WorldWideScience

Sample records for fifty year legacy

  1. Fifty years of Water Resources Research: Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna M; Rajaram, Harihar; Sander, Graham

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the contributions collected to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Water Resources Research along with a critical discussion of the legacy and perspectives for the science...

  2. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  3. Fifty years in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Brett J; Doyle, Lex W; Davies, Mark W; Davis, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Neonatology, the care and study of newborn infants, is a 'young' specialty. Over the last 50 years, there have been many advances in the way that neonatologists care for newborn infants, particularly those born preterm, leading to dramatic improvements in mortality. To illustrate these advances, we describe four eras in neonatology from the point of view of the junior hospital doctor.

  4. PAs: Fifty years young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ellen D; North, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

  5. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Tøssebro, Jan; Teittinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    toward larger group homes and congregations, inequality across municipalities, marketization, and new public management, but also an increasing emphasis on consumer rights and the use of the personal assistance scheme in services for people with ID. The authors conclude that diverging trends coexist......, with improvements going together with significant setbacks. They explore the trends from a political science perspective and, in particular, note how they relate to recent shifts in public management and changing drivers of change....... test of the reforms is not what happens during reform years, but after the reform energy decreases and political attention fades. Thus, developments after 2000 are of particular interest. The comparative analysis is based on research reviews in the five Nordic countries. The analysis observed a trend...

  6. Lasers: The next fifty years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärtner, Franz; Pollnau, Markus; Ueda, Ken-ichi; van Driel, Henry

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest‿ in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward

  7. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prez, Du Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry, phys

  8. Lasers: The next fifty years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärtner, Franz; Pollnau, Markus; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Driel, van Henry

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest” in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward extensio

  9. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  10. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  11. Information Systems Curricula: A Fifty Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Feinstein, David; Clark, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research to explore the nature of changes in skills over a fifty year period spanning the life of Information Systems model curricula. Work begun in 1999 was expanded both backwards in time, as well as forwards to 2012 to define skills relevant to Information Systems curricula. The work in 1999 was based on job…

  12. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  13. Essay: fifty years of condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2008-12-19

    Since the birth of Physical Review Letters fifty years ago, condensed matter physics has seen considerable growth, and both the journal and the field have flourished during this period. In this essay, I begin with some general comments about condensed matter physics and then give some personal views on the conceptual development of the field and list some highlights. The focus is mostly on theoretical developments.

  14. First Fifty Years of Chemoresistive Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Neri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fifty years of chemoresistive sensors for gas detection are here reviewed, focusing on the main scientific and technological innovations that have occurred in the field over the course of these years. A look at advances made in fundamental and applied research and leading to the development of actual high performance chemoresistive devices is presented. The approaches devoted to the synthesis of novel semiconducting materials with unprecedented nanostructure and gas-sensing properties have been also presented. Perspectives on new technologies and future applications of chemoresistive gas sensors have also been highlighted.

  15. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  16. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  17. Cryogenic engineering fifty years of progress

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic Engineering: Fifty Years of Progress is a benchmark reference work which chronicles the major developments in the field. Starting with an historical background dating to the 1850s, this book reviews the development of data resources now available for cryogenic fields and properties of materials. The advances in cryogenic fundamentals are covered by reviews of cryogenic principles, cryogenic insulation, low-loss storage systems, modern liquefaction processes, helium cryogenics and low-temperature thermometry. Several well-established applications resulting from cryogenic advances include aerospace cryocoolers and refrigerators, use of LTS and HTS systems in electrical applications, and recent changes in cryopreservation. Extensive references are provided for the readers interested in the details of these cryogenic engineering advances.

  18. [Fifty years of clinical use of warfarin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-González, Jesús Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin is the most utilized oral anticoagulant for the long term prophylaxes of thrombosis. Its use has been increased as new clinical conditions, capable of leading to thrombosis, have been detected. Due to the special characteristics of warfarin, such as the variability of doses for each individual, the narrow margin between adequate and inadequate doses, interaction with multiple pharmaceutical products, interference of its action by vitamin K present in the diet and the possibility of hemorrhagic complications or thrombotic recurrence, this drug requires a very careful dosage and strict laboratory and clinical monitoring. Despite being in the market for more than de fifty years and its many disadvantages, warfarin has not been substituted for the new oral anticoagulants. In 1999, warfarin was positioned eleventh on the list of the most used medicines in the world.

  19. Atoms for Peace after Fifty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N; Lehman, R; Vergino, E; Schock, R

    2004-03-15

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an ''international atomic energy agency'' to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching

  20. Fifty years of science, memories, and events

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In 2004 CERN celebrates its 50th anniversary. More precisely, on Wednesday 29 September 2004, the signature of the convention that established CERN will be 50 years old. During this special year, CERN's public web site will host a celebratory Fiftieth Anniversary web site.

  1. The Road Was Fifty Years Long

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    TIBET has always been a place of worldconcern. After the Democratic Reformin 1959, Tibet turned into a socialist societyfrom the former feudal serf system, whichwas an unprecedented historical step. Forforty years since then, the peace anddevelopment of Tibet have received specialattention and concern from the centralgovernment. Du Qiyuan, the president ofTibet Women’s Federation who grew up andhas worked in Tibet for years told me about

  2. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  3. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Kwasnicki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInnovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years.MethodsPatents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010 were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored.ResultsBetween 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued.ConclusionsThe application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active.

  4. Fifty years ago: the Vaiont night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Spagna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geologist at the beginning of his career in the early 1960’s was a teacher of mineralogy and geology at the Agordo “Follador” Mining Institute in the Dolomites area. It was 50 years ago now when he observed the building of the Vaiont dam, and here he tells us of the night of October 9, 1963, when he rushed to the Piave Valley together with the first-aid teams, to confront the remains of Longarone. Did the dam collapse? Everybody thinks so, but the moon was not shining enough to allow an understanding of what had happened. It was only the first faint light of dawn that revealed that the dam was still standing: it was only edged by the water, from the shaping of the tremendous wave that was raised by the Mount Toc landslide when it entered the basin at 100 km/h. The dam edge contributed to the projection of the wave onto the opposite slopes, where once the water mass was released from the narrow Vaiont canyon, it raised solidly into the air, grazing the Casso village and precipitated as a massive block on the Longarone area. Everybody looked upwards with hate and despair, at the residual water streamlets that were overflowing along the concrete wall of the dam. Over the white bare esplanade people appeared extremely small. Pitiful people, gathered around the bodies wrenched from the devastated houses, denuded and buried in the mud.

  5. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    electromagnetic modes, arrays of coupled cavities [5-7], and optomechanical systems [8] have further enriched the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model. From the early interests in masers and the consistent quantum description of radiation and atom-photon interaction, the Jaynes-Cummings model has evolved into a cornerstone of quantum state engineering [9]. The authors of this editorial had not been born when Jaynes and Cummings wrote their remarkable paper. It is, therefore, a special honour for us to be able to draw the reader's attention to the accompanying reminiscence contributed by Frederick Cummings where he gives us a glimpse of the early history of the Jaynes-Cummings model from his perspective [11]. By now, the original 1963 paper by Jaynes and Cummings has gathered numerous citations and, at the time of writing, the number of articles involving Jaynes-Cummings physics is approaching 15 000.1 This special issue does not attempt to review this impressive wealth of research. The interested reader, however, is urged to consult the definitive article by Shore and Knight [10] for a comprehensive review of the first 30 years of Jaynes-Cummings physics. The collection of 26 papers presented in this issue, showcases a snapshot of some of the most recent and continuing research devoted to Jaynes-Cummings physics. We begin our special issue with Professor Cumming's recollections [11]. We then have six papers on quantum information aspects of the Jaynes-Cummings model [12-17]. The next topic includes seven papers on the Dicke and generalized Jaynes-Cummings models [18-24], followed by six papers on circuit QED, which is one of the most important experimental frameworks for Jaynes-Cummings systems [25-30]. Finally, we have six papers on the extension to many cavities, the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model [31-36]. The snapshot of research captured in this special issue illustrates the unifying language provided by the Jaynes-Cummings model, tying together research in a number of

  6. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    Anniversaries call for celebrations. Since it is now fifty years since the first semiconductor lasers were reported, it is highly appropriate to celebrate this anniversary with a Special Issue dedicated to the topic. The semiconductor laser now has a major effect on our daily lives since it has been a key enabler in the development of optical fibre communications (and hence the internet and e-mail), optical storage (CDs, DVDs, etc) and barcode scanners. In the early 1960s it was impossible for most people (with the exception of very few visionaries) to foresee any of these future developments, and the first applications identified were for military purposes (range-finders, target markers, etc). Of course, many of the subsequent laser applications were made possible by developments in semiconductor materials, in the associated growth and fabrication technology, and in the increased understanding of the underlying fundamental physics. These developments continue today, so that the subject of semiconductor lasers, although mature, is in good health and continues to grow. Hence, we can be confident that the pervasive influence of semiconductor lasers will continue to develop as optoelectronics technology makes further advances into other sectors such as healthcare, security and a whole host of applications based on the global imperatives to reduce energy consumption, minimise environmental impact and conserve resources. The papers in this Special Issue are intended to tell some of the story of the last fifty years of laser development as well as to provide evidence of the current state of semiconductor laser research. Hence, there are a number of papers where the early developments are recalled by authors who played prominent parts in the story, followed by a selection of papers from authors who are active in today's exciting research. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the semiconductor laser was celebrated by the publication of a number of papers dealing with the early

  7. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  8. Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s research database (ScienceDirect), Elton B. ...

  9. Mariner 2 and its Legacy: 50 Years on

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) built and flew the first successful spacecraft to another planet: Mariner 2 to Venus. This paper discusses the context of this mission at a crucial phase in the space race between the USA and USSR and its results and legacy. As its first major success, Mariner 2 helped to cement JPL's position as a centre for robotic planetary exploration. Mariner 2 successfully solved the scientific problem of the high temperature observed for Venus by ground-based radio telescopes. It also pioneered new techniques for observing the atmosphere of a planet from space, which were subsequently developed into the microwave sounding and infrared sounding techniques for observing the Earth atmosphere. Today these techniques provide some of the most important data for constraining weather forecasting models, as well as a key series of data on the Earth's changing climate.

  10. Fifty years of mathematical physics selected works of Ludvig Faddeev

    CERN Document Server

    Niemi, Antti J

    2016-01-01

    This unique volume summarizes with a historical perspective several of the major scientific achievements of Ludwig Faddeev, with a foreword by Nobel Laureate C N Yang. The volume that spans over fifty years of Faddeev's career begins where he started his own scientific research, in the subject of scattering theory and the three-body problem. It then continues to describe Faddeev's contributions to automorphic functions, followed by an extensive account of his many fundamental contributions to quantum field theory including his original article on ghosts with Popov. Faddeev's contributions to soliton theory and integrable models are then described, followed by a survey of his work on quantum groups. The final scientific section is devoted to Faddeev's contemporary research including articles on his long-term interest in constructing knotted solitons and understanding confinement. The volume concludes with his personal view on science and mathematical physics in particular.

  11. Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baranzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, Modigliani proposed a theory of spending in which people make intelligent choices about their spending at each age limited by the resources available over their lives. By using assets and debts, working people can provide for their retirement and tailor their spending to their needs at each age independent of income at each age. The theory predicts that national saving depends on the growth of national income, not its level, and that aggregate wealth depends on the length of retirement. Fifty years later, the life-cycle hypothesis remains an essential part of economists' thinking. Without it, we would have much less to say about the private and public provision of social security, the effects of the stock market on the economy, the effects of demographic change on national saving, the role of saving in economic growth, and the determinants of national wealth.

  12. Fifty Years of Climate Curricular Confusion and Pedagogical Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. S.; Niepold, F.

    2008-12-01

    The processes of weather and climate, including the greenhouse effect and the potential for significant, even catastrophic human impacts on the climate system, were sufficiently understood in 1958 during the International Geophysical Year that the authors of the science education booklet, Planet Earth, The Mystery with 100,000 Clues, published by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, were confident to predict that continued emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere could, in time, melt icecaps and glaciers and rise sea levels. This important scientific insight was further studied by climatologists, but is largely missing as an integral, important component of science education. Now, fifty years later, with a global population that has doubled, fossil fuel emissions that have tripled, and current energy consumption and emission trajectories that are above the IPCC Business as Usual scenario, leading politicians still doubt that our global economy can impact the climate system. NRC estimates that up to 40 percent of the approximately $10 trillion U.S. economy is affected by weather and climate events annually, making it a crucial if not dominant factor in our economic well-being, particularly for future generations. Despite the long term and short term importance of climate in our lives, society is essentially illiterate about climate science and confused about the connections between energy, economy and climate, as numerous public opinion polls and studies have shown. A key reason is that education programs and pedagogical content knowledge focusing on the basics of climate, including natural variability as well as human induced climate change, are largely missing from K12 and undergraduate education. Climate has fallen through disciplinary cracks, been avoided because of perceived controversy, and neglected because most educators lack training or expertise in the subject matter. With a focus on climate in formal education, this paper will provide an overview

  13. The Proton Synchrotron, going strong at fifty years

    CERN Multimedia

    Django Manglunki

    It was on the evening of 24 November 1959 that an incredulous Hildred Blewett, on detachment to CERN from the Brookhaven laboratory, exclaimed “Yes! We’re through transition!” The first beam of ten billion protons had not only broken through the 5.2 GeV barrier but gone on all the way to 24 GeV, the machine’s top energy at that time.   An operational screenshot from the PS, taken on its 50th anniversary. The three white peaks depict different phases (cycles) of the PS’s operation. In the first and third cycle, the PS is producing a very low-intensity beam for LHC commissioning. In the second cycle, protons are being spilled out for use in the East Area. Fifty years ago the PS, the first strong-focusing proton synchrotron using alternating gradient technology, first began to circulate beams at an unprecedented level of energy. Over the years, a complex of linear and circular accelerators and storage rings grew up around the PS. In the mid-1990s ...

  14. Fifty years of numerical modeling of baroclinic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisyan, A. S.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a brief critical analysis of the main historical stages of numerical modeling for the last fifty years. It was a half a century ago that the numerical simulation of an actual baroclinic ocean was initiated by the author and his students [1, 2]. In meteorology, studies on the numerical modeling of a baroclinic atmosphere existed much earlier [21, 22]. Despite this, a similar move in oceanography was met with strong resistance. At that time, there were many studies on the calculation of the total mass transport. The founders of this field, V.B. Shtokman, H. Sverdrup, and W. Munk, were mistaken in believing that they addressed baroclinic models of the ocean. The author preferred works by V. Ekman [12] and I. Sandström and B. Helland-Hansen [19]. A generalization of recent studies made it possible to come to some conclusions on the need to use the level of the free oceanic surface as a basis rather than the function of total mass transport, on the role of the baroclinic β effect (BARBE), on the joint effect of baroclinicity and bottom relief (JEBAR), etc. The author conditionally divides these fifty years into the following three stages. (1) The first stage was 1961-1969, when the author and his students performed almost exclusively diagnostic and adaptation calculations of climatic characteristics. (2) The second stage began with papers by K. Bryan [23] and his students. This is an important and promising stage involving mainly prognostic studies and four-dimensional analysis. The major advances in modeling at this stage (the Gulf Stream separation point [61], the Kuroshio seasonal evolution [63], the formation of the cold intermediate layer in the Black Sea [80], the subsurface countercurrent in the Caspian Sea [25], the realistic four-dimensional analysis of the Kara Sea [60], etc.) were due to high-resolution and/or data assimilation with an adequate period of integration. (3) The third stage began with the activities of international

  15. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  16. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979566 Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Vilcek J. I...mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming... at a moving target. PubmedID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  17. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  18. [Fifty years of treating stuttering in young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, M C

    2004-08-14

    Developmental stuttering involves a disruption in the smooth connection of sounds or syllables that is characterised by multiple interruptions within a word, such as repetitions of sounds, syllables and parts of words, elongation of words and blockades. During the course of the past fifty years, three phases can be distinguished in the management of developmental stuttering, characterised by a shift in stress from the environmental factors to the role of the organic, i.e. non-psychological, factors. Initially, the parents of toddlers and pre-school children were advised to pay no attention to stuttering behaviour. Then the problem would disappear the quickest of its own accord. After 1985, the stress came to be placed on reducing the level of expectations, for example by speaking to the child more slowly and using shorter and less complex sentences. Another new aspect was that the parents learned to discuss stuttering with the child in a sympathetic and accepting manner. Since 2000, an approach has been introduced in the Netherlands in which parents are taught to respond verbally to both fluent and non-fluent speech. Emphasis is given to rewarding fluent speech, such as in the Australian Lidcombe Program, but the parents are also taught to react to stuttered speech once in a while. At present, early treatment is accepted as a way of preventing chronic stuttering, even if this means that some children will be treated that would have recovered in any case and even though the exact yield is not yet clear. Clinical practice shows that early treatment almost always succeeds in limiting the severity of stuttering to a mild form.

  19. Fifty years of fuzzy logic and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rishe, Naphtali; Kandel, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive report on the evolution of Fuzzy Logic since its formulation in Lotfi Zadeh’s seminal paper on “fuzzy sets,” published in 1965. In addition, it features a stimulating sampling from the broad field of research and development inspired by Zadeh’s paper. The chapters, written by pioneers and prominent scholars in the field, show how fuzzy sets have been successfully applied to artificial intelligence, control theory, inference, and reasoning. The book also reports on theoretical issues; features recent applications of Fuzzy Logic in the fields of neural networks, clustering, data mining, and software testing; and highlights an important paradigm shift caused by Fuzzy Logic in the area of uncertainty management. Conceived by the editors as an academic celebration of the fifty years’ anniversary of the 1965 paper, this work is a must-have for students and researchers willing to get an inspiring picture of the potentialities, limitations, achievements and accomplishments...

  20. Editorial: “Fifty years Annals of Forest Science”

    OpenAIRE

    Leban, Jean-Michel; Peiffer, Marianne; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Dreyer, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Annals of Forest Science is publishing a series of review papers to celebrate 50 years of activities as a journal in forest and wood science. The reviews emphasize the extent to which forest and wood sciences changed and developed as a large array of disciplines devoted to complex objects with sometimes many conflicting issues.

  1. Marriage and Fertility in Tianjin, China: Fifty Years of Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Burton

    A report of research conducted in Tianjin, People's Republic of China (September 1981-January 1982) describes and analyses changes in family structure, marriage, post-marital residence, and fertility in a neighborhood of factory workers over a 50-year period. Social and economic changes such as delayed marriage, increased access to education, and…

  2. Fifty years of CERN history in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The programme of events for CERN's Golden Jubilee year was officially unveiled at a press conference on 8 March. The first of these events took place the following day, when the Swiss commemorative postage stamp issued in the Laboratory's honour went on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland.

  3. [Fifty years of mortality or the result of social inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Ornelas, R

    1993-01-01

    An average of 30 years has been added to Mexican life expectancy in the past five decades. Women and men born in 1940 had life expectancies of 41.5 and 39.5 years, respectively, compared to 72.8 and 66.7 in 1990. Mortality declined most sharply between 1940 and 1960, and declined at varying rates in the subsequent decades. In the decade from 1980 to 1990, the mortality decline slowed. The differential in life expectancy between men and women amounted to 6.2 years in 1980 and 6.1 in 1990. The high life expectancy of women means that future advances will be more difficult to achieve. The greater survival of Mexicans over the five decades is due to improvements in living conditions, advances in preventive and curative medicine, and social policy. The slower pace of mortality decline in the past decade may perhaps have been due to deteriorating living conditions, reduced priority accorded to social policies in the areas of health and education, and declining real incomes. Mexican health, education, and other social policies have favored the urban and industrial centers, increasing regional disparities. A comparison of life expectancies in Oaxaca, one of the most impoverished states of Mexico, and Puebla, which has somewhat better conditions, with life expectancies in the wealthy state of Nuevo Leon and the Federal District demonstrates the influence of the level of development on life expectancy. Life expectancy in 1990 in Oaxaca and Puebla was the equivalent of that for all of Mexico ten years earlier. Men in Oaxaca live five years less on average than men in Nuevo Leon. But the gain in life expectancy for males was higher in Oaxaca between 1980 and 1990 than in the other states.

  4. Water chemistry: fifty years of change and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezonik, Patrick L; Arnold, William A

    2012-06-05

    Water chemistry evolved from early foundations in several related disciplines. Although it is difficult to associate a precise date to its founding, several events support the argument that the field as we know it today developed in the mid-20th century--at the dawn of the "environmental era"--that is, ∼1960. The field in its modern incarnation thus is about 50 years old. In celebration of this half-centenary, we examine here the origins of water chemistry, how the field has changed over the past 50 years, and the principal driving forces for change, focusing on both the "practice" of water chemistry and ways that teaching the subject has evolved.

  5. Fifty years of wilderness science: An international perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Carver; Steve McCool; Zdenka Krenova; Mark Fisher; Stephen. Woodley

    2014-01-01

    The 50th Anniversary of the U.S. Wilderness Act is a cause for celebration, not least of which is the scientific use recognized in Section 4(b) of the act. This year also marks the 20th anniversary of publication of the International Journal of Wilderness (IJW). IJW plays a unique role in wilderness stewardship, science, and advocacy, providing a forum for presentation...

  6. Bibliometric analysis of fifty years of physica status solidi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Werner [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Hoffmann, Dieter [Max Planck Institute for the History of Sciences, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Bibliometric methods are used to analyze quantitatively the journal physica status solidi (pss) 50 years after its inception. First, the coverage of the journal by the relevant citation indices accessible under the Web of Science (WoS) and the field-specific INSPEC database is examined. The number of papers published per year by the journal as a whole and by the specific pss series is given. The time evolution of the pss output in terms of papers per year is compared with the output evolution of some major competing journals in the field of condensed-matter physics. The top-12 most frequently cited pss papers published within the complete time period 1961-2010 and within the two separate time periods 1974-1989 and 1990-2010 (before and after the German reunification) are listed. The citation time curves (citation history) of the three most frequently cited pss papers are presented. Furthermore, the Journal Impact Factors (JIFs) of the pss journal series (a) and (b) are discussed and their time evolution is shown. Moreover, the distribution of the pss papers over their document types and the authors is given. The countries of authors are ranked for the complete time period 1961-2010 as well as for the time periods 1973-1989 and 1990-2010. The complete ensemble of the citing papers of the pss papers is analyzed and discussed. The journals citing most often the pss papers published in the year 2000 are listed. Finally, the distribution of the pss papers over the various subject areas and classification terms based on the INSPEC database is tabled. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, Simone; CERN. Geneva; Burnet, Jean-Paul; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, Thomas

    2013-08-12

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  8. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Garoby, Roland; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, Steven; Haseroth, Helmut; Hübner, Kurt; Küchler, Detlef; Lewis, Julian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Martini, Michel; Maury, Stephan; Métral, Elias; Möhl, Dieter; Plass, Günther; Rinolfi, Louis; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Steinbach, Charles; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler,Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This report sums up in two volumes the first 50 years of operation of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. After an introduction on the genesis of the machine, and a description of its magnet and powering systems, the first volume focuses on some of the many innovations in accelerator physics and instrumentation that it has pioneered, such as transition crossing, RF gymnastics, extractions, phase space tomography, or transverse emittance measurement by wire scanners. The second volume describes the other machines in the PS complex: the proton linear accelerators, the PS Booster, the LEP pre-injector, the heavy-ion linac and accumulator, and the antiproton rings.

  9. Fifty years of IAA History Symposia (1967-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Hall, R. Cargill

    2017-05-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Symposia on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics have been held annually at the International Astronautical Congresses since 1967. During these past 50 years nearly 800 papers have been presented and subsequently published in the proceedings. With a 20-year rule imposed for historical presentations, the first 10 symposia concentrated on pre-World War II and early 1950s activities. A surprisingly large number of papers on early, less well-known Soviet-Russian contributions to rocketry and astronautics were presented in the first symposia, despite the ongoing Space Race between the U.S and USSR. Another important element in these symposia involved memoir papers offered by pre- and post-war rocket and astronautics pioneers from many countries, and the participation of many of these pioneers in person. In sum, the history of national space and rocket projects from some 40 countries were presented over the years in IAA History Symposia. These 50 symposia have provided a platform for scholars and professional and non-professional historians to meet and discuss the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to personally interview many space pioneers, most of whom today are deceased. Their personal recollections have since been shared with a large audience. Over time, IAA history papers divided into recognizable periods: ancient times through the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries, which separate among actions and events that took place before 1945, in 1945 to 1957, and after 1957 (which marked the beginning of the space age). Proceedings of the IAA History Symposia have been published in English, ultimately in the History Series of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and its publishing arm, Univelt Inc., under an agreement secured with the IAA. This paper presents an overview of the IAA History Symposia. It examines the early years of the history committee and its first symposium, the evolution of

  10. [From conventional cytogenetics to microarrays. Fifty years of Philadelphia chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jesús M; Granada, Isabel; Solé, Francesc

    2011-07-23

    In 1960 Ph-chromosome was found associated with the presence of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In these 50 years an increasing number of cytogenetic abnormalities have been found associated with hematological malignancies. The presence of these abnormalities is not only important for the diagnosis of the patient, but it also contributes to the prognosis of patients with leukemia or lymphoma. For this reason the WHO classification of hematological disease has included these studies for the correct characterization of leukemias and lymphomas. In addition, the use of FISH and micromatrix methodologies have refined the genetic lesions present in these malignancies. The cytogenetic changes observed also provide further information in relation to the therapy.

  11. The right to health fifty years on: still skeptical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M

    1999-01-01

    The drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was a crucial step in the recognition of a legal right to health. Although the past 50 years have revealed weaknesses in the Declaration, it has been an important catalyst for social and legal change worldwide and for new thinking about public health. Recently, the struggle against the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taught us that protecting the human rights of those most at risk is, in fact, a most effective means of preventing the spread of HIV. Traditional public health problems, as well as those involving new biotechnologies, must today be addressed with specific attention to human rights.

  12. Fifty years of fuel quality and vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In the late 1970s, with growing emphasis on urban air quality in Europe, CONCAWE embarked on new research related to fuels and vehicles. After only a few years, it became clear that fuel properties and specifications would be increasingly important to the future of the European refining industry, and considerable research was completed in the 1970s to better understand the impact of fuel composition on vehicle performance and emissions. This early work led to the formation of the first Fuels and Emissions Management Group (FEMG) in 1982, almost 20 years after the formation of the CONCAWE Association. Since these early days, FEMG has been responsible for ensuring CONCAWE's strategic outlook on future vehicle and fuel developments, monitoring regulatory and vehicle developments, and overseeing a diverse portfolio of fuel quality and vehicle emissions research. Since the 1980s, tremendous progress has been made in improving European air quality, in part by reducing emissions from road transport and other sectors, and major improvements in European fuel qualities have contributed to these reductions. Nevertheless, many challenges are still ahead, especially further reductions in pollutant emissions from vehicles while also reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport. In the near-term, these GHG reductions will largely come from improvements in engine and vehicle fuel consumption and by blending of GHG-reducing bio-blending components. Dealing with these challenges to fuel quality and performance will require a continuing focus on CONCAWE's founding principles: sound science, cost effectiveness and transparency.

  13. Fifty years of the Korean Society for Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yull

    2009-10-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

  14. [Fifty years of cooperation--FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This year, the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) celebrates its 50th anniversary. The Polish Biochemical Society, represented by the Society's President, Kazimierz Zakrzewski, was a founding member of the organization. The text presents a history of collaboration between FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society, the participation of Polish Biochemical Society members in different FEBS activities, as well as the role they played in running the Federation. Author describes FEBS Congresses which taken place in Warsaw, the first 3rd FEBS Meeting in 1966 and then 29th Congress in 2004. The profiles of Jakub Karol Parnas, the founding father of the Polish biochemistry and some crucial Presidents of the Society, are also presented. The text describes Parnas Conferences, organized jointly by Polish and Ukrainian Biochemical Societies from 1996, and growing from 2011 into three-nation event with participation of Ukrainian, Israeli and Polish scientists, largely due to significant help from FEBS. Summarizing the last few years, author judge the cooperation between the Federation and the Polish Biochemical Society as optimal.

  15. Fifty Years of the Spectrum Problem: Survey and New Results

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud; Makowsky, Johann; More, Malika

    2009-01-01

    In 1952, Heinrich Scholz published a question in the Journal of Symbolic Logic asking for a characterization of spectra, i.e., sets of natural numbers that are the cardinalities of finite models of first order sentences. G\\"unter Asser asked whether the complement of a spectrum is always a spectrum. These innocent questions turned out to be seminal for the development of finite model theory and descriptive complexity. In this paper we survey developments over the last 50-odd years pertaining to the spectrum problem. Our presentation follows conceptual developments rather than the chronological order. Originally a number theoretic problem, it has been approached in terms of recursion theory, resource bounded complexity theory, classification by complexity of the defining sentences, and finally in terms of structural graph theory. Although Scholz' question was answered in various ways, Asser's question remains open. One appendix paraphrases the contents of several early and not easily accesible papers by G. Ass...

  16. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  17. Perspectives on Erving Goffman's "Asylums" fifty years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, John; Gill, Irwin; Glackin, Shane N; Kelly, Brendan D; Scanlon, Christopher; Mac Suibhne, Seamus

    2013-08-01

    Erving Goffman's "Asylums" is a key text in the development of contemporary, community-orientated mental health practice. It has survived as a trenchant critique of the asylum as total institution, and its publication in 1961 in book form marked a further stage in the discrediting of the asylum model of mental health care. In this paper, some responses from a range of disciplines to this text, 50 years on, are presented. A consultant psychiatrist with a special interest in cultural psychiatry and mental health legislation, two collaborating psychotherapists in adult and forensic mental health, a philosopher, and a recent medical graduate, present their varying responses to the text. The editors present these with the hope of encouraging further dialogue and debate from service users, carers, clinicians, and academics and researchers across a range of disciplines.

  18. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Phase Diagrams: Fifty Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Avraham; Kröger, Martin; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-12-14

    In 1968, Heskins and Guillet published the first systematic study of the phase diagram of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), at the time a "young polymer" first synthesized in 1956. Since then, PNIPAM became the leading member of the growing families of thermoresponsive polymers and of stimuli-responsive, "smart" polymers in general. Its thermal response is unanimously attributed to its phase behavior. Yet, in spite of 50 years of research, a coherent quantitative picture remains elusive. In this Review we survey the reported phase diagrams, discuss the differences and comment on theoretical ideas regarding their possible origins. We aim to alert the PNIPAM community to open questions in this reputably mature domain.

  19. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  20. Chemical Hydrogeology: Fifty Years of Advances, Breakthroughs, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical hydrogeology focuses on the composition, properties, and biogeochemical processes inherent to water in subsurface environments. Multiple avenues of research coalesced in the 1960's to foment the development of chemical hydrogeology as a distinct field. In the intervening 50 years, chemical hydrogeology principles have been applied to innumerable issues and problems, and concomitantly, the field has continually experienced advances, breakthroughs, and innovations in theory, analysis, and application. An overarching theme to chemical hydrogeology in both theory and application is integration--- integration of disciplines (interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary), integration of approaches (theoretical, experimental, analytical), and integration of scales (spatial, temporal). Chemical hydrogeology has never been more relevant and more challenged as today, as we face critical issues related to for example water scarcity and availability of clean water, impacts of energy development, production and storage, and human interactions with ecosystem services. This presentation will illustrate recent advances in chemical hydrogeology, ranging from application of advanced imaging for characterization of pore-scale multiphase systems to integrated physical and biogeochemical assessments of field-scale contaminant transport.

  1. Fifty Years of Quasars: Physical Insights and Potential for Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sulentic, J W; Dultzin, D; D'Onofrio, M; del Olmo, A

    2014-01-01

    Last year (2013) was more or less the 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars. It is an interesting time to review what we know (and don't know) about them both empirically and theoretically. These compact sources involving line emitting plasma show extraordinary luminosities extending to one thousand times that of our Milky Way in emitting volumes of a few solar system diameters (bolometric luminosity log L$_{bol} \\sim $ 44-48 [erg s$^{-1}$]: D=1-3 light months $\\sim$ $10^3$ - $10^4$ gravitational radii). The advent of 8-10 meter class telescopes enables us to study them spectroscopically in ever greater detail. In 2000 we introduced a 4D Eigenvector 1 parameters space involving optical, UV and X-Ray measures designed to serve as a 4D equivalent of the 2D Hertzsprung-Russell diagram so important for depicting the diversity of stellar types and evolutionary states. This diagram has revealed a principal sequence of quasars distinguished by Eddington ratio (proportional to the accretion rate per unit mass)...

  2. Fifty years of progress in speech understanding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zue, Victor

    2004-10-01

    Researchers working on human-machine interfaces realized nearly 50 years ago that automatic speech recognition (ASR) alone is not sufficient; one needs to impart linguistic knowledge to the system such that the signal could ultimately be understood. A speech understanding system combines speech recognition (i.e., the speech to symbols conversion) with natural language processing (i.e., the symbol to meaning transformation) to achieve understanding. Speech understanding research dates back to the DARPA Speech Understanding Project in the early 1970s. However, large-scale efforts only began in earnest in the late 1980s, with government research programs in the U.S. and Europe providing the impetus. This has resulted in many innovations including novel approaches to natural language understanding (NLU) for speech input, and integration techniques for ASR and NLU. In the past decade, speech understanding systems have become major building blocks of conversational interfaces that enable users to access and manage information using spoken dialogue, incorporating language generation, discourse modeling, dialogue management, and speech synthesis. Today, we are at the threshold of developing multimodal interfaces, augmenting sound with sight and touch. This talk will highlight past work and speculate on the future. [Work supported by an industrial consortium of the MIT Oxygen Project.

  3. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.

  4. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  5. Fifty-one Years of Hawaiian Hotspot Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Tuzo Wilson's ground breaking realization that the progressively increasing ages of volcanism along linear chains of Pacific islands are best explained by movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary heat source was followed by Jason Morgan's physically more plausible plume theory. Hawaii, the "mother" of all plumes/hotspots, has become the focus of a continuing burden-of-proof battle about the existence of mantle plumes. The monotonic age progression of this island chain has been amply confirmed, but the hotspot locus is not perfectly fixed, and this has been taken to be a failed test of the plume model. Numerous numerical experiments in bottom-heated settings have demonstrated that plumes are a physically natural mode of convection, but antiplumers focus on the fact that in internally heated media, plumes are unlikely. Early proposals of propagating lithospheric fractures with magma tapped from the underlying asthenosphere have never been sufficiently developed to seriously compete with the convection models. Geochemists eagerly adopted the plume model and developed highly model-dependent criteria for identifying mantle plumes, but these are easily knocked down, because most geochemical tracers carry no information about the specific mantle depth being sampled. Conversely, petrological-geochemical models invoking exclusively asthenospheric magma sources have not explained how, in the absence of a Bunsen burner, high melt production can be localized in one geographic spot for 108 years. Our work has focussed on using dynamic modelling to trace the path of geochemical heterogeneities from the base of the mantle to the volcanoes. We find that large-scale heterogeneities existing in the lower thermal boundary layer are drawn into close proximity in the plume conduit and in the erupting volcanoes. Geochemistry cannot prove mantle plumes, but plumes offer a promising path to understanding the geochemistry of the deep mantle.

  6. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-02-12

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ``scientific`` even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ``for heuristic purposes.`` When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative.

  7. Domain analysis of computational science - Fifty years of a scientific computing group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-23

    I employed bibliometric- and historical-methods to study the domain of the Scientific Computing group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for an extended period of fifty years, from 1958 to 2007. I noted and confirmed the growing emergence of interdisciplinarity within the group. I also identified a strong, consistent mathematics and physics orientation within it.

  8. Fifty years of continuous improvement: (What has DOE done for analytical chemistry?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, analytical scientist within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six ``high impact`` research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. ``High impact`` means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  9. Darrell Huff and Fifty Years of How to Lie with Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, J. Michael

    2005-01-01

    Over the last fifty years, How to Lie with Statistics has sold more copies than any other statistical text. This note explores the factors that contributed to its success and provides biographical sketches of its creators: author Darrell Huff and illustrator Irving Geis.

  10. Fifty Years Later: Comments on the Further Development of a Science of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years after the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", some possibilities for the future of Skinner's "science of verbal behavior" are considered. Specifically, certain areas of development or advancement are examined which might be of special importance to the expansion and influence of the functional analysis of verbal behavior.…

  11. Fifty Ninth Annual Report: United States Department of Labor. Fiscal Year 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    This fifty-ninth annual report of the United States Department of Labor for the fiscal year 1971 contains a 6-page report by the Secretary of Labor, 11 separate Federal Department reports, and a variety of appended tables covering such areas as enrollments and funding for various government programs. Detailing the initiation or improvement of a…

  12. Fifty years of entomological publications in the Revista de Biología Tropical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Over its fifty year history nearly twenty percent of the papers published in the Revista de Biología Tropical have been about insects and arachnids. In the 1950's papers on arthropods of medical importance were dominant, in the 1960's there was a poliferation of papers on bees, and in more recent years the subjects have become increasingly diverse. In terms of nationality of contributing authors, the journal appears to have become increasingly international in later years.

  13. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a

  14. [Fifty years ago, the double helix gave birth to molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, J

    2003-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a paper signed by two young scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, and reporting a model for DNA based on a double helix structure was published in the scientific review Nature in date of april 25, 1953. Although this model of striking simplicity and rare elegance was actually worked out in a few months by the two men, it was the result of quite 100 years of research aimed at the definition of the structure of the genetic material present in living organisms. The double helix was the outcome of a multidisciplinary approach initiated in the mid 19th century by the genetic laws of Gregor Mendel and the discovery of the chemical nature of the desoxyribonucleic acid by Johann Friedrich Miesher. The discovery of the DNA structure had been at the origin of major scientific progress regarding mechanisms that rule the replication and the expression of the genetic information. Theses researches have given birth to a new scientific field, molecular biology, which everyone will see very soon is actually part in a quasi symbiotic manner of all other biological fields dealing with life. The spectacular development of molecular biology during the last fifty years was in great part possible thanks to a concomitant enormous development of the different methods of investigation of the biological molecules and structure. The present rising of biotechnology applications is the direct consequence of the tremendous amount of fundamental knowledge gained during the last few decennia. They open very important and attractive perspectives both on medical or on socio-economic point of views. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will be as fruitful as the last ones.

  15. CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore. A Guide to Off-Site Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Commander, TG7.1), Bob Campbell (TG7.1 J-6), Carl Lyon (TG7.1 J-3), Garry Higgins (TG7.1 TU-12), and Roger Ray (TG7.1 J-3). Hal Plank (TG7.1 TU-1...scrupulously clear to other laboratory staff members ( Campbell 1985). January 2013 CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore Introduction 3 Soon...regular mess line for meals and had the same ration as the crew. The meat course was the least popular. The majority of the party asked for more soup

  16. Learning from the Past: A Fifty-year Perspective on Pakistan's Development

    OpenAIRE

    Pervez Hasan

    1997-01-01

    In some ways, Pakistan’s economic growth since 1947 has been remarkable. The country’s economic viability was considered, in some quarters,1 in serious doubt at its emergence, but it has managed, despite a quadrupling of the population, to bring about significant improvement in the average living standards. Per capita GNP growth, on average around 2 percent per annum over a long stretch of nearly fifty years, has been the best among countries of the subcontinent. This growth has meant an incr...

  17. Legacies of Garrod's brilliance. One hundred years--and counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L E

    2008-10-01

    One hundred years ago--in 1908--Archibald Garrod delivered his four Croonian Lectures. In these formerly forgotten, but now famous, dissertations, Garrod first used the expression, 'inborn errors of metabolism', to describe four rare disorders: albinism, alkaptonuria, cystinuria, and pentosuria. This prescient work proposed that such disorders resulted from enzymatic defects in the catabolic pathways for amino acids and sugars. Thus, Garrod can rightfully be called the first human geneticist. Much influenced by his colleague Bateson, who brought Mendel's work to his attention, Garrod then was the first to apply Gregor Mendel's law of gene segregation to humans, the first to propose recessive inheritance in humans, and the first to point out the importance of consanguinity. He even mentioned the role of ethnicity in inherited disorders. This would have been legacy enough, but Garrod did much more. He wrote about such other 'modern' topics as genetic predisposition to common disorders; the critical importance of physicians who were also scientists; and the proper role of the university in society. Although Garrod's work and ideas were not appreciated during his lifetime, they have echoed and reverberated ever since. He can rightly be deemed one of the most profound intellectuals of the 20th century, whose bequests to science and medicine continue to increase in value. All of us who study inborn errors of metabolism and who apply our knowledge in the hope of improving the diagnosis and treatment of affected patients are, in a genuine sense, Garrodians.

  18. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on">http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  19. Precipitation legacies in desert grassland primary production occur through previous-year tiller density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Lara G; Sala, Osvaldo E; Peters, Debra P C

    2013-02-01

    In arid ecosystems, current-year precipitation often explains only a small proportion of annual aboveground net primary production (ANPP). We hypothesized that lags in the response of ecosystems to changes in water availability explain this low explanatory power, and that lags result from legacies from transitions from dry to wet years or the reverse. We explored five hypotheses regarding the magnitude of legacies, two possible mechanisms, and the differential effect of previous dry or wet years on the legacy magnitude. We used a three-year manipulative experiment with five levels of rainfall in the first two years (-80% and -50% reduced annual precipitation (PPT), ambient, +50% and +80% increased PPT), and reversed treatments in year 3. Legacies of previous two years, which were dry or wet, accounted for a large fraction (20%) of interannual variability in production on year 3. Legacies in ANPP were similar in absolute value for both types of precipitation transitions, and their magnitude was a function of the difference between previous and current-year precipitation. Tiller density accounted for 40% of legacy variability, while nitrogen and carryover water availability showed no effect. Understanding responses to changes in interannual precipitation will assist in assessing ecosystem responses to climate change-induced increases in precipitation variability.

  20. Fifty Years Remembered: The First 50 Years of the Tulsa District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    District Engineer! Col. Frank Patete Project Manager! Beverly Leland Author! Ann Patton Managing Editor! Larry Silvey Production Manager! Michael Shelton...youngsters and fishermen, Pat Mayse raft riders, Keystone Triathe/on swimmers , Broken Bow hikers, and Keystone campers. SECTION 1: FIFTY YEARS OF...representative of construction contractor Hensel Phelps sign the contract for repairs to begin. REBUILDING TINKER’S 3001 It was the largest and most

  1. Fifty Years of Progress, 1937-1987 [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL, LBNL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T. F. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet was prepared for the 50th anniversary of medical and biological research at the Donner Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California. The intent is to present historical facts and to highlight important facets of fifty years of accomplishments in medical and biological sciences. A list of selected scientific publications from 1937 to 1960 is included to demonstrate the character and lasting importance of early pioneering work. The organizational concept is to show the research themes starting with the history, then discoveries of medically important radionuclides, then the use of accelerated charged particles in therapy, next human physiology studies then sequentially studies of biology from tissues to macromolecules; and finally studies of the genetic code.

  2. Advances in Cotton Breeding for Resistance to Fusarium and Verticillium Wilt in the Last Fifty Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Gui-liang; MA Cun; ZHENG Chuan-lin; ZOU Ya-fei

    2003-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances in cotton breeding for resistance to fusarium andverticillium wilt in the last fifty years in China. The topics discussed include main achievements, experiences,problems and countermeasures for solving.

  3. The Enduring Legacy of 250 Years of Pharmacology in Edinburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John S; Mackay, Angus V P

    2017-09-13

    Two hundred fifty years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented. In a relatively short time, the worth of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia was recognized throughout Europe, America, and the British Empire. Today, the British and European Pharmacopoeias are catalogs of publicly available, legally enforceable standards for active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished dosage forms of pharmaceutical products and medical devices. Home and the many luminaries who succeeded him would surely take pleasure and pride in the fact that the mantra of today's medicines regulators worldwide is little different from that of these early visionaries: "To take better advantage of the best possible science in the service of the public health and our health-care systems" (1, p. 492). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. FOREWORD: Fifty years of atomic time-keeping: 1955 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry

    2005-06-01

    The year 2005 is the centenary of Einstein's four famous papers that were published in 1905. This anniversary is being widely celebrated all over the world and, indeed, 2005 has been dubbed World Year of Physics. The year 2005, however, also marks the fiftieth anniversary of the first operation of Essen and Parry's caesium beam atomic frequency standard at the NPL in May 1955. While Einstein's papers signalled a revolution in physics and in our understanding of the natural world, the first atomic clock signalled a revolution in time-keeping that has become, among other things, one of the most powerful tools in pushing back the frontiers of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. The atomic clock has also had consequences for navigation comparable to those brought about by Harrison's mechanical clocks almost exactly two hundred years before. Harrison's H3 was completed in 1757 and H4 in 1759. The atomic clock, and the creation of an atomic time scale that quickly followed, led ten years later to the adoption of an atomic definition for the SI second in Resolution 1 of the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures, 1967/68. This marked the end of time-keeping based on the movements of the heavenly bodies that had beaten the rhythm of the days and the seasons since the dawn of human civilization. Fifty years on is a good occasion to look back, to look forward and at the same time to examine where we are today, in terms of measuring time. While we still arrange for our atomic clocks to show noon when the sun is overhead on the Greenwich meridian, everything else has changed in the fifty years since 1955. In this special issue of Metrologia the reader will find articles on the development of the atomic clock, its theory and practice, how the first atomic time scale was devised and formally introduced and how we maintain atomic time today, as well as articles looking forward to even more accurate clocks and time scales. Included also are articles on

  5. Fifty years of co-evolution and beyond: integrating co-evolution from molecules to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Diego; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-11-01

    Fifty years after Ehrlich and Raven's seminal paper, the idea of co-evolution continues to grow as a key concept in our understanding of organic evolution. This concept has not only provided a compelling synthesis between evolutionary biology and community ecology, but has also inspired research that extends beyond its original scope. In this article, we identify unresolved questions about the co-evolutionary process and advocate for the integration of co-evolutionary research from molecular to interspecific interactions. We address two basic questions: (i) What is co-evolution and how common is it? (ii) What is the unit of co-evolution? Both questions aim to explore the heart of the co-evolutionary process. Despite the claim that co-evolution is ubiquitous, we argue that there is in fact little evidence to support the view that reciprocal natural selection and coadaptation are common in nature. We also challenge the traditional view that co-evolution only occurs between traits of interacting species. Co-evolution has the potential to explain evolutionary processes and patterns that result from intra- and intermolecular biochemical interactions within cells, intergenomic interactions (e.g. nuclear-cytoplasmic) within species, as well as intergenomic interactions mediated by phenotypic traits between species. Research that bridges across these levels of organization will help to advance our understanding of the importance of the co-evolutionary processes in shaping the diversity of life on Earth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. From pharmaceutical standardizing to clinical research: 20 years of experience with fifty-millesimal potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wania Papile Galhardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: 20 years ago we began to standardize the procedures of preparation and use of fifty-millesimal dilutions (LM or Q according to indications in the 6th edition of Hahnemann’s Organon. Aim: to describe the main stages in standardization as well as our teaching and research experience on Organon 6th edition. Results: with the use of standardized LM dilutions we observed a lower incidence of homeopathic aggravation than with our earlier experience with non standardized preparations. Organon.modus, a clinical-pharmaceutical protocol derived from the standardization was adequate for the teaching of homeopathy at Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai (São Paulo, the first Brazilian medical school with a graduate course on homeopathy. A randomized double-blind trial comparing individualized homeopathic medicines prescribed in LM dilutions and fluoxetine showed the former not be inferior to the latter in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression. Conclusion: protocol Organon.modus showed to be adequate to graduate-level teaching of homeopathy and efficient in a controlled clinical trials, favoring its use as common denominator between the art of healing and medical science.

  7. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: moving the model and implementation forward in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include thresholds for determining the need for control, sampling to determine critical densities, understanding and conserving the biological control capacity in the system and the use of selective insecticides or selective application methods, when needed, to augment biological control. Here we detail the development, evolution, validation and implementation of an integrated control (IC) program for whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), in the Arizona cotton system that provides a rare example of the vision of Stern and his colleagues. Economic thresholds derived from research-based economic injury levels were developed and integrated with rapid and accurate sampling plans into validated decision tools widely adopted by consultants and growers. Extensive research that measured the interplay among pest population dynamics, biological control by indigenous natural enemies and selective insecticides using community ordination methods, predator:prey ratios, predator exclusion and demography validated the critical complementary roles played by chemical and biological control. The term 'bioresidual' was coined to describe the extended environmental resistance from biological control and other forces possible when selective insecticides are deployed. The tangible benefits have been a 70% reduction in foliar insecticides, a >$200 million saving in control costs and yield, along with enhanced utilization of ecosystem services over the last 14 years.

  8. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Yousif A.

    2010-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737

  9. Reflections on fifty years of publications on the history of general biology and special embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, J M

    1975-12-01

    The publications of fifty years (1925-1974) of the histroy of biology and embryology are surveyed. In America, the earliest background for work during this period was provided by the collectors, mainly physicians, of books into extensive private libraries. The collectors, for instance Osler, Cushing, and Fulton in this country and Geoffrey Keynes abroad, became expert technical bibliographers during the early part of the half-century under consideration. High standards for medical, thus biological history, insofar as these fields overlap, were also set earlier by Sudhoff's Institut für Geschichte der Medizin in Leipzig, and American historical studies benefited when Sigerist came from Leipzig to Baltimore in the early 1930's. Textbooks of medical history are omitted from discussion here, but a number of more or less general histories of biology published within the specified period are briefly evaluated. The discussion next turns to histories of embryology, general and special. Recent monographs on the classical embryologists, Wolff and von Baer, are enumerated, as are a number of biographies and autobiographies of important embryologists published here or abroad during our half-century. Then general histories of embryology are discussed, and finally some specialized ones. Needham, Roger, and Adelmann are singled out as the most important contributors to the history of embryology, in the West, during the period covered. Few of the contributors to the history of biology and medicine during the years of 1925 through 1974 were trained as historians while students. It is concluded that the History of Science Society has performed an important contribution in professionalizing the history of biology and embryology, but it is pointed out that a great new challenge faces it in the necessity to counteract anti-historical and anti-intellectual moods and movements of today.

  10. Through the Looking Glass: Adult Education through the Lens of the Australian Journal of Adult Learning over Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roger; Morrison, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review fifty years of articles published in Australian Journal of Adult Learning in its various iterations. We examine the different roles of the journal: to illuminate the history and trends of adult education authors; to be the flagship of the adult education profession in Australia; to reflect on significant national events;…

  11. A Fifty-Year Love Affair with Organic Chemistry (by William S. Johnson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Reviewed By George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1999-12-01

    This latest volume is the 20th in Jeff Seeman's projected 22-volume series of autobiographies of 20th-century organic chemists that began publication in 1990 (Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A21). Unfortunately, Johnson did not live to see this volume in print. Ted Bartlett and Ray Conrow reviewed the final manuscript, galleys, and page proofs; and Ted Bartlett, Paul Bartlett, John D. Roberts, and Gilbert Stork contributed an epilogue that complements Johnson's own words, adds a warm, personal final touch that he was unable to provide, and incorporates his final research into the volume. Born in New Rochelle, New York, on February 24, 1913, William Summer Johnson attended Amherst College with the aid of a scholarship and various odd jobs such as tending furnace, washing dishes, and playing saxophone in dance bands (he seriously considered becoming a professional musician). Here he became enamored with organic chemistry, which he taught as an instructor for a year after his graduation magna cum laude in 1936. He then worked with a fellowship under Louis Fieser, who sparked his interest in steroids, at Harvard University, from which he received his M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1940) degrees. In 1940 Johnson joined the faculty at the University of Wisconsin, where he rose through the ranks, eventually becoming Homer Adkins Professor of Chemistry (1954-60). He began the total synthesis of steroids, the main subject of his life's work, "which soon proved to be the hottest synthetic target of the time". In 1960 he accepted an invitation to become head of and to upgrade the Stanford University Chemistry Department. With faculty recruiting as his primary concern, he was able to add Carl Djerassi, Paul J. Flory, Harden M. McConnell, Henry Taube, and Eugene E. van Tamelen to the department, resulting in its spectacular rise from 15th to 5th place in the nation. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career, serving as department head for nine years. He died at the

  12. SMART-1 SPEDE: Results and Legacy after 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter; Mälkki, Anssi

    2014-05-01

    The Spacecraft Potential, Electron and Dust Experiment (SPEDE) [1], one of the instruments on the SMART-1 spacecraft, the European Space Agency's first Lunar mission, was part of the monitoring instruments supervising the propulsion system and supporting corrective actions to its operation when needed. During mission phases with inactive propulsion system the plasma instrument measured electron and ion densities and temperatures of the natural plasma in the vicinity of the spacecraft. While the spacecraft was slowly spiraling out of an Earth orbit towards a Moon trajectory it spent many months inside the Earth radiation belt. During this time SPEDE recorded the plasma parameters as a function of altitude and solar conditions and monitored also the effects of the major solar CME of October 28, the so-called "Halloween Storm" [2], [3]. After reaching the Moon on November 15, 2004, it continued to monitor the plasma and dust impacts onto the spacecraft until the end of the mission on September 3, 2006. Most of the Moon orbits lasted about 5 hours with an initial perilune distance of 2208 and an apolune distance of 4618 km, changing to 300 km and 3000km, respectively towards the end of the mission with a controlled impact onto the Lunar surface. A total of over 200 orbits were covered [4]. Covered by the SPEDE instrument are three areas of scientific interest: - A detailed altitude profile of the plasma parameters inside the radiation belt under different environmental condition - SPEDE was one of the few instruments active inside the radiation belt while normally all instruments on space missions are kept off to prevent damage, - a plasma parameter map in Lunar orbit with the Moon inside and outside the Earth magnetosphere, - plasma wave measurements around the moon with signatures of dust impacts onto the spacecraft monitoring the dust lifting processes on the Moon surface to escape velocities under certain solar wind conditions. Technical legacy: The Langmuir Probe

  13. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  14. Fifty Years of "Comparative Education Review" Bibliographies: Reflections on the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, the "Comparative Education Review" ("CER") has published annual bibliographic essays reflecting the changes in the field over the previous year. This year, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), the author analyzed "CER" bibliographies since 1959, in addition to…

  15. The Legacy of Apollo: a Thirty Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2002-01-01

    John F. Kennedy's challenge in 1961 for an American commitment toward "achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth" stimulated a remarkable coincidence of many truly American characteristics. It can be argued that American's do truly great things for humanity and themselves when five societal conditions are in coincidence - a sufficient base of technology to serve as a foundation for the effort, a reservoir of young engineers and skilled workers to draw up on, a pervasive environment of national unease about the way things are, a catalytic event that begins to focus attention on a potential goal worth the Nation's effort, and an articulate and trusted President. Kennedy fully deserves the credit for recognizing the needed response to the Soviet challenge and thus formally initiating the U.S. effort that first put men, in particular, Americans on the Moon. Much of the conceptual and political heavy lifting, however, necessary to give policy makers the confidence that such an effort could be successful, had been undertaken in the last few years of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Administration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had been created in 1958, NASA and industry studies of manned lunar missions were well advanced, and Eisenhower had initiated the development of rockets capable of such missions. Apollo also gave all human beings a new evolutionary status in the universe as well as a new foundation of know-how for life on Earth. With Apollo, humankind demonstrated that it had the intellect and the will to go into space and stay there permanently. As a consequence, young people alive today will live on the Moon and Mars and will help their home planet survive itself as America helped former homelands in Europe and Asia in recent centuries. race to the Moon. Both Americans and Russians can be proud of the eventual results of their competition.

  16. Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, H P; Hall, L K; Goggin, J P; Bahrick, L E; Berger, S A

    1994-09-01

    Spanish language tests of 801 Cuban and Mexican immigrants showed no evidence of language loss during 50 years of U.S. residence; a few years after immigration, their English vocabulary approximated that of English monolinguals. The critical-age hypothesis was not supported for the acquisition of English vocabulary when English schooling and language usage were controlled by multiple regression. Most Ss continued to speak about as much Spanish as English; but read, wrote, and heard (on television and radio) far more English than Spanish. Under these conditions, Ss maintained Spanish dominance on tests of vocabulary recognition, lexical decision, and oral comprehension. Dominance was task specific and shifted to English on a category generation task about 12 years after immigration. No evidence of bilingual language interference was found; this is attributed to the strong Spanish foundation of the participants.

  17. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  18. Fifty-year follow-up and Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Carmen L; Nigro, Matthew A; Vote, Brendan J

    2015-01-01

    The Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens was created in 1953, and was primarily used to treat myopia and aphakia. Due to the positioning of the lens, it was associated with a number of complications, and was later modified to decrease the rate of significant complications, including endothelial cell loss. This paper describes a 62-year-old man, who has had a Strampelli intraocular lens (IOL) in situ for 52 years, with relatively few complications. The case provides a framework for reflection on the significant advances in the development of IOLs since the Strampelli era. The Strampelli anterior chamber intraocular lens was created in 1953, and was primarily used to treat myopia and aphakia. Due to the positioning of the lens, it was associated with a number of complications, and was later modified to decrease the rate of significant complications, including endothelial cell loss. This paper describes a 62-year-old man, who has had a Strampelli intraocular lens (IOL) in situ for 52 years, with relatively few complications. The case provides a framework for reflection on the significant advances in the development of IOLs since the Strampelli era.

  19. Fifty years of oil exploration in Nigeria: the paradox of plenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet over many years, it has been observed that nations rich in oil, gas, or mineral ... with rich endowments of natural resources [oil as in the case of Nigeria] often ... like this had given rise to other contemporary oil nations overtaking Nigeria.

  20. Visualizing DNA domains and sequences by microscopy: a fifty-year history of molecular cytogenetics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    This short review presents a historical perspective of chromosome research during the last 50 years. It shows how molecular knowledge and technology of DNA entered cytogenetics step by step making it now daily practice in almost every modem chromosome lab. A crucial milestone in these decades has be

  1. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  2. Fifty-odd years of inter-group contact: from hypothesis to integrated theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewstone, Miles; Swart, Hermann

    2011-09-01

    We review 50-odd years of research on Allport's (1954)'contact hypothesis', to assess progress, problems, and prospects. We chart the progress that has been made in understanding two distinct forms of contact: direct and indirect. We highlight the progress made in understanding the effects of each type of contact, as well as both moderating and mediating factors, and emphasize the multiple impacts of direct contact, especially. We then consider some of the main critiques of inter-group contact, focusing on empirical issues and whether contact impedes social change, and provide a research agenda for the coming years. We conclude that this body of work no longer merits the modest title of 'hypothesis', but fully deserves acknowledgement as an integrated and influential theory.

  3. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established...... as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  4. A new experimental proposal for {sup 235}U PFNS to answer a fifty years old question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilov, N.; Massey, T.; Grimes, S.; Voinov, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Univ., Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum (PFNS) from {sup 235}U(n,f) is very important for various nuclear applications. It has been investigated in different experiments. In spite of {approx}50 years of experimental efforts, a continuing conflict exists at thermal neutron energy. Microscopic experimental PFNS cannot describe macroscopic data. In this report we discuss the current status of this problem and suggest a new experiment, which could possibly resolve this problem. (authors)

  5. Fifty years of studying the Medvezhiy Glacier (West Pamirs) by the Institute of Geography, RAS

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Osipova

    2015-01-01

    Overview of researches conducted over 50 years (1963–2012) by Institute of Geography RAS on the surging glacier Medvezhiy, the West Pamirs is given. Ground investigations (changes of its surface altitude, ice movement velocity, ablation, ice thickness, temperature and others) made after surge 1963 allowed finding the basic features of this glacier regime and calculating the mass balance of its surging part for the whole cycle from the recovery phase up to a surge. Using the results a quality ...

  6. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  7. Fifty Years of Sino-Norwegian Cooperation——An Interview with Norwegian Ambassador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    Geographical distance has not hindered friendly relations, ongoing for more than two centuries, between China and Norway. Norway recognized the People's Republic of China on January 7, 1950 and diplomatic relations were established on October 5, 1954. In 1955, the two countries began to exchange ambassadors. Since then their political, economic and cultural cooperation has steadily advanced. The year 2004 marks the 50th anniversary of establishment of Sino-Norwegian diplomatic relations. In honor of the occasion, China Today spoke with Norwegian Ambassador Tor Chr. Hildan on bilateral trade and economic cooperation.

  8. A Fifty-Year Sustainability Assessment of Italian Agro-Forest Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Recanatesi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As cropland management and land use shifted towards more intensive practices, global land degradation increased drastically. Understanding relationships between ecological and socioeconomic drivers of soil and landscape degradation within these landscapes in economically dynamic contexts such as the Mediterranean region, requires multi-target and multi-scalar approaches covering long-term periods. This study provides an original approach for identifying desertification risk drivers and sustainable land management strategies within Italian agro-forest districts. An Environmental Sensitivity Area (ESA approach, based on four thematic indicators (climate, soil, vegetation and land-use and a composite index of desertification risk (ESAI, was used to evaluate changes in soil vulnerability and landscape degradation between the years 1960 and 2010. A multivariate model was developed to identify the most relevant drivers causing changes in land susceptibility at the district scale. Larger districts, and those with a higher proportion of their total surface area classified as agro-forest, had a significantly lower increase in land susceptibility to degradation during the 50 years when compared with the remaining districts. We conclude that preserving economic viability and ecological connectivity of traditional, extensive agricultural systems is a key measure to mitigate the desertification risk in the Mediterranean region.

  9. Fifty years of studying the Medvezhiy Glacier (West Pamirs by the Institute of Geography, RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Osipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of researches conducted over 50 years (1963–2012 by Institute of Geography RAS on the surging glacier Medvezhiy, the West Pamirs is given. Ground investigations (changes of its surface altitude, ice movement velocity, ablation, ice thickness, temperature and others made after surge 1963 allowed finding the basic features of this glacier regime and calculating the mass balance of its surging part for the whole cycle from the recovery phase up to a surge. Using the results a quality model for prediction of rapid motions of surging glaciers had been developed. Forecast of the next surge of the Medvezhiy Glacier made for 1973 on the basis of this model had been justified. As a result of the aerial and topographic monitoring (1989–1991 the glacier surge was quantitatively followed for the first time over its whole cycle, i.e. from a surge up to a next stage of its recovery. Results of our researches allowed formulating the foundations of the space monitoring of surging glaciers. In 2001 and 2011 surges of the glacier were detected and traced using the satellite imagery (MIR, ISS. In total for 50 years, five surges of this glacier and two full cycles of its life were investigated by various methods in different details.

  10. Fifty Years of Clinical Application of Newcastle Disease Virus: Time to Celebrate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Schirrmacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies.

  11. [Fifty years of psychiatry at the interface between psyche and soma: a SWOT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdenhove, B; Luyten, P

    2008-01-01

    During the past 50 years the border area between psychiatry and somatic medicine has undergone remarkable changes. Theories have become better-founded, both psychologically and neurobiologically, research has become more sophisticated, and liaison-psychiatrists and health psychiatrist/behavioural medicine psychologists have played an increasingly active role in this domain. At the beginning of the 21st century modern psychosomatic medicine is facing new challenges; these include how to create a workable diagnostic classification system, how to instruct and educate both health professionals and lay-persons to an adequate level, how to utilize innovative research paradigms without having recourse to reductionism and how to implement in medical practice treatments that are geared to the needs of the individual patient.

  12. Invertebrate learning and memory: Fifty years of olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has emerged as a robust and influential model for the study of classical conditioning, thanks to the existence of a powerful Pavlovian conditioning protocol, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). In 2011, the olfactory PER conditioning protocol celebrates 50 years since it was first introduced by Kimihisa Takeda in 1961. Here, we review its origins, developments, and perspectives in order to define future research avenues and necessary methodological and conceptual evolutions. We show that olfactory PER conditioning has become a versatile tool for the study of questions in extremely diverse fields in addition to the study of learning and memory and that it has allowed behavioral characterizations, not only of honeybees, but also of other insect species, for which the protocol was adapted. We celebrate, therefore, Takeda's original work and prompt colleagues to conceive and establish further robust behavioral tools for an accurate characterization of insect learning and memory at multiple levels of analysis.

  13. World meat consumption patterns: An overview of the last fifty years (1961-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, P; Combris, P

    2015-11-01

    Driven by economic development and urbanisation, protein consumption has surged worldwide over the last 50years, rising from 61g per person per day in 1961 to 80g per person per day in 2011 [Corrected]. This contribution analyses the apparent convergence of dietary models worldwide with respect to the proportion of ABP and especially meat in intake. By using FAO data for 183 countries over the period 1961-2011, the authors show the connection between annual per capita GDP and the level of ABP (R2=0.62) and meat consumption (R2=0.62). They emphasise the surge in ABP intake in emerging countries (China, Brazil) which has partly replaced plant protein. However, for similar degrees of economic development, the composition of ABPs and the position of meat within this category vary significantly among countries, suggesting that historical, geographical, cultural and religious factors may be involved.

  14. Cognitive function fifty-six years after surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2014-01-01

    Our investigation at 56 postoperative years focused on cognitive skills, with some emphasis on learning and memory; a clinical examination was also performed, and the anatomical extent of the resection was determined on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Four age- and IQ-appropriate women were tested as healthy control subjects. The patient showed material-specific impairments in language and verbal memory compared with the control subjects and also compared with her own earlier performance, but her performance on other cognitive tasks did not differ from that of the control subjects. Thus, her specific deficits had worsened over time, and she was also impaired compared with healthy individuals of her age, but her deficits remained confined to the verbal sphere, consistent with her temporal lobe seizure focus and surgery.

  15. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  16. Fifty years of immunisation in Australia (1964-2014): the increasing opportunity to prevent diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Jenny; Lambert, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Medicine has seen dramatic changes in the last 50 years, and vaccinology is no different. Australia has made a significant contribution to world knowledge on vaccine-preventable diseases. Certain deadly diseases have disappeared or become rare in Australia following successful introduction of vaccines. As diseases become rarer, public knowledge about the diseases and their serious consequences has decreased, and concerns about potential vaccine side effects have increased. To maintain confidence in immunisations, sharing of detailed information about the vaccines and the diseases we are trying to prevent is integral to the continued success of our public health programme. Modern quality immunisation programmes need to communicate complex information to immunisation providers and also to the general community. Improving immunisation coverage rates and eliminating the gap in coverage and timeliness between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous people has become a high priority.

  17. Hydro-Quebec and Quebec society: fifty years of shared history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linteau, P. A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    An historical overview of Hydro-Quebec, the giant electric utility, and its influence on Quebec society was provided on the occasion of the Corporation`s fiftieth anniversary. Its role in Quebec`s economic nationalism, especially since the 1960s, and its role and achievements in research through IREQ, the Quebec electricity research institute, were explained. The challenges facing the Corporation in the years to come in terms of meeting growing demands for power, in meeting expectations in terms of their role as the engine of Quebec`s economic well-being, environmental concerns, and no less importantly, dealing with native peoples` opposition to further development of lands they claim as their own, were briefly discussed. 6 refs., photos.

  18. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running - Past trends and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10-20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records.

  19. Fifty years dynamics of Russian forests: Impacts on the earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents a succinct history of Russian forests during the time period of 1960-2010 and reanalysis of their impacts on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. We present dynamics of land cover change (including major categories of forest land) and biometric characteristics of forests (species composition, age structure, growing stock volume etc.) based on reconciling all relevant information (data of forest and land inventories, official forest management statistics, multi-sensor remote sensing products, data of forest pathological monitoring etc.). Completeness and reliability of background information was different during the period of the study. Forest inventory data and official statistics were partially modified based on relevant auxiliary information and used for 1960-2000. The analysis for 2001-2010 was provided with a crucial use of multi-sensor remote sensing data. For this last period a hybrid forest mask was developed at resolution of 230m by integration of 8 remote sensing products and using geographical weighted regression and data of crowdsourcing. During the considered 50 years forested areas of Russia substantially increased by middle of 1990s and slightly declined (at about 5%) after. Indicators needed for assessment of carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest ecosystems were defined for the entire period (aggregated estimates by decades for 1960-2000 and yearly for 2001-2010) based on unified methodology with some peculiarities following from availability of information. Major results were obtained by landscape-ecosystem method that uses as comprehensive as possible empirical and semi-empirical information on ecosystems and landscapes in form of an Integrated Land Information System and complimentary combines pool- and flux-based methods. We discuss and quantify major drivers of forest cover change (socio-economic, environmental and climatic) including forest management (harvest, reforestation and afforestation), impacts of seasonal weather on

  20. Impacts of Climatic Change on River Runoff in Northern Xinjiang of China over Last Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuhui; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; WANG Minzhong; SUN Guili

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of climatic change and river runoff, as well as the response of river runoff to climatic change in the northern Xinjiang are analyzed on the basis of the hydrological and meteorological data over the last 50 years by the methods of Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and the nonlinear regression model. The results show that: 1) The temperature and the precipitation increased significantly in the whole northern Xinjiang, but the precipitation displayed no obvious change, or even a decreasing trend in the northern mountainous area of the northern Xinjiang. 2) River runoff varied in different regions in the northern Xinjiang. It significantly increased in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang (p=0.05), while slightly increased in the west of the northern Xinjiang. 3) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affects river runoff by influencing temperature and precipita-tion. The NAO and precipitation had apparent significant correlations with the river runoff, but the temperature did not in the northern Xinjiang. Since the mid-1990s river runoff increase was mainly caused by the increasing temperature in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang. Increased precipitation resulted in increased river runoff in the west of the northern Xinjiang.

  1. The Sertoli cell: one hundred fifty years of beauty and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, L R; Hess, R A; Dufour, J M; Hofmann, M C; Griswold, M D

    2016-03-01

    It has been one and a half centuries since Enrico Sertoli published the seminal discovery of the testicular 'nurse cell', not only a key cell in the testis, but indeed one of the most amazing cells in the vertebrate body. In this review, we begin by examining the three phases of morphological research that have occurred in the study of Sertoli cells, because microscopic anatomy was essentially the only scientific discipline available for about the first 75 years after the discovery. Biochemistry and molecular biology then changed all of biological sciences, including our understanding of the functions of Sertoli cells. Immunology and stem cell biology were not even topics of science in 1865, but they have now become major issues in our appreciation of Sertoli cell's role in spermatogenesis. We end with the universal importance and plasticity of function by comparing Sertoli cells in fish, amphibians, and mammals. In these various classes of vertebrates, Sertoli cells have quite different modes of proliferation and epithelial maintenance, cystic vs. tubular formation, yet accomplish essentially the same function but in strikingly different ways.

  2. Fifty years of hypersonics: where we've been, where we're going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, J.J.; Cummings, R.M. [United States Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Department of Aeronautics

    2003-10-01

    Hypersonic flight has been with us since 22 September 1963, when Robert M. White flew the North American X-15 at 4520 mph at an altitude of 354,200 ft - a Mach number of 6.7. This remarkable achievement was accomplished over six decades due to intensive research and development by a large number of scientists and engineers. In spite of that momentous achievement, designers have found the hypersonic environment to be harsh and non-forgiving. New programs since the 1960s have often uncovered the unknown unknowns, usually the hard way - early flights of new systems have often revealed problems of which the designers are unaware. Such problems include: the ineffectiveness of the body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, the viscous/inviscid interactions produced by the umbilical fairings that damaged the conical section tile protection system of the Gemini Capsule, and the shock/shock interaction that damaged the X-15A-2 when it carried the hypersonic ramjet experiment. In order to continue to make advances in hypersonic flight a sustained and visionary effort is essential to generate required knowledge and technology. In order to better prepare for future developments in hypersonic flight, this article reviews the advances made within the past 50 years and then looks into the future, not just for new technological developments, but for new ways of thinking about the unknown challenges that lie ahead. (author)

  3. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  4. Fifty years of research on serotypes and mating types in Dileptus anser: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Zoya I; Yudin, Alexander L

    2016-04-01

    The ciliate Dileptus anser is increasingly used as a laboratory model not only in protozoological research sensu stricto, but also in general biology. However, genetic studies of this ciliate have never been carried out, and this species is new to the comparative genetics of ciliates. This review describes the genetic experiments conducted at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the last 50 years. Two characters that are classical for the genetics of ciliates, serotypes and mating types were selected for analysis. The results presented do not fit into conventional genetic schemes and may have epigenetic nature. Features of this model that were revealed earlier (the simplest possible system of multiple mating types, full serial dominance of the alleles in the mat locus, the excretion of pheromones, etc.) are promising with regard to interesting comparisons of breeding systems in ciliates. The results obtained in studies of mating pheromones in D. anser have demonstrated that this model is a perspective one for further exploration of intercellular recognition in lower eukaryotes and of other related issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Fifty-year trends in a box turtle population in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.; Bunck, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1995 investigated long term declines reported in a population of box turtles Terrapene Carolina monitored each decade since 1945 in bottomland hardwood forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. Methods duplicated past surveys in most respects, but were supplemented by radiotelemetry and a survey of dominant vegetation. Seventy different turtles were found on the 11.8 ha study area, a decline of >75% since peak populations were recorded in 1955. Searchers were less efficient in 1995 than in 1945-1975 for a variety of possible reasons. Among turtles recorded, approximately equal numbers persisted from each of the past five decades, with some individuals surviving >70 years. A sex ratio strongly favoring males was first recorded in 1975 and continued in 1995, but juveniles and subadults were found in greater proportion in 1995 than in any other survey. Six of nine radio-marked turtles left the bottomland study area and migrated to the adjoining bluffs to hibernate, suggesting more extensive movements and perhaps less stable home ranges than formerly thought. Age structure of trees indicated a gradual change to more shade-tolerant species. Examination of rates of change from survey data suggested that major losses probably resulted from changes in hydrology that exacerbated flooding in 1972, with recovery only beginning in 1995 and perhaps limited both by repeated flood events and successional changes in the forest. Slow recovery from losses may indicate that populations of the species would respond poorly to exploitation.

  6. Fifty years of population growth and absorption of labor in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, P D

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, the Brazilian population has grown at a relatively high rate, and only recently has the process of demographic transition intensified in the country. While the associated decline in fertility could result in a future decline in the size of the working-age population, it could also lead to an increase in female participation in the labor market. Brazil's economy is performing well, with gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of 7.1% during 1947-80. Marked growth in industrial employment opportunities has accompanied this growth in GDP. The size of the informal sector, however, has not decreased in similar proportion, while the 1981-83 economic crisis caused urban employment levels to drop, especially in industry and construction. Moreover, the level of rural-urban migration has increased and the agricultural employment index has fallen. The author evaluates past growth trends of the Economically Active Population (EAP) and of employment in Brazil, and assesses the potential growth of the labor force until the year 2000.

  7. Homo cyborg: fifty years old Homo Ciborg: Cincuenta años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.Mientras la terminología “ciborg” tiene apenas 50 años, son mucho más antiguos los procesos de “ciborgización”: la evolución humana. Los humanos evolucionaron para modificar su entorno y a sí mismos, especialmente a través de la cultura y las tecnologías. La cultura es parte de la naturaleza. De ella resultan los i-ciborgs mundanos de la actualidad,  los aviones militares no tripulados, la fusión íntima humano-máquina y la ingeniería genética: lo que a su vez produce sensaciones de inquietud, arrogancia y miedo. La política contemporánea debe de considerar si estamos asegurando un futuro sostenible y vivible para nuestros descendientes. Algunos experimentos sociales como el Burning Man son una prefiguración de esta necesidad creativa por la concienciación tecno-social.

  8. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  9. Fifty years of cytogenetics: a parallel view of the evolution of cytogenetics and genotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J M

    2008-01-01

    A parallelism exists between human cytogenetics and cytogenetic toxicology. The breakthroughs, mostly coming from and used in clinical genetics, are widely used in genetic toxicology. The birth of human cytogenetics occurred in 1956 when it was published that the diploid number of chromosomes in humans is 46. The first stage in chromosome-induced mutagenesis began in 1938 when Sax published the effects of X-rays on the chromosomes of Drosophila. In 1959, the cytogenetic anomalies for Down, Klinefelter, and Turner syndromes were described, and parallelly in 1960, the first publication on chromosomal aberrations in man caused by ionizing radiation appeared. The cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cell cultures is considered one of the primary methods to evaluate induced mutagenesis. At the end of the 1960s, banding techniques allowed chromosomes to be individually identified, in parallel, the sister chromatid exchange analysis technology was described. Another milestone in the history of induced mutagenesis was the discovery that mutagenic agents were able to alter chromosomal division and segregation in gonads inducing meiotic nondisjunction. Here we review new approaches and applications such as biological dosimetry, translocation scoring using FISH, and micronucleus test. Chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus test are now effective cytogenetic biomarkers of early effect used as cancer predictors. Human cytogenetics has proven to be effective over its 50-year lifespan and, although each new technique that has appeared seemed to announce its end, the fact is that the current state of cytogenetics is in reality a collection of techniques that, while common, are cheap, fast, and wide-ranging. Therefore, in genotoxicology, they continue to be useful to identify mutagenic agents as well as to evaluate and analyze exposed populations.

  10. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  11. Fifty Years of Botanical Gardens in China%中国植物园五十年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺善安

    2002-01-01

    概述了中国140多个植物园过去50年发展的历史过程、分布和特征,以及植物园在研究、保护、展示和利用生物多样性等方面的功能.评述了中国植物园早期在经济作物烟草、药用植物薯蓣和野生果树资源研究中对社会和经济发展的贡献,以及近年来在种子科学、物种保护、经济植物引种驯化和育种等方面的理论和应用研究成果.介绍了中国植物园活植物收集的现状.其中木兰科、姜科、苏铁类、药用植物、猕猴桃属和杜鹃属等收集圃的建设已属世界领先.介绍了植物园科普和旅游的发展和中国植物园特有的盆景艺术园和硅化木收集园.%The development, distribution and features of one hundred and forty botanical gardens (BGs) in China are reported and their functions on research, conservation, display and utilization of biodiversity are summarized in this paper. The contributions to the social and economic development in the early stage of Chinese BGs with the researches of economic plant (tobacco), medicinal plant (yam) and wild fruit tree resources are evaluated. The theoretical and applied achievements in recent years in seed science, plant conservation, economic plant introduction, acclimatization and breeding are also described. A general scope of living plant collections in Chinese BGs is presented and the outstanding ones, including Magnoliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cycadaceae, medicinal plants, Actinidia and Rhododendron are particularly mentioned. With special reference to Chinese penjing art garden and silicified wood garden, the development of scientific popularization and tourism in BGs is reviewed.

  12. Magnetite Biomineralization: Fifty years of progress, from beach-combing to the SQUID microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Dixson, A. D.; Raub, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetite biomineralization was first discovered 50 years ago as a hardening agent in the teeth of the Polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons) by the late Prof. Heinz A. Lowenstam of Caltech, when he noticed unusual erosional effects produced by their grazing in the intertidal zones of Palau (Lowenstam, 1962). Since then, biogenic magnetite has been detected in a broad range of organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria, protists, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans. In many species, the role of ferromagnetic material as a neurophysiological transducer is demonstrated clearly through the effects of pulse-remagnetization on behavior. A brief (1 uS), properly configured magnetic discharge from a rectified LC circuit, tailored to exceed the coercivity of the magnetite, will often abolish a magnetic behavioral response, or in some cases make the organism go the wrong way. This is a unique ferromagnetic effect. The genes controlling magnetite biomineralization are well characterized in several species of bacteria, and the ability of some of these bacterial genes to initiate magnetite precipitation in mammalian cell lines argues for a common descent, probably via a magnetotactic mitochondrial ancestor. Previous studies in fish reported the presence of single-domain magnetite crystals in cells near projections of the trigeminal nerve, co-located in the olfactory epithelium. Although the cells are rare, the recent development of a spinning magnetic field technique allows easy identification and isolation of these cells for individual study (Eder et al., 2012). The cells are surprisingly magnetic, with moments hundreds of times larger than typical magnetotactic bacteria. Subsequent efforts to identify the anatomical seat of magnetoreceptors have focused on the same locations in new organisms, excluding other areas. Using SQUID moment magnetometry and SQUID scanning microscopy, we report here the unexpected presence of biogenic magnetite in

  13. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C.

    2005-09-20

    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and

  14. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Tøssebro, Jan; Teittinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus t...

  15. Fifty years later: Emerging functions of IgE antibodies in host defense, immune regulation, and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettgen, Hans C

    2016-06-01

    Fifty years ago, after a long search, IgE emerged as the circulating factor responsible for triggering allergic reactions. Its extremely low concentration in plasma created significant hurdles for scientists working to reveal its identity. We now know that IgE levels are invariably increased in patients affected by atopic conditions and that IgE provides the critical link between the antigen recognition role of the adaptive immune system and the effector functions of mast cells and basophils at mucosal and cutaneous sites of environmental exposure. This review discusses the established mechanisms of action of IgE in pathologic immediate hypersensitivity, as well as its multifaceted roles in protective immunity, control of mast cell homeostasis, and its more recently revealed immunomodulatory functions.

  16. Editing and publishing activities of the Korean Physical Society during the first fifty years since its inauguration in 1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Suk Koh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical review concerning the development of the editing and publishing activities of the Korean Physical Society, unique in its kind in South Korea, during its first fifty years since inauguration. It was founded in 1952, in the midst of the Korean War, and issued its first publication only in 1961. Despite such a late start, the society made great efforts to boost its activities thereafter, developing five different periodicals, including two Science Citation Index-listed journals, established by 2002. It can be seen as a remarkable success story of the Korean physics community, having overcome many hardships, which included the meager human and material resources that it started with and also the social unrest and destruction owing to the Korean War and its aftermath. The development and progress of the Korean Physical Society during this period, with a main focus on its editing and publishing practices, are briefly described.

  17. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mesa, Maria D; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    ...) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects...

  18. The relentless past: The effect of chronic sexual abuse in childhood on fifty years of adolescent and adult development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2009-01-01

    Four sisters, now in their late fifties and early sixties, were sexually abused during childhood over a four-year span by the same priest. Until recently they told no one about their experience and never received any psychological diagnostic evaluations or treatment. The author conducted detailed psychiatric evaluations of each of the four women while serving as the plaintiffs' expert witness during their lawsuits against the Catholic Church. The suits have been settled, and the women have given written permission to tell their stories. This unique clinical material provides a rare opportunity to describe and understand the ongoing, pervasive effects of untreated, chronic childhood sexual abuse on developmental processes over half a century. In each instance the women were describing the details of the abuse and the effects on their development for the first time. The severity of the pathology and the intense shame and anxiety associated with discussing their experiences after so many years raises questions about the choice of treatment and technique, particularly in regard to transference and countertransference issues.

  19. Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history using hydrological model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history of China is reconstructed using daily soil moisture values generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface macroscale hydrology model. VIC is applied over a grid of 10 458 points with a spatial resolution of 30 km × 30 km, and is driven by observed daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 624 long-term meteorological stations. The VIC soil moisture is used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI, which can be used as a measure of the severity of agricultural drought on a global basis. We develop a SMAPI-based drought identification procedure for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As the result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that the severe drought events of 1978, 2000 and 2006 are well reconstructed, indicating SMAPI is capable of indentifying the onset of a drought event, its progressing, as well as its ending. Spatial and temporal variations of droughts on China's nine drought study regions are studied. Our result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought. Regionally, an upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North during the recent fifty-nine years. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been week in the rest five regions South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet. Xinjiang has even been wetting steadily since the 1950s. Two regional dry centers are discovered in China as the result of a combined analysis on the occurrence of drought events from both grid points and drought study regions. The first center is located in the area partially covered by two

  20. Florence Richardson Wyckoff (1905-1997), Fifty Years of Grassroots Social ActivismVolume III: Watsonville Years 1960-1985

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Florence Wyckoff's three-volume oral history documents her remarkable, lifelong work as a social activist, during which she has become nationally recognized as an advocate of migrant families and children. From the depression years through the 1970s, she pursued grassroots, democratic, community-building efforts in the service of improving public health standards and providing health care, education, and housing for migrant families. Major legislative milestones in her career of advocacy were...

  1. Thirty-five-year results after Charnley total hip arthroplasty in patients less than fifty years old. A concise follow-up of previous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Klaassen, Alison L; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2014-11-05

    We report the updated results for a previously described cohort of patients who were less than fifty years old at the time of the index Charnley total hip arthroplasty with cement. The original cohort consisted of ninety-three consecutive hips in sixty-nine patients. The patients were followed for a minimum of thirty-five years after surgery or until death. At the latest follow-up evaluation, there were forty-one total hip replacements (44%) in thirty-two living patients. Thirty-four (37%) of the ninety-three total hip replacements in the original cohort had been revised or removed. Twenty acetabular (22%) and seven femoral (8%) components had been revised for aseptic loosening. Since the twenty-five-year follow-up, the average six-minute-walk distance decreased from 395 m to 171 m, and this decrease correlated with increasing comorbidity. This study demonstrates the durability of cemented total hip replacements in a young patient population. Although 63% (fifty-nine) of the ninety-three original hip replacements were functioning at the latest follow-up or at the time of death, a significant decrease in activity level was seen over time (p < 0.001). Of the forty-one original implants in the patients who were alive at the time of the thirty-five-year follow-up, only 46% (nineteen) were retained. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  2. Genetic diversity of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in China and the temporal trends in recent fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To understand geographical distribution of the genetic diversity of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) and its trends in recent fifty years in China, 453 accessions were analyzed by 36 microsatellites loci and 42 phenotypic traits. Results revealed that the genetic diversity by SSRs is highly consistent with that by phenotypic traits and the genetic diversity of indica cultivars was higher than that of japonica cultivars; the genetic diversity of cultivars declined from 1950s to 1980s and then increased greatly; among the six rice ecological zones (REZs), genetic diversity of REZⅡ was the highest and those of REZⅤ and REZⅥ were the lowest at both DNA and phenotypic level. Jiangsu and Jiangxi provinces in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Sichuan province in southwest of China were the areas with the highest genetic diversity. Breeders in REZⅤ which is an important japonica rice area but with very low genetic diversity should explore more gene resources to widen the genetic backgrounds of cultivars.

  3. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008: Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak. At present, the tokamak is regarded worldwide as the most viable candidate to demonstrate fusion energy generation. Numerous power plant studies (>50, extensive R&D programs, more than 100 operating experiments, and an impressive international collaboration led to the current wealth of fusion information and understanding. As a result, fusion promises to be a major part of the energy mix in the 21st century. The fusion roadmaps developed to date take different approaches, depending on the anticipated power plant concept and the degree of extrapolation beyond ITER. Several Demos with differing approaches will be built in the US, EU, Japan, China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries to cover the wide range of near-term and advanced fusion systems.

  4. From conditioning to learning communities: implications of fifty years of research in e-learning interaction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ravenscroft

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider e-learning in terms of the underlying learning processes and interactions that are stimulated, supported or favoured by new media and the contexts or communities in which it is used. We will review and critique a selection of research and development from the past fifty years that has linked pedagogical and learning theory to the design of innovative e-learning systems and activities, and discuss their implications. It will include approaches that are, essentially, behaviourist (Skinner and Gagné, cognitivist (Pask, Piaget and Papert, situated (Lave, Wenger and Seely-Brown, socioconstructivist (Vygotsky, socio-cultural (Nardi and Engestrom and community-based (Wenger and Preece. Emerging from this review is the argument that effective elearning usually requires, or involves, high-quality educational discourse, that leads to, at the least, improved knowledge, and at the best, conceptual development and improved understanding. To achieve this I argue that we need to adopt a more holistic approach to design that synthesizes features of the included approaches, leading to a framework that emphasizes the relationships between cognitive changes, dialogue processes and the communities, or contexts for e-learning.

  5. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lyon, R J; Cooper, S; Brooke, J M; Knowles, J D

    2016-01-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as...

  6. Fifty Years of Pulsar Candidate Selection: From simple filters to a new principled real-time classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Brooke, J. M.; Knowles, J. D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving survey specifications are causing an exponential rise in pulsar candidate numbers and data volumes. We study the candidate filters used to mitigate these problems during the past fifty years. We find that some existing methods such as applying constraints on the total number of candidates collected per observation, may have detrimental effects on the success of pulsar searches. Those methods immune to such effects are found to be ill-equipped to deal with the problems associated with increasing data volumes and candidate numbers, motivating the development of new approaches. We therefore present a new method designed for on-line operation. It selects promising candidates using a purpose-built tree-based machine learning classifier, the Gaussian Hellinger Very Fast Decision Tree (GH-VFDT), and a new set of features for describing candidates. The features have been chosen so as to i) maximise the separation between candidates arising from noise and those of probable astrophysical origin, and ii) be as survey-independent as possible. Using these features our new approach can process millions of candidates in seconds (˜1 million every 15 seconds), with high levels of pulsar recall (90%+). This technique is therefore applicable to the large volumes of data expected to be produced by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Use of this approach has assisted in the discovery of 20 new pulsars in data obtained during the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS).

  7. 50 años de música electroacústica en Chile Electroacustic Music in Chile: Fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Schumacher Ratt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cincuenta años han pasado desde que León Schidlowsky compusiera Nacimiento, la primera obra electroacústica chilena. Cincuenta años de una historia a menudo desconocida, compuesta de algunos éxitos resonantes, de desarrollos a veces truncos y de silencios bastante expresivos. La música electroacústica en Chile ha tenido un desarrollo pendular: de momentos de gran pasión e interés ha pasado al desconocimiento casi absoluto, y viceversa. A pesar de ya medio siglo de historia en el país -y algo más en el mundo- pareciera que los alcances y posibilidades de la música electroacústica, o más bien del concepto que en ella subyace (la tecnología aplicada a la música, en este caso más precisamente, la informática musical, no son en nuestro medio aún lo suficientemente bien analizados, comprendidos y proyectados en cuanto a la producción musical actual y futura. En este artículo, intentamos aproximarnos a las posibilidades y exigencias que ofrece actualmente esta disciplina desde el punto de vista del análisis, de la composición y de la interpretación musical. Como ubicación, se revisará algo de nuestra historia poniendo el acento en los extremos, en sus inicios y en los años que nos son más próximosFifty years ago, León Schidlowsky wrote Nacimiento (Birth, the first electroacustic work in composed Chile. Fifty years have elapsed of a history which very frequently has been forgotten. It is mude up of resounding achievements, periods of development, sometimes interrupted, and very meaningful gaps. Like a pendulum, electroacustic music in Chile has swung from periods of great passion and interest to other periods when has been practically ignored, and viceversa. In spite of almost half a century of history in Chile and a slightly longer period in the world, it would seem that the extent and possibilities of electroacustic music or better, the concept underlying this music -a technology applied to music, or more precisely to

  8. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  9. Long-term results of a modified Spitzy shelf operation for residual hip dysplasia and subluxation. A fifty year follow-up study of fifty six children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne Guro Vreim; Reikerås, Olav; Terjesen, Terje

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish long-term outcome of the Spitzy shelf-operation and evaluate whether the procedure would delay osteoarthritis. During 1954-1976, 56 patients (70 hips) underwent Spitzy shelf operation at a mean age of 11.9 years (5 to 22). Indications included residual hip dysplasia or subluxation with Centre-Edge angle shelf operation. Survival was assessed by Cox regression. Univariable Cox regression was performed separately for each variable. Potential predictors (p-value shelf procedure was 39.9 years (21 to 53). Survival fell from 83 % 30 years post-operatively, to 22 % at 50 years. Fifty-three hips (76 %) had undergone total hip replacement at mean age of 49.4 years (33 to 64). Seventeen hips had not received total hip replacement, mean survival 47.9 years (39 to 53). The study showed that Spitzy shelf-operation had satisfactory long-term outcome with hip-survival in almost 90 % at patient age 40 years. The results indicate that Spitzy shelf-operation postpone total hip replacement. We consider Spitzy shelf-operation a good alternative in patients above 8 years. In younger children the procedure is not recommended due to increased frequency of graft resorption.

  10. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  11. An Ode to Stuart Hall's "The Supply of Demand": The Case of Post-Secondary Education in Ontario Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald Murphy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that over fifty years have passed since its publication, Stuart Hall's article "The Supply of Demand" (1960), is remarkably relevant today. The central message that society must not be blinded by "prosperity" such that it no longer envisions and demands a better world is especially pertinent in light of the…

  12. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Sedlak; Jana Pařízková; Robert Daniš; Hana Dvořáková; Jana Vignerová

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the ach...

  13. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia Supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, J; Conley, A; Regnault, N; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K M; Pritchet, C J; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Balam, D; Baumont, S; Ellis, R S; Fabbro, S; Fakhouri, H K; Fourmanoit, N; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Graham, M L; Hsiao, E; Kronborg, T; Lidman, C; Mourao, A M; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Suzuki, N; Walker, E S

    2010-01-01

    We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. A flat LambdaCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift Type Ia supernovae alone gives Omega_M = 0.211 +/- 0.034(stat) +/- 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometri...

  14. Supernova Constraints and Systematic Uncertainties from the First 3 Years of the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, A; Sullivan, M; Regnault, N; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K M; Pritchet, C J; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Balam, D; Baumont, S; Ellis, R S; Fabbro, S; Fakhouri, H K; Fourmanoit, N; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Graham, M L; Hudson, M J; Hsiao, E; Kronborg, T; Lidman, C; Mourao, A M; Neill, J D; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Suzuki, N; Walker, E S; 10.1088/0067-0049/192/1/1

    2011-01-01

    We combine high redshift Type Ia supernovae from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) with other supernova (SN) samples, primarily at lower redshifts, to form a high-quality joint sample of 472 SNe (123 low-$z$, 93 SDSS, 242 SNLS, and 14 {\\it Hubble Space Telescope}). SN data alone require cosmic acceleration at >99.9% confidence, including systematic effects. For the dark energy equation of state parameter (assumed constant out to at least $z=1.4$) in a flat universe, we find $w = -0.91^{+0.16}_{-0.20}(\\mathrm{stat}) ^{+0.07}_{-0.14} (\\mathrm{sys})$ from SNe only, consistent with a cosmological constant. Our fits include a correction for the recently discovered relationship between host-galaxy mass and SN absolute brightness. We pay particular attention to systematic uncertainties, characterizing them using a systematics covariance matrix that incorporates the redshift dependence of these effects, as well as the shape-luminosity and color-luminosity relationships. Unlike previous work, we ...

  15. Legacy of the Post-WWII Growth Years for Community College Leadership Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of graduate programs for community college leaders, focusing on trends in the community college field and events from 1945 to 1975. Reviews the impact of philanthropic foundations that supported the development of leadership programs and analyzes the legacy of the programs. (11 citations) (AJL)

  16. Fifty-year old and still ticking.... an interview with Emile Zuckerkandl on the 50th anniversary of the molecular clock. Interview by Giacomo Bernardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerkandl, Emile

    2012-06-01

    In 1962, a young post-doctoral fellow and a prominent Nobel Prize winner, Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling, published a seminal paper that described the relationship between the average number of aminoacid replacements and divergence time, known as the molecular clock (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962). Fifty years after the original publication, I was fortunate enough to interview Emile Zuckerkandl. We shared thoughts on his life and the historical events that led to the discovery of the molecular clock.

  17. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life. PMID:26380296

  18. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Petr; Pařízková, Jana; Daniš, Robert; Dvořáková, Hana; Vignerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n = 3678) height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life.

  19. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sedlak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n=3678 height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life.

  20. A 15 year legacy of cloud and atmosphere observations in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, M.

    2012-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has operated the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory in Barrow, Alaska. Barrow offers many valuable perspectives on the Arctic environment that complement observations at lower latitudes. Unique features of the Arctic region include cold and dry atmospheric conditions, strong annual variability in sun light, a seasonally high-reflective surface, and persistent clouds that involve mixed-phase processes. ARM's ultimate objective with its flagship observatory at the northernmost point in U.S. territory is to provide measurements that can be used to improve the understanding of these atmospheric physical and radiative properties and processes such that they can be better represented in climate models. The NSA is the most detailed and long-lasting cloud-radiation-atmosphere observatory in the Arctic, providing continuous, sophisticated measurements of climate-relevant parameters. Instrument suites include active radars and lidars at various frequencies, passive radiometers monitoring radiation in microwave, infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, meteorological towers, and sounding systems. Together these measurements are used to characterize many of the important properties of clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the surface. The coordinated nature of these measurements offers important multi-dimensional insight into many fundamental processes linking these different elements of the climate system. Moreover, the continuous operations of the facility support these observations over the full diurnal cycle and in all seasons of the year. This presentation will highlight a number of important studies and key findings that have been facilitated by the NSA observations during the first 15 years in operation. Some of these include: a thorough documentation of clouds, their occurrence frequency, phase, microphysical

  1. The ESO/VLT 3rd year Type Ia supernova data set from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Basa, S; Mouchet, M; Howell, D A; Astier, P; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Sullivan, M; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Du, J Le; Fabbro, S; Lidman, C; Mourao, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pécontal, E; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2009-01-01

    We present 139 spectra of 124 Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) that were observed at the ESO/VLT during the first three years of the Canada-France-Hawai Telescope (CFHT) Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This homogeneous data set is used to test for redshift evolution of SNeIa spectra, and will be used in the SNLS 3rd year cosmological analyses. Spectra have been reduced and extracted with a dedicated pipeline that uses photometric information from deep CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS) reference images to trace, at sub-pixel accuracy, the position of the supernova on the spectrogram as a function of wavelength. It also separates the supernova and its host light in 60% of cases. The identification of the supernova candidates is performed using a spectrophotometric SNIa model. A total of 124 SNeIa, roughly 50% of the overall SNLS spectroscopic sample, have been identified using the ESO/VLT during the first three years of the survey. Their redshifts range from z=0.149 to z=1.031. The average redshift of the sample is z=0.63...

  2. Recovery dynamics and invasibility of herbaceous plant communities after exposure to fifty-year climate extremes in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Dreesen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance events such as climatic extremes may enhance the invasibility of plant communities, through the creation of gaps and the associated local increase in available resources. In this study, experimental herbaceous communities consisting of three species were subjected to 50 yr extreme drought and/or heat events, in spring, summer or autumn. In the year of the induced extremes, species mortality and end-of-season biomass were examined. In two subsequent years without further disturbances, establishment of new species was recorded. The drought and drought + heat extremes in summer and autumn induced greater plant mortality compared with the heat extremes in those seasons and compared with all extremes applied in spring, in all three originally planted species. Recovery in terms of biomass towards the end of the growing season, however, was species-specific. The dominant species, the nitrogen fixer Trifolium repens, recovered poorly from the drought and drought + heat extremes which governed the community response. Community biomass, which was heavily affected by the drought and especially by the drought + heat events in summer and autumn, reached control values already one year later. Invasibility was increased in the communities that underwent the drought + heat extremes in the first year following the extreme events, but no longer in the second year. During the two years of invasion, the community composition changed, but independently of the type and impact of the extreme event. In short, the extreme climate events greatly affected the survival and productivity of the species, modified the species composition and dominance patterns, and increased the invasibility of our plant communities. However, none of these community properties seemed to be affected in the long term, as the induced responses faded out after one or two years.

  3. 成批烧伤救治50年%Experiences in rescue and treatment of mass burn casualties in fifty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一平

    2008-01-01

    The article reviewed the history and the main experiences of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment during the past fifty years in China. Some issues including medical support for mass burn casually and treatment regime in future, such as the prevention of burn calamities, further elevation of the eure rate and lowering in the rate of disability, further development in network of burn care and preliminary scheme of rescue of mass burn casualties and their treatment, accelerating the development and study on the substitutes of allo-skin graft were discussed.

  4. Legacy Sources, Sinks and Time Lags: 200 Years Of Nitrogen Dynamics in the Mississippi and Susquehanna River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    Global flows of reactive nitrogen (N) have increased significantly over the last century in response to land-use change, agricultural intensification and elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. Despite widespread implementation of a range of conservation measures to mitigate the impacts of N-intensive agriculture, N concentrations in surface waters are in many cases remaining steady or continuing to increase. Such lack of response has been attributed to legacy N stores in subsurface reservoirs that contribute to time lags between conservation measures implemented on the landscape and water quality benefits realized in receiving water bodies. It has remained unclear, however, what the magnitudes of such stores might be, and how they are partitioned between shallow soil and deeper groundwater reservoirs. In the present work, we have synthesized data to develop a comprehensive, 214-year (1800 - 2014) trajectory of N inputs to the land surface of the continental United States. We have concurrently developed a parsimonious, process-based model, ELEMeNT, that utilizes this N input trajectory together with a travel time-based approach to simulate transport and biogeochemical transformations of N along subsurface pathways. Using the model, we have reconstructed historic nutrient yields at the outlets of two major U.S. watersheds, the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) and Susquehanna River Basin (SRB), which are the sources of significant nutrient contamination to the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. Our results show significant N loading above baseline levels in both watersheds before the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers, largely due to 19th-century conversion of natural forest and grassland areas to row-crop agriculture. Model results also allow us to quantify the magnitudes of legacy N in soil and groundwater pools, and highlight the dominance of soil N legacies in MRB and groundwater legacies in SRB. Approximately 85% of the current annual N

  5. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Fifty-Six Years of Accumulated Research on Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; White, Michael J.; Spengler, Paul M.; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical predictions made by mental health practitioners are compared with those using statistical approaches. Sixty-seven studies were identified from a comprehensive search of 56 years of research; 92 effect sizes were derived from these studies. The overall effect of clinical versus statistical prediction showed a somewhat greater accuracy for…

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL] Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992 [The First Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C.(ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In observation of the 50th anniversary of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, this special double issue of the Review contains a history of the Laboratory, complete with photographs, drawings, and short accompanying articles. Table of contents include: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  7. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Luiz de Oliveira ROSA; Tiago Machado SILVA; Lima, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; Piva,Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI -...

  8. Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: fifty years of scientific research: the importance of scholarship and the influence of politics and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    Over the past 50 years our laboratory has performed and published many studies in the fields of teratology, radiation biology and radiation embryology. The early work took place when I was a research employee at the University of Rochester Manhattan Project in 1944 and where I had my introduction to embryology and genetics. Over the years our lab has provided consultations dealing with the risks of various environmental toxicant exposures during pregnancy. With the advent of the Internet, consulting has become more rapid and efficient. In the past year our pregnancy Web site of the Health Physics Society received approximately 154,000 hits, of which over a thousand contacts were still quite anxious after reading the Web site answers and requested a personal consultation. From this extensive experience we have learned that many physicians and other counselors are not prepared to counsel patients concerning radiation risks. Approximately 8% of the patient contacts who have consulted a professional have been provided with inaccurate information that would have resulted in an unnecessary interruption of a wanted pregnancy. There are five areas of radiation embryology that are considered to be controversial. 1) Can the fetus be harmed by ionizing radiation if the fetus is not directly exposed? 2) Is the production of mental retardation from radiation during pregnancy a threshold phenomenon? 3) Does fractionation and protraction of radiation decrease the magnitude of the reproductive and developmental risks? 4) Is there a period during pregnancy when radiation will result in an increased mortality but not an increase in malformations? 5) How sensitive is the fetus to the oncogenic effects of radiation? We utilize the scientific information obtained from studies in these five areas to counsel patients concerning pregnancy radiation risks. The willingness and persistence of scientists to debate the controversial aspects of this research and apply the best available

  9. A vision for the second fifty years of nuclear energy. Vision and strategies; Wizja drugiego piecdziesieciolecia energetyki jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M. [International Nuclear Societies Council (Poland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The paper is the Polish issue of the report worked out by International Nuclear Societies Council published in 1996. The report contains the experts opinion on development of nuclear energy and applications of radiation techniques and sources worldwide during the next 50 years. The worldwide energy demand prognosis as well as needs of different branches of industry, agriculture, medicine, etc. have been taken into account. The broad spectrum of aspects (safety assurance, economy, environmental impacts) connected with nuclear technology utilization has been also discussed. Transl., 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  10. Suicides in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century and trends in the past fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 in Serbia, 1444 persons committed suicide (19.5 per 100.000 population. Compared to the early 50s of the 20th century, the number of suicides has nearly doubled, but there has been a moderate decrease in the last 15 years. Similar, but somewhat more moderate tendencies are noted in the change of the value of the suicide rates. The lowest suicide rates were recorded during the 1950s, around 12 per 100.000, and the highest in the last decade of the 20th century when the rate reached 20 suicides per 100.000 inhabitants. The highest suicide rate is among the elderly, and there is also a noticeable tendency of increase in the share of the elderly in the total number of suicides, which is primarily the consequence of intense demographic aging. With youth, the last thirty years note a decline of both the number of suicides and the value of the suicide rates. The number of young people aged 15-24 who have committed suicide in 2006 is less than half of the number from 1971 (decreased from 150 to 66, and the values of suicide rates are also significantly low (decreased from 11.5 to 6.9 per 100.000. Despite certain changes in the values of age-specific suicide rates achieved in the last 50 years, their age patterns of suicide mortality can be characterized as stable. Men are dominant among persons who have committed suicide, with double the number of women, and the highest recorded value of the suicide rate of women never surpassed the value of the lowest suicide rate in men. In terms of marital status, the total rate of suicides is highest with widowers then divorced persons, married persons, and lowest rates are with celibates. In all four groups, suicide rates are at least 3 times higher for men. There is also a clear connection between the level of education and suicide rates for both sexes, with the suicide rate decreasing with higher educational level. In terms of total suicide rate, Serbia is currently in the top half of the European list of

  11. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard (Radium Center, Finsen Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)); Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T. (DBCG Registry, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-05-15

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis

  12. Extended radical mastectomy versus simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy in primary breast cancer. A fifty-year follow-up to the Copenhagen Breast Cancer randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Helge; Kaae, Sigvard; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    From November 1951 to December 1957, 666 consecutive patients with untreated primary breast cancer admitted to the Radium Center in Copenhagen were randomised before their operability was evaluated into two groups, simple mastectomy with postoperative radiotherapy or extended radical mastectomy. Following physical examination 241 of the patients were excluded, primarily due to tumours deemed inoperable due to clinical criteria (n =107) and due to poor general condition (n =69). Twenty-five years results of disease-free free survival and fifty years results of survival are presented, showing no difference between the two groups. Patients with clinical stage I did significantly better than patients with stage II-III tumours. Patients with grade I tumours had a better survival than patients with grade II-III. The breast cancer associated mortality was lower in premenopausal patients compared to postmenopausal patients. An excess mortality due to breast cancer was evident up to 20-25 years following the primary diagnosis.

  13. Fifty years of Weibel-Palade bodies: the discovery and early history of an enigmatic organelle of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, E R

    2012-06-01

    In 1962, a rod-shaped cytoplasmic organelle of endothelial cells, later called the Weibel-Palade body, was serendipitously discovered by electron microscopy. It contains a set of parallel tubules and is wrapped in a membrane. Subsequent studies in the following decades established the unique localization of this organelle in endothelial cells of all vertebrates studied, meaning that it could serve as a marker of endothelial cells in tissue cultures. However, these studies did not reveal its functional significance, except for an indication that it could be related to an undefined thromboplastic substance. Twenty years after its discovery as a structural entity, it was shown by others that it houses von Willebrand factor and is thus clearly related to the coagulation system. In this review, I provide a personal historical account of the discovery and the subsequent limited work that I carried out on the organelle, putting it in the perspective of the current state of knowledge after half a century of research by many scientists.

  14. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  15. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Luiz de Oliveira ROSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States. Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers, synthetic resins (681 papers, dental cements (440 papers, dental alloys (392 papers and dental adhesives (361 papers. The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents, followed by dental implants (8 patents and composite resins (7 patents. Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development

  16. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  17. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Mesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d (n=26 or a reference enteral diet (n=29. Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P=0.053 in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P=0.116 with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

  18. Fifty Years of Matter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Heinrich A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the origin of de Broglie's concept and its influences on his contemporaries, notably on Einstein, Schrodinger, Elsasser, Davisson, and Thomson. Indicates that the theory served not only as the starting point of quantum mechanics, but also opened new experimental possibilities. Historical inaccuracies are corrected with new material…

  19. A ten years follow-up of the results of surgery for Dupuytren's disease. A study of fifty-eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norotte, G; Apoil, A; Travers, V

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients (52 males and 6 females) operated on for Dupuytren contracture were examined by the same author with a more than ten year follow-up. At time of surgery the average was 55 years old. 69 hands (169 fingers) rated 4.33 according to the simplified Tubiana's score were treated by the same operative procedure: Mac Indoe's incision, digital Z plasty (if needed), subtotal fasciectomy and physiotherapy beginning 8 days postoperatively. At long term, recurrence appears for 49 hands (71%) one every two in the two first postoperative years, one out of five after five years. 24 of them were graded stage I. The recurrence appeared 14 times associated with an extension of the disease and the earlier, the higher was the initial stage. Some factors seem to be of a bad prognosis regarding recurrence: age (93% of recurrence under 50 years old) Ledderhose or Lapeyronie (100%) other associated diseases (Alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy) and severe preoperative stage. Subjective results are good: 45 patients are satisfied and only 3 underwent a second operation.

  20. Exploring Nitrogen Legacies and Time Lags in Anthropogenic Landscapes: A 200-Year Longitudinal Study of the Mississippi and Susquehanna Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Kimberly; Basu, Nandita; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Global flows of reactive nitrogen (N) have increased significantly over the last century in response to land-use change, agricultural intensification and elevated levels of atmospheric N. Despite widespread implementation of a range of conservation measures to mitigate the impacts of N-intensive agriculture, N concentrations in surface waters are in many cases remaining steady or continuing to increase. Such time lags to the recovery of surface water quality are increasingly being attributed to the presence of legacy N stores in subsurface reservoirs. It has remained unclear, however, what the magnitudes of such stores might be, and how they are partitioned between soil and groundwater reservoirs. In the present work, we have synthesized data from numerous sources to develop a comprehensive, 200-year dataset of N inputs to the land surface of the continental United States. We have concurrently developed a parsimonious, process-based model that utilizes this N input trajectory together with a travel time-based approach to simulate biogeochemical transformations of N along subsurface pathways. Model results allow us predict the magnitudes of legacy N in soil and groundwater pools and to predict long-term N-loading trajectories over the last century and into the future. We have applied this modeling approach to two major U.S. watersheds, the Mississippi River and Susquehanna River Basins, which are the sources of significant nutrient contamination to the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. Our results show significant N loading above baseline levels in both watersheds before the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers, largely due to 19th-century conversion of natural forest and grassland areas to row-crop agriculture, although the temporal patterns of this loading differed between the two watersheds due to differences in the trajectories of land-use change. Using the model, we estimate spatiotemporal patterns of N accumulation in both groundwater and

  1. Nitrogen Legacies in Agricultural Landscapes: A 150-year Longitudinal Study of the Susquehanna and Mississippi River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.

    2015-12-01

    Global flows of reactive nitrogen (N) have increased significantly over the last century in response to land-use change, agricultural intensification and elevated levels of atmospheric N. Although the use of commercial N fertilizers began to plateau in developed countries in the mid-1980s and despite widespread implementation of a range of conservation measures to mitigate the impacts of N-intensive agriculture, N concentrations in surface waters are in many cases remaining steady or continuing to increase. This lack of correlation between N inputs and outputs is increasingly being attributed to the presence of legacy N stores in subsurface reservoirs, with present-day concentrations being a function of inputs that are many decades old. It has remained unclear, however, what the magnitudes of such stores might be, and how they are partitioned between soil and groundwater reservoirs. In the present work, we have synthesized agricultural, population, and land-use data to develop a comprehensive, 150-year dataset of N inputs to the land surface of the continental United States. We have concurrently developed a parsimonious, process-based model that utilizes this N input trajectory to simulate biogeochemical transformations of N along subsurface pathways. Model results allow us predict the magnitudes of legacy N in soil and groundwater pools and to predict long-term stream N concentration trajectories over the last century and into the future. We have applied this modeling approach to two U.S. watersheds, the Mississippi River and Susquehanna River Basins, which are major sources of nutrient contamination to the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. Our results show significant stream N loading above baseline levels in both watersheds before the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers, largely due to 19th-century conversion of natural forest and grassland areas to row-crop agriculture. However, the temporal patterns of this loading differ between the two

  2. Lighting the Fire for 25 years: The Nature and Legacy of Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Donald W.; Hooper, E.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, Astronomy Camp began in an era when science was entirely the realm of professionals, astronomical observatories were off-limits to the public at night, and scientists were not encouraged to spend time in science education. Since then we have grown a dynamic science education program that immerses individuals (ages 11-80), educators, schools, and Girl Scout Leaders in authentic science at Arizona’s research observatories in the Catalina mountains and at Kitt Peak. Often labeled “life changing,” these residential programs have engaged thousands of people from 49 U.S. states and 20 foreign countries. Female enrollment has increased steadily, and women now generally outnumber men in our teenage programs. Graduate students have played a major creative role and many have gone on to become educators and research leaders around the world. By involving a wide range of ages, the Camps have helped strengthen the STEM-pipeline. Many of our alumni remain in touch via social and professional networks and have developed not only into professional astronomers but also into leaders throughout society, parents, and educators. Our emphasis on age-appropriate research helped inspire today’s concepts of research-based science education and Citizen Science. An accompanying paper (E. Hooper et al.) discusses our approach to project-oriented astronomical research. Scientific discoveries include Near-Earth Objects, supernova classification, and lightcurves of Kuiper Belt Objects. The Camps have also contributed to educational research involving informal science education, youth perceptions, and student identities. Ironically, the Camps have leveraged new initiatives in both research and education at NOAO, LSST, and JWST. Here we review the philosophy, conduct, and content of Astronomy Camp and summarize the unexpected nature of its ongoing legacy. We remain grateful to The University of Arizona Alumni Association for its long-term encouragement and support.

  3. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda,and w from the First Year Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam,D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J.D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R.S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A.C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  4. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda and w from the First Year Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Regnault, N; Pain, R; Aubourg, E; Balam, D; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fabbro, S; Fouchez, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Lafoux, H; Neill, J D; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Rich, J; Sullivan, M; Taillet, R; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Balland, C; Baumont, S; Bronder, J; Courtois, H; Ellis, Richard S; Filiol, M; Gonçalves, A C; Goobar, A; Guide, D; Hardin, D; Lusset, V; Lidman, C; McMahon, R; Mouchet, M; Mourao, A; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Tao, C; Walton, N

    2006-01-01

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z=1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multi-band photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results : Omega_M = 0.263 +/- 0.042(stat) +/- 0.032(sys) for a flat LambdaCDM model; and w = -1.023 +/- 0.090(stat) +/- 0.054(sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined ...

  5. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda, and w from the First Year Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A. C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  6. 郭沫若文学研究五十年%Retrospect on Studies of Guo Mo-ruo' Writings in the Past Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱寿桐

    2001-01-01

    郭沫若文学研究是中国现代文学研究的一个重要组成部分。新中国成立后的50年间,它应合着中国现代文学学科的发展节拍而发展。三次研究高潮取得了堪称辉煌的学术成就,演化了一个逐步摆脱政治化规约的建构学术品格的历史。%Studies of Guo Mo-Ruo' writings form essential parts in academic studies of modern Chinese literature. Since the foundation of New China in 1949, researches in both fields have been developing with almost the same speed. In the past fifty years, there have been three high tides in the studies of Guo Mo-ruo''s writings, which gained brilliant academic achievements. It is also a history of constructing high academic quality and style by gradually shaking off the bonds of political interference.

  7. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on observations (programs GS-2003B-Q-8, GN-2003B-Q-9, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004B-Q-31, GN-2004B-Q-16, GS-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GN-2006B

  8. SNLS3: Constraints on Dark Energy Combining the Supernova Legacy Survey Three Year Data with Other Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Conley, A; Regnault, N; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K M; Pritchet, C J; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Balam, D; Baumont, S; Ellis, R S; Fabbro, S; Fakhouri, H K; Fourmanoit, N; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Graham, M L; Hudson, M J; Hsiao, E; Kronborg, T; Lidmam, C; Mourao, A M; Neill, J D; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Suzuki, N; Walker, E S

    2011-01-01

    We present observational constraints on the nature of dark energy using the Supernova Legacy Survey three year sample (SNLS3) of Guy et al. (2010) and Conley et al. (2011). We use the 472 SNe Ia in this sample, accounting for recently discovered correlations between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy properties, and include the effects of all identified systematic uncertainties directly in the cosmological fits. Combining the SNLS3 data with the full WMAP7 power spectrum, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy power spectrum, and a prior on the Hubble constant H0 from SHOES, in a flat universe we find omega_m=0.269+/-0.015 and w=-1.061+0.069-0.068 -- a 6.5% measure of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are approximately equal, with the systematic uncertainties dominated by the photometric calibration of the SN Ia fluxes -- without these calibration effects, systematics contribute only a ~2% error in w. When relaxing the assumption of flatness, w...

  9. The legacy of nitrogen pollution in heather moorlands: ecosystem response to simulated decline in nitrogen deposition over seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J; Terribile, E; Carroll, J A; Price, E A C; Caporn, S J M

    2013-02-01

    Eutrophication and acidification of heather moorlands by chronic atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution, is of major concern within these internationally important ecosystems. However, in the UK and Western Europe generally emissions of NO(y) and NH(x) peaked during the 20th century. Due to the history and scale of atmospheric N pollution, the legacy of these high levels of N deposition, through accumulation in soil, may hinder or prevent ecosystem recovery. Effects of N pollution on heather moorland were investigated throughout the ecosystem including; the dominant plant species, Calluna vulgaris, the bryophyte and lichen community and the soil system using a long-term experiment simulating wet N deposition. We observed an increase in C. vulgaris height, shoot extension and canopy density, litter mineral N, total N concentration, N:P and C:N ratios in response to N addition. Bryophyte species diversity, bryophyte and lichen frequency and the frequency of two individual bryophyte species (Lophozia ventricosa and Campylopus flexuosus) were significantly reduced by N addition. We developed an N recovery experiment, using a split-plot design, on the long-term N treatment plots to investigate ecosystem response to a simulated decline in N deposition. Two years after cessation of N treatment the only ecosystem component that responded to the recovery experiment was C. vulgaris shoot extension, however after seven years of recovery there were significant declines in litter total N concentration and mineral N and an increase in litter C:N ratio. Although bryophytes and lichens form a close relationship with atmospheric N deposition these organisms did not show a significant response to the N recovery experiment, two years after cessation of N treatment. These data indicate that low nutrient ecosystems, such as moorlands, have the capacity to respond to declines in N deposition however the accumulation of pollution may hinder recovery of sensitive organisms, such as bryophytes

  10. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Baskent

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests.  This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalı district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey.Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETÇAP to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies.Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1194 ha (4%, the productive forest areas increased about 5397 ha (18% with a decrease of degraded forest (5824 ha, 20% and increase of maquis areas (2212 ha, 7%.The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11% due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized.Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively.Keywords: Forest management; simulation; optimization; forest dynamics; land use change.

  11. Arctic Research and Writing: A Lasting Legacy of the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Karl; Coon, Brian; Hinckley, Matt; Pruis, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Recently, senior-level physics students joined thousands of scientists from over 60 nations to examine a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics as part of the International Polar Year (IPY). Through a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded research project, these students applied physics concepts to the study of Arctic…

  12. A CTE Legacy Built on Chocolate: Milton Hershey School's 100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmery, Robert

    2010-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Chocolate Magnate Milton S. Hershey and his wife Catherine signed the deed of trust creating the Hershey Industrial School in the heart of their Pennsylvania farming community. They had no children of their own and wanted to help orphan boys get a good education. The couple eventually left their entire fortune to the school.…

  13. [Fifty years of research on tuberculosis. Lessons I have learnt during 50 years and topics to be investigated in the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, T

    2000-07-01

    I have engaged in the research on tuberculosis for 50 years, and lessons I have learnt during this period could be summarized in the following ten topics. First is great research achievements by our predecessors on the establishment of so-called primary infection theory on the pathogenesis of TB, planning of TB control principles based on the theory and development of new technologies used for TB control, such as mass miniature X-ray examination and BCG vaccination in 1920s and 1930s. TB control law was enforced in 1951, and the modern TB programme was initiated. Second, the field is a treasure house of interesting data. Several interesting data on TB soon after the World War II in Tokyo and a rural area were collected and analyzed from the mass health examination. Third, looking at the increase of tuberculin positivity with age, it was found that the tuberculin negativity decreased as the exponential function of age, and the current concept of the annual risk of TB infection was already developed in late 1940s. It was 18.1% in male and 11.6% in female in Tokyo in late 1940s. Based on this concept, age specific TB mortality was analyzed by the type of TB, and the rates of miliary TB and TB meningitis were similar to the rate of newly infected to the total population, while the rate of all forms could be divided into early and late death as shown in Fig. 1. Fourth, I suffered from TB by myself from 1951 to 1953, receiving first thoracoplasty in two stages under local anaesthesia, then right upper lobectomy and segmentectomy of superior segment of right lower lobe. From this experience, I learnt a lot about the psychology and suffering of TB patients. Fifth, the importance of recognition of real magnitude of the problem in such a disease as TB in which many TB cases did not aware of their disease. The answer to this was the first TB prevalence survey in 1953 using stratified random sampling method, and based on the results of the survey, the mass health examination

  14. Subjective health legacy of the Chornobyl accident: a comparative study of 19-year olds in Kyiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havenaar Johan M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Chornobyl accident in 1986, the physical health of exposed children in Ukraine has been monitored, but their perceived health has not been studied. This study examines health perceptions of Ukrainian adolescents exposed to radioactive fallout in utero or as infants, and the epidemiologic and Chornobyl-related influences on self-reported health. Method We assessed three groups of 19-year olds in Kyiv: 262 evacuees from contaminated areas near the plant; 261 classmate controls; and 325 population-based controls. The evacuees and classmates were previously assessed at age 11. Structured interviews were conducted with the adolescents and their mothers (N = 766, followed by general physical examinations (N = 722 and blood tests (N = 707. Proportional odds logistic regression and multi-group path analysis were the major statistical tests. Results The examination and blood test results were similar across groups except for a significantly elevated rate of thyroid enlargement found by palpation in evacuees (17.8% compared former classmates (8.7% and population-based controls (8.0%. In addition, four evacuees and one population control had had a thyroidectomy. Compared to controls, the evacuees rated their health the least positively and reported more medically diagnosed illnesses during the 5 years preceding the interview, particularly thyroid disease, migraine headache, and vascular dystony. The consistent risk factors (p Conclusion The more negative self-evaluations of the evacuees were linked to a number of risk factors, including multiple hospitalizations, health risk perceptions, and epidemiologic risk factors. The increased rate of thyroid cancer and other diagnoses no doubt contributed to the evacuees' less positive subjective health. The strong effect of the mothers' perceptions argues in favor of developing risk communication programs for families rather than for mothers or adolescents as separate target groups.

  15. AMIE SMART-1: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Souchon, Audrey; Josset, Marie; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) camera was launched in September 2003 onboard the ESA SMART-1 spacecraft. We review the technical characteristics, scientific objectives and results of the instrument, 10 years after its launch. The AMIE camera is an ultra-compact imaging system that includes a tele-objective with a 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and an imaging sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is dedicated to spectral imaging with three spectral filters (750, 915 and 960 nm filters), photometric measurements (filter free CCD area), and Laser-link experiment (laser filter at 847 nm). The AMIE camera was designed to acquire high-resolution images of the lunar surface, in white light and for specific spectral bands, under a number of different viewing conditions and geometries. Specifically, its main scientific objectives included: (i) imaging of high latitude regions in the southern hemisphere, in particular the South Pole Aitken basin and the permanently shadowed regions close to the South Pole; (ii) determination of the photometric properties of the lunar surface from observations at different phase angles (physical properties of the regolith); (iii) multi-band imaging for constraining the chemical and mineral composition of the surface; (iv) detection and characterisation of lunar non-mare volcanic units; (v) study of lithological variations from impact craters and implications for crustal heterogeneity. The study of AMIE images enhanced the knowledge of the lunar surface, in particular regarding photometric modelling and surface physical properties of localized lunar areas and geological units. References: http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?q=smart-1+amie We acknowledge ESA, member states, industry and institutes for their contribution, and the members of the AMIE Team: J.-L. Josset, P. Plancke, Y. Langevin, P. Cerroni, M. C. De Sanctis, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, S. Beauvivre, B.A. Hofmann, M. Josset, D. Koschny, M. Almeida, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, M. A

  16. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The International Polar Year (IPY 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. Design . The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention

  17. Darwin's legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: The Legacy of Albert Einstein: A Collection of Essays in Celebration of the Year of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-10-01

    During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924 1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916 1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c—also for spontaneous emission—in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work—general relativity—there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable

  19. Cleanup Summary Report for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Fiscal Year 2007, Task 6.7, U12u-Tunnel (Legacy Site), Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-28

    This letter serves as notice of completion for cleanup of the U12u-Tunnel (Legacy Site) as specified in the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Fiscal Year 2007 Statement of Work, Task 6.7. The U12u-Tunnel Legacy Site is located near the intersection of the U12u-Tunnel access road and the U12n-Tunnel access road in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (see Figure 1). The site encompasses 1.2 acres and was used to store miscellaneous mining equipment and materials that were used to support DTRA testing in Area 12. Field activities commenced February 11, 2008, and were completed February 20, 2008. Radiological surveys were performed on a drill jumbo and all material stored at the site. The drill jumbo was relocated to U12p-Tunnel portal and consolidated with other critical mining equipment for future use or storage. Ten truck loads of solid waste (53 tons) were shipped to the Nevada Test Site, Area 9 U10c Sanitary Landfill for disposal. No hazardous or radiological waste was generated at this site.

  20. New perspectives on a 140-year legacy of mining and abandoned mine cleanup in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Fey, David L.; Chapin, Thomas; Johnson, Raymond H.

    2016-01-01

    The Gold King mine water release that occurred on 5 August 2015 near the historical mining community of Silverton, Colorado, highlights the environmental legacy that abandoned mines have on the environment. During reclamation efforts, a breach of collapsed workings at the Gold King mine sent 3 million gallons of acidic and metal-rich mine water into the upper Animas River, a tributary to the Colorado River basin. The Gold King mine is located in the scenic, western San Juan Mountains, a region renowned for its volcano-tectonic and gold-silver-base metal mineralization history. Prior to mining, acidic drainage from hydrothermally altered areas was a major source of metals and acidity to streams, and it continues to be so. In addition to abandoned hard rock metal mines, uranium mine waste poses a long-term storage and immobilization challenge in this area. Uranium resources are mined in the Colorado Plateau, which borders the San Juan Mountains on the west. Uranium processing and repository sites along the Animas River near Durango, Colorado, are a prime example of how the legacy of mining must be managed for the health and well-being of future generations. The San Juan Mountains are part of a geoenvironmental nexus where geology, mining, agriculture, recreation, and community issues converge. This trip will explore the geology, mining, and mine cleanup history in which a community-driven, watershed-based stakeholder process is an integral part. Research tools and historical data useful for understanding complex watersheds impacted by natural sources of metals and acidity overprinted by mining will also be discussed.

  1. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  2. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  3. Fifty not out

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    What have the DESY laboratory in Germany, Richard Feynman's visionary lecture on nanotechnology, the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the "two cultures" debate got in common? The answer is that they are all half a century old this year. The DESY lab was officially launched on 18 December 1959 and is marking its 50th anniversary with a series of events that included the official opening of the PETRA III synchrotron last month. Initially a particle-physics lab pure and simple, DESY is now changing its focus to accelerator science and is set to open its massive new 1bn European X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2014 (p12).

  4. DMT at fifty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szára, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    The steps taken for the discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of N.N-Dimethyl-tryptamine (DMT) is described. DMT had a difficult first 50 years in medical research primarily for legal reasons as it was classified as one of the "drugs of abuse" by authorities in the USA and by the World Health Organization. It has not proved to be a "schizotoxin" as it was first suspected, but the book is not closed on its potential role in some other, high level function as an endogenous neuromodulator. Further clinical work may even substantiate its usefulness in therapeutic application, such as an adjunct to psychotherapy, perhaps not by itself, but in a modified form, or in combination with other substances.

  5. Hydrology and Ecology of the Colorado River Delta in the Face of Changing Climate and Land Use Practices: the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Lower Colorado River Delta in the U.S. and Mexico is an internationally important aquatic biome, supporting fresh water and estuarine wetlands and a riparian corridor rich in avian and other wildlife. These rich ecosystems could be severely harmed by invasive species interacting with projected climate change and land use practices over the next 50 years. It is critical to measure land cover and monitor ecosystem and land use changes because these ecosystems are supported by fresh and brackish water flows originating from flood control releases and agricultural return flows in the U.S. and Mexico. Most climate models project a drying trend in the Colorado River watershed due to global warming, decreasing the frequency of flood releases to the Delta. Total basin water storage in the reservoir system is expected to be reduced by 32-40 percent, and flow volume is expected to meet demands in only 59-75 percent of years in 50 years. The frequency of spills (years in which water is released from the reservoirs to the Delta) will decrease under a global warming scenario. However, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and ENSO events will continue to introduce variability into river flows, and there will still be years in which water is spilled to the Delta. Agricultural return flows will decrease as more water is diverted from agriculture to metropolitan use in both countries. The salinity of the ground water in Mexico, which currently supports cottonwood and willow trees in the riparian corridor, is increasing at a rate of about 20 ppm per year, and in 50 years it might be too saline for cottonwoods and willows. The riparian zone may become dominated by saltcedar and other salt-tolerant shrubs, degrading the habitat for birds and other wildlife. As flows to the Delta diminish, monitoring and active restoration projects to maintain trees and wetlands will be needed to preserve habitat value.

  6. Parity non-conservation in beta-decay of nuclei: revisiting experiment and theory fifty years after. IV. Parity breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Mladen

    2008-01-01

    This part offers a survey of models proposed to cope with the symmetry-breaking challenge. Among them are the two-component neutrinos, the neutrino twins, the universal Fermi interaction, etc. Moreover, the broken discrete symmetries in physics are very much on the agenda and may occupy considerable time for LHC experiments next year aimed at revealing the symmetry-breaking mechanisms.

  7. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  8. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  9. Use of porous tantalum components in Paprosky two and three acetabular revision. A minimum five-year follow-up of fifty one hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecher, Xavier; Appy, Benjamin; Parratte, Sébastien; Ollivier, Matthieu; Argenson, Jean-Noel

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have reported short-term favourable results of tantalum-made components in acetabular revisions with bone loss. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mid to long-term results of such components. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcome and survivorship of acetabular revision hip arthroplasty using tantalum components for loosening associated with bone loss at a minimum of five-year follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients (51 hips) who had an acetabular revision using porous tantalum components at a minimum follow-up of five years. The mean age was 64 years (range, 31-87). There were 27 males and 24 females, 47 right hips and four left hips. Twenty-five (49 %) included a femoral revision. According to Paprosky's classification 18 hips were classified type 2A, 11 type 2B, ten type 2C, seven type 3A and five type 3B. No bone grafting was performed. Sixteen hips (31.3 %) required the use of additional tantalum-made augments stabilized by screws and cement at the cup-augment interface. At a mean followup of 6.8 years (range, 5.1-10 years), the Harris hip score improved from 44 pre- operatively (range, 23-72) to 84 post-operatively (range, 33-98). The mean post-operative hip centre position in relation to the teardrop was 29 mm (range, 20-43 mm) horizontally and 21 mm (range, 8-36 mm) vertically. The mean acetabular inclination was 42° (range, 17-60°). Six hips (11.7 %) required a re-operation without component revision (two for chronic instability, one ossification removal, one haematoma, one deep infection and one periprosthetic femoral fracture). One patient required a cup re-revision for septic loosening. No aseptic loosening occurred. At last followup the radiological analysis showed one evolutive osteolysis and one screw breakage. The global survivorship was 92.3 % at 64 months. If only aseptic loosening was defined as the end-point the survivorship was 100 % at 64 months. When

  10. 中国虫生真菌应用50年简史%Fifty years of application of entomogenous fungi in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增智

    2007-01-01

    In China, there is a long history over 2300 years of entomogenous fungi used as medicines,but their use against insect pests did not start until mid 1950′s.In 1970,the central government held a workshop to encourage the use of Beauveria bassiana against pine caterpillars,making the year a milestone in Chinese history of microbial pest control.Since then, quite a few fungi have been tried for control of over 60 forest and crop pests.In the past decades,low tech production has been being improved towards commercial production with higher techniques.Until 2006,5 products of fungal insecticides have been registered.Meanwhile,large scale application techniques have been being improved with molecular ecological approach towards a rational application strategy.

  11. The Relationship of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Lesions and Osteochondral Lesions with Meniscal Tears in Patients Younger than Fifty Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samed Ordu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL lesions and osteochondral lesions according to type and localization of the meniscal tear and age, gender in patients who have been arthroscopicaly treated, besides, to make the coexisting lesions more predictable in these patients. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 352 patients under 50 years of age who underwent surgery for a meniscal tear between 2008 and 2012. We scanned the surgical operation notes, preoperative questionnaires and the magnetic resonance imaging findings. We recorded patients who had ACL lesions, such as elongation, partial rupture and total rupture. Osteochondral lesions were classified according to the Outerbridge classification from grade 1 to grade 4. Results: Chondral lesions were present in 77.4% of patients with degenerative meniscal tears and in 63% of patients with radial meniscal tears. One the other hand, osteochondral lesions were observed in only 33.9% of patients with other types of meniscal tears. 46.6% of ACL lesions accompanied by meniscal tears with longitudinal pattern, such as longitudinal tears, bucket handle tears and root tears. For the other types of meniscal tears, this percentage was 20.7. When we excluded degenerative type meniscal tears, the mean age of the patients with radial tears was 40.86±9.03 years and the mean age of the patients with other types of tear was 35.44±9.44 years. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found close relationship between osteoarthritic chondral lesions and radial tears in the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. On the other side, longitudinal tears were related with ACL lesions. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 177-80

  12. Fifty-year follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, B; Burström, L; Jonsson, H; Nathanaelsson, L; Damber, L; Nilsson, T

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in iron-ore mines in Sweden. The mortality of employees (surface and underground workers) at the iron-ore mines in Malmberget and Kiruna, Sweden was investigated. The study cohort comprised men who had been employed for at least 1 year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Indirect standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes. Mortality specifically from myocardial infarction was also analysed. 4504 deaths in the cohort gave an SMR for total mortality of 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer (SMR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.97). There was an increased risk of injuries and poisonings (SMR 1.34, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.46) and respiratory diseases (SMR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28). There were 1477 cases of myocardial infarction, resulting in an SMR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.18). SMR was higher (1.35, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.50) for men aged 60 years of age (1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13). Mortality from myocardial infarction was higher than expected. There was also an increased risk of death from injuries and poisonings, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, as well as higher general mortality. Our findings support the results of previous studies that there is an association between working in the mining industry and adverse health outcomes.

  13. Fifty years of changes in reef flat habitats of the Grand Récif of Toliara (SW Madagascar) and the impact of gleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, S.; Guillaume, M. M. M.; Delval, A.; Rasoamanendrika, F. M. A.; Blanchot, J.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The Grand Récif of Toliara (GRT) in Madagascar is a large (33 km2) barrier reef system of the SW Indian Ocean that had been well investigated in the 1960s and early 1970s. A massive degradation of the reef has been reported since at least the early 1980s, just a few years after research activities ceased in the area. Examination of historical aerial photographs and modern high-resolution remote sensing images confirms a continuous loss of coral habitat on GRT outer reef flats between 1962 and 2011, with an average loss of 65 % and a range of 37-79 % loss during this 50-year period. The usual suspects of coral community declines (cyclones, bleaching and sedimentation) may have contributed to the demise of the GRT. However, an independent study (Salimo 1997) suggests that the chronic pressure of fisherman gleaning on reef flats with destructive tools is the main driver of the observed changes. Salimo's reported level of frequentation (6.8 fishermen per day and per km-2) and rates of destruction per fisherman (7.7 m2 of coral habitat h-1) yield a cumulated overall loss in agreement with the image-based rates of habitat loss. The GRT is unlikely to recover because this chronic stress is unlikely to decrease in the near future. Indeed, the GRT daily provides subsistence fishery resources for local Vezo people and to agriculturalist or pastoralist ethnic groups who have turned to exploiting coastal resources due to increasing aridity and dwindling agricultural and livestock production.

  14. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  15. Fifty years after the Nuremberg Nazi Doctors' Trial: reviewing how the laws of the Third Reich applied to individuals with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszynski, D F

    1998-02-01

    The Nazi Doctors' Trial, held in the city of Nuremberg 50 years ago, is a landmark in the history of medicine and science. For the first time, the horrors inflicted by a group of German scientists on innocent victims became widely known. Most of the defendants received sentences that ranged from relatively short imprisonment to death. The Trial also provided elements to develop standards for permissible medical experimentation, known as the Nuremberg Code. The atrocities judged in the Nazi Doctors' Trial, however, were not isolated. They were part of an overall eugenic system that encouraged euthanasia, compulsory sterilization, and selective marriages based on "genetic health" and "racial hygiene." Individuals with oral clefts were considered subject to these laws and suffered their consequences. This paper describes the main features of the Trial, reviews the state of knowledge on oral clefts in the 1930s and 1940s, presents how the laws of the Third Reich impacted the lives of individuals with oral clefts, and speculates on the implications of past and present eugenic policies in the future of humankind.

  16. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, K S; Hafner, S D; Buff, M F

    2003-01-01

    Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km(2)) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations ofNa+ and Cl- have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km(-2) day(-1), appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km(-2) day(-1) over the 47-year period.Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na+ and Cl- still increased during the 1990s.

  17. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time.

  18. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems.

  19. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: a review of the fifty-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X George

    2014-09-21

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most

  20. Fifty Years in the Technology of Acoustic Emission(1961--2011)%声发射技术五十年(1961-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allen T Green; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    This paper has a description of some of the Acoustic Emission projects that I have been involved with during the past 50 years. While my career in AE started with determining the residual strength of a glass and epoxy composite cylindrical pressure vessel it quickly expanded into many different materials, products and structures. In this paper I present information on efforts in; non-metallic and metallic pressure vessels; factors effecting AE; identification of modes of deformation; noise rejection methods; leak detection in Above Ground Storage Tanks; combining AE with UT; Acousto-Ultrasonic examination of wood particle boards; in-flight monitoring of Aircraft structure; and determination of water stress in grape plants and others.%文章对过去50年笔者所涉及的一些声发射项目做了回顾。笔者的声发射生涯是从检验玻璃环氧树脂圆柱形压力容器的剩余强度开始的,然后很快地延伸到了其它的很多材料、制品和结构中去。笔者在文中会介绍尽量多的信息,诸如:非金属和金属压力容器、影响声发射的因素、变型模式的识别、降噪技术、地上储罐泄漏探测、结合AE与UT、木材颗粒板的声-超声检验、飞行中飞机结构的监测以及葡萄科植物的缺水探测等。

  1. Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.

  2. [Mercury and copper accumulation during last fifty years and their potential ecological risk assessment in sediment of mangrove wetland of Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Li; Chai, Min-Wei; Qiu, Guo-Yu; He, Bei

    2012-12-01

    The processes of sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in gulf region. Chronological analysis of the sediment core collected from mangrove wetland in Shenzhen Bay showed that the sedimentation rate was about 1.38 cm x a(-1). Soil buck density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC) changed in range of 0.36-0.71 g x cm(-3), 6-7, 2.93 x 10(3) -4.97 x 10(3) microS x cm(-1), and 1.5% - 3.8%, respectively. With the increase of soil depth, the soil buck density and EC increased gradually. However, the TOC decreased, with no significant change of pH. Contents of Hg and Cu in the whole depth of core ranged between 92-196 ng x g(-1) and 29-83 microg x g(-1), respectively. And both of them in sediment increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing soil depth. At 14 cm depth, contents of Hg and Cu reached up to the highest levels. Correspondingly, the ecological risk of Hg and Cu changed similarly with the contents of Hg and Cu. At 14 cm depth, the ecological risk indexes of Hg and Cu were at the highest levels of 39.10 and 13.85, respectively. The potential ecological risks of both Hg and Cu in sediments were mild. The rapid economical development of Hong Kong in 1960-1985 and Shenzhen in 1985-2000 contributed much to the Hg and Cu accumulation in mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay, China. Since the year of 2000, the reduction in contents of Hg and Cu has been expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies, improving the environment for growth of mangrove. In conclusion, the variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessment along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and extent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Shenzhen Bay and the catchments.

  3. Hagedorn legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2016-11-01

    These remarks open the one-day session "50 years of Hagedorn's Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model". These developments set the path at CERN towards the discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma in the year 2000.

  4. Chemists in Rijeka Together for Fifty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, C.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Whatever part of the World you come from, when you come to Rijeka you came to the heart of Europe. Rijeka is waiting for you with the scent of its sea and the hospitality of its people. Rijeka is a town of unusual, turbulent and intersected history. At the end of the IX Century the area of Rijeka was one of the most powerful industrial zones in Europe. Prof. Eugen Cerkovnikov, Ph. D., a much-respected chemist, first Head of the Department for Chemistry and Biochemistry on the then newly established Medical School in Rijeka, launched the initiative to form a branch-office of the Croatian Chemist Society in Rijeka. On 18 January, 1958 in the Big Classroom of the Medical School in Rijeka the Founding Assembly was held, and many respected scientists of that period were present.In 1960, the Rijeka branch-office of the Croatian Chemist Society merged with the Society of Chemists and Technologists and in 1973 the Biochemists section joined. In the five decades of its existence, the love towards chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, technology and chemical engineering, the love towards the basis of natural sciences and the wish to educate new, progressive generations formed the mission of the Society. The Society does not want to be closed in a guild organisation; its aim is to open its doors towards all those striving to progress.Former presidents of the Society were: Eugen Cerkovnikov (1958-1974, Marijan Kolombo (1974-1980, Josip Šilipeter (1980-1984, Marinko Oršia (1984-1996 i Nikola Bla?evia (1996-; and each one of them marked his era. Transitional circumstances have shut down forever many, until recently, extremely powerful industries in Rijeka. Today, Rijeka is searching for new paths, and we believe that our Society will continue to work on and give its contribution to this search.

  5. Fifty Years of Discoveries in Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    The complementary nature of the Vanderbilt experimental work and the theoretical work of the Frankfurt group on the rotation-vibration model, the generalized collective model, shape coexistence and cluster radioactivity is described. Recent discoveries in neutron-rich nuclei γ-vibrational bands compared with RVM and GCM are presented. Ultimate examples of cluster radioactivity in cold binary and ternary fission are discussed. Finally, we present evidence for the evolution from axial symmetry in 101Y to maximum triaxialilty in 113Rh and for chiral doublet bands in neutron-rich triaxial even-even nuclei between A=106 - 112.

  6. Military Aptitude Testing: The Past Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Enhanced Computer-Administered Testing ECFA Examen Calificacion de Feurzas Armadas EST Enlistment Screening Test ETP Enlistment Testing Program GAO...qualification standards and in part on the needs of the Service. Qualification standards are more complex than just mental standards; they also include medical...and moral standards. Mental standards include educational level as well as aptitude test scores. The military testing program (MTP) began with the

  7. Fifty years of the renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Shirkov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization was the breakthrough that made quantum field theory respectable in the late 1940s. Since then, renormalization procedures, particularly the renormalization group method, have remained a touchstone for new theoretical developments. This work relates the history of the renormalization group. (17 refs).

  8. Thurstones's Discriminal Processes Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R. Duncan

    1977-01-01

    Thurstone's landmark papers on psychophysics, published in the twenties, are discussed in this presidential address to the Psychometric Society. The development of psychophysics from Thurstone to the present is presented in some detail. (JKS)

  9. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated volumes, assuming likely population growth, average economic growth of 3 percent annually, average energy efficiency of 2 percent annually, and a contribution of natural gas of more than 50 percent of total energy used. Potential additions to the resource base are from such sources as basin-centered formations, coalbed methane, sub-volcanic reservoirs, methane hydrates, among others; but many of these sources are not well understood and the practicality and cost of their availability are not known.

  10. Fifty Years of Scholarship in Media Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christians, Clifford G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes changing attitudes toward the role of mass media ethics, as reflected in the literature. Available from: Journal of Communication, The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, $15.00 yr; $4.00 sc. (KS)

  11. Medical sociology: a personal fifty year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, R

    1999-06-01

    This paper reviews the author's experience in becoming a medical sociologist before the field had become formalized. The contributions to medical sociology of sociologist Selden D. Bacon and physician and medical educator William R. Willard are described. The relationship of medical sociology to medical behavioral science, as experienced at the University of Kentucky, is discussed. Finally, the thesis of the author's 1957 paper on the nature and status of medical sociology is re-examined.

  12. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  13. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  14. Hagedorn legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafelski Johann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available These remarks open the one-day session “50 years of Hagedorn’s Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model”. These developments set the path at CERN towards the discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma in the year 2000.

  15. Biogeochemical legacy of prescribed fire in a giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest: A 16-year record of watershed balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Diana L.; Sickman, James O.; Moore, Claudette M.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Melack, John M.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2008-03-01

    The effects of prescription burning on watershed balances of major ions in mixed conifer forest were examined in a 16-year paired catchment study in Sequoia National Park, California. The objective was to determine whether fire-related changes in watershed balances persist as long as estimated low-end natural fire-return intervals (≤10 years), and whether cumulative net export caused by fire could deplete nutrient stocks between successive fires. Inputs (wet + dry deposition) and outputs (stream export) of N, S, Cl-, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, H+, and SiO2 were measured for 7 years preceding, and 9 years following, a prescribed burn of one of the catchments. After fire, runoff coefficients increased by 7% (in dry years) to 35% (in wet years). Inorganic N was elevated in stream water for 3 years after fire. Increased export of water, SO42-, Cl-, SiO2, and base cations continued through the end of the study. Pools and processes attributed to fire led to the cumulative loss, per hectare, of 1.2 kg N, 16 kg S, 25 kg Cl-, 130 kg Ca2+, 19 kg Mg2+, 71 kg Na+, 29 kg K+ and 192 kg Si, above that predicted by prefire regression equations relating export in the paired catchments. This additional export equaled <1% of the N, up to one-third of the Ca and Mg, and up to three-fourths of the K, contained in the forest floor prior to combustion. Changes in watershed balances indicated that low-end natural fire-return intervals may prevent complete reaccumulation of several elements between fires.

  16. The Legacy of Thomas Hodgkin Is Still Relevant 150 Years After His Death. Nothing of Humanity Was Foreign to Him

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Eldad J.

    2017-01-01

    Current leading figures in medical science usually focus on very specific topics and use cutting-edge technologies to broaden our knowledge in the field. The working environment of the nineteenth century was very different. Medical giants of that time such as Rudolph Virchow and Thomas Hodgkin had a wide-ranging scope of research and humanitarian interests and made enormous contributions to a variety of core areas of medicine and the well-being of mankind. The year 2016 marked the 150th anniversary of the death of Dr Thomas Hodgkin. Even a brief review of his life and work proves the current relevance of the outstanding deeds of this exceptional physician, medical educator, and defender of human rights for the poor and underprivileged; his vision was far ahead of his time. PMID:28178433

  17. The Legacy of Thomas Hodgkin Is Still Relevant 150 Years After His Death. Nothing of Humanity Was Foreign to Him.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Eldad J

    2017-01-30

    Current leading figures in medical science usually focus on very specific topics and use cutting-edge technologies to broaden our knowledge in the field. The working environment of the nineteenth century was very different. Medical giants of that time such as Rudolph Virchow and Thomas Hodgkin had a wide-ranging scope of research and humanitarian interests and made enormous contributions to a variety of core areas of medicine and the well-being of mankind. The year 2016 marked the 150th anniversary of the death of Dr Thomas Hodgkin. Even a brief review of his life and work proves the current relevance of the outstanding deeds of this exceptional physician, medical educator, and defender of human rights for the poor and underprivileged; his vision was far ahead of his time.

  18. A legacy of the ""megagoule committee,"" thirty years of explosive pulsed power research and development at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oona, Henn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, David T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tasker, D. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meyer, R. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, W. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, C. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, R. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheppard, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, P. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watt, R. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-29

    In 1980, Los Alamos formed the 'Megajoule Committee' with the expressed goal of developing a one Megajoule plasma radiation source. The ensuing research and development has given rise to a wide variety of high explosive pulsed power accomplishments, and there is a continuous stream of work that continues to the present. A variety of flux compression generators (FCGs or generators) have been designed and tested, and a number of pulse shortening schemes have been investigated. Supporting computational tools have been developed in parallel with experiments. No fewer that six unique systems have been developed and used for experiments. This paper attempts to pull together the technical details, achievements, and wisdom amassed during the intervening thirty years, and notes how we would push for increased performance in the future.

  19. A complex legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  20. Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the character Gilbert Clandon from Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy" illustrates one of Woolf's underlying beliefs about fiction--that it should not present reality as absolute and neatly packageable, but rather as subjectively experienced by individuals. (EL)

  1. Unexpected Drought Legacy Effects in Six North American Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Nolan, R. J.; Collins, S. L.; Knapp, A.; Luo, Y.; Pockman, W.; Smith, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate models predict increases in the frequency and severity of drought in grasslands worldwide, yet grassland sensitivity to drought can vary widely at a regional scale. Legacy effects of drought (drought-induced alterations in ecosystems that affect function post-drought) have been widely reported from desert to forest ecosystems. Drought legacies are usually negative and reduce ecosystem function, particularly after extended drought. Ecosystems with low resistance to drought (high sensitivity) might be expected to exhibit the largest legacy effects the next year, but the relationship between ecosystem sensitivity to drought and subsequent legacy effects is unknown. We quantified legacy effects of a severe drought in 2012 on post-drought (2013) aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in six central US grasslands. These ecosystems, spanning arid desert grasslands to mesic tallgrass prairie, varied by two-fold in their sensitivity to the natural drought in 2012. We predicted that (1) the magnitude of drought legacy effects measured in 2013 would be positively related to drought sensitivity in 2012, and (2) drought legacy effects would be negative (reducing 2013 ANPP relative to that expected given normal precipitation amounts). The magnitude of legacy effects measured in 2013 was strongly related (r2 = 0.96) to 2012 drought sensitivity across these six grasslands. However, contrary to expectations, positive legacy effects (greater than expected ANPP) were measured in most sites. Thus, while drought sensitivity may a useful predictor of the magnitude of legacy effects, short term (1-year) severe droughts may cause legacy effects that differ substantially from those observed after multi-year droughts.

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Shaanxi Province During Past Fifty Years Based on Regression Models%基于评估模型的陕西省水资源气候影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程肖侠; 孙娴; 方建刚; 毛明策; 梁奇琛

    2012-01-01

    利用陕西省1961—2009年96个观测站的年降水、气温资料以及1997—2006年水利部公布的水资源资料,基于线性拟合、水资源丰枯评价指标、变差系数及产水模数等方法和指标,对陕西省近50 a来的水资源状况进行了气候影响分析。结果表明,基于降水、气温的水资源评估模型能够对陕西省水资源状况进行评估,且评估效果好于只考虑降水的评估模型。近50 a来陕西省气候趋于暖干,年平均气温自20世纪90年代升高,1996年前后发生突变;年降水自20世纪80年代中后期减少,1988年前后发生突变。受气温升高,降水减少影响,近50 a来陕西省水资源量呈减少趋势,1991年前后发生突变,水资源量显著减少。20世纪90年代之前,陕西省水资源量正常偏多,之后水资源正常偏枯,且年际变化显著,年水资源量不稳定。陕西省属于旱年缺水类型,天然供水量的减少增加了水资源利用率,水资源供需压力增大。%Employing the annual mean precipitation and temperature data from 96 meteorological stations in Shaanxi Province during the period from 1961 to 2009,and the water resource data published by Chinese Ministry of Water Resources from 1997 to 2006,the impacts of climate change on water resources of Shaanxi Province were analyzed by linear regression,water resource evaluation index,variation coefficient,and water mode.The results show that,the water resource assessment model based on both precipitation and temperature data was more reasonable in evaluation than the one merely based on precipitation data.The climate had become warmer and drier in the past fifty years,the annual mean temperature increases substantially around 1996 and the annual precipitation decreases sharply around 1988.With the declining precipitation and increasing temperature,the water resources had gradually reduced in the past 50 years,and worsened around 1991.The water resources were more than enough

  3. Creating legacy through evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Lynghøj, Hanne; Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    Contemporary discussions regarding sustainability and cultural policy increasingly tends to focus on the longterm perspective of cultural legacy. This paper addresses the complex relation between an overall program and its underlying projects and activities. A central question in this respect...... is how to stimulate cultural legacy in certain directions through the emphasis of specific values in the strategic objectives and evaluation criteria. Another perspective is how, to whom and for what purpose evaluation results are reported and implemented, and thus how evaluation may affect design, aims...

  4. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-10-06

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows.

  5. Social Marketing as a Framework for Youth Physical Activity Initiatives: a 10-Year Retrospective on the Legacy of CDC's VERB Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Kelly, Ryan P; Edgar, Timothy

    2017-06-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the VERB. It's what you do! campaign to increase physical activity among tweens and concomitantly respond to the rise in childhood obesity. This retrospective study summarizes the history of the VERB campaign's social marketing approach and its effectiveness in promoting behavior change in the targeted population. The legacy of VERB, which ended in 2006, is discussed, with an emphasis on examining initiatives over the last decade and the degree to which they followed (or did not follow) the structural and thematic lead of the campaign. The article ends with suggestions for how VERB still has the potential to inform other social marketing campaigns going forward.

  6. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  7. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  8. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  9. Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present performance data relating to the use of migration in a system we are creating to provide web access to heterogeneous document collections in legacy formats. Our goal is to enable sustained access to collections such as these when faced with increasing obsolescence of the necessary supporting applications and operating systems. Our system allows searching and browsing of the original files within their original contexts utilizing binary images of the original media. The system uses static and dynamic file migration to enhance collection browsing, and emulation to support both the use of legacy programs to access data and long-term preservation of the migration software. While we provide an overview of the architectural issues in building such a system, the focus of this paper is an in-depth analysis of file migration using data gathered from testing our software on 1,885 CD-ROMs and DVDs. These media are among the thousands of collections of social and scientific data distributed by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO on legacy media (CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP over the past 20 years.

  10. Redevelopment of the legacies of the uranium ore mining industry in Saxony and Thuringia - 15 years of Wismut GmbH; Sanierung der Hinterlassenschaften des Uranerzbergbaus in Sachsen und Thueringen - 15 Jahre Wismut GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beschorner, F. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Belegschafts- und Kaufmaennisches Ressort; Koenig, A. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Abteilung Beschaffung/Materialwirtschaft; Lersow, M. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Technisches Ressort; Leupold, D. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Abteilung Ausfuehrung

    2006-12-14

    Since 1991 the state-owned company Wismut GmbH has been redeveloping the legacies of the 40 years or uranium ore mining in Saxony and Thuringia. The Federal government included 13 nb DM (about 6.3 bn EUR) in the Federal budget for this major environmental protection project in 1991. The balance-sheet of the previous shutdown and redevelopment activities of Wismut GmbH as an important prerequisite for the socio-economic development n the previous uranium ore mining areas is positive without exception. Development of the municipality of Schlema to a spa and the creation of BUGA 2007 in Gera and Ronneburg can be mentioned as examples. As an important economic factor for the region Wismut GmbH has awarded contracts worth about 1.6 bn EUR to other firms with application of the public contract award procedure since 1992. With a proportion of 13% Wismut GmbH is one of the largest vocational training companies in the region. The acquired Wismut know-how is marketed via the subsidiary company WISUTEC Wismut Umwelttechnik established in 2002. (orig.)

  11. 亚裔美国史学五十年:反思与展望%Fifty Years of Asian- American Historiography: Reflecting on the Past and Looking into the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心扬

    2012-01-01

    This essay aims to examine the merits and problems of Asian -American historiography in the past 50 years. In the early days, a major problem in the field was an ideology -guided, monistic approach to academic research. By only focusing on racial discrimination and by deterring others from exploring Asian immigration history from different or additional perspectives, this approach dominated the field for nearly three decades at the cost of a fuller and more balanced picture of historical events. In recent years, however, there have emerged some new trends challenging the dogmatic approach to Asian - American studies. By examining the relationships between whites, blacks, and Asians as a triangulated relationship instead of a binary one, scholars writing since the mid - 1990s have refuted the traditional "black and white" theory on race relations in America. Meanwhile, those who explore Asian - American history from a transnational perspective have argued, persuasively, that Asian immigrants had dual nationalism and dual- cultural identities. In particular, they have discovered that Japanese immigration and Japanese expansionism were closely intertwined. Behind the decision to relocate the Japanese during World War II, "military necessity" did exist, ese new trends indicate that Asian- American historiography is headed toward maturity.%回顾和检讨亚裔美国史学在过去半个世纪里所走过的道路可以发现,早期亚裔美国史学中一个最突出的问题是以意识形态为主导的一元论历史观。在近30年的时间里,学者大都仅仅从“种族歧视”这一个角度去诠释历史事件,反对从其他视野去观察亚洲移民的经历。不过,最近15年来,这个领域中出现了冲破一元论历史观束缚的趋势。新一代学者提出了白人、黑人和亚裔之间三角形关系的论点,从而否定了“有色对白种”的双重种族关系理论模式。从“跨国主义”的视野观察

  12. Social Justice and Human Rights in Education Policy Discourse: Assessing Nelson Mandela's Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Abrehet; Joshi, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after South Africa's democratisation, Nelson Mandela's passing has prompted scholars to examine his legacy in various domains. Here we take a look at his legacy in education discourse. Tracing Mandela's thoughts and pronouncements on education we find two major emphases: a view of education as a practical means to economic…

  13. 近50年来祁连山及河西走廊极端气温的季节变化特征%Seasonal Characteristics of Extreme Temperature Changes in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor During Last Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文雄

    2012-01-01

    Based on daily temperature data of 18 meteorological stations in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corri- dor from 1960 to 2009, the seasonal characteristics of extreme temperature change were analyzed by methods of linear trend, Morlet wavelet and Mann-Kendall. The results indicate that extreme high temperature days in each season are on the rise significantly, especially increased with larger scales after the middle of 1980s. But that is contrary to extreme low temperature days, which decreased with larger scales after the middle of 1980s in spring and summer, and decreased after the middle and later of 1960s in autumn and winter. The changing scale of extreme temperature days is the largest in winter, and the changes of them are before ten years in win- ter than in other seasons, which indicated that the significant change of extreme temperature days took place in winter firstly. The cycle changes of extreme temperature days in different seasons are different, but they are grouped in 6-10 a, 12-16 a and 18-22 a. The major cycle of extreme high temperature days in spring, summer, autumn and winter are changing respectivelywith 8 a, 14 a, 16 a and 16 a, and that of extreme low temperature days are changing respectively with 14 a, 16 a, 14 a and 6 a. The mutation of extreme high temperature days in spring, summer, autumn and winter increased in 2002, 1997, 1994, 1986, respectively, but that of extreme low temperature days decreased in 2002, 1997, 1987, 1986, respectively. Except autumn, the abrupt changes of ex- treme high temperature days and extreme low temperature days in other seasons are coincident. The response to global warming of extreme temperature days is earlier in autumn and winter than that in spring and summer. The change of extreme temperature days will bring some effect to the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor. The increase of extreme high temperature days will add pressure of preventing fire for forest and grasslands in Qilian Mountains. The decrease of

  14. The Progresses of Seaport City Studies in the Last Fifty Years%20世纪60年代以来海港城市研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海壮; 栾维新

    2011-01-01

    As a special urban type,seaport cities have aroused wide concern from academic communities at home and abroad since the 1960s.Nowadays,there are plenty of academic outputs in this field,which are classi-fied into several research topics such as port-city relationship,port development and evolution,integrated plan-ning of port and city,and spatial structure of port cities.Although several scholars reviewed some subjects in this field recently,there is not a complete literature review of seaport city studies.This paper collected academic works related in recent more than 50 years,sorted them out in term of study topics firstly,and then summed up,analyzed and compared these subjects to show the research context and to find study shortages and future direc-tions in this field.After reviewing,we can draw the following conclusions.Firstly,the attention to seaport cities is increasing worldwide,but it lacks coherence at home.Secondly,research perspective has transferred from port-city evolution to port-city relationship,but the latter is relatively confined at home.Thirdly,the study meth-od has changed from qualitative to quantitative analysis,but still lacks interdisciplinary approach.Fourthly,spa-tial analysis is an essential method all the time,and scale and indicators shall be supplemented in the future study.Finally,there are many studies in this field that focus on evolution process and status of seaport cities,but there are relatively few studies on theories and their applications to newly built seaport cities.%作为一种特殊的城市类型,海港城市自20世纪60年代开始就受到国内外学术界的广泛关注,如今已有较为丰富的学术产出,可大体划归为港城关系、港口地域演化、港城一体规划和港城空间结构等研究主题,尽管前人曾对某一方面的研究进展作过评述性的工作,但仍缺乏比较系统全面的海港城市研究综述。本文搜集半个多世纪的国内外相关文献,根据研究主

  15. Fifty challenging problems in probability with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteller, Frederick

    1987-01-01

    Can you solve the problem of ""The Unfair Subway""? Marvin gets off work at random times between 3 and 5 p.m. His mother lives uptown, his girlfriend downtown. He takes the first subway that comes in either direction and eats dinner with the one he is delivered to. His mother complains that he never comes to see her, but he says she has a 50-50 chance. He has had dinner with her twice in the last 20 working days. Explain. Marvin's adventures in probability are one of the fifty intriguing puzzles that illustrate both elementary ad advanced aspects of probability, each problem designed to chall

  16. Ferruccio Ritossa's scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Antonio; Santoro, M Gabriella; Tanguay, Robert M; Hightower, Lawrence E

    2012-03-01

    The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock proteins, which impact many areas of current biology and medicine, and has created a new avenue for more exciting discoveries. In recognition of the discovery of the heat shock response, Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) awarded Professor Ritossa with the CSSI medallion in October 2010 in Dozza, Italy. This article is based on a session of the Fifth CSSI Congress held in Québec commemorating Professor Ritossa and his discovery.

  17. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budget over the period 1958-2009, we explore the planning and realization of fiscal policy in the Netherlands. Our key findings are the following. First, planned surpluses are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic during the first half of the samp

  18. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  19. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  20. 50 (Fifty) Years of Research on Man in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    authorized a Vito Commander position in March 1972. Colonel Dt-)pelt was appointed the first Vice Commander of the Laboratory. Colonel D oppelt wa-is...Clauser, 7184, 1972) " Development of the Systems Analysis Integrated Network ot Tasks ( SAINT ). First man system model for predicting nuclear S V effects

  1. Fifty Years of IMF Variation: The Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scalo, J

    2004-01-01

    I track the history of star count estimates of the Milky Way field star and open cluster IMFs, concentrating on the neglected mass range from 1 to 15 M${_\\odot}$. The prevalent belief in a universal IMF appears to be without basis for this mass range. Two recent estimates of the field star IMF using different methods and samples give values of the average logarithmic slope $\\Gamma$ between -1.7 and -2.1 in the mass range 1.1 to 4 M${_\\odot}$. Two older estimates between 2 and 15 M${_\\odot}$ disagree severely; the field IMF in this range is essentially unknown from star counts. Variations in $\\Gamma$ among open cluster IMFs in this mass range have not decreased despite numerous detailed studies, even for studies using homogeneous data and reduction procedures and including only clusters with a significant mass range. These cluster variations \\textit{might} be due to the combined effects of sampling, systematic errors, stellar evolution uncertainties, dynamical evolution, and unresolved binaries. If so, then th...

  2. Fifty years later: A neurodynamic explanation of Fitts' law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Dan; Bhatti, Shabana Ali; MacKenzie, I Scott; Wu, Jianhong

    2006-10-22

    An intrinsic property of human motor behaviour is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. This is classically described by Fitts' law, a model derived by assuming the human body has a limited capacity to transmit information in organizing motor behaviour. Here, we propose an alternative foundation, based on the neurodynamics of the motor circuit, wherein Fitts' law is an approximation to a more general relationship. In this formulation, widely observed inconsistencies with experimental data are a consequence of psychomotor delay. The methodology developed additionally provides a method to estimate the delay within the motor circuit from the speed-accuracy trade-off alone.

  3. The Laser: fifty years already; Le Laser: deja cinquante ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocholle, J.P. [Thales Research and Technology, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2010-09-15

    The fiftieth anniversary celebration has this characteristic which it makes it possible to carry a retrospective glance on the evolution of a subject. From this point of view, the LASER, as a scientific concept or a technological tool, does not escape the rule. This article recalls the historical contributions leading to the first demonstration of the laser effect by Theodore Maiman in 1960, starting from a theoretical concept established by Albert Einstein in 1917. This demonstration naturally opened a strong activity in the laboratories. It resulted in the creation of instruments which took part in the enrichment of knowledge in the fields of physics, chemistry and the biomedical one. In our daily life, the communications, the information storage, the imagery, lighting and the industrial tools profited from the properties of the coherent or quasi-coherent emission of the light. Each one of these applications to follow-up its own evolutions which we will also try to describe in this article. (author)

  4. Fifty years of crop protection, 1950-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    We detected the presence of fructosamine in human and bovine semen. In seminal plasma of healthy normozoospermic men (N = 17) fructosamine was found in 53% of the cases (fru+). In fru+ semen samples the concentration of fructosamine was (mean ± S.E.M., N = 9) 0.45 ± 0.09 mmol/L and varied from 0.15

  5. Ion Channels, from Fantasy to Fact in Fifty Years1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter C.

    Biologists have long recognized that the transport of ions and of neutral species across cell membranes is central to physiological function. Cells rely on their biomembranes, which separate the cytoplasm from the extracellular medium, to maintain the two electrolytes at very different composition. Specialized molecules, essentially biological nanodevices, have evolved to selectively control the movement of all the major physiological species. As should be clear, there have to be at least two distinct modes of transport. To maintain the disequilibrium, there must be molecular assemblies that drive ions and other permeable species against their electrochemical potential gradients. Such devices require energy input, typically coupling a vectorial pump with a chemical reaction, the dephosphorylation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). These enzymes (biochemical catalysts) control highly concerted, and relatively slow, process, with turnovers of ≫ 100 s¡ 1.

  6. Recent nonmetropolitan population change in fifty-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K M; Purdy, R L

    1980-02-01

    Post-1970 nonmetropolitan population shifts are examined by dividing nonmetropolitan counties into ten cohorts based on the duration and direction of consistent population change since 1920. Analysis indicates that the post-1970 gains reported by Beale are pervasive in nonmetropolitan America, occurring even in a majority of the counties that lost population consistently from 1920 to 1970. Growth was greatest in countries adjacent to metropolitan areas but was more than urban spillover effect. In a clear break with traditional patterns, net inmigration contributed significantly to overall population gain and was particularly strong among countries without an urban center. The rate of natural increase continued to slow in the post-1970 period, with natural decrease becoming common among countries with protracted histories of population decline.

  7. Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The three overlapping stages of satellite communications development outlined provide the three-part framework for the organization of the papers contained in this book. Part 1, 'Passive Origins,' treats the first stage of satellite communications development, extending from the 1940s into the early 1960s, when passive artificial and natural satellites funded by the military and private enterprise established the field. Part 2, 'Creating the Global, Regional, and National Systems,' addresses events that constituted the second stage of development. Early in this stage, which stretched from the 1960s into the 1970s, satellite systems began to make their appearance in the United States, while domestic and international efforts sought to bring order to this new but chaotic, field in the form of Comsat and Intelsat. Part 3, 'The Unfolding of the World System,' explores the development of satellite communications in the remainder of the world, with a strong emphasis on Asia.

  8. Hashing in computer science fifty years of slicing and dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Konheim, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the developers of the technology, Hashing is both a historical document on the development of hashing and an analysis of the applications of hashing in a society increasingly concerned with security. The material in this book is based on courses taught by the author, and key points are reinforced in sample problems and an accompanying instructor s manual. Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, cryptography, and security will benefit from this overview of hashing and the complicated mathematics that it requires

  9. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs.

  10. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cottet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described.

  11. Fifty years of illumination about the natural levels of adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2016-01-01

    A visionary Darwinian ahead of his time, George C. Williams developed in his 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection the essentials of a unifying theory of adaptation that remains robust today and has inspired immense progress in understanding how natural selection works....

  12. Fifty years of CFD for room air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    , and to addressing situations with more steady-state solutions. The article finishes with a number of different case studies such as design of air supply openings, smoke management in buildings, cross-infection risks from the exhalation of particles and calculation of people moving in a room. The use of benchmark...

  13. Fifty-year study of the Peierls-Nabarro stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-30

    Full Text Available The origin of the Peierls model and its relation to that of Frenkel and Kontorova are described. Within this model there are three essentially different formulae for the stress required to move a dislocation rigidly through a perfect lattice...

  14. Fifty years of Szigeti's dielectric theory – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D B Sirdeshmukh; L Sirdeshmukh; K G Subhadra

    2007-10-01

    During the period 1949–1961 Szigeti published four seminal papers on the dielectric behaviour of crystals. Szigeti's theory is applicable to isotropic and anisotropic, ionic and covalent crystals with different structures. Szigeti's theory connects dielectric, spectroscopic and elastic properties. An important outcome of Szigeti's theory is the concept of the effective ionic charge (). It is pointed out that correlates with a number of physical properties and is a measure of ionicity of the interatomic bond. Since Szigeti's work, several theoretical models have been proposed to account for the fact that < 1. These models provide an insight into the complex polarization mechanisms in solids. This review summarizes Szigeti's work and the work that followed; the implications and applications of Szigeti's theory are discussed. Some new results are also included.

  15. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic durin

  16. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2013-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic durin

  17. The Journal of The Experimental Analysis of Behavior at Fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded in 1958 by a group of male psychologists, mainly from the northeastern USA and connected with either Harvard or Columbia. Fifty years later about 20% of both editors and authors reside outside this country and almost the same proportion is made up of women. Other changes in the journal include having its own website for more than a decade and now publishing online as well as on paper. A recent connection with PubMed Central of the National Library of Medicine has made possible the completely free electronic presentation of the entire archive of about 3,800 articles. PMID:18338677

  18. Thriving rough sets 10th anniversary : honoring professor Zdzisław Pawlak's life and legacy & 35 years of rough sets

    CERN Document Server

    Skowron, Andrzej; Yao, Yiyu; Ślęzak, Dominik; Polkowski, Lech

    2017-01-01

    This special book is dedicated to the memory of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak, the father of rough set theory, in order to commemorate both the 10th anniversary of his passing and 35 years of rough set theory. The book consists of 20 chapters distributed into four sections, which focus in turn on a historical review of Professor Zdzisław Pawlak and rough set theory; a review of the theory of rough sets; the state of the art of rough set theory; and major developments in rough set based data mining approaches. Apart from Professor Pawlak’s contributions to rough set theory, other areas he was interested in are also included. Moreover, recent theoretical studies and advances in applications are also presented. The book will offer a useful guide for researchers in Knowledge Engineering and Data Mining by suggesting new approaches to solving the problems they encounter.

  19. The U.S. Program for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009): Outcomes, Lessons Learned, and Legacy Projects (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, D.

    2009-12-01

    The United States conducted an active and wide-ranging program for IYA2009, thanks largely to support from the American Astronomical Society, the National Science Foundation, and NASA. The U.S. effort included leadership of several international “cornerstone” projects, including the Galileoscope telescope kit, the “From Earth to the Universe” image exhibition, Dark-Skies Awareness, and a variety of creative New Media activities, such as a daily podcast (“365 Days of Astronomy”) and a virtual island in Second Life. In addition, U.S. astronomy educators and outreach professionals played major roles in IYA2009 cornerstone projects designed to promote greater gender equity in astronomy (“She is An Astronomer”); to provide the best astronomy resources for formal education (the Galileo Teacher Training Program); and to conduct global weekend-long celebrations of astronomy involving star parties, several live Webcasts, and special events (“100 Hours of Astronomy” and “Galilean Nights”). NASA led special projects to provide large astronomy images to science centers across the nation, and sent comprehensive exhibits on the major themes of modern astronomy to dozens of libraries in small and medium-sized cities, based on competitive proposals for community impact (“Visions of the Universe”). Underpinning all of these efforts was a variety of methods for informing and engaging the large community of U.S. amateur astronomers, and active communication with our colleagues in Canada, Puerto Rico and Mexico. This talk will review the outcomes and major success stories from the year, discuss several lessons learned that could be useful for pending efforts such as the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, and provide a look ahead for IYA2009 projects and resources that are expected to continue to be active in 2010 and beyond.

  20. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Adriana C., E-mail: ABejarano@researchplanning.co [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States); Michel, Jacqueline [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU{sub FCV,43}). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU{sub FCV,43} values: no-risk (<=1), low (>1-<=2), low-medium (>2-<=3), medium (>3-<=5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU{sub FCV,43} > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  1. Multi-year air monitoring of legacy and current-use brominated flame retardants in an urban center in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Qiao, Li-Na; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-11-15

    The occurrence and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were investigated in an urban atmosphere of Northeast China in consecutive six years (2008-2013). Among all chemicals, BDE-209, l,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the three most dominant compounds. During the period, the levels of pentabromodiphenyl ethers in the gas-phase and octabromodiphenyl ethers in the particle-phase significantly decreased, while the levels of BDE-209 and NBFRs increased in either the gas-phase or particle-phase. Ambient temperature was the most significant variable that influenced the gas-phase and particle-phase concentrations of BFRs, followed by wind speed and relative humidity. A stronger temperature dependence of the atmospheric concentrations was found for lower mass BFRs. Gas-particle partitioning studies suggested PBDEs in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China were at steady-state. Steady-state equation can also well describe the partitioning behavior for NBFRs, suggesting that the atmospheric partitioning behaviors of NBFRs were similar to those of PBDEs.

  2. Close deciphering of the sediment record of stable and radioactive contamination in the upper Seine estuary, over the last 50 years: a phosphogypsum legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrel, A.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Deloffre, J.; Dillies, R.; Rozet, M.; Solier, L.; Dubrulle-Brunaud, C.; Cossonnet, C.; Thomas, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Seine estuary is the outlet of a huge catchment area (the Basin of Paris), into which fine sediments and anthropogenic elements and substances end in. In the upper Seine estuary, stable and radioactive contaminants come both from upstream and from local in the industrialized agglomeration of Rouen. It is particularly challenging to decipher the relative contribution of these two sources due to the lack of historical data for most of the contaminants of concern. The key issue was the collection of two sediment cores: (1) in a flood plain of the lower Seine River and (2) in an old careening basin of the Rouen harbour which was not dredged since many decades. These cores were carefully dated using artificial radionuclide (atmospheric fallout from Chernobyl and nuclear weapon tests - 137Cs - or discharges in the river - 238Pu) and signal processing techniques and an accurate model age was obtained, yielding a 50 years long sediment record. Major elements, 44 trace elements and 14 naturally-occurring radionuclides (235U, 238U and 232Th series) were measured by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry. As some elements display no almost constant (Co, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hf, Nb, Rb, Sr, Ta, V) or continuous decreasing concentrations (Ag, As, Pb, Sb, Sn, W, Zn) since the early 60's, some others show much higher concentrations (Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Y and lanthanides, U and, to a lesser extent, Th series) from mid-60's to mid-80's, and only in the core collected in the Rouen harbour. Even if some minor contributions cannot be ruled out, it is likely that these huge excess concentrations (up to 50 times) are due to the phosphate fertilizer industry. In fact, between 1960 and 1984, the upper Seine estuary underwent big direct discharges of phosphogypsum (an acidic by-product of the process) from two plants located in the vicinity of the Rouen harbour, which peaked up to 1million tons per year in 1974. Cd and Bi are, from far, the most enriched stable elements (up to 300

  3. Legacy to Industry 4.0: A Profibus Sniffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye Mamo, Fesseha; Sikora, Axel; Rathfelder, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Legacy industrial communication protocols are proved robust and functional. During the last decades, the industry has invented completely new or advanced versions of the legacy communication solutions. However, even with the high adoption rate of these new solutions, still the majority industry applications run on legacy, mostly fieldbus related technologies. Profibus is one of those technologies that still keep on growing in the market, albeit a slow in market growth in recent years. A retrofit technology that would enable these technologies to connect to the Internet of Things, utilize the ever growing potential of data analysis, predictive maintenance or cloud-based application, while at the same time not changing a running system is fundamental.

  4. Fifty shades of exploitation: Fan labor and Fifty Shades of Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploration of the debates that have taken place in fandom over the ethics of pulling fan fiction and publishing it as original work draws on the notion of the fannish gift economy, which postulates that gifts such as fan fiction and fan art have value in the fannish community because they are designed to create and cement its social structure. Tension exists between fans who subscribe to the notion of a fannish gift economy and those who exploit fandom by using it to sell their pulled-to-publish works. An examination of E. L. James's 2012 Fifty Shades trilogy (comprising the books Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker, and Fifty Shades Freed, which began as Twilight fan fiction, in addition to Twilight fan art sold through sites such as Redbubble and Etsy, demonstrates a tension between the two modes of fan expression: sale of artworks appears to be an acceptable practice in fandom, but the commercial sale of fan fic, even when marketed as original fiction, is widely contested.

  5. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Goldfus, Haim; Meir, Isaac A.; Poch, Rosa M.; Throop, Heather L.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-01-01

    A legacy effect refers to the impacts that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Legacies have been recognized by many disciplines, from physiology and ecology to anthropology and geology. Within the context of climatic change, ecological legacies in drylands (eg vegetative patterns) result from feedbacks between biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude of the original phenomenon, (2) the time since the occurrence of the phenomenon, and (3) the sensitivity of the ecological–soil–geomorphic system to change. Here we present a conceptual framework for legacy effects at short-term (days to months), medium-term (years to decades), and long-term (centuries to millennia) timescales, which reveals the ubiquity of such effects in drylands across research disciplines.

  6. Legacy literature-a need for virtual libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    After years of conducting, writing-up, and reviewing research, many entomologists have examined, organized, and annotated some as 2-3 gigabytes of pdfs and 4-5 file cabinets of hard-copy articles, in addition to thousands of spreadsheets, docs, jpgs, and wav files of data. This is a useful legacy th...

  7. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  8. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  9. Panamanian politics: the legacy of Torrijismo and prospects for demilitarization

    OpenAIRE

    Olarte, Glenn Jornada

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines Torrijismo's legacy and impact on the Public Force's professionalization and institutionalization in an attempt to ascertain prospects for the successful demilitarization of Panamanian politics. As a result of the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama, 21 years of military dominance in Panama ended. Lieutenant, U.S. Navy (USN) author

  10. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  11. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  12. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on these types.

  13. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  14. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Butler, Paul; Horner, Jonathan; Carter, Brad; Wright, Duncan; Jones, H. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have undergone a revolution in recent years: now precisions of 1 m/s or better are being demonstrated by many instruments, and new purpose-built spectrographs hold the promise of bringing Earth-mass planets into the realm of secure detectability. In the "race to the bottom," it is critical not to overlook the impact of long-running planet search programs that continue to hold the advantage of time. We highlight the continuing impact of the 18-year Anglo-Australian Planet Search: the characterisation of long-period giant planets, and the insights into the occurrence rate of Jupiter and Saturn analogs. To fully understand the origins of planetary systems and the fundamental question of how common (or rare) the architecture of the Solar system is in the Galaxy, we must continue these "legacy" surveys to probe ever-larger orbital separations.

  15. Legacies of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project of World War II mobilized thousands of people, including many of the nation's leading physicists, and extensive material resources to design, develop, and manufacture the world's first nuclear weapons. It also established sprawling new facilities for the production of fissionable fuels - notably at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. It left a set of powerful legacies in the context of the Cold War - endowing scientists with conscience-taxing responsibilities in the nuclear arms race; promoting enormous patronage of academic research by defense and defense-related federal agencies, notably the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission; and turning its wartime facilities into major national laboratories that advanced the fields of high-energy and nuclear physics and stimulated local industrial economies but that in some cases, notably at Hanford, severely polluted the surrounding environment with radioactive waste and disrupted the livelihoods of native peoples. ``Legacies of the Manhattan Project''

  16. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean

    2015-01-01

    , ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences – in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further...

  17. Portraying disease: Sorolla's Sad Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel Angel; Galarza, Marcelo

    2012-07-01

    In 1899, the Spanish painter Joaquín Sorolla represented, in a large canvas, a group of children probably with sequels of poliomyelitis bathing at Valencia's beach. The title of this painting was Sad Legacy. This work contributed to the international diffusion of Sorolla's artistic creation. We briefly report some facts regarding the painter and his work referring to those portraits of children and especially of sick children.

  18. Darwin’s Legacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Why does the world exist and what or who created it? These are the questions humankind asked for thousands of years. Before Charles Darwin gave his answers, only creationism and uniformitarianism were turned to as possible reasons.

  19. Herwig Schopper Einstein's Legacy

    CERN Multimedia

    Schneegans, Susan

    2005-01-01

    "Last June, the United Nations declared 2005 the International Year of Physics and invited UNESCO to take the lead in celebrating the hundreth anniversary of Albert Einstein's legandary articles on relativisty, quantum theory and Brownian motion" (3 pages)

  20. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L [Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  1. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  2. Nuclear histochemistry: Its history in fifty volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Manfredi Romanini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiftieth anniversary of the double helix was marked two years ago. The elucidation of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick can rightfully be considered to be "the" milestone in modern biology because it has conditioned the explosive growth in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the structural and functional organization of single cells and multicellular organisms....

  3. Rutherford’s Legacy

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It’s 100 years to the month since Ernest Rutherford published the paper that established the existence of the atomic nucleus, and in a way gave rise to much of what we do at CERN.   Rutherford’s analysis, based on measurements made by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, established the existence of the atomic nucleus, and with it an understanding that what appears to be solid matter is in fact mostly empty space. As Arthur Eddington put it: “If we eliminated all the unfilled space in a man’s body and collected his protons and electrons into one mass, the man would be reduced to a speck just visible with a magnifying glass.” A sobering thought. Nevertheless, something gives matter substance and that, of course, is the forces that act between the particles in Eddington’s tiny speck. Particle physics is the study of those particles and forces, and CERN has evolved into a world-leading centre for that study. Over the years, a common thread of CE...

  4. 55岁以下成年移位股骨颈骨折内固定术后失败的研究分析%Failure of internal fixation on displaced femoral neck fractures in adults under fifty-five years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞银贤; 马金忠; 朱力波; 陆海明; 桑伟林

    2012-01-01

    目的:回顾性研究年龄55岁以下成年患者移位股骨颈骨折内固定治疗失败病例以提高对其治疗的重视.方法:2007年1月至2010年6月治疗55岁以下移位股骨颈骨折内固定术后失败患者18例,男13例,女5例;年龄27~55岁,平均(48.0±6.0)岁;空心钉治疗17例,髓内钉治疗1例.入院时诊断为股骨头坏死16例,骨不连合并股骨头坏死2例.结果:18例患者内固定术后至手术失败时间8~32个月,平均23个月.复位内固定术后Garden指数不佳;入院时髋关节Harris评分33~80分,平均(56.0±12.5)分.8例股骨头坏死病例和2例骨不连合并股骨头坏死病例接受了全髋关节置换术,5例股骨头坏死病例接受了表面髋关节置换术,3例虽然影像学有股骨头坏死征象但临床症状不明显,接受了保守治疗.所有行髋关节表面置换和全髋关节置换的病例术后随访12~53个月,平均34个月,术后Harris评分(94.0±3.0)分(89~96分).结论:股骨头坏死是55岁以下成年移位股骨颈骨折闭合复位内固定术后常见并发症,必须提高对青壮年股骨颈骨折闭合复位内固定治疗的重视.%Objective:To investigate the failure of internal fixation on displaced femoral neck fractures in adults under fifty-five years old retrospectively inorder to pay more attention to the treatment of these fractures. Methods: From Junary 2007 to June 2010,18 failed cases of internal fixation on displaced femoral neck fractures in adults under fifty-five years old were treated,there were 13 males and 5 females with an average age of (48.0±6.0) years old ranging from 27 to 55. Among them, 17 patients were treated with cannulated screws and ) patient was treated with intramedullaiy nail; 16 patients were diagnosed as osteonecrosis and 2 patients as osteonecrosis associated with nonunion. Results:The average time from internal fixation to failure was 23 months (ranged, 8 to 32 months). The quality of fracture reduction in

  5. LEAR's physics legacy

    CERN Multimedia

    Philippe Bloch

    2012-01-01

    By providing an intense and clean source of antiprotons for the first time, LEAR has opened many fields of research. Although it is not easy to summarise its versatile physics programme in a few lines, this article is an attempt to do justice to the 27 experiments performed during 14 years of running and to their successful results.   LEAR complex, September 1983. In the early days of LEAR operation, the antiproton intensity was quite limited and the machine was mostly used for studying antiprotonic atoms and interactions of low-energy antiprotons with nuclei. Physicists were also performing measurements of cross-sections (total, elastic, charge exchange) as a function of the antiproton momentum. These first experiments provided valuable insights into the properties of nucleon-antinucleon interactions, including their spin structure, and ruled out the existence of hypothesized multiquark states of matter referred to as “baryonium”. The ASTERIX experiment...

  6. The legacy of Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojcun, M.

    1991-04-20

    This article looks at daily life in the Northern Ukraine, where the fallout effects from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident were felt most keenly. High levels of radioactive iodine 131, strontium 90 and caesium 137 are still present five years on and the health of the population, including those evacuated from the exclusion zones, is at risk from leukaemia and thyroid problems, especially among children. Other worrying reports suggest the occurence of a new disease, ''Chernobyl AIDs'', in which sufferers' immune systems are depressed. Other major outstanding problems include the integrity of the concrete sarcophagus enclosing the damaged reactor, and the continued consumption of locally grown contaminated food due to government inadequacies in supplying ''clean'' equivalents. (UK).

  7. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed ConceptRefinery, a

  8. A validatable legacy database migration using ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, T.H.; Wijbenga, J.P.; Balsters, H.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method used in a real-life case of a legacy database migration. The difficulty of the case lies in the fact that the legacy application to be replaced has to remain fully available during the migration process while at the same time data from the old system is to be integrated

  9. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and thirdly,…

  10. A validatable legacy database migration using ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, T.H.; Wijbenga, J.P.; Balsters, H.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method used in a real-life case of a legacy database migration. The difficulty of the case lies in the fact that the legacy application to be replaced has to remain fully available during the migration process while at the same time data from the old system is to be integrated

  11. Frankfurt School and Its Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Regina Mogendorff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Frankfurt School was the embryo of a group of European theorists who dedicated themselves to develop a critical theory of society. Walter Benjamin’s and Theodor Adorno’s intellectual work were the basis to verify the legacy of the Frankfurt School nowadays in the beginning of the XXI century. This paper also intends to understand how the concepts of cultural industry and the critical theory can be read from the confrontation of ideas of some of their critics, using the literature review as a method.

  12. Frankfurt School and Its Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Regina Mogendorff

    2012-01-01

    Frankfurt School was the embryo of a group of European theorists who dedicated themselves to develop a critical theory of society. Walter Benjamin’s and Theodor Adorno’s intellectual work were the basis to verify the legacy of the Frankfurt School nowadays in the beginning of the XXI century. This paper also intends to understand how the concepts of cultural industry and the critical theory can be read from the confrontation of ideas of some of their critics, using the literature review as a ...

  13. Preserving CERN's legacy

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    At CERN, scientists from all over the world design and build innovative instruments to be implemented in the cutting-edge machines used in high-energy physics. Those instruments go on to become part of the world’s most powerful accelerators, Nobel-prize-winning detectors, unique antimatter machines, the first web servers… These are historical pieces and belong to our common heritage. But, what happens to them once they are no longer in use?   New endeavours consistently require new technical developments, and the list of “old” objects belonging to a laboratory like CERN increases over time. As innovative as they might have been when they were created, they are often bulky, sometimes very delicate, and do not always look like everyday tools when they are dismantled. How best to deal with them? “A database of objects suitable for scientific exhibitions has been available on CDS for many years,” says Gigi Rolandi, Chair of CER...

  14. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Zero, Fifty, and One Hundred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A. Charles

    2008-01-01

    The experimental content areas represented in "JEAB" in its first volume (1958) and fifty 50 years later in Volume 87 are in many ways similar with regard to research on schedules of reinforcement, research with human subjects, and several other topics. Experimental analysis has not been displaced by quantitative analysis. Much less research on…

  15. Women's Heart Disease: Cindy Parsons and Follow the Fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Cindy Parsons and Follow the Fifty Past Issues / ... Program, knowing that her personal risk factors for heart disease, including family history, were high. She watched her ...

  16. Transformationer i mediekulturen - Fifty Shades som fanfænomen

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiasen, Anja Falkner; Barding, Antonia; Eliasen, Kristina Maria Danielsen

    2015-01-01

    This project examines the Fifty Shades phenomenon where fan cultures and community building surrounding this particular universe are a few of the keywords to understanding this said phenomenon. Through Henry Jenkins’ transmedia storytelling and worldbuilding theory and Donald Horton & Richard Wohl’s theory on parasocial interactions as well as John B. Thompson’s non-reciprocal relation theory it can be concluded that the fans are what’s keeping the Fifty Shades universe alive and still rapidl...

  17. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Public Lands, Other - Rural Legacy Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — In 1997, the Maryland General Assembly approved the Rural Legacy Program as a major component of Governor Glendening's Smart Growth and Neighborhood Conservation...

  19. Assessing Model Treatment of Drought Legacy Effects in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolus, H. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Fang, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events play an important and potentially lasting role in terrestrial carbon cycling and storage. In particular, satellite and in-situ measurements have shown that forest recovery time following severe drought can extend several years beyond the return to normal climate conditions. However, terrestrial ecosystem models generally do not account for the physiological mechanisms that cause these legacy effects and, instead, assume complete and rapid vegetation recovery from drought. Using a suite of fifteen land surface models from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we assess models' ability to capture legacy effects by analyzing the spatial and temporal extent of modeled vegetation response to the 2005 Amazon drought. We compare the simulated primary production and ecosystem exchange (GPP, NPP, NEE) to previous recovery-focused analysis of satellite microwave observations of canopy backscatter. Further, we evaluate the specific model characteristics that control the timescale and magnitude of simulated vegetation recovery from drought. Since climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme climate events, improving models' ability to simulate the legacy effects of these events will likely refine estimates of the land carbon sink and its interannual variability.

  20. Building an IYA Legacy for Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, Philip J.; Luckey, V.; Landsberg, R. H.; Hawkins, L.; Porro, I.

    2008-05-01

    The International Year of Astronomy will attract much attention, but what legacy will it leave for populations historically underrepresented in science? In this presentation, we focus on one such population--urban youths--and ask how IYA activities might be designed to have a lasting impact. Our general premise is that a major event might be used to attract attention, but that a long-term follow up is necessary for genuine impact. We will present three after-school and summer urban outreach programs that models such long-term involvement: The KICP Space Explorers Program, the MIT Kavli Youth Astronomy Apprenticeship Program, and the Notre Dame Supernova Club. Each of these programs is deeply embedded within the community that they serve and each shows great success in building interests and capabilities in science among the youths that participate. Audience members will be asked to add their own insights to the information presented and, from that, to brainstorm means by which they might build a lasting IYA impact in their own community.

  1. The JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Plume, R; Helmich, F; Van der Tak, F F S; Roberts, H; Bowey, J; Buckle, J; Butner, H; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Van Dishoeck, E F; Friberg, P; Gibb, A G; Hatchell, J; Hogerheijde, M R; Matthews, H; Millar, T; Mitchell, G; Moore, T J T; Ossenkopf, V; Rawlings, J; Richer, J; Roellig, M; Schilke, P; Spaans, M; Tielens, A G G M; Thompson, M A; Viti, S; Weferling, B; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Yates, J; Zhu, M; White, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars form in the densest, coldest, most quiescent regions of molecular clouds. Molecules provide the only probes which can reveal the dynamics, physics, chemistry and evolution of these regions, but our understanding of the molecular inventory of sources and how this is related to their physical state and evolution is rudimentary and incomplete. The Spectral Legacy Survey (SLS) is one of seven surveys recently approved by the JCMT Board. Starting in 2007, the SLS will produce a spectral imaging survey of the content and distribution of all the molecules detected in the 345 GHz atmospheric window (between 332 GHz and 373 GHz) towards a sample of 5 sources. Our intended targets are: a low mass core (NGC1333 IRAS4), 3 high mass cores spanning a range of star forming environments and evolutionary states (W49, AFGL2591, and IRAS20126), and a PDR (the Orion Bar). The SLS will use the unique spectral imaging capabilities of HARP-B/ACSIS to study the molecular inventory and the physical structure of these objects, w...

  2. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  3. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  4. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome - electrodiagnostic aspects of fifty seven symptomatic hands.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Electrodiagnostic data of fifty seven symptomatic extremities with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are described. Practice recommendations made by American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation regarding electrodiagnostic studies were considered while confirming CTS diagnosis by electrodiagnostic studies. Median sensory nerve conduction studies were the commonest abnormalities noted. The median orthod...

  6. 1977 flywheel technology symposium proceedings. [Fifty-two papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, G.C.; Stone, R.G. (eds.)

    1978-03-01

    Fifty-two papers, four paper abstracts, and four brief summaries of panel discussions are presented on flywheel energy storage technology. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 41 papers for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). Eleven papers were processed previously for inclusion in the data base. (PMA)

  7. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  8. Integrating modern business applications with objectified legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    'Integrating Modern Business Applications with Objectified Legacy Systems' investigates a methodology for designing configurable business applications in terms of wrapped legacy systems. The methodology blends scientifically validated research from various domains, such as distributed object

  9. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  10. ASCO Plenary Sessions: impact, legacy, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandross, Andrae; Prasad, Vinay; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-06-01

    The ASCO annual meeting draws a large crowd of physicians, cancer researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives. The crown jewel of the annual events is the Plenary session where impactful, influential and visible abstracts are selected for the largest audience. Plenary topics are frequently paired with concurrent New England Journal or Lancet publications.  Here, we review 9 years of ASCO plenary sessions.  Several themes emerge.  First, many of the topics selected have indeed been practice changing, such as the use of ALK inhibitors for ALK rearranged NSCLC, or checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma.  Second, although some plenary topics seemed destined to change practice, they ultimately falter, such as the use of Cetuximab in NSCLC, vaccine therapy for follicular lymphoma, and even Bevacizumab in metastatic renal cell cancer. Who could have forseen bevacizumab displaced by several VEGF TKIs?  Third, negative trials are rare among Plenary sessions, but when they are presented they are immensely important.  Examples include a seminal study using CA-125 levels to guide treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer, the use of lapatinib combined with traztuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2 + disease, and studies showing no survival benefit to upfront bevacizumab in glioblastoma multiforme.   Fourth, we note a large industry presence among Plenary sessions, as the Industry in part sponsored 62% of Plenary abstracts.  Ultimately a review of 9 years of ASCO plenary reveals the plenary for what it is: a conservative selection of abstracts that, at the time, are thought to change the face of oncology.  Time, however, is the true arbiter, and some succeed in this quest, while others falter.  ASCO plenary sessions reveal the influence, legacy and future of cancer care.

  11. Legacy in Major Sport Events: Empirical Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bason Tom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The awarding of the 2010 FIFA World Cup to South Africa was an historic moment for all of Africa as football’s biggest event travelled to the continent for the first time. This study, set five years on, seeks to identify the legacies left by the construction of two new stadiums in Durban and Cape Town. As part of the EU-funded CARNiVAL project, which seeks to investigate the legacies and impacts of hosting such events, interviews were conducted with key stakeholders involved in the planning of legacies in the two cities. Using Chappelet and Junod’s (2006 framework to analyse the legacies, this study found that Durban and Cape Town have used different strategies to leverage the legacies with differing results. Yet, both stadiums have suffered from the same issue; a seeming lack of need for two stadiums with capacities over 54,000, for domestic sport leagues which average fewer than 10,000 spectators.

  12. Legacy Making Through Illness Blogs: Online Spaces for Young Adults Approaching the End-of-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Adelstein, Katharine; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about young adults with cancer at the end-of-life, but life review and legacy making may be important modalities to process the emotions associated with anticipatory grief. The study analyzed the illness blogs of five young women (aged 25-39 years) at the end-of-life using a narrative approach. Key elements of legacy making and grief processing were explored. The women had varying experiences before their death, but uniform posthumous occurrences with the use of the blog for a space of grief for loved ones. The use of online blogs among adolescents and young adults with advanced cancer is an area of needed further study.

  13. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy.

  14. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  15. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  16. The Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalian, Rouben

    1991-01-01

    Traces the Armenian experience between 1915 and 1918 when the Muslim Turks carried out a policy to eliminate the Christian-Armenian minority. Focuses on the distinction between massacres and genocide; the use of technology in facilitating mass murder; and the legacy of genocide. Includes maps and photographs. (NL)

  17. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, James

    1990-01-01

    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  18. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  19. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    : students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen...

  20. Mathematical card magic fifty-two new effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical card effects offer both beginning and experienced magicians an opportunity to entertain with a minimum of props. Featuring mostly original creations, Mathematical Card Magic: Fifty-Two New Effects presents an entertaining look at new mathematically based card tricks. Each chapter contains four card effects, generally starting with simple applications of a particular mathematical principle and ending with more complex ones. Practice a handful of the introductory effects and, in no time, you'll establish your reputation as a ""mathemagician."" Delve a little deeper into each chapter

  1. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights.

  2. The Midwifery Legacies Project: history, progress, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Davis, Tonia L; McGee, Karen B; Moore, Elaine M; Paine, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    The Midwifery Legacies Project, formerly known as the OnGoing Group, was founded as an annual greeting card outreach aimed at maintaining contact with midwives as they approached retirement and beyond. In 2009, the importance of documenting personal and professional stories of midwives arose out of a bequest by a midwife who was relatively unknown outside of the community she served. The result has been the evolution of a robust collection of stories, which are known as the 20th Century Midwife Story Collection. Between 2009 and 2014, more than 120 US midwives aged 65 years or older were interviewed by a midwife, a student midwife, or a professional filmmaker. Collectively, these midwives' stories offer an intimate snapshot of the social, political, and cultural influences that have shaped US midwifery during the past half century. Individually, the stories honor and recognize midwives' contributions to the profession and the women they have served. This article details the development, progress, and future directions of the Midwifery Legacies Project. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. Ferruccio Ritossa’s scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock prote...

  4. Historical Legacies, Information and Contemporary Water Science and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Vörösmarty

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years. However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1 How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2 Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America provide a suitable restoration target? and (3 How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  5. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  6. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  7. From 2000 Bush-Gore to 2006 Italian elections: Voting at fifty-fifty and the Contrarian Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, S

    2007-01-01

    A sociophysical model for opinion dynamics is shown to embody a series of recent western hung national votes all set at the unexpected and very improbable edge of a fifty-fifty score. It started with the Bush-Gore 2000 American presidential election, followed by the 2002 Stoiber-Schr\\H{o}der, then the 2005 Schr\\H{o}der-Merkel German elections, and finally the 2006 Prodi-Berlusconi Italian elections. In each case, the country was facing drastic choices, the running competing parties were advocating very different programs and millions of voters were involved. Moreover, polls were given a substantial margin for the predicted winner. While all these events were perceived as accidental and isolated, our model suggests that indeed they are deterministic and obey to one single universal phenomena associated to the effect of contrarian behavior on the dynamics of opinion forming. The not hung Bush-Kerry 2005 presidential election is shown to belong to the same universal frame. To conclude, the existence of contraria...

  8. The legacy of women to crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is common to hear that X-ray crystallography is particularly welcoming to women. This assertion is perhaps based in the crucial contribution that a few brilliant women made to crystallography in the very early days. Therefore, this chapter will be mainly dedicated to honour the exceptional legacy of Kathleen Lonsdale, Dorothy Hodgkin, Rosalind Franklin and Isabella Karle, who were pioneers in a time when there was a strong discrimination against women in all aspects of life. Other prominent women, like Caroline MacGillavry, Olga Kennard, Eleanor Dodson, Louise Johnson, Jenny Glusker, Jane Richardson, among others, contributed to disseminate crystallography worldwide, providing the fundamental tools that resulted in the modern crystallography. The outstanding results that crystallography have provided to life sciences in the last years is well represented by the Nobel Prize awarded to Ada Yonath in 2009 for its contribution to the understanding of ribosome, the largest structure solved up-to-now.Existe la impresión de que la cristalografía ha sido una ciencia donde las mujeres han estado más representadas que en otras disciplinas. Esto se debe a la contribución esencial de unas cuantas científicas excepcionales en los inicios de la nueva ciencia. Por tanto, este capítulo pretende reconocer especialmente el legado de Kathleen Lonsdale, Dorothy Hodgkin, Rosalind Franklin e Isabella Karle, que fueron verdaderas pioneras en tiempos en que las mujeres tenían que enfrentarse a una fuerte discriminación social. Otras científicas destacadas, como Caroline MacGillavry, Olga Kennard, Eleanor Dodson, Louise Johnson, Jenny Glusker o Jane Richardson, contribuyeron al desarrollo de los procedimientos fundamentales que configuraron la cristalografía moderna. Los espectaculares resultados que la cristalografía ha aportado a las ciencias de la vida están bien representados en el Premio Nobel concedido a Ada Yonath en 2009 por su contribución al

  9. Run 1 Legacy Performance : electrons/photons

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, the run 1 legacy performance of the electron and photon reconstruction and identification in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The two speakers should try to enlight the differences of performances between the two experiments, and explain what worked better/worse than planned, as well as the lessons for the run 2.

  10. Could Freemium Models Work for Legacy Newspapers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has...... not secured the revenues that industry players hoped for. This article discusses a number of the main principles of the freemium strategy and tactics, and highlights the critical points for legacy newspaper organisations....

  11. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  12. Could Freemium Models Work for Legacy Newspapers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has...... not secured the revenues that industry players hoped for. This article discusses a number of the main principles of the freemium strategy and tactics, and highlights the critical points for legacy newspaper organisations....

  13. Carpal tunnel syndrome - electrodiagnostic aspects of fifty seven symptomatic hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrodiagnostic data of fifty seven symptomatic extremities with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS are described. Practice recommendations made by American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation regarding electrodiagnostic studies were considered while confirming CTS diagnosis by electrodiagnostic studies. Median sensory nerve conduction studies were the commonest abnormalities noted. The median orthodromic sensory latencies were prolonged in 86% and sensory nerve action potential amplitude abnormalities were seen in 82%. Prolongation of the conduction in the short segment across the wrist in the median nerve was seen in 96.5% and the difference in the conduction between median and ulnar nerve across the wrist was significant in all the 57 extremities. The median motor latencies were prolonged in 67% of hands. Higher incidence of electrodiagnostic abnormalities observed in this study might be due to inclusion of patients with severe disease.

  14. The decision book fifty models for strategic thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Krogerus, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Most of us face the same questions every day: What do I want? And how can I get it? How can I live more happily and work more efficiently? A worldwide bestseller, The Decision Book distils into a single volume the fifty best decision-making models used on MBA courses and elsewhere that will help you tackle these important questions - from the well known (the Eisenhower matrix for time management) to the less familiar but equally useful (the Swiss Cheese model). It will even show you how to remember everything you will have learned by the end of it. Stylish and compact, this little black book is a powerful asset. Whether you need to plot a presentation, assess someone's business idea or get to know yourself better, this unique guide will help you simplify any problem and take steps towards the right decision.

  15. EUPHEMISTIC AND DYSPHEMISTIC LANGUAGE IN FIFTY SHADES OF GREY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sánchez Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Fifty Shades of Grey trilogy is beyond doubt. This great impact has also been reflected on academic literature dealing with the novel from different perspectives. However, while there is substantial research on the novels, little attention has been paid to the author's usage of language. Bearing in mind that erotic stories are a common euphemistic and dysphemistic ground, the aim of this paper is to explore euphemism, dysphemism and x-phemism (quasieuphemism and quasidysphemism in a corpus which consists of the three books of the mentioned trilogy so as to observe if the use of these devices depends on sexes and how these phenomena merge with metaphorical or metonymical devices to avoid a possible loss of face or highlight a taboo. The conclusions will show that the male and female main characters in the novels use language differently and employ these verbal devices with several intentions.

  16. Institute of legacy in the testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization as the new world order has brought to a more planned human life. This planning not only entails the individual life, but it must plan for a longer term future as well. When we talk about long terms, we immediately think about analytical skills of Roman lawyers in creating the mortis causa institute (effec-ting upon death. A characteristic of this paper comes with the latin term “leg”. The testament is a statement of will, which defines the heirs and the inheritance. While the Testament is a rather more elaborated work, the Legacy is a special provision, an order in the testament, addressed to the heirs, to submit an item or a material value to the privileged persons, called the Legatar. The Legatar, as the benefi-ciary of this provision is only a beneficiary, and does not take res-ponsibility for the debts of the inherited property. Planning of wealth may serve various functions or purposes. The Legacy represents a balance between the freedom of disposing inheritance in a free manner, and limitation of a part called nece-ssary fortune. The money or the values we decide to give away with the Institute of Legacy are not about their material value, but the significance of their investment, the goal and the best reminis-cence of the testators’ contribution in generations.

  17. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH FIFTY-YING-ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁民

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Fifty-ying acupuncture therapy for treatment of chronic bronchitis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods: A total of 36 out- and in-patients with chronic bronchitis including 10 cases of asthma were subjected into this study. Among them, 20 cases were qi-deficiency type and 16 qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-clamp type. The changes of symptoms, T-lymphocyte subgroups of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+,CD4+/CD8+, soluble interleuki-2 receptor ( SIL-2R), interleukin-6(IL-6), IgG, IgA and IgM before and after treatment were observed and detected using monoclonal indirect fluorescence method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nephelometry respectively. Results: (1)The effective rate of qi-dificiency type was 100% and that of qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-damp type 87.5%. (2) After acupuncture treatment, in qi-deficiency type patients, serum IgG, IgA and IgM contents increased significantly (P< 0. 001) in comparison with pre-treatment and in qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-damp type patients, IgG level lowered obviously. Serum SIL-2R and CD4+/CD8+ decreased obviously(P<0.01, 0.001), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ increased evidently (P<0.01). Conclusion: The Fifty-ying acupuncture therapy can better clinical symptoms of chronic bronchitis patients through its resultant up-regulation of the immune system function.

  18. The legacy of the IGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Herbert

    We are now at the point of celebrating three milestones of international cooperation in sun—earth research: the 100th anniversary of the First International Polar Year (1882-1883) the 50th anniversary of the Second Polar Year (1932-1933) and the 25th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). Credit for the concept of the First Polar Year goes to an Austrian Lieutenant, Karl Weyprecht. He expressed the philosophy of scientific cooperation in the following bold language delivered in a statement to the Hall of the Austrian Academy of Sciences on January 18, 1875:Purely geographical research and Arctic topography, which until now have stood in the foreground of all polar expeditions, must, with respect to the great scientific questions, recede into the background. The answers, though, will occur only when those nations pretending to aspire to the heights of contemporary, cultural endeavor decide, without regard to national rivalry, upon common measures. In order to secure decisive scientific results, we require a series of simultaneous expeditions whose aims must be, through dispersal over several points of the Arctic region and using identical instruments in line with identical instructions, to conduct a simultaneous, year-long series of observations. Only thereby shall we acquire the material for solutions to those great problems of nature that reside in the Arctic ice, and only then shall we earn the reward for those considerable resources that have hitherto been squandered in labor, endeavor, deprivation, and money in the polar region.

  19. Asbestos and its lethal legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2002-04-01

    Asbestos has become the leading cause of occupationally related cancer death, and the second most fatal manufactured carcinogen (after tobacco). In the public's mind, asbestos has been a hazard since the 1960s and 1970s. However, the knowledge that the material was a mortal health hazard dates back at least a century, and its carcinogenic properties have been appreciated for more than 50 years.

  20. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  1. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  2. Photometric redshifts for supernovae Ia in the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pascal, S; Rich, J; Guy, J; Bazin, G; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Sullivan, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a method using the SALT2 light curve fitter to determine the redshift of Type Ia supernovae in the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) based on their photometry in g', r', i' and z'. On 289 supernovae of the first three years of SNLS data, we obtain a precision $\\sigma_{\\Delta z/(1+z)} = 0.022$ on average up to a redshift of 1.0, with a higher precision of 0.016 for z0.45. The rate of events with $|\\Delta z|/(1+z)>0.15$ (catastrophic errors) is 1.4%. Both the precision and the rate of catastrophic errors are better than what can be currently obtained using host galaxy photometric redshifts. Photometric redshifts of this precision may be useful for future experiments which aim to discover up to millions of supernovae Ia but without spectroscopy for most of them.

  3. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  4. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time...... with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past....

  5. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kasemir, K.U. [Univ. Osnabrueck (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Kowalkowski, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise.

  6. Changing psychology: history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Díaz, Lillian

    2009-10-01

    The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world.

  7. Bereaved Parents’ and Siblings’ Reports of Legacies Created by Children With Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Davies, Betty; Barrera, Maru; Fairclough, Diane; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored bereaved parents’ and siblings’ reports of legacies created by children with advanced cancer. Participants included 40 families of children who died from cancer, with 36 mothers, 27 fathers, and 40 siblings (ages 8–18 years). Individual interviews were completed at home approximately 10.68 months (SD = 3.48) after the child’s death. Content analysis of interviews indicated that many children living with cancer did specific things to be remembered, such as makin...

  8. Sustained Arctic Observations: A Legacy of the Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Keith

    2008-09-01

    Is the Arctic a vast, beautiful, wild, and unsullied natural refuge, or is it small, fragile, and vulnerable, suffering the brunt of global warming? In the late nineteenth century, as U.S. admiral Robert E. Peary and his competitors engaged in their mad scramble to be the first humans to set foot on the North Pole, ``fragile'' was unlikely to be an adjective that sprang to mind when they described their surroundings. Quite the opposite, exploring the Arctic exposed the fragility of man. But the Arctic Ocean and mankind's relationships to it are changing fast.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Forty-five years apart - confronting the legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admission of blacks into 'white' universities, many universities ..... active in student leadership, and because of his commitment to ..... SNPs were in the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase, the target enzyme inhibited by pravastatin therapy.

  10. The legacy of the Nuremberg trials: 60 years on

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha

    2007-01-01

    World War II cost the lives of approximately 55 million people, mostly civilian non-combatants, and saw the commission of widespread human rights atrocities on all sides. The mass murder conducted by Nazi Germany in its concentration and extermination camps and other human rights atrocities which were committed by its armed forces and security personnel mainly in Eastern Europe led to the establishment of the international military tribunal of Nuremberg in 1946. Consequently, the four m...

  11. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  12. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  13. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior at fifty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laties, Victor G

    2008-01-01

    ...: behavior analysis history, women as journal editors, geographical distribution of editors, online publishing, B.F. Skinner I have lived my professional life by decades. It was 60 years ago, in 1928, that I arrived at Harvard as a graduate student in psychology. Behaviorism was then only 15 years old. Ten years later, in 1938, I published The Behav...

  14. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  15. A History of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) Imaging Node's Map-A-Planet Legacy Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) Imaging Node’s Map-A-Planet Legacy Web Services have served the planetary data community for more than fifteen years. Here we look back at the evolution and development of the services over the that time.

  16. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  17. Temporal and spatial change of climate extremes in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor during last fifty years%近50a来祁连山及河西走廊极端气候的时空变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文雄

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of global warming, the frequency of extreme climate and damage of meteorological disasters are increasing. Based on daily temperature and precipitation data of 20 weather stations in the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor from 1960 to 2009, the inter-annual change trends of climate extremes were studied by methods of regression analysis and five years moving average, and the spatial distribution characteristics of inter-annual change trends and its significance of climate extremes were analyzed by method of Spline interpolation under ArcGIS environment, and the cycles of climate extremes were discussed by method of Morlet wavelet analysis under Matlab environment, so as to bring scientific accordance for local governments to deal with climate change and disaster prevention and alleviation. The results indicate the annual number of extreme high temperature days ( EHTD) is on the significant rise by the rate of 0. 79 d/a, and the trend of inter-annual change of EHTD is accelerative by larger waving scale after the middle-late of 1980s, especially the rate of EHTD getting higher after the middle-late of 1990s. This is contrary to the extreme low temperature days (ELTD) , the annual number of ELTD is decreasing significantly by the rate of -0. 54 d/a and the trend of inter-annual change of ELTD is reducing by larger waving scale after the middle-latte of 1980s, and the rate of ELTD is lower after the middle-late of 1980s. The annual number of extreme precipitation days (EPD) is increasing significantly by the rate of 0.02 d/a, and the trend of inter-annual change of EPD is rising by larger and smaller waving scale before and after the middle of 1980s respectively, but the trend became contrary after the middle-late of 1990s, and the rate of EPD is higher after the middle of 1970s. The spatial distribution characteristics of inter-annual change trends and its significance of climate extremes have some differences, but the response to the global

  18. Mercury and Copper Accumulation During Last Fifty Years and Their Potential Ecological Risk Assessment in Sediment of Mangrove Wetland of Shenzhen,China%近50年来深圳湾红树林湿地Hg、Cu累积及其生态危害评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞利; 柴民伟; 邱国玉; 贺蓓

    2012-01-01

    pH.Contents of Hg and Cu in the whole depth of core ranged between 92-196 ng·g-1 and 29-83 μg·g-1,respectively.And both of them in sediment increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing soil depth.At 14 cm depth,contents of Hg and Cu reached up to the highest levels.Correspondingly,the ecological risk of Hg and Cu changed similarly with the contents of Hg and Cu.At 14 cm depth,the ecological risk indexes of Hg and Cu were at the highest levels of 39.10 and 13.85,respectively.The potential ecological risks of both Hg and Cu in sediments were mild.The rapid economical development of Hong Kong in 1960-1985 and Shenzhen in 1985-2000 contributed much to the Hg and Cu accumulation in mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay,China.Since the year of 2000,the reduction in contents of Hg and Cu has been expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies,improving the environment for growth of mangrove.In conclusion,the variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessment along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and extent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Shenzhen Bay and the catchments.

  19. Nutrient pressures and legacies in a small agricultural karst catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Owen; Mellander, Per-Erik; Daly, Karen; Wall, David P.; Jahangir, Mohammad M.; Jordan, Phil; Hennessey, Deirdre; Huebsch, Manuela; Blum, Philipp; Vero, Sara; Richards, Karl G.

    2017-04-01

    Catchments with short subsurface hydrologic time lags are commonly at risk for leached losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Such catchments are suitable for testing the efficacy of mitigation measures as management changes. In some sites, however, N and P may be retained in the soil and subsoil layers, and then leached, mobilised or attenuated over time. This biogeochemical time lag may therefore have enduring effects on the water quality. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of N and P retention, attenuation and distribution of subsurface pathway in an intensively managed agricultural karst catchment with an oxidised aquifer setting, and also to inform how similar sites can be managed in the future. Results showed that in the years pre-2000 slurry from an on-site integrated pig production unit had been applied at rates of 33 t/ha annually, which supplied approximately 136 kg/ha total N and approximately 26 kg/ha total P annually. This practice contributed to large quantities of N (total N and NH4-N) and elevated soil test P (Morgan extractable P), present to a depth of 1 m. This store was augmented by recent surpluses of 263 kg N/ha, with leached N to groundwater of 82.5 kg N/ha and only 2.5 kg N/ha denitrified in the aquifer thereafter. Sub hourly spring data showed the largest proportion of N loss from small (54-88%) and medium fissure pathways (7- 21%) with longer hydrologic time lags, with smallest loads from either large fissure (1-13%) or conduit (1-10%) pathways with short hydrologic time lags (reaction time at the spring from onset of a rainfall event is within hours). Although soils were saturated in P and in mobile forms to 0.5 m, dissolved reactive P concentrations in groundwater remained low due to Ca and Mg limestone chemistry. Under these conditions a depletion of the legacy store, with no further inputs, would take approximately 50 years and with NO3-N concentrations in the source area dropping to levels that could sustain

  20. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  1. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh;

    2006-01-01

    control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components....... challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...

  2. Investigating the long-term legacy of drought and warming on the soil microbial community across five European shrubland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how the legacy of warming and summer drought affected microbial communities in five different replicated long-term (>10 years) field experiments across Europe (EU-FP7 INCREASE infrastructure). To focus explicitly on legacy effects (i.e., indirect rather than direct effects of the environmental factors), we measured microbial variables under the same moisture and temperature in a brief screening, and following a pre-incubation at stable conditions. Specifically, we investigated the size and composition of the soil microbial community (PLFA) alongside measurements of bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate in ergosterol incorporation) growth rates, previously shown to be highly responsive to changes in environmental factors, and microbial respiration. We found no legacy effects on the microbial community size, composition, growth rates, or basal respiration rates at the effect sizes used in our experimental setup (0.6 °C, about 30% precipitation reduction). Our findings support previous reports from single short-term ecosystem studies thereby providing a clear evidence base to allow long-term, broad-scale generalizations to be made. The implication of our study is that warming and summer drought will not result in legacy effects on the microbial community and their processes within the effect sizes here studied. While legacy effects on microbial processes during perturbation cycles, such as drying-rewetting, and on tolerance to drought and warming remain to be studied, our results suggest that any effects on overall ecosystem processes will be rather limited. Thus, the legacies of warming and drought should not be prioritized factors to consider when modeling contemporary rates of biogeochemical processes in soil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  4. The talent of mature women and their legacy for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Troncoso Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of facts about women who shone in their youth either for their research, their works of art, or their social and political activities, and who remained active in their later years, when they became what are commonly called senior citizens. It was during these years that these brilliant women managed to crystallise and consolidate the work they had done all of their life, bringing about changes in scientific, artistic, cultural and social fields, leaving behind a legacy of knowledge for future generations. A small host of women representing different disciplines has been chosen here, and all of these women were active in their later life. Many others who could have been included will not be found, not only because there is not enough space here to mention all of them here, but also because there is a lack of sources dealing with the millions of senior heroines who are anonymous; elderly women who play a vital role in the development of humanity when they pass on knowledge and values; women who remain active in their later years and who only retire the day they die

  5. Fifty Interesting Years: Higher Education Funding and Financial Management 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    During the half century of the AUA's existence UK universities have experienced the fastest rate of growth and most far-reaching changes in their history. Funding arrangements in particular have changed radically. Since 1961 the finance office has been transformed from a small group of bean counters into a key management group at the heart of all…

  6. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  7. Fifty years after: some experiences of the medical care of prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdwood, R H

    1993-08-01

    Mention is made of Italian prisoners-of-war treated in Catterick military hospital but in October 1943 Italy joined the Allied side. An account is given of the medical condition of 78 Japanese POWs and of 228 members of the Japanese Indian Forces (JIFs) in a transit hospital in eastern India (now Bangladesh). Tropical sprue appeared to occur in an epidemic form each June and July in Burma and eastern India, but did not seem to have affected the Japanese or JIFs. A brief account is given of the condition of 180 European or Australian service men who had survived harsh conditions in Japanese POW camps until liberation in September 1945, then being admitted to a military hospital in Rangoon en route for home. Some had suffered from blindness as a result of malnutrition, the precise reason being uncertain, but there was some improvement after the injection of crude liver extract.

  8. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Ph

    2017-02-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic fluid management.

  9. Draft Budget of the Organization for the Fifty-First Financial Year 2005

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A sa réunion du 15 septembre 2004 , le Comité des finances a recommandé au Conseil d'approuver le projet préliminaire de budget 2005 aux prix de 2004. La présente version tient compte des transferts du budget 2004 présentés dans le document "Budget 2004 - Transferts et dépassements de crédits" , du prélèvement dans la réserve pour imprévus pour le LHC indiqué dans le document "Réserve pour imprévus pour le LHC" et de divers ajustements mineurs. En conséquence, il est demandé au Comité des finances de recommander au Conseil d'approuver les modifications par rapport au projet préliminaire de budget 2005 présentées dans les tableaux de l'annexe 1.

  10. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, B. van

    2017-01-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant techn

  11. One family's use of domestic fuels - a fifty year history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.

    1999-03-01

    The paper provides a detailed account of energy use (or rather energy purchased, since the records were of bills paid) in a family home since 1948 and discusses the lessons learned. From 1948-1958 the family lived in a 3-bed semi-detached house, from 1959-1967 in three 5-bed detached houses, from mid-1977 to late 1987 in a three-bedroomed terraced house on three floors and a three-bedroom detached house in Norfolk and from 1987 onwards lived in a detached house in London. (UK)

  12. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Axel D

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964-1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  13. Essay: Fifty years of atomic, molecular and optical physics in Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroche, Serge

    2008-10-17

    The fiftieth anniversary of Physical Review Letters is a good opportunity to review the extraordinary progress of atomic, molecular, and optical physics reported in this journal during the past half-century. As both a witness and an actor of this story, I recall personal experiences and reflect about the past, present, and possible future of my field of research.

  14. Pediatric oncology at Hospital Infantil de Mexico: fifty-five years of accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanson, A; Martínez-Avalos, A; Gallegos-Castorena, S; Juárez-Villegas, L E; González-Montalvo, P; Perales-Arroyo, A; Gallegos-González, E; Ayometzi-Ouchi, M T

    2002-09-01

    The Department of Oncology at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG) was the first unit in our country, and one of the first in Latin America, to specialize in the management of children with cancer. The HIMFG is part of the National Institutes of Health of Mexico, and is a reference hospital with research, educative, and tertiary care medical function. To date, the HIMFG and the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria are the principal medical centers in which children with cancer receive comprehensive care.

  15. Fifty Years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the Relationship between Schools and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Douglas B.; Condron, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to…

  16. Selection and Classification of United States Military Officers: A fifty-Year Bibliography (1937-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Printing Office. 64 Michael , W.B. (1947). An investigation of the contribution of factors to tests and to their predictive value in two Army Air Forces...and criterion variables. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 9, 95-111. 83 Michael , W.o. (1949). Factor analyses of tests and criteria: A...Washington, DC: National Research Council, Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots. 834 Taussig , J.K., Jr. (1942). A proposed method of

  17. Fifty years since the nuclear accident in Palomares (Almeria). Medical repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laynez-Bretones, F; Lozano-Padilla, C

    2017-02-22

    In January 1966, 2 US military aircraft collided over the skies of Palomares (Almeria). One of them carried thermonuclear bombs, which released plutonium and other radioactive materials upon striking the ground. The most contaminated earth and plants were immediately removed. The Indalo Project was launched to study the effects of nuclear material on the inhabitants and environment of Palomares. A total of 1,077 inhabitants have been monitored since then, and the official version is that the ionising radiation has not been related to any type of disease. However, secrecy has surrounded much of the investigations, and no trustworthy epidemiological study has been conducted in the area. Approximately 500g of plutonium and americium remains in Palomares. Although the risk for the population appears to be low, this radioactive material should be removed as soon as possible.

  18. Islamic state or state Islam? Fifty years of state-Islam relations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1996-01-01

    In what appeared like a dramatic reversal of previous policies towards organised Islam, President Soeharto in December 1990 gave his personal endorsement to the establishment of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Se-Indonesia, ICMI), a body in

  19. Fifty Years of Yang-Mills Theory and my Contribution to it

    CERN Document Server

    Jackiw, Roman W

    2004-01-01

    On the fiftieth anniversary of Yang-Mills theory, I review the contribution to its understanding by my collaborators and me. Contents: 1.Gauge Theories and Quantum Anomalies; 2.Mathematical Connections; 3. Gauge Field Dynamics other than Yang-Mills; 4. Gauge Formalism for General Relativity Variables; A. Christoffel connection as a gauge potential, B. Gravitational Chern-Simons term from gauge theory Chern-Simons term, C. Coordinate transformations in general relativity and gauge theory, (i) Response to changes in coordinates (ii) Invariant fields and constants of motion. References.

  20. Review: Fifty Years Plus of Accelerometer History for Shock and Vibration (1940–1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Walter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the history of accelerometer development and the subsequent evolution of the commercial accelerometer industry. The focus is primarily on piezoelectric and piezoresistive accelerometers, although early resistance-bridge-type accelerometers are also described. The pioneer accelerometer manufacturing companies are identified and a chronology of technology development through today is presented.

  1. Fifty Years of Quasars From Early Observations and Ideas to Future Research

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars in 1963 presents an interesting opportunity to ask questions about the current state of quasar research. Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, each of them asked to address a specific set of questions covering topics selected by the editors, this book deals with the historical development of quasar research and discusses how advances in instrumentation and computational capabilities have benefitted quasar astronomy and have changed our basic understanding of quasars. In the last part of the book the interviews address the current topic of the role of quasars in galaxy evolution. They summarise open issues in understanding active galactic nuclei and quasars and present an outlook regarding what future observational facilities both on the ground and in space might reveal. Its interview format, the fascinating topic of quasars and black holes, and the lively recollections and at times controversial views of the contributors make ...

  2. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.H. Warren; D Simberloff; R.E. Ricklefs; R. Aguilée; F.L. Condamine; D. Gravel; H. Morlon; N. Mouquet; J. Rosindell; J. Casquet; E. Conti; J. Cornuault; J.M. Fernández-Palacios; T. Hengl; S.J. Norder; K.F. Rijsdijk; I. Sanmartin; D. Strasberg; K.A. Trantis; L.M. Valente; R.J. Whittaker; R.G. Gillespie; B.C. Emerson; C. Thébaud

    2015-01-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, ‘An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography’, was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, isl

  3. Fifty Years of Silent Service: A Peek Inside the CIA Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlen, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) library. Highlights include security measures, a day in the life of two CIA librarians, sample reference questions, collection development, the Historical Intelligence Collection, the CIA Web site, and library modernization. (JAK)

  4. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  5. The development of soviet optics and spectroscopy during the past fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, S

    1967-11-01

    A history of Soviet spectroscopy is given, with special emphasis on various areas indicating the earliest workers in each specialty and their principal successors; for example, the work of Rozhdestvenskii (anomalous dispersion); Fok (self-consistant field calculations), Terenin (photochemistry, atomic beams), Mandelstam (combination scattering), Vavilov (luminescence, quantum properties of light), Cerenkov (radiation), Chaika (atomic lifetimes), Gross (excitons), and Volkenstein (molecular vibrations).

  6. Fifty years of Yang-Mills Theories: a phenomenological point of view

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang--Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds for nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.

  7. Fifty years of chasing lizards: new insights advance optimal escape theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Diogo S M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often examine data from diverse taxa to identify general patterns of effect sizes. Meta-analyses that focus on identifying generalisations in a single taxon are also valuable because species in a taxon are more likely to share similar unique constraints. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic meta-analysis of flight initiation distance in lizards. Flight initiation distance (FID) is a common metric used to quantify risk-taking and has previously been shown to reflect adaptive decision-making. The past decade has seen an explosion of studies focused on quantifying FID in lizards, and, because lizards occur in a wide range of habitats, are ecologically diverse, and are typically smaller and differ physiologically from the better studied mammals and birds, they are worthy of detailed examination. We found that variables that reflect the costs or benefits of flight (being engaged in social interactions, having food available) as well as certain predator effects (predator size and approach speed) had large effects on FID in the directions predicted by optimal escape theory. Variables that were associated with morphology (with the exception of crypsis) and physiology had relatively small effects, whereas habitat selection factors typically had moderate to large effect sizes. Lizards, like other taxa, are very sensitive to the costs of flight.

  8. Fifty Years Later: The Sequence, Structure and Function of Lacewing Cross-beta Silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisman, Sarah; Okada, Shoko; Mudie, Stephen T.; Huson, Mickey G.; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.; (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO)

    2009-12-01

    Classic studies of protein structure in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that green lacewing egg stalk silk possesses a rare native cross-beta sheet conformation. We have identified and sequenced the silk genes expressed by adult females of a green lacewing species. The two encoded silk proteins are 109 and 67 kDa in size and rich in serine, glycine and alanine. Over 70% of each protein sequence consists of highly repetitive regions with 16-residue periodicity. The repetitive sequences can be fitted to an elegant cross-beta sheet structural model with protein chains folded into regular 8-residue long beta strands. This model is supported by wide-angle X-ray scattering data and tensile testing from both our work and the original papers. We suggest that the silk proteins assemble into stacked beta sheet crystallites bound together by a network of cystine cross-links. This hierarchical structure gives the lacewing silk high lateral stiffness nearly threefold that of silkworm silk, enabling the egg stalks to effectively suspend eggs and protect them from predators.

  9. Islamic state or state Islam? Fifty years of state-Islam relations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    In what appeared like a dramatic reversal of previous policies towards organised Islam, President Soeharto in December 1990 gave his personal endorsement to the establishment of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (Ikatan Cendekiawan Muslim Se-Indonesia, ICMI), a body in which former

  10. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067931

    2016-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic flu...

  11. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Lawrence, J.N.P.; Johnson, E.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker`s mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. The jewel on the mountaintop the European Southern Observatory through fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Authored by ESO senior advisor Claus Madsen, the present book comprises 576 action-packed pages of ESO history and dramatic stories about the people behind the organisation. This is the ultimate historical account about ESO and its telescopes in the southern hemisphere, but also about a truly remarkable European success story in research. Spanning the range from the first telescopes to the future platforms of the next generation, it shows how the improvement of the telescopes leads to a continuously changing view of the Universe. With 150 photos and illustrations. Produced especially for ESO's

  13. Draft Budget of the Organization for the Fifty-third Financial Year 2007

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting of 18 October 20061, the Finance Committee recommended the Council to approve the 2007 Budget2 at 2006 prices. The present version has been up-dated to take into account the transfers from the 2006 Budget as per â? ?2006 Budget, Transfers and Expenditure in Excess of Provisionsâ??3 and various adjustments. The Finance Committee is invited to recommend Council to approve the 2007 Budget as shown in the document reviewed by this Committee in October and the additional up-dating of the present document.

  14. Fifty Years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the Relationship between Schools and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Douglas B.; Condron, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to…

  15. Fifty years of CPGs: two neuroethological papers that shaped the course of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Mulloney

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Half a century ago, two independent papers that described unexpected results of experiments on locomotion in insects and crayfish appeared almost simultaneously. Together these papers demonstrated that an animal’s central nervous system (CNS was organized to produce behaviorally important motor output without the need for constant sensory feedback. These results contradicted the established line of thought that was based on interpretations of reflexes and ablation experiments, and established that in these animals the CNS contained neural circuits that could produce complex, periodic, multisegmental patterns of activity. These papers stimulated a flowering of research on central pattern-generating mechanisms that displaced reflex-based thinking everywhere except in medical physiology texts. Here we review these papers and their influence on thinking in the 1960s, 1970s, and today. We follow the development of ideas about central organization and control of expression of motor patterns, the roles of sensory input to central pattern-generating circuits, and integration of continuous sensory signals into a periodic motor system. We also review recent work on limb coordination that provides detailed cellular explanations of observations and speculations contained in those original papers.

  16. Fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy: from alloys and oxides to glasses and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C. E., E-mail: cjohnson@utsi.edu [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications (United States); Johnson, J. A. [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The Moessbauer Effect was discovered in 1957. In 1960 Moessbauer spectroscopy was born when two important papers appeared on (i) the magnetic hyperfine interaction and (ii) the electric monopole (isomer shift) and quadrupole interactions. These transformed an interesting phenomenon into a method for probing solids. Applications to magnetism, metals and alloys, chemical compounds, biological molecules, geology, archaeology and other sciences followed and are still of current interest. Two areas of research where Moessbauer spectroscopy is making unique contributions are in determining oxidation states in (i) glasses and (ii) nanoparticles. Some recent measurements are described.

  17. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, B. van

    2017-01-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant

  18. Fifty million years of herbivory on coral reefs: fossils, fish and functional innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, D. R.; Goatley, C. H. R.; Brandl, S. J.; Bellwood, O.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ecological processes on coral reefs was examined based on Eocene fossil fishes from Monte Bolca, Italy and extant species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using ecologically relevant morphological metrics, we investigated the evolution of herbivory in surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) and rabbitfishes (Siganidae). Eocene and Recent surgeonfishes showed remarkable similarities, with grazers, browsers and even specialized, long-snouted forms having Eocene analogues. These long-snouted Eocene species were probably pair-forming, crevice-feeding forms like their Recent counterparts. Although Eocene surgeonfishes likely played a critical role as herbivores during the origins of modern coral reefs, they lacked the novel morphologies seen in modern Acanthurus and Siganus (including eyes positioned high above their low-set mouths). Today, these forms dominate coral reefs in both abundance and species richness and are associated with feeding on shallow, exposed algal turfs. The radiation of these new forms, and their expansion into new habitats in the Oligocene–Miocene, reflects the second phase in the development of fish herbivory on coral reefs that is closely associated with the exploitation of highly productive short algal turfs. PMID:24573852

  19. Fifty Interesting Years: Higher Education Funding and Financial Management 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    During the half century of the AUA's existence UK universities have experienced the fastest rate of growth and most far-reaching changes in their history. Funding arrangements in particular have changed radically. Since 1961 the finance office has been transformed from a small group of bean counters into a key management group at the heart of all…

  20. [Fifty years of public service for Quebec community psychiatry services. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This essay comprises 2 parts. It aims to recognize the public service of psychiatrists of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal who served at the provincial level of the Ministry of Health and Social Services for deinstitutionalisation of policies and organisation of services, at the service of people with severe mental disorders. First with Dr. Camille Laurin post-face of the 1962 book Les fous crient au secours! (Mentally ill patients cry for help); then the insight on the latest phase of differentiated specialised clinics by Dr. Denis Lazure, who participated in 1962 to the Bédard, Lazure, Roberts commission that launched community psychiatry, but who will also be Social Affairs Minister in the late '70 s; Dr. Arthur Amyot will sail through the budgetary issues when in the beginning of the '80s the mental health directorate was under Social Affairs; Dr. Luc Blanchet will be associated to a rich production of interdisciplinary reports by the advisory Mental Health Committee until its dismissal in 2003; and finally, Dr. André Delorme, who probably has the record of longevity at the head of the mental health directorate, transferred in 2003 under the deputy minister for medical and university affairs.The essay will propose since the beginning a grid or referential of four health services analysis. First; the arguments for community care by British and Italian psychiatrists and researchers, Thornicroft and Tansella. Second; system issues of mental health reforms proposed by Canadian psychiatric nurse and researcher Paula Goering. Third; the model of socio-political regulation of health system proposed by the Université de Montréal' health administration researcher Dr. André-Pierre Contandriopoulos; and Fourth; the structural tension between the medical and social sector signaled by the American medical sociologist, Leutz.The same phases of deinstitutionalization in other countries as UK, took place as followed: a) the asylum phase (before 1960); b) the psychiatry community (1960-2000); and c) the differentiated system (since 2000). The essay will evidence the long march towards hospitals without walls, interdisciplinary work, tension between cure and rehabilitation and a relative decreasing budget. This in conjunction with vulnerability in organisation and leadership, attributed to tension or burn out has revealed system deficits like the trans-institution towards homelessness or towards the judiciary system. The essay will conclude with a discussion on the opportunities and challenges of the very new Law 10 that reforms the general governance of the provincial and regional health and social services and hopes for a more balanced mental health care system in Quebec.

  1. Viewpoint – Fifty Years of Hydroelectric Development in Chile: A History of Unlearned Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of hydroelectricity in Chile illustrates a situation where water resources can be both well and badly managed when a private or public utility company, in this case ENDESA, is powerful enough to operate largely outside standard policy and bureaucratic processes. It successfully increased hydroelectric capacity more than fourfold over three decades characterised by periods of significant political instability. This was done without noticeable conflict due to its recognised efficiency and absence of environmental concerns in Chilean policy until the late 1980s. Since that time there has been increasing pressure from international agencies and NGOs to place more emphasis on environmental dimensions in development. The interplay among the diversity of agendas and tactics adopted by the interest groups attempting to influence decision on hydroelectric projects has, in some cases, been counterproductive. ENDESA chose to withhold information and modify EIA procedures as tactics to reduce costs. The NGOs’ single-minded dedication to preclusion of dam proposals tended to distort public debate. The government, presumably due to risk aversion, proved unwilling to take a proactive stance by not specifying and implementing requirements for approval of a dam project, providing a comprehensive policy framework for debate or facilitating dialogue on the issues.

  2. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Abrams, S A; Davis-Street, J E; Heer, M; O'Brien, K O; Wastney, M E; Zwart, S R

    2014-01-01

    Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth.

  3. Reflections on Over Fifty Years in Research and Development; Some Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    man is an island, entire of itself…” John Donne, Meditation XVII A statement similar to Donne’s can be made about researchers and research...Feynman’s Lectures in Physics and the Berkeley Course in Physics. These were helpful, but I would have benefited more from classroom study. I

  4. [National Academy of Medicine, one hundred and fifty-four academic year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla-Olivares, Armando

    2017-01-01

    El incalculable valor que atesora la Academia Nacional de Medicina, su enorme influencia y repercusión sobre la toma de decisiones médico-científico-epidemiológicas, radica única y exclusivamente en el dominio del conocimiento, la mente científica y el talento de todos y cada uno de sus miembros, desde su fundación en 1864 hasta nuestros días.

  5. The Armed Forces Epidemiological Board: Its First Fifty Years, 1940-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Alexander D. Langmuir, James M. Ruegsegger, and Elias Strauss. Pending the construction ot a Commission laboratory at Fort Bragg, the group spent...Sanders \\1 , Gulli’.er, F D. Forchhiimer, !- 1. , Alexander . R C IEpilenliL KuratoLonjuncti’. iti, CliiaI aand I’.perimental Stud% of anl Outbreak in...fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus B. Proc. Soc Exper Biol. & ,... 19,15, 59, 192-195. Meiklejohn , G , Eaton, M. D, and ,an Herick, W

  6. Kuiper Prize Lecture: Stan Peale's Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    Stan Peale's career in planetary science spanned over five decades and yielded an impressive record of high-impact results. His contributions include the prediction of widespread volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io, the derivation of a general theoretical framework that governs the rotational states of bodies subject to tides, the study of the origin and evolution of natural satellites, advances in our understanding of exoplanet dynamics, and the promotion of microlensing searches for exoplanets. Stan also developed an ingenious procedure to determine the size and state of Mercury's core. Because of this work, we know more about the core of Mercury than that of any planet other than Earth. Stan left us an enduring legacy that exemplifies the power of physics to probe the interiors of planets.

  7. Joseph Boussinesq's legacy in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Joseph Boussinesq was the most prolific of all French contributors to nineteenth-century fluid mechanics. His scientific production included a novel theory of solitary waves, the KdV equation for finite deformations of the water surface in an open channel, a systematic study of open channel and pipe flow based on the concept of effective viscosity, pioneering derivations of boundary layers and entrance effects, new exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation under geometrically simple boundary conditions, and the 'Boussinesq approximation' for heat convection in a moving fluid under gravity. Although his extraordinary skills were quickly recognized and rewarded, other experts in the field were often unaware even of his most important results and they ended up rediscovering some of them. Boussinesq's unusual background and the resulting peculiarities of his style explain this problematic diffusion. They also account for the richness of his legacy.

  8. Legacy effects of aboveground-belowground interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Olga; van de Voorde, Tess F J; Mulder, Patrick P J; van der Putten, Wim H; Martijn Bezemer, T

    2012-08-01

    Root herbivory can greatly affect the performance of aboveground insects via changes in plant chemistry. These interactions have been studied extensively in experiments where aboveground and belowground insects were feeding on the same plant. However, little is known about how aboveground and belowground organisms interact when they feed on plant individuals that grow after each other in the same soil. We show that feeding by aboveground and belowground insect herbivores on ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) plants exert unique soil legacy effects, via herbivore-induced changes in the composition of soil fungi. These changes in the soil biota induced by aboveground and belowground herbivores of preceding plants greatly influenced the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content, biomass and aboveground multitrophic interactions of succeeding plants. We conclude that plant-mediated interactions between aboveground and belowground insects are also important when they do not feed simultaneously on the same plant.

  9. The Phenomenal Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Kushari Dyson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to a generation of Bengalis who received Tagore as an acknowledged classic of their tradition, I grew up reading his books, listening to his music, watching his dance-dramas, and writing poetry under the inspiration of his words. This youthful appreciation of Tagore eventually led to a deeper understanding of his stature as an artist and thinker, but it was only when I entered Tagore studies in a more formal manner that I realized how truly spectacular his achievements were from an international perspective. Tagore was fortunate in that his time, place, and circumstances allowed him to give a good run to the natural versatility and fecundity of his genius. He has thereby secured a rich and diverse legacy for us, which tends to mean different things to different groups of people.

  10. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  11. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  12. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives. PMID:22813079

  13. In memoriam: Richard G. Harrison - his life and legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel J; Grosberg, Richard K; Noor, Mohamed A F; Normark, Benjamin B; Rand, David M; Shaw, Kerry L; Willett, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Richard G. Harrison passed away unexpectedly on April 12th, 2016. In this memoriam we pay tribute to the life and legacy of an extraordinary scientist, mentor, friend, husband, and father. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. LAMBDA - Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and the Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA) have merged into a...

  15. Land Protection Plan: Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  16. The ABSA Cape Epic Mountain Bike Challenge: impacts and legacies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ABSA Cape Epic Mountain Bike Challenge: impacts and legacies. ... with emphasises on the economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts as well ... need to establish the economic and tourism impacts of the race on the local towns ...

  17. Legacy system retirement plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The implementation of the Business Management System (BMS) will replace a number of systems currently in use at Hanford. These systems will be retired when the replacement is complete and the data from the old systems adequately stored and/or converted to the new system. The replacement is due to a number of factors: (1) Year 2000 conversion: Most of the systems being retired are not year 2000 compliant. Estimates on making these systems compliant approach the costs of replacing with the enterprise system. (2) Many redundant custom-made systems: Maintenance costs on the aging custom developed systems is high. The systems also have overlapping functionality. Replacement with an enterprise system is expected to lower the maintenance costs. (3) Shift inefficient/complex work processes to commercial standards: Many business practices have been developed in isolation from competitive pressures and without a good business foundation. Replacement of the systems allows an opportunity to upgrade the business practices to conform to a market driven approach. (4) Questionable legacy data: Significant amount of data contained within the legacy systems is of questionable origin and value. Replacement of the systems allows for a new beginning with a clean slate and stronger data validation rules. A number of the systems being retired depend on hardware and software technologies that are no longer adequately supported in the market place. The IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, HNF-PRO-2778, and the Data Systems Review Board (DSRB) define a system retirement process which involves the removal of an existing system from active support or use either by: ceasing its operation or support; or replacing it with a new system; or replacing it with an upgraded version of the existing system. It is important to note, that activities associated with the recovery of the system, once archived, relates to the ability for authorized personnel to gain access to the data and

  18. The Legacy of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Melora; Pensinger, John; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Langford, Donald; Hahn, Inseob; Dick, G. John

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been building the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) as a multi-user research facility for the International Space Station. Because of the recent Presidential Exploration Initiative placed on NASA, NASA has informally told JPL to phase out the development of the LTMPF, assuming a suspension of funding at the end of fiscal year 2004. Over the last five years of development of the Facility, a tremendous legacy of both scientific and technical progress has been made, and a significant amount of flight hardware has been built. During these last few months of remaining funding, the LTMPF plans on finishing some remaining development efforts, archiving the hardware (flight and engineering models), software, and capturing the knowledge generated for possible future missions. These possible future missions could include gravitational or relativistic physics experiments (around the Earth or the Moon), charged particle physics experiments away from the Earth, possible other fundamental physics experiments in a Code U-developed free flyer orbiting the Earth, or even gravitational mapping experiments around the Moon or possibly Mars. LTMPF-developed technologies that are likely to have substantial impact on such future missions include SQUID magnetometers and thermometers, ultra-high-performance cryogenics, and high-Q superconducting resonators.

  19. Applying geochemical signatures of atmospheric dust to distinguish current mine emissions from legacy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Resolving the source of environmental contamination is the critical first step in remediation and exposure prevention. Australia's oldest silver-zinc-lead mine at Broken Hill (>130 years old) has generated a legacy of contamination and is associated with persistent elevated childhood blood lead (Pb) levels. However, the source of environmental Pb remains in dispute: current mine emissions; remobilized mine-legacy lead in soils and dusts; and natural lead from geological weathering of the gossan ore body. Multiple lines of evidence used to resolve this conundrum at Broken Hill include spatial and temporal variations in dust Pb concentrations and bioaccessibility, Pb isotopic compositions, particle morphology and mineralogy. Total dust Pb loading (mean 255 μg/m2/day) and its bioaccessibility (mean 75% of total Pb) is greatest adjacent to the active mining operations. Unweathered galena (PbS) found in contemporary dust deposits contrast markedly to Pb-bearing particles from mine-tailings and weathered gossan samples. Contemporary dust particles were more angular, had higher sulfur content and had little or no iron and manganese. Dust adjacent to the mine has Pb isotopic compositions (208Pb/207Pb: 2.3197; 206Pb/207Pb: 1.0406) that are a close match (99%) to the ore body with values slightly lower (94%) at the edge of the city. The weight of evidence supports the conclusion that contemporary dust Pb contamination in Broken Hill is sourced primarily from current mining activities and not from weathering or legacy sources.

  20. Stories on country life: female memories and cultural legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Gomes da Silva

    2009-01-01

    This article derives its context from studies on genre, historical memory and cultural legacy as well. It discusses some data related to the daily way of life including kitchen matters, all observed in the surrounding land road homes of Joinville. This town is located at the Northeast of Santa Catarina, a Southern State in Brazil. Due to the new approaches of the preservation of cultural legacies in relation to tourism and culture itself, there is the question about how the different country ...

  1. A mathematical medley fifty easy pieces on mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Szpiro's book provides a delightful, well-written, eclectic selection of mathematical tidbits that makes excellent airplane reading for anyone with an interest in mathematics, regardless of their mathematical background. Excellent gift material. -Keith Devlin, Stanford University, author of The Unfinished Game and The Language of Mathematics It is great to have collected in one volume the many varied, insightful and often surprising mathematical stories that George Szpiro has written in his mathematical columns for the newspapers through the years. -Marcus du Sautoy, Oxford University, author

  2. Fifty Shades of Green: Pathway to Healthy Urban Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Khreis, Haneen; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Dadvand, Payam

    2017-01-01

    Currently half the world population lives in cities, and this proportion is expected to increase rapidly to 70% over the next years. Over the years, we have created large, mostly grey cities with many high-rise buildings and little green space. Disease rates tend to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. More green space in cities could reduce these rates. Here, we describe the importance of green space for health, and make recommendations for further research. Green space has been associated with many beneficial health effects, including reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and improved mental health, possibly through mediators, such as reduced air pollution, temperature and stress, and increased physical activity, social contacts, and restoration. Additional studies are needed to strengthen the evidence base and provide further guidelines to transport planners, urban planners, and landscape architects. We need more longitudinal studies and intervention studies, further understanding of the contribution of various mechanisms toward health, and more information on susceptible populations and on where, when, how much, and what type of green space is needed. Also needed are standardized methods for green space quality assessments and evaluations of effectiveness of green prescriptions in clinical practice. Many questions are ideally suited for environmental epidemiologists, who should work with other stakeholders to address the right questions and translate knowledge into action. In conclusion, a growing evidence base supports the hypothesis that greener cities are healthier cities.

  3. Stories on country life: female memories and cultural legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Gomes da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article derives its context from studies on genre, historical memory and cultural legacy as well. It discusses some data related to the daily way of life including kitchen matters, all observed in the surrounding land road homes of Joinville. This town is located at the Northeast of Santa Catarina, a Southern State in Brazil. Due to the new approaches of the preservation of cultural legacies in relation to tourism and culture itself, there is the question about how the different country and townsmen still come to (re-construct their reference and meanings, dealing with their dwelling/town lives – the ideal spot for inscribing other story telling, talking of “places of memory” and of some ‘make-it-yourself’ means. Thus, we problemize the subject matters, starting from the Oral History methodology and taking special interest in women’s memory, also in Joinville’s aspects of cultural patrimony, in this way contributing to the local historiography which conduces to reflections on the regional legacy of material and nonmaterial culture. Key-words: Genre; Memory; Cultural legacy. Contextualized in the studies on gender, historical memory and cultural legacy, this article discusses some data related to the country people’s daily way of life, including cookery, observed in the rural area surrounding the city of Joinville, located in the Northeast of the Brazilian Southern State of Santa Catarina. Due to the new approaches on the preservation of cultural legacies connected to tourism and culture itself, there comes  the question about how the different country people still have been  (re-constructing  their reference and meanings, dealing with their town life – the ideal spot for inscribing, daily, other narratives on legacy, “places of memory” and “ways to do it”. Thus, we have tried to register aspects of the cultural legacy of the city of Joinville, using the Oral History methodology and taking special interest in

  4. The Colima Economy from fifties to the eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villa Aguijosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Colima, from 50s to 80s decades, was characterized for three stages which are differentiated for some certain features given by the roll that plays the economic sectors from the behaviour of some basic indicators of economic activities like port, agricultural, tourism, mining and industry, an for the economic strategy proposed during these years.In the 50s and 60s years, the economic of Colima took two fundamental characteristics which transcendent to the 70s decade: the supremacy in the participation in the agricultural sector in the gross state product, specialy given with impulse of the industrialization agricultural, and the mining activation, transforming in the base of economic development to Colima. The second stage, is in the 70s decade, and is characterized by the dynamic that industrial stage takes above other sectors with more slowly growing tax, besides it is characterized for one reduction of the growth tax of the gross estate product.The characteristics of economic development of Colima during these years are: standstill of the agricultural activity, trade and services, growth of industry, the urbanization and new economic profile, and makes the bases from the new economic profile of the 80s, in the context of the trade opening. The economy of Colima presented a regional polarization of the activities, a deficient communications and transports, a tourist potential misuse, an important growing of the industrial activities, and the necessity to expand the potential of the Manzanillo port and their big expectatives in the Mexican pacific, and an important growing of an industrial sector highly polarized. This panorama impacted in the profile of the development of Colima in the next decade.The third moment which crosses the economic of Colima, and is presented in the decade of the 80s, is characterized by the beginning of an economic model based in the planning which ;designs; an integrated Colima to the

  5. Fifty most-cited articles in anterior cruciate ligament research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Rotmil, Gayle; Freedman, Kevin B

    2015-04-01

    The number of times an article has been cited in the peer-reviewed literature is indicative of its impact on its respective medical specialty. No study has used citation analysis to determine the most influential studies pertaining to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The primary aims of this study were to identify the classic works in ACL research using citation analysis and to characterize these articles to determine which types of studies have had the most influence on the field. A systematic query of ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was performed for articles pertaining to the ACL, and the 50 most-cited articles were selected for evaluation. The following characteristics were determined for each article: number of citations, citation density, journal, publication year, country of origin, language, article type, article subtype, and level of evidence. The number of citations ranged from 219 to 1073 (mean, 326), and the citation densities ranged from 4.9 to 55.6 citations per year (mean, 18.2). All articles were published in 1 of 11 journals, with the most being published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (46%) and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American (30%). The most common decades of publication were the 1990s (34%), 1980s (28%), and 2000s (26%). The majority (68%) of articles originated from the United States, and all were written in English. By article type, 42% were basic science, and 58% were clinical. Of the clinical articles, 3% were Level I, 17% were Level II, 28% were Level III, and 52% were Level IV. The articles were heterogeneous with regard to article type, article subtype, and level of evidence and tended to have the following characteristics: high-impact journal of publication, recent publication year, US origin, English language, and low level of evidence. These works represent some of the most popular scientific contributions to ACL research. This list may aid residency and fellowship

  6. Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: a Mirror of American Fifties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandeharion A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With its portrayal of a talented yet frustrated young American woman in the 1950s, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963 depicts the experiences of a nineteen-year-old girl before her mental breakdown. Benefitting from a Friedanian second wave feminism, this paper aims to trace the root of disappointment and identity crisis in Plath's heroine, Esther Greenwood. It is understood that besides being a personal issue, her frustration is the outcome of sociocultural factors. The lack of role models and the contradictory messages sent by the media lead to her anxiety, disillusionment, and uncertainty. The Bell Jar proposes a solution: it is indeed possible for a woman to hold a fulfilling career and at the same time be a caring wife and a loving mother. And this is the answer Esther tries to figure out at a time when the boundaries between the domestic sphere and the outside world are clearly defined for women.

  7. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis: fifty shades of auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenus, Julien; Goh, Tatsuaki; Roberts, Ianto; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Lucas, Mikaël; De Smet, Ive; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom; Bennett, Malcolm; Laplaze, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The developmental plasticity of the root system represents a key adaptive trait enabling plants to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought and is therefore important in the current context of global changes. Root branching through lateral root formation is an important component of the adaptability of the root system to its environment. Our understanding of the mechanisms controlling lateral root development has progressed tremendously in recent years through research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These studies have revealed that the phytohormone auxin acts as a common integrator to many endogenous and environmental signals regulating lateral root formation. Here, we review what has been learnt about the myriad roles of auxin during lateral root formation in Arabidopsis.

  8. Rizal’s Legacy for the 21st Century: Progressive Education, Social Entrepreneurship and Community Development in Dapitan

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rizal’s four years in Dapitan have not been fully explored for the light they can shed on contemporary issues in community development and education. In particular, the significance of the school he founded in Talisay has not merited scholarly commentary. Those fruitful four years in Dapitan have become Rizal’s most unappreciated legacy, yet they are precisely what make Rizal singularly relevant to the 21st century. This essay explains why.

  9. Rizal’s Legacy for the 21st Century: Progressive Education, Social Entrepreneurship and Community Development in Dapitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floro Quibuyen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rizal’s four years in Dapitan have not been fully explored for the light they can shed on contemporary issues in community development and education. In particular, the significance of the school he founded in Talisay has not merited scholarly commentary. Those fruitful four years in Dapitan have become Rizal’s most unappreciated legacy, yet they are precisely what make Rizal singularly relevant to the 21st century. This essay explains why.

  10. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Extragalactic HI Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haynes, Martha P

    2008-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a program aimed at obtaining a census of HI-bearing objects over a cosmologically significant volume of the local universe. When complete in ~3-4 years, it will cover 7000 square degrees of high latitude sky using the 305m telescope and the seven-beam Arecibo L-band feed array (ALFA). As of May 1, 2008, almost 60% of the required observations are complete and a catalog exists in preliminary form for 25% of the final sky area. ALFALFA is detecting about twice as many HI sources as predicted based on previously published HI mass functions and should deliver a final catalog of >25000 extragalactic HI sources. ALFALFA will detect hundreds of galaxies with HI masses less than 10**7.5 solar masses and similarly large numbers greater than 10**10.3 Msun. Its centroiding accuracy allows for the immediate identification of highly probably optical counterparts to each HI detection. Fewer than 3% of all extragalactic HI sources, and 10**9.5 Msun cannot be identified with ...

  11. Rethinking Woodger's Legacy in the Philosophy of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel J; Gawne, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The writings of Joseph Henry Woodger (1894-1981) are often taken to exemplify everything that was wrongheaded, misguided, and just plain wrong with early twentieth-century philosophy of biology. Over the years, commentators have said of Woodger: (a) that he was a fervent logical empiricist who tried to impose the explanatory gold standards of physics onto biology, (b) that his philosophical work was completely disconnected from biological science, (c) that he possessed no scientific or philosophical credentials, and (d) that his work was disparaged - if not altogether ignored - by the biologists and philosophers of his era. In this paper, we provide the first systematic examination of Woodger's oeuvre, and use it to demonstrate that the four preceding claims are false. We argue that Woodger's ideas have exerted an important influence on biology and philosophy, and submit that the current consensus on his legacy stems from a highly selective reading of his works. By rehabilitating Woodger, we hope to show that there is no good reason to continue to disregard the numerous contributions to the philosophy of biology produced in the decades prior to the professionalization of the discipline.

  12. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  13. Gravitational lensing in the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kronborg, T; Guy, J; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Jönsson, J; Pain, R; Pedersen, K; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Sullivan, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2010-01-01

    The observed brightness of Type Ia supernovae is affected by gravitational lensing caused by the mass distribution along the line of sight, which introduces an additional dispersion into the Hubble diagram. We look for evidence of lensing in the SuperNova Legacy Survey 3-year data set. We investigate the correlation between the residuals from the Hubble diagram and the gravitational magnification based on a modeling of the mass distribution of foreground galaxies. A deep photometric catalog, photometric redshifts, and well established mass luminosity relations are used. We find evidence of a lensing signal with a 2.3 sigma significance. The current result is limited by the number of SNe, their redshift distribution, and the other sources of scatter in the Hubble diagram. Separating the galaxy population into a red and a blue sample has a positive impact on the significance of the signal detection. On the other hand, increasing the depth of the galaxy catalog, the precision of photometric redshifts or reducing...

  14. The Core-collapse rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bazin, G; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Aubourg, E; Guillou, L Le; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Sullivan, M; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Baumont, S; Fabbro, S; Du, J Le; Lidman, C; Mouchet, M; Mourão, A; Walker, E S

    2009-01-01

    We use three years of data from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) to study the general properties of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae. This is the first such study using the "rolling search" technique which guarantees well-sampled SNLS light curves and good efficiency for supernovae brighter than $i^\\prime\\sim24$. Using host photometric redshifts, we measure the supernova absolute magnitude distribution down to luminosities $4.5 {\\rm mag}$ fainter than normal SNIa. Using spectroscopy and light-curve fitting to discriminate against SNIa, we find a sample of 117 core-collapse supernova candidates with redshifts $z<0.4$ (median redshift of 0.29) and measure their rate to be larger than the type Ia supernova rate by a factor $4.5\\pm0.8(stat.) \\pm0.6 (sys.)$. This corresponds to a core-collapse rate at $z=0.3$ of $[1.42\\pm 0.3(stat.) \\pm0.3(sys.)]\\times10^{-4}\\yr^{-1}(h_{70}^{-1}\\Mpc)^{-3}$.

  15. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  16. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian

    2014-01-01

    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  17. Symbolic legacies of slavery in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin O. Thompson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusses on the commemoration and symbolic functions of the slavery past in the Americas, with a particular focus on Guyana. Author explains that while symbolic representations of the legacies of slavery increased in the Americas since the 1960s, the nationalist government under Forbes Burnham since 1970 went further in using the slavery past as its ideological foundation. He discusses how this relates to Guyana's history and ethnic development of 2 main, often opposed groups of African- and Indian-descended groups, calling on their respective slavery or indenture past in emphasizing their national significance. He further describes slavery-related symbolic representations promoted under Burnham, specifically the 1763 slave revolt led by Cuffy, presented as first anticolonial rebellion aimed at liberation, and as a precursor to the PNC government, and other slave rebellions and rebels, such as led by Damon in 1834. He points out how some Indian-Guyanese found that Indian heroes were sidelined in relation to these. Author then describes how the annual commemoration of Emancipation Day continues to refer to the martyrdom of these slave rebels, along with other discursive connections, such as regarding reparations. He also pays attention to the activities of nongovernmental organizations in Guyana up to the present in commemorating the slavery past, often with broader African diaspora connections.

  18. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  19. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  20. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  1. John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-04-13

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11-12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow's example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world.

  2. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  3. The intangible legacy of the Indonesian Bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nuraini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sama-Bajau, or Bajo diaspora, extends from the southern Philippines and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo to the eastern part of Indonesia. The Indonesian Bajo, now scattered along the coasts of Sulawesi (Celebes and East Kalimantan, the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and Maluku, were once mostly nomadic fishermen of the sea or ocean freight carriers. Today, the Bajo are almost all fishermen and settled. Their former and present ways of life made them favour intangible forms of culture: it is impossible to transport bulky artefacts when moving frequently by boat, or when living in stilt houses, very close to the sea or on a reef. It is therefore an intangible legacy that is the essence of the Bajo’s culture. Sandro healers have a vast range of expertise that allows them to protect and heal people when they suffer from natural or supernatural diseases. On the other hand, music and especially oral literature are very rich. In addition to song and the pantun poetry contests, the most prestigious genre is the iko-iko, long epic songs that the Bajo consider to be historical rather than fictional narratives. The Bajo’s intangible heritage is fragile, since it is based on oral transmission. In this article, I give a description of this heritage, dividing it into two areas: the knowledge that allows them to “protect and heal” on the one hand, and to “distract and relax”, on the other.

  4. Competitiveness across the life span: the feisty fifties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Ulrich; Wozniak, Dave; Davidson, Casey; Kuhns, David; Harbaugh, William T

    2012-06-01

    Existing theories on life span changes in confidence or motivation suggest that individuals' preferences to enter competitive situations should gradually decline with age. We examined competitive preferences in a field experiment using real financial stakes in 25- to 75-year-olds (N = 543). The critical dependent variable was whether participants chose to perform a simple mental arithmetic task either under a piece-rate payment schedule (i.e., $.25 per solved item) or a competitive payment schedule ($.50 per solved item if the overall score is better than that of a randomly selected opponent, $0 otherwise). Results revealed that competitive preferences increased across the life span until they peaked around age 50, and dropped thereafter. We also found that throughout, men had a substantially larger preference for competing than women-extending previous findings on college-aged participants. The age/gender differences in preferences were neither accounted for by actual differences in performance nor individuals' subjective confidence. This first systematic attempt to characterize age differences in competitive behavior suggests that a simple decline conception of competitiveness needs to be reconsidered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  5. "Double crap!" abuse and harmed identity in Fifty Shades of Grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Altenburger, Lauren E; Walton, Nicole L

    2013-09-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 25% of women and impairs health, current societal conditions-including the normalization of abuse in popular culture such as novels, film, and music-create the context to support such violence. Fifty Shades of Grey, a best-selling novel, depicts a "romantic" and "erotic" relationship involving 28-year-old megamillionaire, Christian Grey, and a 22-year-old college student, Anastasia Steele. We argue that the relationship is characterized by IPV, which is harmful to Anastasia. All authors engaged in iterative readings of the text, and wrote narrative summaries to elucidate themes. Validity checks included double review of the first eight chapters of the novel to establish consistency in our analysis approach, iterative discussions in-person and electronically to arbitrate discrepancies, and review of our analysis with other abuse and sexual practice experts. To characterize IPV, we used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions of emotional abuse (intimidation/threats; isolation; stalking; and humiliation) and sexual violence (forced sex acts/contact against a person's will, including using alcohol/drugs or intimidation/pressure). To characterize harm, we used Smith's conceptualizations of perceived threat, managing, altered identity, yearning, entrapment, and disempowerment experienced by abused women. Emotional abuse is present in nearly every interaction, including: stalking (Christian deliberately follows Anastasia and appears in unusual places, uses a phone and computer to track Anastasia's whereabouts, and delivers expensive gifts); intimidation (Christian uses intimidating verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as routinely commanding Anastasia to eat and threatening to punish her); and isolation (Christian limits Anastasia's social contact). Sexual violence is pervasive-including using alcohol to compromise Anastasia's consent, as well as intimidation (Christian initiates sexual encounters

  6. Sediment contributions from floodplains and legacy sediments to Piedmont streams of Baltimore County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    Disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has remained an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a common focus. In the Piedmont Province of the eastern USA, upland deforestation and agricultural land use following European settlement led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment in valley bottoms, commonly referred to as legacy deposits. Previous authors have argued that legacy deposits represent a potentially important source of modern sediment loads following remobilization by lateral migration and progressive channel widening. This paper seeks to quantify (1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, (2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and (3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We calculated measurable gross erosion and deposition rates within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 in Baltimore County, Maryland. We compared stream channel and floodplain morphology from lidar-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959-1961 in order to quantify 44-46 years of channel change. Sediment bulk density and particle size distributions were characterized from streambank and channel deposit samples and used for volume to mass conversions and for comparison with other sediment sources. Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 m/y, which represented an annual migration of 2.5% (0.9-4.4%) channel width across all study segments, suggesting that channel dimensions may be used as reasonable predictors of bank erosion rates. Gross bank erosion rates varied from 43 to 310 Mg/km/y (median = 114) and were

  7. Remobilization Rates and Cumulative Contributions of Floodplains and Legacy Sediments from Piedmont Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.; Donovan, M.; Baker, M. E.; Gellis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has been an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a frequent focus. In the Piedmont province of the eastern US, post-settlement upland deforestation and agricultural land use led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment ("legacy deposits") in valley bottoms. Previous authors have argued that legacy sediment is a potentially important source of sediment being remobilized by lateral migration of channels. We seek to address 1) How rapidly sediment is remobilized from floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, 2) the proportion of streambank sediment derived from legacy sediment, and 3) the potential contributions of net stream bank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yields within the Piedmont of Baltimore County, Maryland. We measured gross erosion and deposition rates over 45 years within the fluvial corridor along 30 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 by comparing channel and floodplain morphology from LiDAR-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400-scale topographic maps from 1959-1961. Measured deposition within channel and point bars accounted for an average of 46% (28-75%) of gross erosion, with deposition increasingly important in larger drainages. Legacy sediments accounted for 6-90% of bank erosion at individual study segments, represented about 60% of bank height at most exposures, and accounted for 57% of the measured gross erosion. Extrapolating the results indicated that first- and second-order streams account for 62% of total stream bank erosion from northern Baltimore County. After accounting for estimated redeposition, extrapolated net stream bank sediment yields (72 Mg/km2/yr) are equivalent to 70% of average Piedmont watershed yield (104 Mg/km2/yr) cited in studies by previous

  8. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  9. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  10. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine...

  11. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  12. HST LEGUS - Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, Daniela; LEGUS Team

    2017-01-01

    LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey) is a cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to provide a definite characterization of the links between star formation on two fundamental scales: those of individual stars, stellar clusters and associations on parsec scales, and of galaxy disks on kilo-parsec scales.In order to achieve this goal, LEGUS has obtained multi-color images of 50 nearby star-forming galaxies, in the distance range 3-16 Mpc. Wavelength coverage spans five bands (NUV, U, B, V, and I) by combining new WFC3 observations with archival ACS imaging data, when available. The galaxies were carefully selected to sample the full range of galaxy mass, morphology, star formation rate (SFR), sSFR (specific SFR=SFR/mass), metallicity, internal structure (rings, bars), and interaction state found in the Local Volume where HST can resolve and age-date young stellar populations on parsec scales. Many of the galaxies are well-known, iconic ones, with a wealth of additional information available in a number of archives. The multi-color HST images are being used to secure complete inventories of the young stars, star clusters, and structures of the galaxies, together with the characterization of their ages, masses, and extinctions.I will briefly introduce a few highlights on the scientific results obtained so far by the LEGUS team, in addition to describing the high-level science products the team plans to release to the community, in order to enable a wide range of additional scientific applications.

  13. Shedding light on the sea: André Morel's legacy to optical oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  14. Stable Isotopes of Ice: the Legacy of Willi Dansgaard

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. W. C.; Johnson, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotope ratios of ice, D/H and 18O/16O are one of the key climate indicators measured in ice cores. These isotope ratios vary with temperature, a relationship based on physical principles backed up by many observations. The combination of these isotope ratios, expressed as the difference between the delta values with δ18O scaled by a factor of eight, is called the deuterium excess (d=δD-8*δ18O). This parameter varies primarily as a function of the conditions of evaporation of the parent moisture for snow, yielding a signal of ocean conditions measured in the ice. In his classic 1964 paper in Tellus, Willi Dansgaard laid out the theoretical and observational basis for using stable isotope ratios in ice cores as paleo-environmental tools. This paper, cited over 2,200 times, and written nearly 50 years ago, is one of the key foundational papers in paleoclimatology, and remains a must read for any student of stable isotope geochemistry. In this talk we will explore Dansgaard's legacy of ice core climatology, with a focus on his pioneering work in using the full temporal resolution of ice cores in Greenland to explore climate change on time scales of years to decades. While Dansgaard began his career applying a clever technique to a novel medium with the goal of simply trying to understand how our planet functions, he early on understood the power of ice cores to inform us about human impacts on the climate system, as well as the power of ice cores to tell us about natural climate variability on time scales of human interest and impact. Dansgaard's body of work is one of the solid pillars on which modern paleoclimatology stands, and continues to inform us today about modern anthropogenic climate change.

  15. A Component Mining Approach to Incubate Grid Services in Object-Oriented Legacy Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Zhi Li; Zhuo-Peng Zhang; Bing Qiao; Hong-Ji Yang

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for Grid service component mining in object-oriented legacy systems, applying software clustering, architecture recovery, program slicing and wrapping techniques to decompose a legacy system, analyse the concerned components and integrate them into a Grid environment. The resulting components with core legacy code function in a Grid service framework.

  16. Local meanings of a sport mega-event's legacies : Stories from a South African urban neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, Maikel; van den Bergh, Marjolein; van Eekeren, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Studies on sport mega-events and their legacies often seem only loosely connected to local experiences. Stories on sport mega-event legacy appear as a setting-the-scene or function as a reference to illustrate specific types of legacy. However, stories themselves are never the primary focus in these

  17. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A legacy effect refers to the impact that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Ecological legacies in drylands result from feedbacks among biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude o...

  18. Fertilizer legacies meet saltwater incursion: challenges and constraints for coastal plain wetland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ardón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland restoration is an important tool for climate change adaptation and excess nutrient runoff mitigation. However, the capacity of restored coastal wetlands to provide multiple ecosystem services is limited by stressors, such as excess nutrients from upstream agricultural fields, high nutrient legacies on-site, and rising salinities downstream. The effects of these stressors are exacerbated by an accelerating hydrologic cycle, expected to cause longer droughts punctuated by more severe storms. We used seven years of surface water and six years of soil solution water chemistry from a large (440 ha restored wetland to examine how fertilizer legacy, changes in hydrology, and drought-induced salinization affect dissolved nutrient and carbon concentrations. To better understand the recovery trajectory of the restored wetland, we also sampled an active agricultural field and two mature forested wetlands. Our results show that nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations in soil solution were 2–10 times higher in the restored wetland compared to two mature forested wetlands, presumably due to legacy fertilizer mobilized by reflooding. Despite elevated nutrient concentrations relative to reference wetlands, the restored wetland consistently attenuated N and P pulses delivered from an upstream farm. Even with continued loading, N and P concentrations in surface water throughout the restored wetland have decreased since the initial flooding. Our results suggest that high nutrient concentrations and export from wetlands restored on agricultural lands may be a severe but temporary problem. If field to wetland conversion is to become a more widespread method for ameliorating nutrient runoff and adapting coastal plain ecosystems to climate change, we should adopt new methods for minimizing the initial export phase of wetland restoration efforts.

  19. Olympic Legacy: Material and Non-Material Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry K. Malashenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the material and non-material aspects of making use of Olympic legacy. The author looks into existing approaches to assessing economic, ecological, and social effects of staging the Olympic Games and dwells upon one of the aspects of the legacy of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games-2014 – developing and testing federal standards for sports preparation across Olympic sports, which provide for the creation of a basis for forming the medical-biological components of sports preparation.

  20. New Media, Legacy Media and Misperceptions Regarding Sourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Diel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resource dependence theory and related theories of management suggest online-only news media may displace legacy news media, but until that happens the two systems are likely to be dependent on the same resource: news. This quantitative content analysis finds that the systems exist as parallel but distinctly separate entities. Websites associated with legacy news media such as newspapers publish mostly hard news or news analysis in the form of original work. New, online-only news media publish mostly unoriginal features, but the origins of much of the content published by onlineonly media are unclear.

  1. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  2. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W. M.; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the “Olympic legacy” following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields. PMID:28032040

  3. Gene Transcription, Metabolite and Lipid Profiling in Eco-Indicator Daphnia magna Indicate Diverse Mechanisms of Toxicity by Legacy and Emerging Flame-Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity o...

  4. Gene Transcription, Metabolite and Lipid Profiling in Eco-Indicator Daphnia magna Indicate Diverse Mechanisms of Toxicity by Legacy and Emerging Flame-Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity o...

  5. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  6. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  7. Celebrate the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenby, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    In celebration of the life and legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Virginia Tech will host a variety of educational and cultural programs and community service events Jan. 14-19, 2007. All events are free and open to the public.

  8. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  9. Susan Isaacs (1885-1948): Her Life, Work and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Susan Isaacs made a significant impression on the world of early childhood education during the first half of the twentieth century. She ranks alongside Froebel and Dewey, as one of the pioneers of child-centred education. As Jody Hall has written, "the life, work and legacy of Isaacs serve as a witness to the value of the curiosity of children."…

  10. Modernization Solution for Legacy Banking System Using an Open Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks are still using legacy systems as the core of their business is comprised within such sys-tems. Since the technology and client demands are changing rapidly, the banks have to adapt their systems in order to be competitive. The issue is to identify correctly what are the bank users preferences in terms of software reliability and how modern is the system For instance, there are users who enjoy working using the old screen format, and there are users who enjoy working with newer layouts, Web interfaces, and so on. We need also to know the constraints generated by the usage of legacy systems, and how these systems can be improved or replaced. The scope of the article is to present a solution of modernizing a legacy banking system by using a SOA approach. The research is based on the modernization of a legacy system developed in COBOL/400 under IBM iSeries. The modernization process uses a SOA ap-proach using JAVA technologies.

  11. Run 1 legacy performance: Jet/ETMiss/Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Sumida, Toshi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The run 1 legacy performance of jet, missing transverse energy and tau reconstruction in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The differences of performances between the two experiments will be enlightened. (Talk to be given at Physics at the LHC and Beyond, Quy-Nhon, Vietnam, August 10-17, 2014)

  12. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...

  13. Celebrate the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenby, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    In celebration of the life and legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Virginia Tech will host a variety of educational and cultural programs and community service events Jan. 14-19, 2007. All events are free and open to the public.

  14. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  15. Explorations in Ethnobiology: The Legacy of Amadeo Rea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Pierotti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Review of Explorations in Ethnobiology: The Legacy of Amadeo Rea. Marsha Quinlan and Dana Lepofsky, eds. 2013. Society of Ethnobiology, Denton, TX. Pp. 310, color illustrations, maps, tables. $56.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐0988733008.

  16. Evaluation of Mapping Methodologies at a Legacy Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Roback, R. C.; Kelley, R. E.; Drellack, S.; Reed, D.; Miller, E.; Cooper, D. I.; Sandoval, M.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    On June 12th, 1985, a nuclear test with an announced yield between 20-150kt was detonated in rhyolitic lava in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface. This test did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather resulted in a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation, providing an opportunity to evaluate the site using a number of surface mapping methodologies. The site was investigated over a two-year time span by several mapping teams. In order to determine the most time efficient and accurate approach for mapping post-shot surface features at a legacy test site, a number of different techniques were employed. The site was initially divided into four quarters, with teams applying various methodologies, techniques, and instrumentations to each quarter. Early methods included transect lines and site gridding with a Brunton pocket transit, flagging tape, measuring tape, and stakes; surveying using a hand-held personal GPS to locate observed features with an accuracy of × 5-10m; and extensive photo-documentation. More recent methods have incorporated the use of near survey grade GPS devices to allow careful location and mapping of surface features. Initially, gridding was employed along with the high resolution GPS surveys, but this was found to be time consuming and of little observational value. Raw visual observation (VOB) data included GPS coordinates for artifacts or features of interest, field notes, and photographs. A categorization system was used to organize the myriad of items, in order to aid in database searches and for visual presentation of findings. The collected data set was imported into a geographic information system (GIS) as points, lines, or polygons and overlain onto a digital color orthophoto map of the test site. Once these data were mapped, spectral data were collected using a high resolution field spectrometer. In addition to geo-locating the field observations with 10cm

  17. Airlines Performance and Eflciency Evaluation using a MCDA Methodology. The Case for Low Cost Carriers vs Legacy Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Miguel; Baltazar, Maria E.; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The air transport has suffered a remarkable transformation over the past decade. Thewaywe travel today is quite different from how we did ten years ago. Due to the rise of low cost carriers, the market of air transportation has been constantly changing and presently witnessing the transformation of legacy carriers in order to manage to continue operating. The main purpose of thiswork is to show the differences in efficiency for different performance areas on a case study comprised of six different airline carriers, legacy and low cost, using a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDA) tool - Measuring Attractiveness by a Category Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH). With the results obtained in this study, it is expected to show the work that is being carried out to obtain a model that would measure the efficiency of one or various airline companies in a defined period of time, using a set of performance indicators, to which specialists in the area previously have given weights.

  18. Barrow Arctic Terrestrial Observatory (BATO): An IPY Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Hollister, R. D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Nelson, F. E.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Sturm, M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Webber, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Barrow, Alaska, has played an important role in the commemoration of the 125th anniversary of the first International Polar Year. Implementation of IPY projects during the Fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009) included a number of IPY approved projects: Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP), SnowNet, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM), the Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network (ACCO-Net), Back to the Future (1969-1974 IBP Tundra Biome sites) and the Ray-Murdoch Expedition (first Polar Year). Building on results of these and related activities and historical data, the National Science Foundation under its Arctic Observing Network (AON) program, recently funded several long-term projects (estimated duration through 2014): TSP (permafrost temperatures dating back to the 1940s) CALM (seasonal thaw depths dating back to 1962) ITEX (plant phenology starting in 1994) Ultraviolet measurements (since 1990) Other continuing observational projects include snow measurements (SnowNet), coastal erosion, lake dynamics, and bird and small mammal census (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Owl Research Institute). NOAA and DOE support permanent atmospheric observatories. Site and data information are contained on the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID on Google Earth). Collectively we suggest that these and other continuing field observations be designated as the Barrow Arctic Terrestrial Observatory (BATO). Trends in the historical and current data from these AON and several related projects are reported. AON specific data are available through the Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) data portal. The proposed BATO, an IPY legacy, is hosted on and adjacent to the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), a 7466-acre protected research area on land provided by the local owners (Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation) and designated as a Scientific Research District by the regional government (North

  19. Assessing the contribution of legacy sediment and mill dam storage to sediment budgets in the Piedmont of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, M.; Miller, A. J.; Baker, M. E.; Gellis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Storage and remobilization of legacy sediment and its net contribution to overall watershed sediment budgets has been an active topic of research in fluvial geomorphology for at least a century. The influence of historic mill dams on storage of legacy sediment and on floodplain morphology in the Piedmont province of the mid-Atlantic region has become a prominent focus of discussion in recent years. The goals of this project are to quantify rates of remobilization of legacy sediment by bank erosion as a contribution to watershed sediment yield in the Piedmont of Baltimore County, Maryland, and to compare contributions from mill-dam deposits with contributions from floodplain sediments not directly attributable to mill dams. The watershed sample will be used to project net remobilization rates for the entire drainage network in select watersheds, and to estimate the component attributable to legacy sediments upstream of mill dams. These results will be compared with regional sediment yields documented in the literature. Through comparison of a 1-m resolution LiDAR DEM from 2005 and 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959-1961, we quantify nearly 50 years of channel change along 27 valley reaches from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 1.8 and 162.9 km2. Sites chosen represent a stratified sample of stream orders and drainage areas including sites in broad alluvial valleys and upstream headwater tributaries at the limit of where floodplains are observed. Particle size and bulk density for floodplain and channel-bar sediments were determined from 182 samples cores, and were classified as Legacy material, Pre-European Settlement, or Channel material. Density and particle size were combined with the volume of gross and net erosion for each valley reach in order to calculate the net mass of sediment remobilized per year for each site. Preliminary results indicate average lateral migration rates of 0.06 - 0.29 m/year, with net erosion ranging between 24 and 171 Mg

  20. Fiction or not? Fifty Shades is associated with health risks in adolescent and young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Nemeth, Julianna M; Altenburger, Lauren E; Anderson, Melissa L; Snyder, Anastasia; Dotto, Irma

    2014-09-01

    No prior study has empirically characterized the association between health risks and reading popular fiction depicting violence against women. Fifty Shades--a blockbuster fiction series--depicts pervasive violence against women, perpetuating a broader social narrative that normalizes these types of risks and behaviors in women's lives. The present study characterized the association between health risks in women who read and did not read Fifty Shades; while our cross-sectional study design precluded causal determinations, an empirical representation of the health risks in women consuming the problematic messages in Fifty Shades is made. Females ages 18 to 24 (n=715), who were enrolled in a large Midwestern university, completed a cross-sectional online survey about their health behaviors and Fifty Shades' readership. The analysis included 655 females (219 who read at least the first Fifty Shades novel and 436 who did not read any part of Fifty Shades). Age- and race-adjusted multivariable models characterized Fifty Shades' readers and nonreaders on intimate partner violence victimization (experiencing physical, sexual and psychological abuse, including cyber-abuse, at some point during their lifetime); binge drinking (consuming five or more alcoholic beverages on six or more days in the last month); sexual practices (having five or more intercourse partners and/or one or more anal sex partner during their lifetime); and using diet aids or fasting for 24 or more hours at some point during their lifetime. One-third of subjects read Fifty Shades (18.6%, or 122/655, read all three novels, and 14.8%, or 97/655, read at least the first novel but not all three). In age- and race-adjusted models, compared with nonreaders, females who read at least the first novel (but not all three) were more likely than nonreaders to have had, during their lifetime, a partner who shouted, yelled, or swore at them (relative risk [RR]=1.25) and who delivered unwanted calls/text messages