps serve as important cues for the location of object boundaries. Here we used multi-input nonlinear analysis methods and EEG source imaging to assess the role of several different boundary cues in visual scene segmentation. Synthetic figure/ground displays portraying a circular figure region were defined solely by differences in the temporal frequency of the figure and background regions in the limiting case and by the addition of orientation or relative alignmen...

  20. Rumsey and Walker_AMT_2016_Figure 2.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure summarizes uncertainty (error) in hourly gradient flux measurements by individual analyte. Flux uncertainty is derived from estimates of uncertainty in...

  1. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Bockhorst

    Full Text Available Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  2. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  3. Structural Configuration of Myelin Figures Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobat Tayebi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using epifluorescence microscopy, the configuration of myelin figures that are formed upon hydration of lipid stack was studied qualitatively. Little knowledge is currently available for conditions that determine the diameter of myelin figures and their degree of multilamellarity. Examining more than 300 samples, we realized that there are distinct populations of myelin figures protruding from discrete regions of lipid stack. Each population contains myelin figures with similar diameters. This indicates a direct relationship between local characteristics of parent lipid stack and the diameter of myelin figures. Evidenced by fluorescent images, we classified all the observed myelin figures into three major groups of (1 solid tubes, (2 thin tethers, and (3 hollow tubes. Solid tubes are the most common structure of myelin figures which appeared as dense shiny cylinders. Thin tethers, with long hair-shaped structure, were observed protruding from part of lipid plaque which is likely to be under tension. Hollow tubes were protruded from the parts that are unpinned from the substrate and possibly under low or no tension. The abrupt change in the configuration of myelin figures from solid tubes to hollow ones was described in a reproducible experiment where the pinned region of the parent stack became unpinned. Our observations can indicate a relation between the membrane tension of the source material and the diameter of the myelin figures.

  4. Cyclic voltammetry and RBS study of paint components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Lynn [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Spencer, Dirk [Plant and Soil Science Department, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762-1447 (United States); Muntele, Claudiu [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)]. E-mail: claudiu@cim.aamu.edu; Muntele, Iulia [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, 4900 Meridian Street, P.O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Heavy metals and metalloid ions are found in environmental matrices. The most toxic are lead, cadmium and mercury. These three heavy metals have no biological function and are toxic at all concentrations. Lead is one of the most insidious heavy metals and is introduced into the environment by many different means. It persists in both urban and rural settings, being found in paint chips, pottery, crystal and pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The analysis of heavy elements such as lead in soil is of particular importance [W.T. Sturges, R.M. Harrison, Sci. Total Environ. 44 (3) (1985) 225; M.L. Lepow, L. Bruckman, M. Gillette, S. Markowitz, R. Robino, J. Kapish, Environ. Res. 10 (3) (1975) 415; A.E. Daniels, J.R. Kominsky, P.J. Clark, J. Hazard. Mater. B 87 (2001) 117; G. Hutter, D. Moshman, J. Hazard. Mater. 40 (1995) 1]. In preparing the methods for lead detection in paint, we have used Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in order to study the type and amount of heavy metal content in paint samples collected at various sites in the historic campus at A and M University (AAMU). We will show the results of our study with emphasis on comparison of what we learned about presence of lead in paints using our ion beam methods compared with the analysis of lead in paints using cyclic voltammetry.

  5. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  6. Technical study of Germolles’ wall paintings: the inputof imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Degrigny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Château de Germolles is one of the rare palace in France dating from the 14th century. The noble floor is decorated with wall paintings that are a unique example of courtly love spirit that infused the princely courts of the time. After being concealed sometime in the 19th century, the paintings were rediscovered and uncovered in the middle of the 20th century and partly restored at the end of the 1990s. No scientific documentation accompanied these interventions and important questions, such as the level of authenticity of the mural decorations and the original painting technique(s used in the medieval times remained unanswered. The combined scientific and financial supports of COSCH Cost Action and DRAC-Burgundy enabled to study Germolles’ wall paintings using some of the most innovative imaging and analytical techniques and to address some of the questions raised. The study provided significant information on the material used in the medieval times and on the conservation condition of the paintings. The data collected is vast and varied and exposed the owners of the property to the challenges of data management.

  7. A new plan quality index for dose painting radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yang-Kyun; Park, Soyeon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Siyong

    2014-07-08

    Dose painting radiotherapy is considered a promising radiotherapy technology that enables more targeted dose delivery to tumor rich regions while saving critical normal tissues. Obviously, dose painting planning would be more complicated and hard to be evaluated with current plan quality index systems that were developed under the paradigm of uniform dose prescription. In this study, we introduce a new plan quality index, named "index of achievement (IOA)" that assesses how close the planned dose distribution is to the prescribed one in a dose painting radiotherapy plan. By using voxel-based comparison between planned and prescribed dose distributions in its formulation, the index allows for a single-value evaluation regardless of the number of prescribed dose levels, which cannot be achieved with the conventional indices such as conventional homogeneity index. Benchmark calculations using patient data demonstrated feasibility of the index not only for contour-based dose painting plans, but also for dose painting by numbers plans. Also, it was shown that there is strong correlation between the new index and conventional indices, which indicates a potential of the new index as an alternative to conventional ones in general radiotherapy plan evaluation.

  8. In situ investigations of vault paintings in the Antwerp cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneckere, Annelien; Schudel, Walter; Van Bos, Marina; Wouters, Helena; Bergmans, Anna; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2010-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to examine 15th century mediaeval and 16th century renaissance vault paintings in the Our Lady's Cathedral (Antwerp, Belgium) in view of their restoration. The use of mobile instruments made it possible to work totally non-destructively. This complementary approach yields information on the elemental (XRF) and on the molecular composition (Raman) of the pigments. For the 15th century vault painting the pigments lead-tin yellow (Pb(2)SnO(4)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)), vermilion (HgS), massicot (PbO) and azurite (2CuCO(3).Cu(OH)(2)) could be identified. The pigments used for the 16th century vault painting could be identified as red lead (Pb(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), lead white (2PbCO(3)xPb(OH)(2)) and azurite (2CuCO(3)xCu(OH)(2)). For both paintings the presence of the strong Raman scatterer calcite (CaCO(3)) resulted in a difficult identification of the pigments by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gypsum (CaSO(4)x2H(2)O) on the mediaeval vault painting probably indicates that degradation took place.

  9. Automatic forensic analysis of automotive paints using optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Guy; Nys, Bart; Vander Haeghen, Yves; De Roy, Gilbert; Scheunders, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The timely identification of vehicles involved in an accident, such as a hit-and-run situation, bears great importance in forensics. To this end, procedures have been defined for analyzing car paint samples that combine techniques such as visual analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This work proposes a new methodology in order to automate the visual analysis using image retrieval. Specifically, color and texture information is extracted from a microscopic image of a recovered paint sample, and this information is then compared with the same features for a database of paint types, resulting in a shortlist of candidate paints. In order to demonstrate the operation of the methodology, a test database has been set up and two retrieval experiments have been performed. The first experiment quantifies the performance of the procedure for retrieving exact matches, while the second experiment emulates the real-life situation of paint samples that experience changes in color and texture over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  11. Estimating the position of illuminants in paintings under weak model assumptions: an application to the works of two Baroque masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, David; Stork, David G.

    2009-02-01

    The problems of estimating the position of an illuminant and the direction of illumination in realist paintings have been addressed using algorithms from computer vision. These algorithms fall into two general categories: In model-independent methods (cast-shadow analysis, occluding-contour analysis, ...), one does not need to know or assume the three-dimensional shapes of the objects in the scene. In model-dependent methods (shape-fromshading, full computer graphics synthesis, ...), one does need to know or assume the three-dimensional shapes. We explore the intermediate- or weak-model condition, where the three-dimensional object rendered is so simple one can very confidently assume its three-dimensional shape and, further, that this shape admits an analytic derivation of the appearance model. Specifically, we can assume that floors and walls are flat and that they are horizontal and vertical, respectively. We derived the maximum-likelihood estimator for the two-dimensional spatial location of a point source in an image as a function of the pattern of brightness (or grayscale value) over such a planar surface. We applied our methods to two paintings of the Baroque, paintings for which the question of the illuminant position is of interest to art historians: Georges de la Tour's Christ in the carpenter's studio (1645) and Caravaggio's The calling of St. Matthew (1599-1600). Our analyses show that a single point source (somewhat near to the depicted candle) is a slightly better explanation of the pattern of brightness on the floor in Christ than are two point sources, one in place of each of the figures. The luminance pattern on the rear wall in The calling implies the source is local, a few meters outside the picture frame-not the infinitely distant sun. Both results are consistent with previous rebuttals of the recent art historical claim that these paintings were executed by means of tracing optically projected images. Our method is the first application of such

  12. Modern Changes of Colors in Chinese Painting%浅谈中国画的现代色彩观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉萍

    2003-01-01

    Affected by the view of literati painting, colors in Chinese painting were often neglected and belittled in visual aesthetics.Learning color application from Western arts and exploiting pigments are two major approaches to strengthening visual effects in traditional painting...

  13. Raman spectroscopic study of "The Malatesta": a Renaissance painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Vandenabeele, Peter; Benoy, Timothy J

    2015-02-25

    Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments on an Italian painting described as a "Full Length Portrait of a Gentleman", known also as the "Malatesta", and attributed to the Renaissance period has established that these are consistent with the historical research provenance undertaken earlier. Evidence is found for the early 19th Century addition of chrome yellow to highlighted yellow ochre areas in comparison with a similar painting executed in 1801 by Sir Thomas Lawrence of John Kemble in the role of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Raman data are novel in that no analytical studies have previously been made on this painting and reinforces the procedure whereby scientific analyses are accompanied by parallel historical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Image-Based Synthesis of Chinese Landscape Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU JinHui(于金辉); LUO GuoMing(罗国明); PENG QunSheng(彭群生)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new framework for synthesizing Chinese landscape painting using an image-based approach. The framework involves two stages: a preprocessing phase, in which a few brush stroke texture primitivities (BSTP) are collected from samples of hand-made Chinese paintings, and the control picture is constructed to provide color IDs of mountains, and the on-line phases, in which the fog image is synthesized and mountains are "drawn" by mapping multiple layers of BSTP guided by the control picture. When more complex shading is needed, the shading picture is constructed and used during the BSTP mapping phase. Finally, the synthesized Chinese landscape paintings of a variety of styles are given and they look more close to the handmade work than those produced with previous modeling methods.

  15. Virtual hairy brush for digital painting and calligraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Songhua; Lau Francis C. M.; XU Congfu; PAN Yunhe

    2005-01-01

    The design of user friendly and expressive virtual brush systems for interactive digital painting and calligraphy has attracted a lot of attention and effort in both computer graphics and human-computer interaction circles for a long time. Providing a digital environment for paper-less artwork creation is not only challenging in terms of algorithmic design, but also promising for its potential market values. This paper proposes a novel algorithmic framework for interactive digital painting and calligraphy based a novel virtual hairy brush model. The algorithms in the kernel of our simulation framework are built upon solid modeling techniques. Implementing the algorithms, we have developed a virtual hairy brush prototype system with which end users can interactively produce high-quality digital paintings and calligraphic artwork. (The latest progress of our virtual brush project is reported at the website "http://www.cs.hku.hk/~songhua/e-brush/".)

  16. Art Painting Diagnostic Before Restoration with Terahertz and Millimeter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Jean-Paul; Roux, M.; Wang, K.; Ma, X.; Fauquet, F.; Balacey, H.; Recur, B.; Darracq, F.; Mounaix, P.

    2017-04-01

    Art painting diagnostic is commonly performed using electromagnetic waves at wavelengths from terahertz to X-ray. These former techniques are essential in conservation and art history research, but they could be also very useful for restoring artwork. While most studies use time domain imaging technique, in this study, a painting has been investigated using both time domain imaging (TDI) and frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system in the millimeter frequency range. By applying these systems to a painting of the eighteenth century, we detect and analyze the structure of some defects. This study underlines the differences between FMCW and TDI. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each technique on a real artwork.

  17. Art Painting Diagnostic Before Restoration with Terahertz and Millimeter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Jean-Paul; Roux, M.; Wang, K.; Ma, X.; Fauquet, F.; Balacey, H.; Recur, B.; Darracq, F.; Mounaix, P.

    2017-01-01

    Art painting diagnostic is commonly performed using electromagnetic waves at wavelengths from terahertz to X-ray. These former techniques are essential in conservation and art history research, but they could be also very useful for restoring artwork. While most studies use time domain imaging technique, in this study, a painting has been investigated using both time domain imaging (TDI) and frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system in the millimeter frequency range. By applying these systems to a painting of the eighteenth century, we detect and analyze the structure of some defects. This study underlines the differences between FMCW and TDI. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each technique on a real artwork.

  18. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  19. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  20. The bacterial aetiology of rosy discoloration of ancient wall paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperi, Francesco; Caneva, Giulia; Cancellieri, Laura; Ricci, Maria A; Sodo, Armida; Visca, Paolo

    2007-11-01

    The inventory of microorganisms responsible for biological deterioration of ancient paintings has become an integral part of restoration activities. Here, the microbial agent of rosy discoloration on medieval frescoes in the Crypt of the Original Sin (Matera, Italy) was investigated by a combination of microscopic, molecular and spectroscopic approaches. The bacterial community from three rosy-discoloured painting sites was characterized by 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. The eubacterial population was prevalently composed of Actinobacteria, among which Rubrobacter radiotolerans-related bacteria accounted for 63-87% of the 16S rRNA gene pool per sampled site. Archaea, with prevalence of Haloarchaea-related species, were detected in one of the three sites where they accounted for paintings.