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Sample records for fifteen european breeds

  1. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, N T.D. [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Melchinger, E; Kuss, A W; Peischl, T; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Cuong, N V [Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2005-07-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  2. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N.T.D.; Melchinger, E.; Kuss, A.W.; Peischl, T.; Bartenschlager, H.; Geldermann, H.; Cuong, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  3. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 North European cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic......, allelic diversity has been reduced in several breeds, which was explained by limited effective population sizes over the course of man-directed breed development and demographic bottlenecks of indigenous breeds. A tree showing genetic relationships between breeds was constructed from a matrix of random...... drift-based genetic distance estimates. The breeds were classified on the basis of the tree topology into four major breed groups, defined as Northern indigenous breeds, Southern breeds, Ayrshire and Friesian breeds, and Jersey. Grouping of Nordic breeds was supported by documented breed history...

  5. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

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    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  6. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  7. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M

    2017-05-01

    Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed

  8. Research fields, challenges and opportunities in European oilseed crops breeding

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    Vincourt Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.

  9. One the way to European Union: changes in the Czech education system during the last fifteen years

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    Milada Rubusicová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to describe the changes in the educationalsystem in the Czech Republic that have taken place from the beginning of the 1990’s up to the present. The first part includes a brief characterisation of the initial situation typical of the socialist model of education and a specification ofthose areas that were viewed sceptically or critically after the „velvet revolution»in 1989, and that have been identified as areas where a change is desirable. Next part of the paper describes the course of changes and reforms of education in subsequent years. Periodisation of reforms is carried out on the basisof a general model that has been created, as one of possible approaches, for postsocialist countries in transformation. Each part of the model, i.e. the correctivereforms, modernization reforms, structural reforms and system reforms, containsan outline of the respective individual changes that took place in the Czech Republic in the course of the last, almost fifteen years, and the changes arecritically evaluated.There are some documents (e.g. the Czech «White Paper» that are of essential importance to the recent and current situation in the Czech educational systembecause they create basic visions and orientation but also a strategy of future changes. The documents are treated in the next section of the present text. It isfollowed by a brief analysis of the current situation of the Czech educational system, namely as regards the educational opportunities and participation in education, structure and network of schools, financing of the Czech educational system, and finally the school leavers’ prospects at the labour market.The last part of the paper deals with the outlooks of further development of the Czech educational system in connection with the entry into the European Union,and a conclusion is drawn that it involves mutual convergence of problems caused by global economic and social forces that also leads to

  10. SUPPORTS FOR LOCAL BREEDS IN THE EUROPEAN REGION – AN OVERVIEW

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    Danijela Bojkovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the incentives for conservation of local breeds in 35 European countries, with the particular reference to the situation in Slovenia. In order to collect all necessary data in different countries, detailed questionnaire was developed and sent out to National coordinators for Animal Genetic Resources in the European Region. Data were edited and analysed using MS Excel program where basic descriptive statistics was performed to show differences among countries in incentive payments. Incentives for local breeds in Slovenia were paid from the Agri-environmental payments. The amount of payment for one livestock unit was 89.38 € per year. Subsidies for adult cattle and horses of local breeds were therefore 89.38 € per animal, while for pigs there were 44.69 € per animal and for sheep and goats 13.41 € per animal. Comparing data from different countries, the highest subsides were received for cattle ranging from 45 € to 520 € for bulls. From all 35 countries, 16 countries have subsidies for horses. Despite two breeds of sheep and one breed of goat in Slovenia highly endangered, the level of subsides for sheep and goats for local breeds included in the environmental payments were equal i.e., 13.41 € per animal. Compared to 21 countries reported the financial support for sheep, only two countries had lower support than in Slovenia. The EC Regulations can explain differences in payments where the Member States are free when determining the payments level. Another reason could be since out of 35 countries, eleven are not EU members. National coordinators from all countries agreed that financial support per head is very important tool for breed conservation and such a practice should be continued. However, the current level of support does not compensate loss of income due to lower productivity.

  11. Responsible decision-making for plant research and breeding innovations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Ulf Dennis; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2017-01-01

    Plant research and breeding has made substantial technical progress over the past few decades, indicating a potential for tremendous societal impact. Due to this potential, the development of policies and legislation on plant breeding and the technical progress should preferably involve all...... relevant stakeholders. However, we argue here that there is a substantial imbalance in the European Union (EU) regarding the influence of the various stakeholder groups on policy makers. We use evidence from three examples in order to show that the role of science is overlooked: 1) important delays...... in the decision process concerning the authorization of genetically modified (GM) maize events, 2) the significance attributed to non-scientific reasons in new legislation concerning the prohibition of GM events in EU member states, and 3) failure of the European Commission to deliver legal guidance to new plant...

  12. European TBM for ITER: Structural material assessment and breeding capability - Comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreras, Y.; Perlado, J.M.; Ibarra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The ITER European Party is currently developing for DEMO reactor specifications two breeding blanket concepts: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead blanket (HCLL), using a liquid breeder; and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed blanket (HCPB), using a lithiated solid breeder. These two research lines are expected to be tested in ITER as Test Blanket Modules (TBM), in order to demonstrate their safety, economical and environmental suitability. In this sense, structural material activation and breeding blanket capability represent two major challenges. This paper presents new calculations regarding neutronic irradiation inside the ITER Vacuum Vessel. In particular, results are focused on the irradiation affecting the equatorial ports, where the TBM will be located for testing. The methodology employed mainly consists in calculating the neutronic irradiation levels at the required locations with the transport code MCNP, where the input geometry has been previously designed with the program CATIA V5. The main structural materials proposed for the European Test blanket Modules are selected in order to carry out a comparative analysis in safety terms: material activation and basic parameters for damage analysis are evaluated with the code ACAB, based on the neutronic irradiation results mentioned above. Finally, the breeding blanket capability is assessed for both breeding blanket concepts; the results are compared considering the choice of the structural material. (authors)

  13. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    –50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30...

  14. Breeding biology of the European Blackbird Turdus merula in orange orchards

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    Ali Zeraoula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During two successive years (2013–2014, we studied the breeding ecology of the European Blackbird Turdus merula in Guelma province, north-east of Algeria. The study was carried out in orange orchards of the region. We investigated nest placement in the orange trees and determined the factors of reproductive failure at this study area. Nests were placed at low height (mean ± SD = 1.42 ± 0.04 m and located near the trunk (mean ± SD = 0.61 ± 0.04 m. The breeding season occurred between mid-May and mid-June and the peak of egg laying took place during the first half of May. The mean clutch size was 2.96 ± 0.05, density of breeding pairs was 0.83 ± 0.30 p/ha. The breeding success reported in the present study was higher than that recorded in other studies. Predation was the leading cause of nest failure of the population under investigation. The present study shows that the orange orchards appear to be the preferred breeding area for Blackbird population.

  15. Responsible decision-making for plant research and breeding innovations in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Dennis; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2018-01-02

    Plant research and breeding has made substantial technical progress over the past few decades, indicating a potential for tremendous societal impact. Due to this potential, the development of policies and legislation on plant breeding and the technical progress should preferably involve all relevant stakeholders. However, we argue here that there is a substantial imbalance in the European Union (EU) regarding the influence of the various stakeholder groups on policy makers. We use evidence from three examples in order to show that the role of science is overlooked: 1) important delays in the decision process concerning the authorization of genetically modified (GM) maize events, 2) the significance attributed to non-scientific reasons in new legislation concerning the prohibition of GM events in EU member states, and 3) failure of the European Commission to deliver legal guidance to new plant breeding techniques despite sufficient scientific evidence and advisory reports. We attribute this imbalance to misinformation and misinterpretation of public perceptions and a disproportionate attention to single outlier reports, and we present ideas on how to establish a better stakeholder balance within this field.

  16. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  17. Upgrading the data acquisition and control systems of the European Breeding Blanket Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannori, Simone; Sermenghi, Valerio; Utili, Marco; Malavasi, Andrea; Gianotti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) upgrading of experimental plant for full size thermo hydraulic testing of nuclear subsystems. • DACS development using integrated hardware/software platform with graphical programming (LabVIEW). • Development of simplified models for real-time simulation. • Rapid prototyping with real time simulation of the complete plant. • Using the code developed for the real time simulator for the real plant DACS. -- Abstract: The EBBTF (European Breeding Blanket Test Facility) experimental plant is a key component for the development of the breeding blankets (TBMs test blanket modules, HCLL helium cooled lithium lead and HCPB helium cooled pebble bed types) used by ITER. EBBTF is an experimental plant which provides the double breeding/cooling loops (liquid metal and gas) required for HCLL testing. EBBTF is composed of four subsystems (TBM, IELLLO integrated European lead lithium loop, HE-FUS3 helium fusion loop, version 3 and helium compressor build by ATEKO) with dedicated control systems realized with hardware/software combinations covering 15 years (1995–2010) time span. At the end of 2010 we began to upgrade the HE-FUS3 data acquisition control systems (DACS) replacing the obsolete PLC Siemens S5 with National Instruments Compact FieldPoint and LabVIEW. The control room has been completely reorganized using high resolution monitors and workstations linked with standard Ethernet interfaces. The data acquisition, control, safety and SCADA software has been completely developed in ENEA using LabVIEW. In this paper we are going to discuss the technical difficulties and the solutions that we have used to accomplish the upgrade

  18. Reproduction Efficiency and Health Traits in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai Sheep Breeds under Temperate European Conditions

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    D. Gavojdian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014. In general, significant (p≤0.001 genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in Dorper (9.4% and White Dorper (10.8% breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%. Significant differences (p≤0.05 for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05 by the ewes’ genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05 by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions.

  19. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

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    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  1. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main

  2. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

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    Andrew Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.

  3. The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomato II on European patents in conventional breeding, GMO’s and Synthetic Biology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    . The EBA has also clarified that this applies irrespective of if such claims are formulated in a product-by-process format or as a per se product . Moreover, the combined effect of Broccoli & Tomato I & II opens new opportunities for patenting GMOs - provided that all other patent criteria are also met...... if confronted with similar issues in the context of national implementations of the Biotech Directive, which have taken a very different view than the EBA. Moreover, the fierce European opposition against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and Synthetic Biology remains a major challenge to the industry...... and Nordberg, A., The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomatoes II on European Patents in Conventional Breeding, GMO's and Synthetic Biology: The Grand Finale of a Juicy Patents Tale? (May 19, 2015). Univ. of Copenhagen Dept. of Economics Discussion. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2607865 or http...

  4. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

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    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-07

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

  5. Neutronic performance issues of the breeding blanket options for the European DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion—Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SERMA, LPEC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moro, F. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Breeder blanket concepts for DEMO—design features. • Neutronic characteristics of breeder blankets. • Evaluation of Tritium breeding potential. • Evaluation of shielding performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nuclear performance issues of the HCPB, HCLL, DCLL and WCLL breeder blankets, which are under development within the PPPT (Power Plant Physics and Technology) programme of EUROfusion, with the objective to assess the potential and suitability of the blankets for the application to DEMO. The assessment is based on the initial design versions of the blankets developed in 2014. The Tritium breeding potential is considered sufficient for all breeder blankets although the initial design versions of the HCPB, HCLL and DCLL blankets were shown to require further design improvements. Suitable measures have been proposed and proven to be sufficient to achieve the required Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.10. The shielding performance was shown to be sufficient to protect the super-conducting toroidal field coil provided that efficient shielding material mixtures including WC or borated water are utilized. The WCLL blanket does not require the use of such shielding materials due to a very compact blanket support structure/manifold configuration which yet requires design verification. The vacuum vessel can be safely operated over the full anticipated DEMO lifetime of 6 full power years for all blanket concepts considered.

  6. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  7. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  8. Current design of the European TBM systems and implications on DEMO breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito; Calderoni, P. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [ENEA, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, Bo (Italy); Ghidersa, B. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Y.; Pacheco, J. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Description of the Helium Cooling Systems of HCLL and HCPB-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the PbLi loop of HCLL-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the possible ROX (Return of Experience) from design and operation of the Test Blanket Systems. • Discussion on the DEBO relevancy of the main technologies adopted in the Helium Cooling Systems and PbLi loop. - Abstract: Europe is committed in developing the design of the two Test Blanket Systems (TBS) based on HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) breeding blanket (BB) concepts. The complexity of the TBS design comes not only from the innovative fabrication technologies and materials adopted for Test Blanket Modules (TBM) but also from the requirements and functions that the TBM ancillary systems have to satisfy and implement. Indeed, the main TBM ancillary systems, namely the Helium Cooling System, the Coolant Purification System and Tritium Extraction System, all belonging to the Safety Important Class (SIC), have to implement fundamental functions, like the transport of the surface and volumetric heat from the TBM to the heat sink, the extraction and processing of the tritium generated in the TBM, the confinement of radioactive inventory, the support to the investment protection and safety functions. On top of the full compliance with the ITER safety principles, the design of the TBM systems is focused on providing high operational reliability and availability not to jeopardize ITER program and, at the same time, also a good operational flexibility to make possible the achievement of the main TBM scientific objectives. This paper gives an overview of the design status of the HCLL and HCPB-TBM (ancillary) systems, updated to the conclusion of the conceptual design phase (CDR). The most relevant technologies, the still open points, the main issues related to the integration in ITER and last relevant results from the on

  9. Genetic diversity within and among four South European native horse breeds based on microsatellite DNA analysis: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, A; Jugo, B M; Mériaux, J C; Iriondo, M; Mazón, L I; Aguirre, A I; Vicario, A; Estomba, A

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four Basque-Navarrese semiferal native horse breeds. In total, 417 animals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite markers. Mean heterozygosity was higher than in other horse breeds, surely as a consequence of management. Although the population size of some of these breeds has declined appreciably in the past century, no genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the breeds, possibly because it was not narrow enough to be detectable. In the phylogenetic tree, the Jaca Navarra breed was very similar to the Pottoka, but appeared to stand in an intermediate position between this and the meat breeds. Assuming that Pottoka is the breed less affected by admixture, the others gradually distanced themselves from it through varying influences from outside breeds, among other factors. In a comparative study with other breeds, the French breeds Ardanais, Comtois, and Breton were the closest to the four native breeds. Three different approaches for evaluating the distribution of genetic diversity were applied. The high intrabreed variability of Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia (EHMZ) was pointed out in these analyses. In our opinion, cultural, economic, and scientific factors should also be considered in the management of these horse breeds.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among the European and American bison and seven cattle breeds recon structed using the Bovine SNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Wójcik, Jan M; Kawalko, Agata

    2010-01-01

    amongst bison subspecies and cattle, and (3) de tect loci under positive or stabilizing selection. A Bayesian clustering procedure (STRUCTURE) detected ten genetically distinct clusters, with separation among all seven cattle breeds and European and American bison, but no separation be tween plain......Here we present the first at tempt to use the BovineSNP50 Illumina genotyping BeadChip for genome-wide screening of European bison Bisonbonasus bonasus (EB), two subspecies of American bison: the plains bison (EB), two sub species of American bison: the plains bison Bison bison bison (PB), the wood...... bison Bi on bison athabascae (WB) and seven (PB), the wood bison (WB) and seven cattle Bostaurus breeds. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct their evolutionary relationships, (2) detect any genetic signature of past bottlenecks and to quantify the con sequences of bottle necks on the genetic distances...

  11. Presence of the glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mutation causing type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy in continental European draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J D; Valberg, S J; Anderson, S M; McCue, M E; Mickelson, J R

    2010-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine which continental European draught horse breeds harbour a mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) that is known to be responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy in quarter horses and North American draught horses. Of a non-random selection of continental European draught horses belonging to 13 breeds, 62 per cent (250 of 403) tested were found to carry the mutant allele. The horses were located in Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. The mutation was identified in animals from each of the breeds examined. In the breeds in which more than 15 animals were available for testing, the highest percentages of GYS1-positive horses were found in the Belgian trekpaard (92 per cent; 35 of 38 horses tested), Comtois (80 per cent; 70 of 88), Netherlands trekpaard (74 per cent; 17 of 23), Rheinisch-Deutsches kaltblut (68 per cent; 30 of 44) and Breton (64 per cent; 32 of 51).

  12. Baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in male and female Afrotropical and European temperate stonechats during breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Helm, Barbara; Illera, Juan Carlos; Mortega, Kim G; Smiddy, Patrick; Evans, Neil P

    2017-05-22

    Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions. Baseline and stress-induced CORT was measured across sequential stages of the breeding season in males and females of closely related taxa of stonechats (Saxicola spp) from a wide distribution area. We compared stonechats from 13 sites, representing Canary Islands, European temperate and East African tropical areas. Stonechats are highly seasonal breeders at all these sites, but vary between tropical and temperate regions with regard to reproductive investment and presumably also survival. In accordance with life-history theory, during parental stages, post-capture (baseline) CORT was overall lower in tropical than in temperate stonechats. However, during mating stages, tropical males had elevated post-capture (baseline) CORT concentrations, which did not differ from those of temperate males. Female and male mates of a pair showed correlated levels of post-capture CORT when sampled after simulated territorial intrusions. In contrast to the hypothesis that species with low reproduction and high annual survival should be more risk-sensitive, tropical stonechats had lower stress-induced CORT concentrations than temperate stonechats. We also found relatively high post-capture (baseline) and stress-induced CORT concentrations, in slow-paced Canary Islands stonechats. Our data support and refine the view that baseline CORT facilitates energetically

  13. [Genetic analysis and estimation of genetic diversity in east-European breeds of swift hounds (Canis familiaris L.) based on the data of genomic studies using RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, S K; Illarionova, N A; Vasil'ev, V A; Shubkina, A V; Ryskov, A P

    2002-06-01

    The method of polymerase chain reaction with a set of arbitrary primers (RAPD-PCR) was used to describe genetic variation and to estimate genetic diversity in East-European swift hounds, Russian Psovyi and Hortyi Borzois. For comparison, swift hounds of two West-European breeds (Whippet and Greyhound) and single dogs of other breed groups (shepherd, terriers, mastiffs, and bird dogs) were examined. For all dog groups, their closest related species, the wolf Canis lupus, was used as an outgroup. Variation of RAPD markers was studied at several hierarchic levels: intra- and interfamily (for individual families of Russian Psovyi and Hortyi Borzois), intra- and interbreed (for ten dog breeds), and interspecific (C. familiaris-C. lupus). In total, 57 dogs and 4 wolfs were studied. Using RAPD-PCR with three primers, 93 DNA fragments with a length of 150-1500 bp were detected in several Borzoi families with known filiation. These fragments were found to be inherited as dominant markers and to be applicable for estimation of genetic differences between parents and their offspring and for comparison of individuals and families with different level of inbreeding. A high level of intra- and interbreed variation was found in Russian Psovyi and Hortyi Borzois. In these dog groups, genetic similarity indices varied in a range of 72.2 to 93.4% (parents-offspring) and 68.0 to 94.5 (sibs). Based on the patterns of RAPD markers obtained using six primers, a dendrogram of genetic similarity between the wolf and different dog breeds was constructed, and indices of intragroup diversity were calculated. All studied breeds were found to fall into two clusters, swift hounds (Borzoi-like dogs) and other dogs. Russian Borzois represent a very heterogeneous group, in which the Russian Psovyi Borzoi is closer to Greyhound than the Russian Hortyi Borzoi. All studied wolfs constituted a separate cluster. Significant differences were found between the wolf and dogs by the number of RAPD markers

  14. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  15. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  16. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  17. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  18. Characterisation of White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Bauchi state between January, and July, 1997 to characterize White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds. Thirty animals of both sexes from each breed were randomly selected from fifteen farms/herds. Observations were carried out on both quantitative and qualitative characters. Sokoto ...

  19. Fifteen chord FIR polarimetry system on MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.

    1992-03-01

    A far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter diagnostic has been added to an existing fifteen chord interferometer on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). The polarimeter utilizes a new technique for determination of the Faraday rotation angle based on phase measurements of a rotating polarization ellipse. This technique allows the rotation angle to be determined even in the presence of signal amplitude variations caused by refraction. The implementation of this instrument requires no new detectors and minimal optics, making it quite inexpensive to add on to existing multichord interferometers. The MTX polarimeter has been operating for about a year and has achieved a resolution of ≤0.2 degrees with a bandwidth of ≅1 kHz and a chord spacing of 1.5 cm. Typical Faraday rotation angles on MTX are in the range of 5--15 degrees. To obtain the poloidal field, the line-integrated density and Faraday rotation profiles are inverted in a manner consistent with the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium to first order in the inverse aspect-ratio expansion. Profile measurements during normal ohmic operation are presented

  20. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND LINES OF SOYBEAN FOR BREEDING FOR VALUABLE TRAITS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Shafigullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans is the most important source of high quality protein using as food and oil. Soybean protein is balanced for amino acid composition that is advantage in comparison with other legumes, oil crops, and cereals. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids in a ratio close to the animal protein. Due to the acute deficiency of protein, the interest in soybean production and breeding of new varieties are constantly growing worldwide. The early ripening lines for the duration of the vegetation period and interphase periods of development were selected. The soybean samples with a maximum seed weight per a plant, thousand-seed weight and the largest number of seeds in a bean were revealed. The genotypes with the optimal displays of these traits for the breeding in the different directions were identified.

  1. Using the UK reference population Avalon × Cadenza as a platform to compare breeding strategies in elite Western European bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Wingen, Luzie U; Orford, Simon; Fenwick, Paul; Wang, Jiankang; Griffiths, Simon

    Wheat breeders select for qualitative and quantitative traits, the latter often detected as quantitative trait loci (QTL). It is, however, a long procedure from QTL discovery to the successful introduction of favourable alleles into new elite varieties and finally into farmers' crops. As a proof of principle for this process, QTL for grain yield (GY), yield components, plant height (PH), ear emergence (EM), solid stem (SS) and yellow rust resistance ( Yr ) were identified in segregating UK bread wheat reference population, Avalon × Cadenza. Among the 163 detected QTL were several not reported before: 17 for GY, the major GY QTL on 2D; a major SS QTL on 3B; and Yr6 on 7B. Common QTL were identified on ten chromosomes, most interestingly, grain number (GN) was found to be associated with Rht - D1b ; and GY and GN with a potential new allele of Rht8 . The interaction of other QTL with GY and yield components was discussed in the context of designing a UK breeding target genotype. Desirable characteristics would be: similar PH and EM to Avalon; Rht - D1b and Vrn - A1b alleles; high TGW and GN; long and wide grains; a large root system, resistance to diseases; and maximum GY. The potential of the identified QTL maximising transgressive segregation to produce a high-yielding and resilient genotype was demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, simulating breeding strategies with F 2 enrichment revealed that the F 2 -DH procedure was superior to the RIL and the modified SSD procedure to achieve that genotype. The proposed strategies of parent selection and breeding methodology can be used as guidance for marker-assisted wheat breeding.

  2. Tritium management and anti-permeation strategies for three different breeding blanket options foreseen for the European Power Plant Physics and Technology Demonstration reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Franza, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santucci, A.; Tosti, S. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Wagner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In DT fusion reactors like DEMO, the commonly accepted tritium (T) losses through the steam generator (SG) shall not exceed about 2 mg/d that are more than 5 orders of magnitude lower than the T production rate of about 360 g/d in the breeding blanket (BB). A very effective mitigation strategy is required balancing the size and efficiency of the processes in the breeding and cooling loops, and the availability and efficiency of anti-permeation barriers. A numerical study is presented using the T permeation code FUS-TPC that computes all T flows and inventories considering the design and operation of the BB, the SG, and the T systems. Many scenarios are numerically analyzed for three breeding blankets concepts – helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB), helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) – varying the T processes throughput and efficiency, and the permeation regimes through the BB and SG to be either surface-limited or diffusion-limited with possible permeation reduction factor. For each BB concept, we discuss workable operation scenarios and suggest specific anti-permeation strategies.

  3. Operational foreshock forecasting: Fifteen years after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We are concerned with operational forecasting of the probability that events are foreshocks of a forthcoming earthquake that is significantly larger (mainshock). Specifically, we define foreshocks as the preshocks substantially smaller than the mainshock by a magnitude gap of 0.5 or larger. The probability gain of foreshock forecast is extremely high compare to long-term forecast by renewal processes or various alarm-based intermediate-term forecasts because of a large event’s low occurrence rate in a short period and a narrow target region. Thus, it is desired to establish operational foreshock probability forecasting as seismologists have done for aftershocks. When a series of earthquakes occurs in a region, we attempt to discriminate foreshocks from a swarm or mainshock-aftershock sequence. Namely, after real time identification of an earthquake cluster using methods such as the single-link algorithm, the probability is calculated by applying statistical features that discriminate foreshocks from other types of clusters, by considering the events' stronger proximity in time and space and tendency towards chronologically increasing magnitudes. These features were modeled for probability forecasting and the coefficients of the model were estimated in Ogata et al. (1996) for the JMA hypocenter data (M≧4, 1926-1993). Currently, fifteen years has passed since the publication of the above-stated work so that we are able to present the performance and validation of the forecasts (1994-2009) by using the same model. Taking isolated events into consideration, the probability of the first events in a potential cluster being a foreshock vary in a range between 0+% and 10+% depending on their locations. This conditional forecasting performs significantly better than the unconditional (average) foreshock probability of 3.7% throughout Japan region. Furthermore, when we have the additional events in a cluster, the forecast probabilities range more widely from nearly 0% to

  4. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  5. Significance, prospects and limits of breeding smoke-resistant tree species in the light of central European studies on the ecological effects of fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1967-01-01

    Damage to tree stands in central Europe from atmospheric pollution will become more extensive with time, thus, the breeding of pollution-resistant tree species assumes increasing importance. Since no differences in resistance could be detected in individual pine trees by experiments, interest focused on spruce trees where such differences exist and were proven. But no spruce specimens were ever found which in resistance would have surpassed deciduous trees, whose regenerative power is a factor governing their considerable resistance to damge from pollution. Resistant spruce specimens were found to have comparatively massive needles, which also applies to other species of conifers. Thus there seems to be a connection between the anatomical structure of the needles and their degree of of hardiness in a polluted atmosphere. Breeding of relatively resistant spruce trees by selection was started in 1956 and the first planting experiments in polluted areas were carried out in 1960. This work is of great importance for the reafforestation of approximately 100,000 hectares h of forests in central Europe which are affected by chronic damage from pollution. Resistant spruce trees, under conditions of a mildly polluted atmosphere, should produce for 20 years longer than less resistant strains. In areas exposed to severe pollution, only deciduous trees should be planted.

  6. Combating sexual orientation discrimination in employment: legislation in fifteen EU members states (France) : Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo , Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation; France was the first country in the world to discriminalize sodomy.....

  7. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  8. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  10. Fifteen: Combining Magic Squares and Tic-Tac-Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joseph B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Most students love to play games. Ernest (1986) believed that games could be used to teach mathematics effectively in four areas: motivation, concept development, reinforcement of skills, and practice of problem-solving strategies. Fifteen is an interesting and thought-provoking game that helps students learn mathematics at the same time. Playing…

  11. Incidence of colorectal cancer and influence of dietary habits in fifteen European countries from 1971 to 2002 Incidencia de cáncer colorrectal e influencia de los hábitos alimenticios en 15 países europeos desde 1971 hasta 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Béjar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the incidence of colorectal cancer in 15 European countries in recent decades and the relationship between the incidence found and changes in dietary habits. Methods: Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated by comparing incidence rates obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer for 1971-2002 with data on per capita consumption obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations using 10-year delay intervals. Results: Incidence rates increased in all countries except France in men and except Austria, Denmark, England and France in women. Of the dietary variables considered, there were marked increasing trends (linear regression coefficient, R >0.5 in red meat consumption in Germany (R = 0.9, Austria (R = 0.7, Finland (R = 0.8, Italy (R = 0.9, Poland (R = 0.5, Spain (R = 2.1, Sweden (R = 0.6, and the Netherlands (R = 0.7. Conclusions: Changes in dietary habits may be consistent with the observed trends in the incidence of colorectal cancer in the distinct European countries.Introducción: Este estudio analiza la incidencia de cáncer colorrectal en 15 países europeos en las últimas décadas y su relación con cambios en los hábitos alimenticios. Métodos: Coeficientes de correlación de Pearson/Spearman calculados comparando las tasas de incidencia obtenidas de International Agency for Research on Cancer durante 1971-2002 con los consumos per cápita obtenidos de Food and Agriculture Organization con intervalos de retardo de 10 años. Resultados: Las tasas de incidencia aumentan en todos los países, excepto en Francia, en los hombres, y en Austria, Dinamarca, Inglaterra y Francia en las mujeres. De las variables de la dieta estudiadas, hay marcadas tendencias crecientes (coeficiente de regresión lineal, R >0,5 para carne roja en Alemania (R = 0,9, Austria (R = 0,7, España (R = 2,1, Finlandia (R = 0,8, Italia (R = 0,9, Países Bajos (R = 0

  12. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  13. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six

  14. European Food Safety Authority; Analysis of the baseline survey of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008; Part B: Analysis of factors potentially associated with Salmonella pen positivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    or slaughter (production holdings) were sampled. In each selected holding, pooled fresh faecal samples were collected from 10 randomly chosen pens of breeding pigs over six months of age, representing the different stages of the breeding herd, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Analyses at country......, multivariable regression analysis showed that the odds of Salmonella-positive pens with pigs increased with the number of breeding pigs in the holding and with the following pen-level factors: flooring systems other than slatted floors or solid floors with straw, presence of maiden gilts, number of pigs per pen...

  15. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  16. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  17. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  18. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  19. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  20. Presence and strategies of European petroleum societies in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the situation of European investment in Arab countries for petroleum industry. Fifteen petroleum societies for eight European countries are studied through their investment in exploration-production activities. (N.C.)

  1. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  2. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  3. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  4. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  6. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  7. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured with microsatellite polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, S H; Pilla, F; Galal, S; Shaat, I; D'Andrea, M; Reale, S; Abdelsalam, A Z A; Li, M H

    2008-06-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity of three Egyptian (Egyptian Baladi, Barki and Zaraibi) and two Italian (Maltese and Montefalcone) goat breeds. The microsatellites showed a high polymorphic information content (PIC) of more than 0.5 in most of the locus-breed combinations and indicated that the loci were useful in assessing within- and between-breed variability of domestic goat (Capra hircus). The expected heterozygosity of the breeds varied from 0.670 to 0.792. In the geographically wider distributed Egyptian Baladi breed there were indications for deviations from random breeding. Analysis of genetic distances and population structure grouped the three Egyptian goat breeds together, and separated them from the two Italian breeds. The studied Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and European populations seem to have differentiated from each other with only little genetic exchange between the geographically isolated populations.

  8. Fifteen years of radioactive waste management at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ontario Hydro is a large Canadian utility producing 84% (7394 MWe) of the Nuclear Electricity generated in Canada. The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated by the Ontario Hydro program are currently being managed at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development with various volume reduction, packaging and interim storage systems. Ontario Hydro also owns and operates a radioactive waste transportation system. Studies are in progress for final disposal of these wastes in a suitable geology in Ontario. Since its inception in 1971, Ontario Hydro's radioactive waste management program has evolved into providing a full fledged radioactive waste management capability to the utility's two nuclear generation centres at Pickering and Bruce, and later in the decade, to Darlington. This paper summarizes the various developments in this program; highlights the major facilities both in-service and planned to be built; reviews the experiences gained over fifteen years of in-house waste management; and discusses the proposed reorientation towards ultimate disposal of these wastes. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  10. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Amilcar

    2001-01-01

    This research work examines levels and trends in global agricultural productivity in fifteen European Union countries and four Eastern European countries that have already applied for European Union membership. The study makes use of data collected from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and covers the period 1980-1998. An approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis is used to provide information on the peers of the (inefficient) i-th country and to derive the Malmqui...

  11. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  12. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  13. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  14. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  15. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  16. Thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of two European breeder blanket concepts for DEMO. Pt. 1 and Pt. 2. Pt. 1: BOT helium cooled solid breeding blanket. Pt. 2: Dual coolant self-cooled liquid metal blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.

    1995-06-01

    Two different breeding blanket concepts are being elaborated at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe within the framework of the DEMO breeding blanket development, the concept of a helium cooled solid breeding blanket and the concept of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The breeder material used in the first concept is Li 4 SiO 4 as a pebble bed arranged separate from the beryllium pebble bed, which serves as multiplier. The breeder material zone is cooled by several toroidally-radially configurated helium cooling plates which, at the same time, act as reinforcements of the blanket structures. In the liquid metal blanket concept lead-lithium is used both as the breeder material and the coolant. It flows at low velocity in poloidal direction downwards and back in the blanket front zone. In both concepts the First Wall is cooled by helium gas. This report deals with the thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of the two blanket concepts. The performance data derived from the Monte-Carlo computations serve as a basis for the design calculations. The coolant inlet and outlet temperatures are chosen with the design criteria and the economics aspects taken into account. Uniform temperature distribution in the blanket structures can be achieved by suitable branching and routing of the coolant flows which contributes to reducing decisively the thermal stress. The computations were made using the ABAQUS computer code. The results obtained of the stresses have been evaluated using the ASME code. It can be demonstrated that all maximum values of temperature and stress are below the admissible limit. (orig.) [de

  17. Conservation priorities of Iberoamerican pig breeds and their ancestors based on microsatellite information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V

    2016-07-01

    Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved.

  18. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  19. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  20. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  1. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  2. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  3. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  4. Genomic Characterisation of the Indigenous Irish Kerry Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browett, Sam; McHugo, Gillian; Richardson, Ian W.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Fahey, Alan G.; Kearney, John F.; Correia, Carolina N.; Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; MacHugh, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne) revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH) showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland. PMID:29520297

  5. Genomic Characterisation of the Indigenous Irish Kerry Cattle Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Browett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  7. Genome-wide identification of breed-informative single-nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the SNPs on BovineSNP50 and GGP-80K assays were ascertained as being common in European taurine breeds. Lower MAF and SNP informativeness observed in this study limits the application of these assays in breed assignment, and could have other implications for genome-wide studies in South ...

  8. How can we increase the production, quality and health of our forests by selective breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanson, A

    1981-01-01

    Selective breeding programmes in Belgium are discussed, and a number of seed plantations are listed. Descriptions are given of the performance of European provenances of spruce and larch and American and Canadian Douglas fir, at 3 plantations in Belgium. An account is given of Belgian success in breeding varieties of spruce with late-opening buds resistant to late frosts. (Refs. 8).

  9. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of

  10. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Gupta A. K., Chauhan M., Tandon S. N. and Sonia 2005 Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed. J. Genet. 84, 295–301] ... developed to carry out studies of genetic variation (Brad- ley et al. 1996; Canon et al. ..... 1996 Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and. European cattle. Proc.

  11. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  12. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  13. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  14. Breeding blanket for Demo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Giancarli, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme

  15. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  16. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  17. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  18. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  19. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  20. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  2. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  3. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert

    Union was 54 and 88, respectively. Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Typhimurium predominated in both types of holdings. Breeding pigs may be an important source of dissemination of Salmonella throughout the pig-production chain. The results of this survey provide valuable information for setting......Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...... and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing breeding pigs and selling mainly pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) from 24 European Union Member States and two non-Member States, were randomly selected and included in the survey. In each selected breeding...

  4. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  6. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  7. Diversifying Selection Between Pure-Breed and Free-Breeding Dogs Inferred from Genome-Wide SNP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of “domestication syndrome.” This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication.

  8. A comparison of phenotypic traits related to trypanotolerance in five west african cattle breeds highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berthier

    Full Text Available Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT, considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N'Dama (NDA, has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds.This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG and Baoulé (BAO breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU and the Borgou (BOR, an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU.We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and

  9. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  10. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  11. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  12. The Lost Art of Regulated tolerance? Fifteen Years of Regulating Vices in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; Nelen, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Brants explored the idiosyncrasies of Dutch policy with regard to prostitution, focusing on the situation in the Dutch capital. Amsterdam was on the brink of the enactment of new policies and legislation regarding the legalization of prostitution and the crackdown on organized

  13. Physical activity levels and patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is worldwide concern over the decline in physical activity (PA) levels among school children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the (PA) levels and PA patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old boys from different race groups in the North- West Province and to determine to what degree this physical activity profile ...

  14. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  16. Mutation breeding in jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M 1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  17. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  18. POPULATION SIZE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS AND LOCALLY ADAPTED HEN’S BREEDS ON AREA OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On basic certificates about acceptation of Oravka Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn and Sussex, controlled flocks of Slovak Union of Breeders, we analyzed total number of birds, number of breeding males, number of breeding females and effective population size by Simon and Buchenauer (1993 and we evaluated the populations of observed hen’s breeds to categorisations by Scherf (2000. The highest number of birds we recorded at breed New Hampshire from observed hen’s breeds. Average total number of animals in period of year 2003 - 2008 was 1373 birds with average effective population size 445.103. However, the population of New Hampshire poultry in Slovakia was evaluating by massive decrease in last years as a endangered - maintained breed for which an active conservation programme is in place. By contrast, the smallest number of animals was detected at breed White Leghorn with average total number 18.83 birds in period of year 2003 - 2008 and average effective population size 6.605. The breed White Leghorn in Slovakia we categorized to critical breed. National legislation on Slovakia has been created, the fist experience is being gathered and the European legislation is coming in practice. The conditions for the development and preservation of endangered breeds of poultry in Slovak Republic in the long term are being put in place by means of creative and well aimed utilisation of European and national legislation.

  19. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  3. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  12. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  13. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  14. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  15. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  16. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  17. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  18. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samantha; Archibald, Alan L; Haley, Chris S; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M; Wiener, Pamela; Ogden, Rob

    2012-11-15

    The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR) > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  19. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of the start and duration of breeding and the effect of these on breeding productivity were analysed for African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus moquini on Robben Island, South Africa, over three breeding seasons from 2001 to 2004. African Black Oystercatchers have a long breeding season, from November ...

  20. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...

  1. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-12-07

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Development and use of a fifteen year-old equivalent mathematical phantom for internal dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Poston, J.W.; Hwang, J.L.; Jones, T.D.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-06-01

    The existence of a phantom based on anatomical data for the average fifteen-year-old provides for a proficient means of obtaining estimates of absorbed dose for children of that age. Dimensions representative of an average fifteen-year-old human, obtained from various biological and medical research, were transformed into a mathematical construct of idealized shapes of the exterior, skeletal system, and internal organs of a human. The idealization for an average adult presently in use by the International Commission on Radiological Protection was used as a basis for design. The mathematical equations describing the phantom were developed to be readily adaptable to present-day methods of dose estimation. Typical exposure situations in nuclear medicine have previously been modeled for existing phantoms. With no further development of the exposure model necessary, adaptation to the fifteen-year-old phantom demonstrated the utility of the design. Estimates of absorbed dose were obtained for the administration of two radiopharmaceuticals, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA

  3. European blanket development for a demo reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Anzidei, L.

    1994-01-01

    There are four breeding blanket concepts for a fusion DEMO reactor under development within the framework of the fusion technology programme of the European Union (EU). This paper describes the design of these concepts, the accompanying R + D programme and the status of the development. (authors). 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  5. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  6. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  7. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  8. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  9. Adult sex ratio variation: implications for breeding system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, T; Weissing, F J; Komdeur, J

    2014-08-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to mate with than the more common sex. Changes in mate choice, mating systems and parental care suggest that the ASR does influence breeding behaviour, although there is a need for more tests, especially experimental ones. In the context of breeding system evolution, the focus is currently on operational sex ratios (OSRs). We argue that the ASR plays a role of similar importance and urge researchers to study the ASR and the OSR side by side. Finally, we plead for a dynamic view of breeding system evolution with feedbacks between mating, parenting, OSR and ASR on both ecological and evolutionary time scales. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  11. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  12. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  13. Melhoramento da videira Grape breeding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Almeida Santos Neto

    1955-01-01

    types 'that proved valuable. In the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, grape breeding work was initiated in 1943 by the Section of Viticulture. The grape breeding program of the Section of Viticulture aimed at obtaining improved varieties for rootstocks, for fresh fruit and raisin consumption, and also for the making of wines and juice. Besides the specific qualities required for each different use, the types to be selected had to be well adapted to local environmental conditions, present resistance to insect pests and diseases, and also be resistant to handling and shipping. The basic material used in the improvement program consisted of the collection of grape varieties of the Instituto Agronômico that included many European and American standard varieties, supplemented by new and wild types imported from North and Central America. In this program special attention is being given to the production of seedless types and to hybrids between standard European and American varieties and the wild species, Vitis gigas and V. tilixfolia. Results already obtained are very encouraging and indicated that some of the new types are very good as rootstocks, whereas others are excellent for table uses or for wine or juice making.

  14. Co-occurrence of Marfan syndrome and bipolar disorder: A fifteen year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vijendra Nath; Kumar, Manoj; Tarwani, Jatin

    2016-12-01

    Marfan syndrome, a chromosomal disorder, has been commonly associated with schizophrenia but no association with Bipolar affective disorder has been reported in the scientific literature. This case depicts the occurrence of Bipolar affective disorder in a previously undiagnosed case of Marfan syndrome. In this case patient had all manic episodes without any depressive or schizophrenia-like episodes, suggesting a diagnostic stability over a long period of over fifteen years. Studies and research are needed in this regard to look for any possible potential association between the two illnesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expertise and politics crisis: lessons learned from fifteen years of negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The author proposes some analyses and comments about the relationships between experts who have been involved in various conferences and meetings (from Rio de Janeiro in 1992 to Marrakech in 2002) on climate change. He presents the different groups of experts and comments the issues which have been a matter of debate between them for the past fifteen years. For each of these issues, he gives an overview of the expertise status, highlights consensus as well as dissensus. He compares this expertise with the content of political discourses, and then shows which mechanisms led to The Hague failure and to the incomplete Marrakech's compromise

  16. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  17. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    . Hybridization with the domestic pig is known to occur in Europe, however the degree and extent of the phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Introgression is considered to be a treat to biodiversity and could lead to loss of local adaptation or introgression in the wild population of human selected genes....... A better understanding of the hybridization levels at European scale would provide an important tool for the development of management plans aimed at reducing human conflict but also at preserving biodiversity and genetic differentiation. Additionally, this information would provide new perspectives...... gradients in variability levels among the analysed wild and domestic populations. This preliminary results will be further investigated to address the possible presence of hybrid zone(s) in Europe and the possible implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local pig breeds...

  18. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  19. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  20. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  2. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  3. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Björklund

    Full Text Available Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, common buzzard (Buteo buteo and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus. We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  4. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  5. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  6. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  7. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    among dairy cattle breeds in the US was reported to be 161, 61, 65, 39 and 30 for the Ayrshire, Brown ... Knowledge of these parameters could help the industry when formulating breeding programmes. ..... In 'Ratites in a competitive world.

  8. Fifteen year's research activities of the INSS Institute of Nuclear Technology and future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since the Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated (INSS) was founded. This paper reviews the research activities of the Institute of Nuclear Technology in INSS over that time and proposes a policy for future research. First, a chronological table shows the major milestones over the past fifteen years. Notable events include the following. The head office was moved to Mihama-cho where laboratories and experimental facilities were installed; the Institute signed an agreement with the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) on assistance for the preparedness of nuclear emergency; it assisted KEPCO to investigate the causes of the accident at its Mihama Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 and subsequently established the Nuclear Power Plant Aging Research Center, it began providing information on adverse events occurred at nuclear power plants in the world to Japanese electric utilities that own PWRs; it supported the Energy Research and Development Centralization Plan of Fukui Prefecture, and it embarked on a project to develop the Fukui regional cluster in the Fukui and Kinki area under the government's program for aging management of nuclear power plants. The fifteen years of research activities are shown for each research group and for each research project, and then important achievements of the major research projects are described. Finally, the status of research papers published in external Journals and in INSS over the past fifteen years is illustrated and the number of patents acquired during this period is presented. We evaluated our research activities over the fifteen years and reviewed them according to seven items under a future research policy. The plans include the enhancement of system engineering-based research efforts as the name of this Institute implies, and committing ourselves to forward-looking and creative research program focusing on not only from analysis', but also on 'synthesis'. A suitable approach to safety

  9. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  10. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  11. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  12. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Christiaan; te Marvelde, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Bird breeding and spring migration phenology have advanced in response to climate change, but the effects differ between sites. Here, we examine the geographical variation in laying-date trends in a short-distance migrant, the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, and a long-distance migrant, the pied

  13. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles Eric; Mauroux, Jehan Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; De Weg, Van Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three

  14. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species

  15. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  16. ORGANIC ANIMAL BREEDING, CONDITIONS, DATA, FACTS, PLANS (EXAMPLES FROM CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider that the organic animal breeding – as one of the methods with a significant influence on the human nutrition – is the necessary consequence of the 21st century. They present the way of establishing the organic breeding by some Hungarian and Central-European animal farms. They show some examples for the period of transformation into eco farms. The results cover the objective, personal, animal breed and feeding relations. Results of changing and operation: raw materials and products with some of their advantages are shown, just as some examples for protection of origin and food safety. Suggestions for marketing and cooperation, as well as for development are finally given, with special regard to rural development (employment, direct marketing and to the importance of environmental protection with regard to eco / alternative animal breeding.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence variation among 5 maternal lines of the Zemaitukai horse breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gus Cothran

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in Zemaitukai horses was investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. The study was performed on 421 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region, which is known to be more variable than other sections of the mitochondrial genome. Samples from each of the remaining maternal family lines of Zemaitukai horses and three random samples for other Lithuanian (Lithuanian Heavy Draught, Zemaitukai large type and ten European horse breeds were sequenced. Five distinct haplotypes were obtained for the five Zemaitukai maternal families supporting the pedigree data. The minimal difference between two different sequence haplotypes was 6 and the maximal 11 nucleotides in Zemaitukai horse breed. A total of 20 nucleotide differences compared to the reference sequence were found in Lithuanian horse breeds. Genetic cluster analysis did not shown any clear pattern of relationship among breeds of different type.

  18. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  19. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  20. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  1. Sensisivity and Uncertainty analysis for the Tritium Breeding Ratio of a DEMO Fusion reactor with a Helium cooled pebble bed blanket

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnenmann, Elena; Fischer, Ulrich; Stieglitz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis was performed for the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of a fusion power plant of the European DEMO type using the MCSEN patch to the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The breeding blanket was of the type Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB), currently under development in the European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) programme for a fusion power demonstration reactor (DEMO). A suitable 3D model of the DEMO reactor with HCPB blanket modules, as routinely used for blanket design c...

  2. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  4. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier

    2013-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  8. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  9. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm

  10. Developmental profiles on the basis of the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Sommer, Søren

    2004-01-01

    , memory, language, social skills and learning, in addition to a domain for emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to test the clinical validity and utility of the FTF with a main focus on discriminant and criterion validity. The clinical sample consisted of 155 clinically...... to fifteen. Results demonstrated that the profiles for the clinical groups were similar in forms and levels to those of the upper 10 percent of the norm sample (those with most difficulties). Five out of eight FTF domains discriminated significantly between diagnostic groups in the clinical sample. Influence...... of IQ, gender and age on the results were low. Three out of four relevant FTF domains correlated significantly with corresponding WISC-III indexes/measures. The clinical utility of individual children's profiles were demonstrated. On the whole, the findings supported the clinical validity and utility...

  11. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged.

  12. Surgical Treatment of the Giant Leiyomyoma of the Esophagus After Fifteen Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bilgin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leiyomyomas are benign intramural tumors of esophagus which are rarely seen. Nearly half of the patients are asymptomatic because leiyomyomas grow slowly and intramural. Dysphagia and retrosternal pain are the most common symptoms.Osephagus leiyomyomas may appear as mediastinal mass in chest radiography and may be recognised by coincidence. It is known that they are solitary, round or oval, and their diameter may reach 15-17cm size. When it grows up to the giant diamaters, surgery is the choice of treatment. Because tumors covering distal part of esophagus and cardia are ulcerated and adhesive to mucosa resection, esophagogastric anasthomosis may be required. We are presenting the clinical and radiologic findings of this giant leiyoma case who did not accept surgical treatment fifteen years ago, and whose leiomyoma reached up to a big diamater.

  13. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  14. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  15. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  16. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  17. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G

    2013-06-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed

  18. Short communication: Consumer’s willingness to pay for indigenous meat products: The case of a Spanish sheep breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, A.; Magistris, T. de

    2016-11-01

    European farmers of indigenous local breeds have benefited from European Union economic support in the past and it is forecast to continue being supported in the future. However, it is in the public debate that economic support cannot last forever. Then, for the long-run maintenance of indigenous local breeds to be possible, the derived meat products from these breeds should be demanded by consumers or at least by a group of local consumers. This is the aim of this paper, to study consumers’ demand for indigenous local meat products. In particular, to assess how much consumers are willing to pay for a Spanish lamb meat from an indigenous sheep breed (“Ojinegra de Teruel”). To do that, a non-hypothetical experimental auction with local consumers (those living in a medium-size town around 150 km the producing area of this meat) was used. Results indicated that consumers were willing to pay, on average, €0.45 (15% of the market price) more for the lamb meat with the “Ojinegra de Teruel” breed claim than for the one without breed indication (as it is now sold in the market). Then, local consumers clearly accept the differentiated meat through the indigenous breed indication. Then, producers in the area could have more opportunities to sell in the local market if they differentiate their meat using the indigenous “Ojinegra de Teruel” claim than using the undifferentiated strategy they are undertaken now. (Author)

  19. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  20. Breeding biology and the evolution of dynamic sexual dichromatism in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R C; Webster, G N; Whiting, M J

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic sexual dichromatism is a temporary colour change between the sexes and has evolved independently in a wide range of anurans, many of which are explosive breeders wherein males physically compete for access to females. Behavioural studies in a few species indicate that dynamic dichromatism functions as a visual signal in large breeding aggregations; however, the prevalence of this trait and the social and environmental factors underlying its expression are poorly understood. We compiled a database of 178 anurans with dynamic dichromatism that include representatives from 15 families and subfamilies. Dynamic dichromatism is common in two of the three subfamilies of hylid treefrogs. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of 355 hylid species (of which 95 display dynamic dichromatism) reveal high transition rates between dynamic dichromatism, ontogenetic (permanent) dichromatism and monochromatism reflecting the high evolutionary lability of this trait. Correlated evolution in hylids between dynamic dichromatism and forming large breeding aggregations indicates that the evolution of large breeding aggregations precedes the evolution of dynamic dichromatism. Multivariate phylogenetic logistic regression recovers the interaction between biogeographic distribution and forming breeding aggregations as a significant predictor of dynamic dichromatism in hylids. Accounting for macroecological differences between temperate and tropical regions, such as seasonality and the availability of breeding sites, may improve our understanding of ecological contexts in which dynamic dichromatism is likely to arise in tropical lineages and why it is retained in some temperate species and lost in others. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  2. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  3. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  4. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  5. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  6. Elaboration, validation and standardization of the five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire in a Danish population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen

    2015-03-01

    The five to fifteen (FTF) is a parent questionnaire developed to assess ADHD, its common comorbid conditions and associated problems in children and adolescents. The present study examined (1) the psychometric properties of scores on the new teacher version of the FTF, (2) competing models of the FTF subdomain structure and (3) the psychometric properties and utility of scores on the newly developed FTF impact questions. Parents (n=4258) and teachers (n=1298) of Danish children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years), selected using simple random sampling, completed the FTF. In the largest study of the FTF to date, parent and teacher scores had acceptable psychometric properties. The FTF subdomains were organized into six domains labelled cognitive skills, motor/perception, emotion/socialization/behaviour, attention, literacy skills and activity control and analysis of these domains may provide additional information when applying the FTF in the future. The impact questions yielded information above and beyond that provided by symptom count alone and appeared to increase the ability of the FTF to identify at risk children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical presentation of Legionella pneumonia among patients with underlying cancer: A fifteen-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Maria; Lucca, Anabella; Plodkowski, Andrew; Huang, Yao-Ting; Kaplan, Janice; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Babady, N Esther; Seo, Susan K; Kamboj, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients, especially those receiving treatment with corticosteroids and cytotoxic chemotherapy are at increased risk for developing Legionella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and radiographic characteristics of pulmonary infection due to Legionella in persons undergoing treatment for cancer and stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Retrospective review of Legionella cases at MSKCC over a fifteen-year study period from January 1999 and December 2013. Cases were identified by review of microbiology records. During the study period, 40 cases of Legionella infection were identified; nine among these were due to non-pneumophila species. Most cases occurred during the summer. The majority [8/9, (89%)] of patients with non-pneumophila infection had underlying hematologic malignancy, compared to 18/31 (58%) with Legionella pneumophila infections. Radiographic findings were varied-nodular infiltrates mimicking invasive fungal infection were seen only among patients with hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients and were frequently associated with non-pneumophila infections (50% vs 16%; P = 0.0594). All cases of nodular Legionella pneumonia were found incidentally or had an indolent clinical course. Legionella should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular lung lesions in immunocompromised patients, especially those with hematologic malignancy and SCT recipients. Most cases of nodular disease due to Legionella are associated with non-pneumophila infections. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening in larval zebrafish reveals tissue-specific distribution of fifteen fluorescent compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish is a prominent vertebrate model for low-cost in vivo whole organism screening. In our recent screening of the distribution patterns of fluorescent compounds in live zebrafish larvae, fifteen compounds with tissue-specific distributions were identified. Several compounds were observed to accumulate in tissues where they were reported to induce side-effects, and compounds with similar structures tended to be enriched in the same tissues, with minor differences. In particular, we found three novel red fluorescent bone-staining dyes: purpurin, lucidin and 3-hydroxy-morindone; purpurin can effectively label bones in both larval and adult zebrafish, as well as in postnatal mice, without significantly affecting bone mass and density. Moreover, two structurally similar chemotherapeutic compounds, doxorubicin and epirubicin, were observed to have distinct distribution preferences in zebrafish. Epirubicin maintained a relatively higher concentration in the liver, and performed better in inhibiting hepatic hyperplasia caused by the over-expression of krasG12V. In total, our study suggests that the transparent zebrafish larvae serve as valuable tools for identifying tissue-specific distributions of fluorescent compounds.

  9. The Physics and Chemistry of Color: The Fifteen Causes of Color, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau, Kurt

    2001-07-01

    An updated and revised second edition of the acclaimed classic Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue, or a ruby red? This classic volume studies the physical and chemical origins of color by exploring fifteen separate causes of color and their varied and often subtle occurrences in biology, geology, mineralogy, the atmosphere, technology, and the visual arts. It covers all of the fundamental concepts at work and requires no specialized knowledge. Author Kurt Nassau includes hundreds of illustrations, tables, and photographs-as well as end-of-chapter problems-that aid in visualizing the concepts discussed. An updated bibliography permits readers to pursue their own particular interests and an expanded series of appendices cover advanced topics. The Physics and Chemistry of Color, Second Edition is a one-of-a-kind treatment of color that provides both detailed physical and chemical properties of color and a more general overview of the subject. It will prove highly useful to specialists and non-specialists alike-and fascinate those with varied interests from optics to art history.

  10. Fifteen-year Experience with Telemedicine Services in Gangwon Province in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Gi; Choi, Young-A; Choi, Eun-Hi; Kim, Dong-Won; Shin, Se-Gye; Park, Kyung-Suk; Han, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study attempted to identify the factors that contribute to successful telemedicine service. This was done by analyzing the operational state of successful telemedicine services offered in Gangwon Province of Korea and their outcome for the last fifteen years. Methods A comparative analysis was made based on reports and a thesis on the satisfaction rate of patients and providers, patient compliance to treatment, and economic assessment of Gangwon telemedicine service, which were carried out in three periods: the years 2006, 2010, and 2012. Results The satisfaction surveys in all three periods showed similar results for patients (4.46±0.70 point) and healthcare practitioners, including nurses (3.82±0.62 point) and physicians (3.60±0.56 point), in decreasing order from the year 2012. Through the survey of patients' compliance with treatment, it was confirmed that telemedicine services increased patients' compliance with drug administration, facilitated improvement of lifestyle habits, improved glycated hemoglobin for patients with diabetes mellitus, and enhanced the rate of blood pressure control. In the survey conducted on patients' willingness to pay for telemedicine services in 2007, it was found that those patients were willing to pay about $3.5 for services. Conclusions The telemedicine services of Gangwon Province increased patients' compliance with drug administration, improved blood glucose control, enhanced blood pressure control for patients with hypertension, and provided economic advantage. PMID:26618035

  11. Purity, Victimhood and Agency: Fifteen years of the UN Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Wijers

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When the women’s movement reverted back to the nineteenth-century Victorian concept of ‘trafficking in women’ to address abuses of migrant women in the sex industry, it unwittingly adopted not only a highly morally biased concept—dividing women into innocent victims in need of rescue and guilty ones who can be abused with impunity—but also one with racist and nationalistic overtones. Despite efforts to counter these flaws, this inheritance continues to define the debate on trafficking today, exemplified by the distinction made by the United Nations Trafficking Protocol between so-called ‘sexual exploitation’ and ‘labour exploitation’ and its focus on the aspects of recruitment and movement. As a result, its implementation in the last fifteen years has led to a range of oppressive measures against sex workers and migrants in the name of combating trafficking. The focus on the purity and victimhood of women, coupled with the protection of national borders, not only impedes any serious effort to address the exploitation of human beings under forced labour and slavery-like conditions, but actually causes harm. The call of the anti-trafficking movement for a human rights-based approach does not necessarily solve these fundamental problems, as it tends to restrict itself to protecting the rights of trafficked persons, while neglecting or even denying the human rights of sex workers and migrants.

  12. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  13. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  14. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  15. The green treasure. Fifteen tax proposals for the environment and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, R.; De Vries, J.

    2006-10-01

    The Dutch environmental organization 'Natuur en Milieu' (Nature and the Environment) proposes new taxes to protect and improve the environment by means of innovative means. The proposals can be subdivided over (1) taxes from which both the environment and the Dutch National Treasury will profit; (2) taxes that support the environment and are neutral for the treasury; and (3) stimulation of greening of taxes in a European context [nl

  16. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  17. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  18. Cumulative Index to the First Fifteen Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The first fifteen semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through December 1953. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports.

  19. Fifteen-year Assessment of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treatment of Chromate and Trichloroethylene in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fifteen-year performance of a granular iron, permeable reactive barrier (PRB; Elizabeth City, North Carolina) is reviewed with respect to contaminant treatment (hexavalent chromium and trichloroethylene) and hydraulic performance. Due to in-situ treatment of the chromium sou...

  20. Environmentalism in the Periphery: Institutional Embeddedness and Deforestation among Fifteen Palm Oil Producers, 1990 – 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Henderson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sociologists highlight the exploitative nature of the global capitalist economy where resource extraction from nations in the periphery tends to disproportionately benefit those of the core. From the Brazilian Amazon to mineral-rich Sub-Saharan Africa, the practice of “unequal ecological exchange” persists. Simultaneously, a “global environmental regime” has coalesced as a prominent feature of the contemporary world system. In the post-World War II era, legitimate nation-states must take steps to protect the natural environment and prevent its degradation even at their own economic expense. Stronger national ties to global institutions, particularly international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs consistently yield more positive environmental outcomes. However, previous work suggests that normative expectations for improved environmental practice will be weak or nonexistent in the periphery. We use the case of palm oil production and its relationship to deforestation to provide a more nuanced analysis of the relationship between material and institutional forces in the periphery. Using unbalanced panels of fifteen palm oil producing countries from 1990 to 2012, we find that stronger national ties to world society via citizen memberships in INGOs result in greater primary forest area among palm oil producers. However, this effect is strongest where production is lowest and weakens as production increases. Even in the cases of Indonesia and Malaysia, where palm oil production is substantially higher than any other producer, ties to global institutions are significantly related to reduced forest loss. These results indicate the variable importance of national embeddedness into global institutions within the periphery of the world system.

  1. Fifteen fatal fallacies of financial fundamentalism Quince falacias funestas del fundamentalismo financiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickrey William

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Professor Vickrey shows that current economic policy is based on incomplete analyses, counterfactual assumptions, and false analogies. The article examines in detail fifteen fallacies which, taken together, lead to policies which at best generate economic lethargy with unemployment rates close to 5 or 6 percent. For Professor Vickrey, this situation is harmful in that it reduces potential production between 10 and 15 percent even if the loss is distributed in an equitable way among the population; but when it turns into unemployment of 10, 20, and up to 40 percent for the less favored groups, the additional harm in terms of poverty, family breakup, school absence and dropout, illegitimacy,
    drug use, and crime becomes very serious. Thus these policies are like a 'premeditated homicidal fire' and, even worse, when they are carried to their ultimate consequences, in search of 'budgetary equilibrium', they can lead to a deep depression.En este articulo, el profesor Vickrey muestra que la politica economica actual se basa en analisis incompletos, supuestos contrafactuales y analogias falsas. El articulo examina en detalle quince falacias que, en conjunto, llevan a politicas que, en el mejor de los casos, generan un letargo economico con tasas de desempleo cercanas al 5 o 6 por ciento. Para el profesor Vickrey, esta situacion es perjudicial por cuanto reduce la produccion potencial entre un 10 y un 15 por ciento aun asi la perdida de se reparte de forma equitativa entre toda la poblacion; pero cuando se traduce un desempleo de 10, 20 o hasta 40 por ciento para los grupos desfavorecidos, los perjuicios adicionales en terminos de pobreza, ruptura familiar, ausencia y desercion escolar, ilegitimidad, uso de drogas y crimenes llegan a ser muy graves. De modo que estas politicas se asemejan a un "incendio homicida premeditado" y, aun peor, cuando se llevan hasta sus ultimas concecuencias, en busca de un 'presupuesto equilibrado

  2. Fifteen years of GH replacement improves body composition and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbornsson, Mariam; Götherström, Galina; Bosæus, Ingvar; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Svensson, Johan

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have determined the effects of more than 5-10 years of GH replacement in adults on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. In this prospective, single-center, open-label study, the effects of 15 years of GH replacement on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 156 hypopituitary adults (93 men) with adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD). Mean age was 50.5 (range 22-74) years at study start. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean initial GH dose of 0.55 (S.E.M. 0.03) mg/day was gradually lowered to 0.40 (0.01) mg/day after 15 years. The mean serum IGF1 SDS increased from -1.53 (0.10) at baseline to 0.74 (0.13) at study end (Plevel at study end (Pbody fat (BF) started to increase and had returned to the baseline level after 15 years. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased and serum HDL-cholesterol level increased. Fasting plasma glucose increased from 4.4 (0.1) at baseline to 4.8 (0.1) mmol/l at study end (P<0.001). However, blood HbA1c decreased from 5.0 (0.1) to 4.6 (0.1) % (P<0.001). Fifteen-year GH replacement in GHD adults induced a transient decrease in BF and sustained improvements of LST and serum lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose increased whereas blood HbA1c was reduced.

  3. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  4. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.

  5. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  6. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  8. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  9. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  10. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  11. Filling the toolbox of precision breeding methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant breeding has
    resulted in numerous
    high-quality crop
    varieties being
    cultivated nowadays.
    Breeding based on
    crossing and selection
    remains an important
    and ongoing activity for
    crop improvement, but
    needs innovation to be
    able to address

  12. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  13. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  14. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  15. Progress in a Crambe cross breeding programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Lange, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex Fries) is an annual cruciferous oilseed crop with a high content of erucic acid (55-60%) in the seed oil. Since 1990, a breeding programme in crambe has been carried out at the DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research. Three accessions, two early

  16. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  17. Managing meiotic recombination in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Crossover recombination is a crucial process in plant breeding because it allows plant breeders to create novel allele combnations on chromosomes that can be used for breeding superior F1 hybrids. Gaining control over this process, in terms of increasing crossover incidence, altering crossover

  18. Genetic profile of scrapie codons 146, 211 and 222 in the PRNP gene locus in three breeds of dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouraki, Sotiria; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Alexandri, Panoraia; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Banos, Georgios; Arsenos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Polymorphisms at PRNP gene locus have been associated with resistance against classical scrapie in goats. Genetic selection on this gene within appropriate breeding programs may contribute to the control of the disease. The present study characterized the genetic profile of codons 146, 211 and 222 in three dairy goat breeds in Greece. A total of 766 dairy goats from seven farms were used. Animals belonged to two indigenous Greek, Eghoria (n = 264) and Skopelos (n = 287) and a foreign breed, Damascus (n = 215). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples from individual animals. Polymorphisms were detected in these codons using Real-Time PCR analysis and four different Custom TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies were calculated based on individual animal genotypes. Chi-square tests were used to examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state and compare genotypic distribution across breeds. Genetic distances among the three breeds, and between these and 30 breeds reared in other countries were estimated based on haplotypic frequencies using fixation index FST with Arlequin v3.1 software; a Neighbor-Joining tree was created using PHYLIP package v3.695. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.01. All scrapie resistance-associated alleles (146S, 146D, 211Q and 222K) were detected in the studied population. Significant frequency differences were observed between the indigenous Greek and Damascus breeds. Alleles 222K and 146S had the highest frequency in the two indigenous and the Damascus breed, respectively (ca. 6.0%). The studied breeds shared similar haplotypic frequencies with most South Italian and Turkish breeds but differed significantly from North-Western European, Far East and some USA goat breeds. Results suggest there is adequate variation in the PRNP gene locus to support breeding programs for enhanced scrapie resistance in goats reared in Greece. Genetic comparisons among goat breeds indicate that separate

  19. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  20. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  1. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles-Eric; Mauroux, Jehan-Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three complementary approaches were pursued: (i) tool and software development, (ii) deciphering genetic control of main horticultural traits taking into account allelic diversity and (iii) developing plant materials, tools and methodologies for breeders. Decisive breakthroughs were made including the making available of ready-to-go DNA diagnostic tests for Marker Assisted Breeding, development of new, dense SNP arrays in apple and peach, new phenotypic methods for some complex traits, software for gene/QTL discovery on breeding germplasm via Pedigree Based Analysis (PBA). This resulted in the discovery of highly predictive molecular markers for traits of horticultural interest via PBA and via Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) on several European genebank collections. FruitBreedomics also developed pre-breeding plant materials in which multiple sources of resistance were pyramided and software that can support breeders in their selection activities. Through FruitBreedomics, significant progresses were made in the field of apple and peach breeding, genetics, genomics and bioinformatics of which advantage will be made by breeders, germplasm curators and scientists. A major part of the data collected during the project has been stored in the FruitBreedomics database and has been made available to the public. This review covers the scientific discoveries made in this major endeavour, and perspective in the apple and peach breeding and genomics in Europe and beyond.

  2. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  3. Characterising fifteen years of continuous atmospheric radon activity observations at Cape Point (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R.; Labuschagne, C.; Williams, A. G.; Bosman, G.; Brunke, E.-G.; Rossouw, A.; Lindsay, R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes and discusses fifteen years (1999-2013) of continuous hourly atmospheric radon (222Rn) monitoring at the coastal low-altitude Southern Hemisphere Cape Point Station in South Africa. A strong seasonal cycle is evident in the observed radon concentrations, with maxima during the winter months, when air masses arriving at the Cape Point station from over the African continental surface are more frequently observed, and minima during the summer months, when an oceanic fetch is predominant. An atmospheric mean radon activity concentration of 676 ± 2 mBq/m3 is found over the 15-year record, having a strongly skewed distribution that exhibits a large number of events falling into a compact range of low values (corresponding to oceanic air masses), and a smaller number of events with high radon values spread over a wide range (corresponding to continental air masses). The mean radon concentration from continental air masses (1 004 ± 6 mBq/m3) is about two times higher compared to oceanic air masses (479 ± 3 mBq/m3). The number of atmospheric radon events observed is strongly dependent on the wind direction. A power spectral Fast Fourier Transform analysis of the 15-year radon time series reveals prominent peaks at semi-diurnal, diurnal and annual timescales. Two inter-annual radon periodicities have been established, the diurnal 0.98 ± 0.04 day-1 and half-diurnal 2.07 ± 0.15 day-1. The annual peak reflects major seasonal changes in the patterns of offshore versus onshore flow associated with regional/hemispheric circulation patterns, whereas the diurnal and semi-diurnal peaks together reflect the influence of local nocturnal radon build-up over land, and the interplay between mesoscale sea/land breezes. The winter-time diurnal radon concentration had a significant decrease of about 200 mBq/m3 (17%) while the summer-time diurnal radon concentration revealed nearly no changes. A slow decline in the higher radon percentiles (75th and 95th) for the

  4. A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvidge, Ch. D.; Erwin, E. H.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B. T.; Ghosh, T.; Tuttle, B. T.; Ghosh, T.; Pack, D. W.; Zhizhin, M.

    2009-01-01

    We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane). Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM). Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m 3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of 68 billions USD. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2e ) into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of gas that

  5. Targeted scan of fifteen regions for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in Filipino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R E; Cooper, M E; Daack-Hirsch, S; Shi, M; Nepomucena, B; Graf, K A; O'Brien, E K; O'Brien, S E; Marazita, M L; Murray, J C

    2004-02-15

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a congenital anomaly with variable birth prevalence based on geographic origins, with the highest rates commonly found in Asian populations. About 70% of cases are nonsyndromic (NS), in which the affected individual has no other abnormalities. NS CL/P is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental effects and no specific genetic loci yet confirmed. Fifteen candidate regions were examined for linkage to NS CL/P. Regions were chosen based on previous suggestive linkage and/or association in human families, or suggestive animal model data. Polymorphic markers in these regions were genotyped for analysis on 36 Filipino families comprised of 126 affected and 218 unaffected individuals. An additional 70 families with 149 affecteds were used for replication of suggestive results. Parametric (LOD score) and nonparametric (SIMIBD) linkage analyses were performed as well as transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis. Five markers yielded suggestive results from the 36 families. The parametric LOD scores for the MSX1-CA and D4S1629 were >1.0 and the SIMIBD P values for D6S1029 and RFC1 are suggestive (value of 0.01 for TGFA was significant. Since the Msx1 mouse knockout has cleft palate and MSX1 mutations have been found in rare cases of syndromic CL/P, this locus is especially plausible for linkage. Previous studies have also found linkage of NS CL/P to 4q31 and 6p23. These regions contain several candidate genes, including AP2 at 6p23 and FGF2, BMPR1B, and MADH1 at 4q31. TGFA has both linkage and linkage disequilibrium data supporting it as a candidate gene for NS CL/P. While no region was definitively confirmed for linkage to NS CL/P, the data do support further investigation using larger sample sizes and candidate gene studies at 2p13.2, 4p16.2, 4q31, 6p23, and 16q22-24. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Breeding ecology of buff-breasted babbler (Pellorneum tickelli at Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Research Station, Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchareeyaporn Panyaarj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the buff-breasted babbler (Pellorneum tickelli was recorded from April 2010 to May 2012 along creeks in Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Research Station, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Fifteen nests of the buff-breasted babbler were found on four creeks: Maeka, Maemard, Ong and Sikrobkrua. The general behavior of birds included foraging, excretion, locomotion, preening and vigilance. The complete breeding cycle of the buff-breasted babbler in this study was almost 1 mth. Egg clutch size was in the range 3–4 and the nestlings hatched almost simultaneously. The eggs were incubated by both the males and the females. After hatching, both parents invested in intensive parental care. As well as providing food, they also protected their nestlings. This information can be used to help with conservation planning in the area and elsewhere. Keywords: Bird nest, Breeding birds, Nestling, Parental care, Riparian

  7. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  8. A global population redistribution in a migrant shorebird detected with continent-wide qualitative breeding survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, E.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Saveliev, A.A.; Vaisanen, R.A.; Karagicheva, J.; Soloviev, M.Y.; Tomkovich, P.S.; Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Over the last two decades, thousands of northward migrating ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) have disappeared from western European staging sites. These migratory ruffs were partly temperate breeding birds, but most individuals head towards the Eurasian Arctic tundras where 95% of the global

  9. A global population redistribution in a migrant shorebird detected with continent-wide qualitative breeding survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Saveliev, Anatoly A.; Vaisanen, Risto A.; Karagicheva, Julia; Soloviev, Mikhail Y.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Piersma, Theunis; Väisänen, Risto A.; Richardson, David

    Aim Over the last two decades, thousands of northward migrating ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) have disappeared from western European staging sites. These migratory ruffs were partly temperate breeding birds, but most individuals head towards the Eurasian Arctic tundras where 95% of the global

  10. A computational approach to animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Moore, Cristopher; Saia, Jared

    2007-02-07

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding problem and analyse heuristics for two possible objectives: (1) breeding for maximum diversity and (2) breeding a target individual. These two goals are representative of conservation biology and agricultural livestock management, respectively. We evaluate several mating strategies and provide upper and lower bounds for the expected number of matings. While the population parameters may vary and can change the actual number of matings for a particular strategy, the order of magnitude of the number of expected matings and the relative competitiveness of the mating heuristics remains the same. Thus, our simple discrete model of the animal breeding problem provides a novel viable and robust approach to designing and comparing breeding strategies in captive populations.

  11. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  12. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS FOR RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE FARM ANIMAL BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kompan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European landscape is characterised by a range of diverse farming systems. These relate not only to varied geographical environments, but also to different social and cultural environments for farming and food production. This diversity is unique to Europe and underlines the importance of European agriculture. Animal breeding is a knowledge intensive sector, and for the future competitiveness of animal breeding and animal production, high level European research is indispensable. The preparation of Strategic Research Agenda were in a full process: opportunities and problems, gaps, short, medium and long term opportunities and needs for research. Each country experts from different group have opportunity to help define his country dimension of animal breeding in its regional and country context, and also in relation to European and global developments. The Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform, brings together a wide range of interested parties to produce a vision of how livestock breeding might develop in the next 20 years, and constitutes the first step in achieving that vision.

  13. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  14. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  15. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  16. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  17. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  18. Morphological Indices in Mangalitsa Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made in several Mangalitsa farm from Hungary and Romania on Red, Blonde and Swallowbelliedvarieties. Body measurements were performed on a total of 175 individuals of Mangalitsa and Mangalitsa xDuroc hybrids. There are differences in physical development among Mangalitsa varieties: blond variety has the bestbody development followed by red and swallow-bellied varieties. The average body weight for Mangalitsa pigs was109.031.4 kg and the thoracic perimeter 115.180.95 cm. Results obtained indicate that body development ofMangalitsa pigs from Hungary area, are close to the breed standard. In average height at withers was 65.872.09 cm,while height at back was 72.591.2 cm. Low coefficient of variation for both measurements (CV%=1.83 for withersheigh and 1.52% for back height indicate that pigs populations in which measurements were made are veryhomogeneous.

  19. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  20. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  1. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  3. An ordination of life histories using morphological proxies: capital vs. income breeding in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert B; Javoiš, Juhan; Kaasik, Ants; Õunap, Erki; Tammaru, Toomas

    2016-08-01

    Predictive classifications of life histories are essential for evolutionary ecology. While attempts to apply a single approach to all organisms may be overambitious, recent advances suggest that more narrow ordination schemes can be useful. However, these schemes mostly lack easily observable proxies of the position of a species on respective axes. It has been proposed that, in insects, the degree of capital (vs. income) breeding, reflecting the importance of adult feeding for reproduction, correlates with various ecological traits at the level of among-species comparison. We sought to prove these ideas via rigorous phylogenetic comparative analyses. We used experimentally derived life-history data for 57 species of European Geometridae (Lepidoptera), and an original phylogenetic reconstruction. The degree of capital breeding was estimated based on morphological proxies, including relative abdomen size of females. Applying Brownian-motion-based comparative analyses (with an original update to include error estimates), we demonstrated the associations between the degree of capital breeding and larval diet breadth, sexual size dimorphism, and reproductive season. Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model based phylogenetic analysis suggested a causal relationship between the degree of capital breeding and diet breadth. Our study indicates that the gradation from capital to income breeding is an informative axis to ordinate life-history strategies in flying insects which are affected by the fecundity vs. mobility trade off, with the availability of easy to record proxies contributing to its predictive power in practical contexts. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Modular relations for the Rogers-Ramanujan-Slater type functions of order fifteen and its applications to partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar Adiga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a manuscript of Ramanujan, published with his Lost Notebook [20] there are forty identities involving the Rogers-Ramanujan functions. In this paper, we establish several modular relations involving the Rogers-Ramanujan functions and the Rogers-Ramanujan-Slater type functions of order fifteen which are analogues to Ramanujan’s well known forty identities. Furthermore, we give partition theoretic interpretations of two modular relations.

  6. A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF α-SYNUCLEIN PATHOLOGY IN FIFTEEN CASES OF DEMENTIA ASSOCIATED WITH PARKINSON DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Richard A.; Kotzbauer, Paul T.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Hurth, Kyle M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Cairns, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    The α-synuclein-immunoreactive pathology of dementia associated with Parkinson disease (DPD) comprises Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG). The densities of LB, LN, LG together with vacuoles, neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), and glial cell nuclei were measured in fifteen cases of DPD. Densities of LN and LG were up to 19 and 70 times those of LB respectively, depending on region. Densities were significantly greater in amygdala, entorhinal cortex (EC), and sec...

  7. genetic polymorphism in eight breeds of Algeria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amal Djaout

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... 3Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 .... the implementation of future breeding plans in terms of ..... control policies based on selecting rams of resistant geno-.

  8. EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding Programmes and National/Regional Tree Seed Centres in Africa. ... Discovery and Innovation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  9. Breeding for mechanised sesame production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, D.F.; Imrie, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction of sesame germplasm from Myanmar and Mexico was not satisfactory for successful development of the Australian sesame industry. Therefore, a national breeding programme was undertaken by CSIRO and the Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries (NTDPIF). The main traits considered for selection were latitudinal adaptation, temperature response, growth habit, determinacy, palatability, capsules per leaf axil, seed shattering and seed dormancy. The CSIRO breeding efforts started in 1989 with a hybridization programme using germplasm from Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, Rep. of Korea and Venezuela. This programme resulted in selection in the F 6 generation of branched types released under the names 'Beech's choice' and 'Aussie Gold'. The NTDPIF sesame breeding programme started in 1993 with hybridization of introductions. The Mexican cultivar 'Yori 77' was selected for release, and after several years of intraline selection the uniculm cultivar 'Edith' was released in 1996. Further breeding continues to improve seed retention and resistance to charcoal rot. (author)

  10. Manual on mutation breeding. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The manual is a compilation of work done on the use of induced mutations in plant breeding, and presents general methods and techniques in this field. The use of chemical mutagens and ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, α- and β-particles, protons, neutrons) are described as well as the effects of these mutagens. The different types of mutations achieved can be divided into genome mutations, chromosome mutations and extra nuclear mutations. Separate chapters deal with mutation techniques in breeding seed-propagated species and asexually propagated plants (examples of development of cultivars given). Plant characters which can be improved by mutation breeding include yield, ripening time, growth habit, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors (temperature, salinity etc.). The use of mutagens for some specific plant breeding problems is discussed and attention is also paid to somatic cell genetics in connection with induced mutations. The manual contains a comprehensive bibliography (60 p. references) and a subject index

  11. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  12. Self-reported behaviours and attitudes of young European drivers : an analysis of SARTRE-2 results in the framework of PROMISING. Research carried out in commission of the Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt, for a project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the European project ‘SARTRE’, a representative survey of drivers was conducted in fifteen European countries. SARTRE stands for `Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe'. One of the aims of SARTRE was to monitor car drivers' changes in opinions, attitudes and norms over time. Five years

  13. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic...

  15. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  16. Intranasal Oxytocin Treatment Increases Eye-Gaze Behavior toward the Owner in Ancient Japanese Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Nagasawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs acquired unique cognitive abilities during domestication, which is thought to have contributed to the formation of the human-dog bond. In European breeds, but not in wolves, a dog’s gazing behavior plays an important role in affiliative interactions with humans and stimulates oxytocin secretion in both humans and dogs, which suggests that this interspecies oxytocin and gaze-mediated bonding was also acquired during domestication. In this study, we investigated whether Japanese breeds, which are classified as ancient breeds and are relatively close to wolves genetically, establish a bond with their owners through gazing behavior. The subject dogs were treated with either oxytocin or saline before the starting of the behavioral testing. We also evaluated physiological changes in the owners during mutual gazing by analyzing their heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent urinary oxytocin levels in both dogs and their owners. We found that oxytocin treatment enhanced the gazing behavior of Japanese dogs and increased their owners’ urinary oxytocin levels, as was seen with European breeds; however, the measured durations of skin contact and proximity to their owners were relatively low. In the owners’ HRV readings, inter-beat (R-R intervals (RRI, the standard deviation of normal to normal inter-beat (R-R intervals (SDNN, and the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (RMSSD were lower when the dogs were treated with oxytocin compared with saline. Furthermore, the owners of female dogs showed lower SDNN than the owners of male dogs. These results suggest that the owners of female Japanese dogs exhibit more tension during interactions, and apart from gazing behavior, the dogs may show sex differences in their interactions with humans as well. They also suggest that Japanese dogs use eye-gazing as an attachment behavior toward humans similar to European breeds; however, there is a disparity between the dog sexes when

  17. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  18. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  19. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  20. Breeding strategies for north central tree improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald P. Overton; Hyun Kang

    1985-01-01

    The rationales and concepts of long-term tree breeding are discussed and compared with those for short-term breeding. A model breeding program is reviewed which maximizes short-term genetic gain for currently important traits and provides genetic resources that can be used effectively in future short-term breeding. The resources of the north-central region are examined...

  1. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details of nestling growth, and fledging and post-fledging dependence periods, are provided. Breeding success was relatively poor. Early breeding attempts were more successful than late breeding attempts. Breeding failure was suspected, or known, to be associated with observer disturbance, egg breakage, failure of ...

  2. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  3. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mendel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While intensive fish production has many advantages, it also has a number of drawbacks as regards disease and stress. To date, there has been no conclusive review of disease resistance at Czech fish farms. The aim of the study was to describe briefly the existing salmonid breeding practice in the Czech Republic and to point out the trends and new possibilities gaining ground around Europe. However, the present situation in the Czech stocks is not rare at all and therefore it is used here as a model example representing numerous breeding practices in Europe. Stress and disease resistance in fish is polygenic and quantitative, making selection for such traits difficult. In recent years, however, fish breeding methods have developed rapidly, with the use of genetic analysis tools, for example, now allowing much greater selection accuracy. Gradual progress in understanding the importance of individual genetic markers offers many new options that can be utilised in breeding practice. New selection methods, such as quantitative trait loci (QTLs and genomic selection, are increasingly employed in European aquaculture. Next generation sequencing techniques now help in the finding of new and promising QTLs that can be used in assisted selection. This review maps the current progress in improving salmonid resistance to stress and disease in aquaculture and at the same time provides the breeders with a short overview of the latest tools of genetically controlled breeding and of the newest products available at the European market.

  4. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  5. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2018-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  6. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  7. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  8. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows bred to Afrikaner bulls were less (P < 0.05) productive than cows bred to other Bos taurus sires. An increase in proportion Afrikaner breeding in dam resulted in longer calving intervals and a decline in cow productivity, but these differences were not always significant. A breeding strategy for the retainment of superior ...

  9. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fifteen years of imposex and tributyltin pollution monitoring along the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeiro, Filipe; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Oliveira, Isabel Benta; Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Barroso, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    IMO's Anti-Fouling Systems convention banned the use of organotin-based antifouling systems in 2008 as the ultimate effort to stop tributyltin (TBT) inputs into the marine environment. One of the hazardous effects of TBT is imposex (the superimposition of male sexual characters onto gastropod females), a phenomenon that may cause female sterility and the gastropod populations decline. Despite previous European Union legislation had already been shown effective in reducing the imposex levels along the Portuguese coast, this study intends to confirm these decreasing trends after 2008 and describe the global evolution in the last 15 years. Imposex levels were assessed in two bioindicators - the dog-whelk Nucella lapillus and the netted-whelk Nassarius reticulatus (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) - in 2011 and 2014, and the results were compared with previous years. Both species showed progressive decreasing trends in imposex levels over the last 15 years; median values of the vas deferens sequence index (VDSI) fell from 3.96 to 0.78 in N. lapillus and from 3.39 to 0.29 in N. reticulatus. The temporal/spatial evolution of imposex suggests an apparent shift of TBT hotspots, being now restricted to fishing ports and marinas in detriment of large commercial harbours where TBT levels fell rapidly. Butyltins were measured in the whole tissues of N. lapillus females collected in 2014: monobutyltin (MBT) varied from < DL (detection limit: 1 ng Sn/g) to 13 ng Sn/g dw, dibutyltin (DBT) from 2.2 to 27 ng Sn/g dw and TBT from 1.5 to 55 ng Sn/g dw. Although TBT body burden has declined over time, the butyltin degradation index ([MBT]+[DBT])/[TBT] exhibited values < 1 in c. a. 90% of the sites assessed, suggesting that recent TBT inputs are still widespread in the Portuguese coast eventually due to illegal use of TBT antifouling systems and TBT desorption from sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  12. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  13. Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter, No. 31, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    are being screened for reduced sensitivity to radiation. The assembly and publication of the complete sequence of the wild soybean (Glycine soja) genome is a major achievement that will aid genotypic selection (mutant variation) for crop improvement in the future. A barley EST database was established with extensive sequence alignments to Arabidopsis sequences, with hyperlinks to original data sources and to the MVGS database. Plant mutation breeding continues to be relevant throughout the world. This is evident by the increasing number of crop species that are subject to mutagenesis (over 200) and the increasing numbers of mutant varieties (over 3000). While mutation techniques have become routine and standard in the plant breeding programmes in many countries, capacity in others is often lagging, and in some mutation breeding has yet to be established. We are therefore proud to report the initiation of national mutation breeding programmes in Oman, Palestine and Qatar. A recent news item underlines the increasing importance of mutation breeding as a workable alternative to GMO: The world's largest producer of seeds, Monsanto, has apparently given up on attempts to spread its genetically modified (GM) plant varieties in Europe. A German media report stated that the firm would end all lobbying for approval and has dropped any plans to have farmers grow its GM plant varieties in Europe. All over the world, protesters have been rallying against GM food - in Germany, the protest movement against GM plants has been particularly strong for years. The German Agriculture Ministry said it had been highly critical of gene modification technologies - ''The promises of GM industry have not come true for European agriculture, nor have they for the agriculture in developing and emerging economies'', the Ministry said in a statement

  14. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eggplant variety breeding aerospace Hangqie No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Guo Zhenfang; Ding Yaohong; Kong Xiaojuan

    2012-01-01

    Hangqie No.4 is on the Shenzhou spacecraft carrying no. 3 local variety reported by four generations enterprise round tomato breeding 03-4-15-2-3-1 has breeding for female to the 18th retuning-type science technology and experimental satellite launch of the optimal tomato after 0448-1-3-1 has breeding for male parent, mixture of the generation of hybrid. Medium-early maturity, 667 m 2 production 5000 kg around. Plant growth potential of half erect, with strong sex is strong, leaves thicker, purple-brown, heart-shaped, flower violet, pulp green white, The weight of per fruit 0.15 ∼ 0.35 kg. It's can be planted in open land and protected area, and grow well. (authors)

  16. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  17. Eggplant variety breeding aerospace Hangqie No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuquan; Song Jianrong; Guo Zhenfang; Ding Yaohong; Kong Xiaojuan

    2011-01-01

    Hangqie No.4 is on the shenzhou spacecraft carrying no.3 local variety reported by four generations enterprise round tomato breeding 03-4-15-2-3-1 has breeding for female to the 18th retuning-type science technology and experimental satellite launch of the optimal tomato after 04-4-8-1-3-1 has breeding for male parent, mixture of the generation of hybrid. Medium-early maturity, 667 m 2 production 5000 kg around. Plant growth potential of half erect, with strong sex is strong, leaves thicker, purple-brown, heart-shaped, flower violet, pulp green white, The weight of per fruit 0.15∼0.35 kg. It's can be planted in open land and protected area, and grow well. (authors)

  18. Study of space mutation breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Zhang Long; Dai Weixu; Li Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as return satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times. New varieties of 19 with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, have been bred though years of breeding at the earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. The new varieties include five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, three lotus varieties and one ganoderma lucidum variety. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germplasm resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted, and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breeding is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by return satellites of the first three generation in space science. Some basic parameters involved in the study on space mutation breeding of return satellites were listed

  19. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel Graphical Analyses of Runs of Homozygosity among Species and Livestock Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Iacolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH, uninterrupted stretches of homozygous genotypes resulting from parents transmitting identical haplotypes to their offspring, have emerged as informative genome-wide estimates of autozygosity (inbreeding. We used genomic profiles based on 698 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from nine breeds of domestic cattle (Bos taurus and the European bison (Bison bonasus to investigate how ROH distributions can be compared within and among species. We focused on two length classes: 0.5–15 Mb to investigate ancient events and >15 Mb to address recent events (approximately three generations. For each length class, we chose a few chromosomes with a high number of ROH, calculated the percentage of times a SNP appeared in a ROH, and plotted the results. We selected areas with distinct patterns including regions where (1 all groups revealed an increase or decrease of ROH, (2 bison differed from cattle, (3 one cattle breed or groups of breeds differed (e.g., dairy versus meat cattle. Examination of these regions in the cattle genome showed genes potentially important for natural and human-induced selection, concerning, for example, meat and milk quality, metabolism, growth, and immune function. The comparative methodology presented here permits visual identification of regions of interest for selection, breeding programs, and conservation.

  1. A genome wide survey of SNP variation reveals the genetic structure of sheep breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of sheep reflects their domestication and subsequent formation into discrete breeds. Understanding genetic structure is essential for achieving genetic improvement through genome-wide association studies, genomic selection and the dissection of quantitative traits. After identifying the first genome-wide set of SNP for sheep, we report on levels of genetic variability both within and between a diverse sample of ovine populations. Then, using cluster analysis and the partitioning of genetic variation, we demonstrate sheep are characterised by weak phylogeographic structure, overlapping genetic similarity and generally low differentiation which is consistent with their short evolutionary history. The degree of population substructure was, however, sufficient to cluster individuals based on geographic origin and known breed history. Specifically, African and Asian populations clustered separately from breeds of European origin sampled from Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America. Furthermore, we demonstrate the presence of stratification within some, but not all, ovine breeds. The results emphasize that careful documentation of genetic structure will be an essential prerequisite when mapping the genetic basis of complex traits. Furthermore, the identification of a subset of SNP able to assign individuals into broad groupings demonstrates even a small panel of markers may be suitable for applications such as traceability.

  2. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    model identified two novel QTL for common bunt resistance located on wheat chromosomes 2B and 7 A. The identification of new resistance loci may help to broaden our understanding of common bunt resistance in wheat, and QTL may potentially be exploited by marker assisted selection in plant breeding. QTL...... markers for common bunt resistance may potentially help to speed up resistance breeding by shortening the long time required for phenotypic disease screening. Here, we report the results of 1. an association mapping study for common bunt resistance, 2. a QTL mapping study for the localization of common...

  3. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities.

  4. Farm-by-farm analysis of microsatellite, mtDNA and SNP genotype data reveals inbreeding and crossbreeding as threats to the survival of a native Spanish pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Medrano, J M; Megens, H J; Crooijmans, R P; Abellaneda, J M; Ramis, G

    2013-06-01

    The Chato Murciano (CM), a pig breed from the Murcia region in the southeastern region of Spain, is a good model for endangered livestock populations. The remaining populations are bred on approximately 15 small farms, and no herdbook exists. To assess the genetic threats to the integrity and survival of the CM breed, and to aid in designing a conservation program, three genetic marker systems - microsatellites, SNPs and mtDNA - were applied across the majority of the total breeding stock. In addition, mtDNA and SNPs were genotyped in breeds that likely contributed genetically to the current CM gene pool. The analyses revealed the levels of genetic diversity within the range of other European local breeds (H(e) = 0.53). However, when the eight farms that rear at least 10 CM pigs were independently analyzed, high levels of inbreeding were found in some. Despite the evidence for recent crossbreeding with commercial breeds on a few farms, the entire breeding stock remains readily identifiable as CM, facilitating the design of traceability assays. The genetic management of the breed is consistent with farm size, farm owner and presence of other pig breeds on the farm, demonstrating the highly ad hoc nature of current CM breeding. The results of genetic diversity and substructure of the entire breed, as well as admixture and crossbreeding obtained in the present study, provide a benchmark to develop future conservation strategies. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that identifying farm-based practices and farm-based breeding stocks can aid in the design of a sustainable breeding program for minority breeds. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  6. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  7. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  8. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  9. Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O

    2001-01-01

    The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of existi...

  10. Black Sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus breeding behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, delivery of fresh leaf material to the nest site increased with chick age. Over the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons respectively 74% and 41% of nests successfully fledged chicks, with the majority of these producing two offspring. Keywords: brooding, incubation, nest building, parental care, reproductive success ...

  11. On statistical selection in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourleijn, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is the development of new varieties. An important phase in the development process is testing and selecting potential new varieties. The varieties are tested by means of experiments at various sites, (sometimes) in several years. The observations from the

  12. Mutation breeding for crop improvement: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70 years have passed since radiation was used successfully to generate genetic variation in plants. Since the research on theoretical basis of mutagenesis was performed with a peak in the mid sixties. The result of these investigations led to the formulation of methodological principles in the use of various mutagens for the creation and selection of desired variability. The induced genetic variability has been extensively used for evolution of crop varieties as well as in breeding programmes. More than 1800 varieties of 154 plants species have so far been released for commercial cultivation, of which cereals are at the top, demonstrating the economics of the mutation breeding technique. The most frequently occurring mutations have been the short stature and really maturity. In Pakistan, the use of mutation breeding technique for the improvement of crops has also led to the development of 34 cultivars of cotton, rice, wheat, chickpea, mungbean and rapeseed which have played a significant role in increasing crop production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross breeding programmes, and the breeders in Pakistan have released six varieties of cotton by using an induced mutant as one of the parents. (author)

  13. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  14. Stamina and Clout Define This Rare Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Takeover artists are a rare breed. Persons hired to put bankrupt school systems back on the road to academic solvency need stamina, clout, and plenty of experience. For all their state-given powers, takeover superintendents must identify key constituencies, build bridges, and promote belief in change from within. (MLH)

  15. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. UNUSUAL BREEDING BY SEABIRDS AT MARION ISLAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  17. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  18. Mary Bidwell Breed: The Educator as Dean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fley, Jo Ann; Jaramillo, George R.

    1979-01-01

    Mary Bidwell Breed predicted that midwestern universities would probably "pass through a stage of educational development in which the liberal arts are entirely feminized, the men are entirely commercialized." We can appreciate how close she came to pinpointing trends which did not begin to be reversed until sixty years later.…

  19. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  20. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue reports on the creation of the Agency's Subprogramme of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems (E1) through the merger of the Soils and Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogrammes together with part of the Entomology Subprogramme activities. Implementation of a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Effects of Mutagenic Agents on the DNA Sequence in Plants, and the successful submission of a new CRP proposal on Pyramiding of Mutated Genes Contributing to Crop Quality and Resistance to Stress Affecting Quality were among the major activities of our Subprogramme during the last six months. We actively participated in the International Year of Rice (IYR 2004) events such as the Meeting of the Informal International Working Group on the International Year of Rice (IIWG) and the FAO Rice Conference on Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems (Rome, Italy), both in February this year. A lot of work has been concentrated this last semester on the preparation of Programme and Budget for the biennium 2006-2007 and the appraisal of TC proposals for the biennium 2005-2006. The Mutation Breeding Newsletter and the Mutation Breeding Review will merge to become the Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews (MBN and R). Starting at the end of July, the MBN and R will appear on a regular basis

  1. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo

    2007-06-01

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits

  2. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young

    horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity

    of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male

    reproduction. The study was

  3. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  4. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  5. Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of breeding methods when introducing multiple resistance genes from American to Chinese wheat. JN Qi, X Zhang, C Yin, H Li, F Lin. Abstract. Stripe rust is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars with resistance genes is the most effective method to control this ...

  6. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 25 %of pairs laid eggs, and mating appears to have been constrained by low nectar and arthropod energy availability, and the costs associated with the defence of large territories. Reproductive success was directly related to arthropod availability on territories, with pairs not even appearing to attempt breeding if this is ...

  7. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  8. Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...

  9. Analysis of the Correlation between the Fodder Receipts and the Economical Performances of the Pig Breeding Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Anica-Popa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respecting the European Union normative regarding the average weight of carcasses processed in the slaughter-houses, as well as the quality of the delivered meat, impose the search for the optimum variants for pig breeding. The present study aims at the identification of the correlations between the fodder receipts and the performances of the pig breeding farms through the pursuit of the effects of different fodder variants on the daily weight increase, on the moment when the optimum sacrifice weight is reached, and on the probability to reach a certain level of increase in weight. There are presented several considerations regarding the performance expressed with the help of the profit, the commercial profitability ratio, the profitability ratio of the consumed resources. Based on the results of the research, several conclusions are presented, regarding the influences of the fodder receipts on the production cost and of the performances of the pig breeding farms, as well as future research directions.

  10. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  11. Organic plant breeding and propagation : concepts and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Key-words : crop ideotype, genetic diversity, integrity of plants, intrinsic value, isophenic line mixture varieties, organic plant breeding, organic farming, organic propagation, participatory plant breeding, variety characteristics,

  12. Floral syndrome and breeding system of Senna (Cassia) corymbosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Key words: Senna, pollen, pollination, breeding system. ... through winter in frost free areas. Okogun et al. (2000) ... But the breeding system character was ..... hairy, black and yellow bee whose size can range from 1.5.

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water samples was carried out in the Nigerian ... Key words: Malaria, Anopheles mosquitoes, breeding habitat, physico-chemical properties. ... Anopheles mosquito has been found to breed in.

  14. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  15. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  16. Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local ...

  17. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, T. N.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish...... Pointing Dog (ODP; n = 24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n = 23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile...... as the degree of polymorphism (P%) ranked the dog breeds in the order DS > DSF > BR > ODP > GD. Interestingly, the breed with a tenfold higher census population size compared to the other breeds, the Greenland Dog, had the lowest within-breed genetic variation, emphasizing that census size is a poor predictor...

  18. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Saudi goat breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... rational breeding strategy for genetic improvement of goats in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The studied. Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and Asian populations seem to have ..... West Asia and North Africa, Vol. 2.

  19. Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African dairy cattle. ... are not unity, the RM-model estimates more competitive variances and requires ... are therefore recommended for breeding value estimation on a national basis.

  20. Brain Injury and Severe Eating Difficulties at Admission-Patient Perspective Nine to Fifteen Months after Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Four individuals with acquired brain injury were ...... the patient perspective of adapting to and developing new strategies for activities related to eating, however, further prospective, longitudinal research in a larger scale and with repeated interviews is needed....... interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating and drinking, meals and social life...... the ability to eat reduced or lost completely, even temporarily, was unexpected and difficult, and caused strong emotional reactions, even 18 months after injury. Time spent using a feeding tube had a negative, but not persistent, impact on quality-of-life. The preliminary findings provide knowledge regarding...

  1. Tritium breeding blanket device of D-T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.

    1984-01-01

    This blanket device uses solid tritium breeding materials as those which include, in a known manner, near a neutron breeding plasma, a neutron multiplier medium and a tritium breeding medium, cooled by a cooling fluid circulation. This device is characterized by the fact that the association of the multiplier media and the tritium breeding media is realized by pellet alternated piling up of each of those both media, help in close contact on all their lateral surfaces [fr

  2. Current status and research of plant space mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xinmian

    2011-01-01

    Plant space mutation breeding and discussed themechanism of plant space mutagenesis. The variations of organisms were induced by the comprehensive effects of high vacuum, microgravity,incense radiat ion and so on. The application of space mutation breeding and inheritance in specially good grmplasm material in China were well summarized. The prospects of space mutat ion breeding was described. The space mutagenesis will provided a new way for the future breeding. (author)

  3. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Warmuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  5. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both genetic and epigenetic controls influence genetic expression and should be taken into account when formulating breeding programmes. Subsistence farmers keep livestock for multiple purposes and the formulation of breeding objectives/strategies will have to consider these dynamics. Keywords: Breeding ...

  6. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  7. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Dong Xicun; Zhou Libin; Ma Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  8. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  9. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  10. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  11. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  12. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    . This is largely in agreement with the breed clusters indicated by a biochemical and molecular genetic analysis, which reflect either groups of breeds with a common geographic origin or single breeds that have expanded by export and/or crossbreeding. We propose that this information is also relevant for managing...

  13. THE VIR COLLECTION – A SOURCE OF INITIAL BREEDING MATERIAL FOR THE PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF BREEDING OF A VEGETABLE MARROW AND PUMPKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Piskunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable marrow and pumpkin are valuable vegetable crops thanks to high food and dietary qualities of fruits. Russia is on the third place in the world on gross yield of these crops, but on productivity takes the 11th place among the European countries. The state register of breeding achievements permitted for utilization in the territory of the Russian Federation for 2016, contains 152 varieties and a hybrids of vegetable marrows and the 138 pumpkins. But there are not enough varieties of a wide area, there are practically no ultra early varieties, there are not enough pumpkin varieties with a bush habitus of plants. The collection of pumpkins and vegetable marrows which is a source of valuable genotypes for the solution of actual tasks of breeding contains 2641 accessions from 99 countries of the world and wins the first place in the number of accessions among world genebanks. The greatest part of a collection (more than 1500 accessions is constituted by advanced varieties, the second part of a collection (more than one thousand accessions – local forms of pumpkins. Not large collection, about 50 accessions, but quite significant for its scientific and breeding values consists of hybrids, self-pollinated lines and donors of valuable traits. As a result of long-term evaluation of breeding accessions the germplasm collection that includes sources of valuable traits has been created. Genetic collection of pumpkin includes accessions with such traits as resistance to a virus mosaic, a naked seeds, bush habitus plants, spaghetti like fruit, parthenocarpy.

  14. Achievements in NS rapeseed hybrids breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is evident on a global scale, but also in Serbia in the last decade. Rapeseed is used primarily for vegetable oil and processing industry, but also as a source of protein for animal feed and green manure. Following the cultivation of varieties, breeding and cultivation of hybrid rapeseed started in the 1990's, to take advantage of heterosis in F1 generation, while protecting the breeder's rights during seed commercialization. The breeding of hybrid oilseed rape requires high quality starting material (lines with good combining abilities for introduction of male sterility. Ogura sterility system is primarily used at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. To use this system, separate lines are modified with genes for cytoplasmic male sterility (cms female line - mother line and restoration of fertility (Rf male lines - father line. In order to maintain the sterility of the mother line it is necessary to produce a maintainer line of cytoplasmic male sterility. Creation of these lines and hybrids at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops was successfully monitored with intense use of cytogenetic laboratory methods. The structure and vitality of pollen, including different phases during meiosis were checked so that cms stability was confirmed during the introduction of these genes into different lines. Rapeseed breeding program in Serbia resulted in numerous varieties through collaboration of researchers engaged in breeding and genetics of this plant species. So far, in addition to 12 varieties of winter rapeseed and two varieties of spring rapeseed, a new hybrid of winter rapeseed NS Ras was registered in Serbia. NS Ras is an early-maturing hybrid characterized by high seed yield and oil content. Average yield of NS Ras for two seasons and three sites was 4256 kg ha-1 of seed and 1704 kg ha-1 of oil. Three promising winter rapeseed hybrids are in the process of

  15. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  16. Future breeding for organic and low-input agriculture: integrating values and modern breeding tools for improving robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker

  17. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik.

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with γ-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of γ-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10∼12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs

  18. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab [Pathumthani Rice Research Center (Thailand)

    2001-03-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  19. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab

    2001-01-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  20. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  1. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997-1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  2. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  4. Status on DEMO Helium Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket thermo-mechanical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, G.; Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kiss, B. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Morin, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. The DEMO HCLL breeding blanket design capitalizes on the experience acquired on the HCLL Test Blanket Module designed for ITER. Design improvements are being implemented to adapt the design to DEMO specifications and performance objectives. • Thermal and mechanical analyses have been carried out in order to justify the design of the HCLL breeding blanket showing promising results for tie rods modules’ attachments system and relatively good behavior of the box in case of LOCA when comparing to RCC-MRx criteria. • CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit have enabled the consolidation of the results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. - Abstract: The EUROfusion Consortium develops a design of a fusion power demonstrator (DEMO) in the framework of the European “Horizon 2020” innovation and research program. One of the key components in the fusion reactor is the breeding blanket surrounding the plasma, ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, heat removal for conversion into electricity, and neutron shielding. The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket is one of the concepts which is investigated for DEMO. It is made of a Eurofer structure and uses the eutectic liquid lithium–lead as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and helium gas as coolant. Within the EUROfusion organization, CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. This paper presents the status of the thermal and mechanical analyses carried out on the HCLL breeding blanket in order to justify the design. CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit including stiffening plates and cooling plates have been performed with ANSYS in order to consolidate results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. Moreover in order to expand the justification of the HCLL Breeding blanket design, the most loaded area of

  5. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  6. Selection problems and objectives in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Key, J.

    1984-01-01

    In plant breeding, major genes are preferably handled by inbreeding, back-crosses and selection through the family/pedigree method. Polygenic systems need gene accumulation, i.e. handling in bulk allowing natural/recurrent selection to operate. The two types of genetic control normally occur together irrespective of whether the variation is created by crossing or by mutagenesis. Cross-breeding can conveniently work with both types of variation and offers a range of genetic backgrounds. Problems are the often enormous recombination potential risking the break-down of already accomplished genic constellations or undesirable linkages. Mutation induction implies a scattered mono- to oligo-factorial variation mostly functioning as a negative load. As a result, it will be difficult and unrealistic to try to explore micromutations, as defined by Gaul, in vegetatively propagated and autogamous crop plants. Quantitative analyses have not been able to give guidance since the induced variation includes disturbed vitality and main or side-effects of events that are possible to define as macro-mutations. The possibility of better exhausting the variation induced will mainly depend on the precision in selection techniques, i.e. by dividing complex traits into their components, by improving environmental conditions for selection, and/or by sharpening the screening technique. Contrary to recombination breeding, mutation-induced variation does not fit a plan encompassing overall agronomic traits simultaneously. The progress has to go step by step. Thus, even more than in cross-breeding, it is important that accurately outlined objectives be set. Some characters, such as flower colour, can easily be defined while others, such as yield, may be more interdependent, calling for compromises difficult to foresee. The complexity of the latter category of traits is illustrated by the interaction pattern in relation to grain yield in cereals where both shoot and root are considered

  7. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This third issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional (Afra) training course on 'molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in traditional and neglected crops selected for improvement through mutation techniques' and seminar on 'mutation techniques and biotechnology for tropical and subtropical plant improvement in Asia and Pacific regions'. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  8. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  9. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  10. Mechanical design of the TIBER breeding shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, J.; Deutsch, L. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-04-01

    TIBER features a segmented shield assembly that provides the nuclear shielding for the superconducting toroidal field coils. In addition to its primary function, the shield also provides tritium breeding through the use of water coolant that contains 16 wt% dissolved lithium nitrate. Because the TIBER reactor need not provide electrical power, the coolant is maintained at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and low temperature (75/sup 0/C). The shield is made in several segments to facilitate assembly and allow for replacement of high heat flux components (divertor blades). The segments are designated as inboard, outboard, upper, lower, and divertor modules. In total, there are 96 separate modules in the machine, consisting of six different types. The design features of the different modules vary primarily depending on the thickness of the shield in a given location. The very thick outboard shield has a breeding zone in the inboard portion of the module, with a shielding zone behind it. The breeding zone consists of a stainless steel casing filled with beryllium spheres. The shielding zone consists of the same casing filled with steel spheres. Both of these zones have lithiated water circulated throughout to provide cooling and breeding. In zones with minimal thickness, tungsten alloys are used to achieve the required shielding. These alloys are incoprorated in subassemblies utilizing stainless steel casings surrounding blocks of tungsten heavy metal alloy. These are infiltrated with lead on final assembly to form a thermally continuous panel. Several of these panels are then assembled into an outer stainless steel case to form an inboard module. These modules also use the lithiated coolant. The details of the design are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  11. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  12. Chernobyl: fifteen years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel J.; )

    2001-01-01

    On Saturday 26 April 1986, an accident which was to have global repercussions occurred at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident involved the largest short term release from a single source of radioactive materials to the atmosphere ever recorded. The debate about the consequences of the accident of Chernobyl became a real saga, probably one of the most extensive controversial history of the modern technological era. There was a general concern among the population regarding the health consequences of such releases and the safety of nuclear facilities. (author)

  13. American social sciences and Europeanization: theories of integration in the early 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Flora McIntyre

    2017-01-01

    This thesis seeks to investigate the influence of American intellectual trends, namely structural functionalism, on the first fifteen years of Europeanization after the end of World War Two. In particular, it examines the role played by German intellectual refugees in the development of neofunctionalist theories of integration that accompanied American policymaking in this era by focusing on the work of Karl Deutsch and Ernst Haas in the 1940s and 1950s. It analyses their account of the condi...

  14. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation

  15. The ecology of cooperative breeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-06-01

    Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  17. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  18. Genetic diversity of dog breeds: within-breed diversity comparing genealogical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Verrier, E; Meriaux, J C; Rognon, X

    2009-06-01

    The genetic diversity of 61 dog breeds raised in France was investigated. Genealogical analyses were performed on the pedigree file of the French kennel club. A total of 1514 dogs were also genotyped using 21 microsatellite markers. For animals born from 2001 to 2005, the average coefficient of inbreeding ranged from 0.2% to 8.8% and the effective number of ancestors ranged from 9 to 209, according to the breed. The mean value of heterozygosity was 0.62 over all breeds (range 0.37-0.77). At the breed level, few correlations were found between genealogical and molecular parameters. Kinship coefficients and individual similarity estimators were, however, significantly correlated, with the best mean correlation being found for the Lynch & Ritland estimator (r = 0.43). According to both approaches, it was concluded that special efforts should be made to maintain diversity for three breeds, namely the Berger des Pyrénées, Braque Saint-Germain and Bull Terrier.

  19. Cortisol-binding globulin and meat quality in five European lines of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Foury, A.; Plastow, G.S.; Gil, L.; Gispert, M.; Hortós, M.; Font I Furnols, M.; Gort, G.; Moisan, M.P.; Mormède, P.

    2006-01-01

    The gene (Cbg) encoding cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) has been proposed as a candidate gene to explain genetic variation in cortisol secretion and carcass composition in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between CBG and pork quality in 5 European breeding lines,

  20. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  1. The First Fifteen Years of Steroid Receptor Research in Zebrafish; Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel J. M. Schaaf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones regulate a wide range of processes in our body, and their effects are mediated by steroid receptors. In addition to their physiological role, these receptors mediate the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs and are widely used targets for dugs involved in the treatment of numerous diseases, ranging from cancer to inflammatory disorders. Over the last fifteen years, the zebrafish has increasingly been used as an animal model in steroid receptor research. Orthologues of all human steroid receptor genes appear to be present in zebrafish. All zebrafish steroid receptors have been characterized in detail, and their expression patterns have been analyzed. Functional studies have been performed using morpholino knockdown of receptor expression and zebrafish lines carrying mutations in one of their steroid receptor genes. To investigate the activity of the receptors in vivo, specific zebrafish reporter lines have been developed, and transcriptomic studies have been carried out to identify biomarkers for steroid receptor action. In this review, an overview of research on steroid receptors in zebrafish is presented, and it is concluded that further exploitation of the possibilities of the zebrafish model system will contribute significantly to the advancement of steroid receptor research in the next decade.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Insulin Degludec versus Insulin Glargine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fifteen Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Insulin degludec (IDeg and insulin glargine (IGlar are both proved to be effective in diabetes. This study aimed to assess the effects and safety of IDeg versus IGlar. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library electronic databases to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Results. Fifteen RCTs were identified. The combined data showed that the decrease in the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level was slightly different, and the proportion of patients who achieved HbA1c < 7% was similar between the IDeg and IGlar groups. Further, a statistically significant decrease in the fasting plasma glucose level was observed in the IDeg group as compared to the IGlar group. In patients with T2DM, IDeg was associated with lower rates of overall hypoglycemia. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was significantly lower in the case of IDeg than in the case of IGlar in both T1DM and T2DM patients. No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. Conclusions. Compared with IGlar, IDeg is associated with equivalent glycemic control and a statistically significantly lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with T1DM and T2DM. In T2DM patients, IDeg also provides better results in terms of overall hypoglycemia.

  3. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  4. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  5. Ancient earthquakes in the Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, South of Spain): Fifteen years of archaeosimology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.G.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Reicherter, K.; Rodriguez-Pascua, J.L.; Gruetzner, C.; Garcia-Jimenez, I.; Carrasco Garcia, P.; Bardaji, T.; Santos, G.; Roquero, E.; Roez, J.; Perucha, M.A.; Perez-Lopez, R.; Fernandez Macarro, B.; Martinez-Grana, A.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.

    2016-07-01

    This work illustrates the state of the art on archaeoseismology of the ancient Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz) after nearly fifteen years of research. This ancient Roman site was affected by two earthquakes in the years AD 40–60 and AD 260–290 which promoted important urban and architectural changes and eventually the destruction and further abandonment of the city in AD 365–390. Earthquake Archaeoseismological Effects (EAEs) are catalogued, described and mapped in the entire monumental sector of the city mainly witnessing the last earthquake which occurred in AD 260–290. Mapping of oriented EAEs illustrate damage distribution all over the lower sector of the city, as well as the occurrence of suspect coseismic landslide and tsunami events. The structural analysis of oriented EAEs throughout the entire mapped sector suggests that the intervening ground motion was preferentially oriented in a SW to NE direction. The geoarchaeological analysis and some relevant archaeological anomalies, strongly suggest the occurrence of coeval tsunami events during both ancient earthquakes, pointing to the occurrence of an offshore seismic source SSW of the city. Several N-S normal faults have been identified around the Bolonia Bay area and some of them continue offshore SSW of Baelo Claudia. These faults with clear Quaternary activity can be considered as the more probable seismic sources for the events affecting the ancient Roman site and they are consistent with the mapped damage orientation displayed by the structural analysis of EAEs within the old Roman city. (Author)

  6. Post-irradiation examination of fifteen UO2/PuO2-fuel pins from the experiment DFR-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geithoff, D.

    1975-06-01

    Within the framework of the fuel pin development for a sodium-cooled fast reactor a subassembly containing 77 fuel pins has been irradiated up to 5.65% fima in the Dounreay fast reactor. The pins were prototypes in terms of fuel and cladding material. The fuel consisted of mechanically mixed UO 2 (80%) and PuO 2 (20%) pressed into pellets whereas austenitic steels (W.-No. 1,4961 and 1,4988) were used as cladding material. Furthermore a blanket column of UO 2 pellets and a gas plenum were incorporated in the pin. For irradiation the conditions in a fast breeder were simulated by a linear rod power of 450 W/cm and a maximum cladding temperature of 630 0 C. After the successful completion of the irradiation, the subassembly was dismantled and fifteen pins were selected for a nondestructive and destructive examination. The tests included visual control, measurement of external dimensions, γ-spectroscopy, X-ray radiography, fission gas measurement, ceramography, radiochemical burn-up measurement. The results are presented. The most important results of the examinations seem to be the migration of fission product cesium and the fact that no signs of impending pin failure have been found. Thus the pin specification tested in this experiment is capable of achieving higher burnups under the irradiation conditions described above. (orig./AK) [de

  7. For a responsible energetic future. Energy: let us rejoice, France is waking up. Fifteen tales on energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In a first article, the author discusses the possible content of a law on energy transition which is supposed to be voted by the Parliament during the autumn 2014, and which will probably decide the shutting down of some French nuclear plants. The author outlines the social, economical and energy-related consequences of such a policy. In a second article he rejoices over the publication of two reports (one on the Energy Climate Package by the Cour des Comptes, and one by the General Commissioner for Strategy and Prospective) which consider that the objectives of development of renewable energies (notably wind and photovoltaic) are too ambitious and even unrealistic, and outline the bad management of investments and the inefficiency of action by the ADEME and the Ministry of Ecology. In the third article he denounces fifteen 'tales' about the German energy model, the uselessness of seven German nuclear plants which have been stopped, the low cost of energy transition, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new electricity storage means, the electric car as a new mean of storage of electric current, the sun which does not send any bill, wind energy (when a wind farm is said to be able to supply energy to so many thousands households), geothermal energy production, technological leap, the benefit of decentralization, the miracle of job creation by renewable energies, the ecologic electricity, nuclear wastes we do not know what to do with

  8. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  9. Defining the breeding goal for a sheep breed including production and functional traits using market data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, A; Ragkos, A; Rose, G; Roustemis, D; Arsenos, G

    2017-11-16

    In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal. The estimated economic values of the traits revealed their economic impact on the definition of the breeding goal for the specified production system. Milk production and fertility had the highest economic values (€40.30 and €20.28 per standard genetic deviation (SDa)), while, mastitis only had a low negative value of -0.57 €/SDa. Therefore, breeding for clinical mastitis will have a minor impact on farm profitability because it affects a small proportion of the flock and has low additive variance. The production traits, which include milk production, prolificacy and milking speed, contributed most to the breeding goal (70.0%), but functional traits still had a considerable share (30.0%). The results of this study highlight the importance of the knowledge of economic values of traits in the design of a breeding program. It is also suggested that the production and functional traits under consideration can be categorized as those which can be efficiently treated through genetic improvement (e.g. milk production and fertility) while others would be better dealt with through managerial interventions (e.g. mastitis occurrence). Also, sub-clinical mastitis that affects a higher proportion of flocks could have a higher contribution to breeding goals.

  10. Peptide biomarkers used for the selective breeding of a complex polygenic trait in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarna, M Marta; Hoover, Shelley E; Huxter, Elizabeth; Higo, Heather; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Domanski, Dominik; Bixby, Miriam E F; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Ibrahim, Abdullah; Peirson, Michael; Desai, Suresh; Micholson, Derek; White, Rick; Borchers, Christoph H; Currie, Robert W; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-08-21

    We present a novel way to select for highly polygenic traits. For millennia, humans have used observable phenotypes to selectively breed stronger or more productive livestock and crops. Selection on genotype, using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome profiling, is also now applied broadly in livestock breeding programs; however, selection on protein/peptide or mRNA expression markers has not yet been proven useful. Here we demonstrate the utility of protein markers to select for disease-resistant hygienic behavior in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Robust, mechanistically-linked protein expression markers, by integrating cis- and trans- effects from many genomic loci, may overcome limitations of genomic markers to allow for selection. After three generations of selection, the resulting marker-selected stock outperformed an unselected benchmark stock in terms of hygienic behavior, and had improved survival when challenged with a bacterial disease or a parasitic mite, similar to bees selected using a phenotype-based assessment for this trait. This is the first demonstration of the efficacy of protein markers for industrial selective breeding in any agricultural species, plant or animal.

  11. Preliminary study on MC1R polymorphism in some cattle breeds raised in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Renieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........

  12. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  13. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P., E-mail: delahaye@ganil.fr; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galatà, A.; Patti, G. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC–Université Grenoble Alpes–CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 Blvd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, PB 35 (YFL), 40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wenander, F. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.

  14. Evaluation of Red Raspberry Cultivars Used for Breeding and Commercial Growing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lācis Gunārs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of raspberry cultivars and genetic resources in the Baltic countries have been influenced by the historical political situation in the 20th century and climatic conditions, especially winterhardiness. The genetic resources consist of some old European and American cultivars, but mostly of cultivars and hybrids bred in Russia. Currently, targeted breeding programmes are active only in Estonia and Latvia, which aim to develop winterhardy, disease-resistant cultivars, well adapted to the local climate. Therefore, parent material for hybridisation has been chosen from local advanced hybrids and introduced cultivars suitable to the regional climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of genetic diversity of Rubus germplasm and assess inter-specific and intra-specific relationships using phenotypical characterisation and molecular markers. Forty one Rubus genotypes were evaluated by 41 phenotypical traits and 15 previously described SSR markers. Both characterisation approaches discovered high correspondence with pedigree and a low level of diversity. A limited amount of the diversity of raspberry genetic material has been used in various breeding programmes, despite their broad geographical origin. The obtained results indicate the need for including local wild R. idaeus plant material into breeding programmes.

  15. Predation risk determines breeding territory choice in a Mediterranean cavity-nesting bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M

    2011-01-01

    Non-direct effects of predation can be an important component of the total effect of predation, modulating animal population and community dynamics. The isolated effects of predation risk on the spatial organisation of the breeding bird community, however, remains poorly studied. We investigated whether an experimentally increased predation risk prior to reproduction affected breeding territory selection and subsequent reproductive strategies in three Mediterranean cavity-nesting birds, i.e., the little owl Athene noctua, European roller Coracias garrulus and scops owl Otus scops. We found that territories used the previous year were more likely to be re-occupied when they belonged to the safe treatment rather than to the risky treatment. The first choice of breeders of all three species was for safe territories over risky ones. When all breeding attempts in the season (i.e., final occupation) were considered, breeders also preferred safe to risky sites. In addition, little owls laid larger eggs in risky territories than in safe territories. Our study provides experimental evidence of a rapid preventive response of the three most abundant species in a cavity-nesting bird community to a short-term manipulation of predation risk. This response highlights the key role of the non-direct effects of predation in modulating avian community organisation.

  16. Effect on milk production of F1 crossbreds resulted from Alpine breed (♂ x Albanian local goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristaq Kume

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  17. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H; Enoeda, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  18. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  19. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  20. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  1. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  2. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  3. Ram and Buck Breeding Soundness Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TIBARY

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Male breeding soundness examination (BSE is an important component of sheep and goat farming. BSE is best performed 2 months before the breeding season and is based on clinical and physical examination as well as sperm abnormalities detection. Rams are classified based on physical examination and semen evaluation finding in one of 4 categories: Unsatisfactory, questionable, satisfactory, and excellent. The satisfactory rams will achieve good reproductive performance if joined to ewes at a ratio of 1:50 for 60 days. However exceptional rams are expected to achieve good reproductive performance at a ratio of 1 ram to 100 ewes. For Buck, scrotal circumference should be at least 25 cm for breeds weighing more than 40 kg. Buck is deemed satisfactory breeder if he passes the physical examination, and has an ejaculate with at least 50% progressively motile spermatozoa and less than 30% total sperm abnormalities. This paper reviews factors affecting fertility, sperm production and quality as well as libido and mating ability in the ram. Details of genital examination and semen evaluation and interpretation of results are discussed. Classification of rams according to their reproductive potential is presented. Specific recommendations, when available for the buck, are highlighted. The main genital diseases are presented. The most frequent culling reason for ram is epididymitis due to Brucella ovis. Systematic culling of rams with epididymitis improves flock lambing rates by 10 to 15%. Overall, the examination of the reproductive capacity in the ram and the buck is an important tool for improvement of flocks/herds fertility and prevention of contagious or hereditary diseases.

  4. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  6. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author).

  7. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author)

  8. Present state and problems of mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, A. (Agrartudomanyi Egyetem, Goedoelloe (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The major achievements and problems of mutation breeding are discussed according to recent international references. Examples for the production of microorganism resistant tobacco, maize, cabbage, disease resistant sugar cane and some freeze resistant plants are listed. Special opportunities offered by mutation to increase photosynthesis and to improve yields are discussed. The significance of the new techniques to produce induced mutants by means of tissue cultures, to fix N/sub 2/ for leguminosae and to affect the activities of N/sub 2/ fixing microorganisms is emphasized.

  9. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  10. Nuclear reactor for breeding 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohanan, C.S.; Jones, D.H.; Raab, H.F. Jr.; Radkowsky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A light-water-cooled nuclear reactor capable of breeding 233 U for use in a light-water breeder reactor includes physically separated regions containing 235 U fissile material and 238 U fertile material and 232 Th fertile material and 239 Pu fissile material, if available. Preferably the 235 U fissile material and 238 U fertile material are contained in longitudinally movable seed regions and the 239 Pu fissile material and 232 Th fertile material are contained in blanket regions surrounding the seed regions. 1 claim, 5 figures

  11. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  12. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    These last six months, the Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division (NAFA/AGE) implemented five Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) and one Consultants Meeting for a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Molecular tools for quality improvement in vegetatively propagated crops including banana and cassava' (8-11 November 2004, Vienna). Other salient points were the training courses we implemented this semester in the framework of different Technical Cooperation (TC) projects.Details about these activities inside this Newsletter

  13. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  14. A Haplotype Information Theory Method Reveals Genes of Evolutionary Interest in European vs. Asian Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Naval-Sánchez, Marina; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Reverter, Antonio

    2018-06-05

    Asian and European wild boars were independently domesticated ca. 10,000 years ago. Since the 17th century, Chinese breeds have been imported to Europe to improve the genetics of European animals by introgression of favourable alleles, resulting in a complex mosaic of haplotypes. To interrogate the structure of these haplotypes further, we have run a new haplotype segregation analysis based on information theory, namely compression efficiency (CE). We applied the approach to sequence data from individuals from each phylogeographic region (n = 23 from Asia and Europe) including a number of major pig breeds. Our genome-wide CE is able to discriminate the breeds in a manner reflecting phylogeography. Furthermore, 24,956 non-overlapping sliding windows (each comprising 1,000 consecutive SNP) were quantified for extent of haplotype sharing within and between Asia and Europe. The genome-wide distribution of extent of haplotype sharing was quite different between groups. Unlike European pigs, Asian pigs haplotype sharing approximates a normal distribution. In line with this, we found the European breeds possessed a number of genomic windows of dramatically higher haplotype sharing than the Asian breeds. Our CE analysis of sliding windows capture some of the genomic regions reported to contain signatures of selection in domestic pigs. Prominent among these regions, we highlight the role of a gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme LACTB which has been associated with obesity, and the gene encoding MYOG a fundamental transcriptional regulator of myogenesis. The origin of these regions likely reflects either a population bottleneck in European animals, or selective targets on commercial phenotypes reducing allelic diversity in particular genes and/or regulatory regions.

  15. Social information in nest colonisation and occupancy in a long-lived, solitary breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    Recent work increasingly reveals the importance of social information in individual dispersal decisions, population dynamics and conservation. Much of the knowledge gained to date comes from studies on short-lived and/or densely breeding species. In contrast, our understanding of the processes involved in nest-site selection for long-lived, solitary breeding species is insufficient. We increased nest-site availability by nest-box supplementation over a 5-year period in a population of a long-lived, solitary, secondary-cavity nesting bird, the European roller Coracias garrulus, breeding in natural cavities and human constructions. We tested the nest limitation and the inadvertent conspecific social information hypothesis in order to study the dynamics and mechanisms of abandonment of previously used nests and the colonisation of new ones. Our data lend support to the nest-limitation hypothesis both in terms of quantity-population and the size of breeding clusters increased, and suitability--the majority of pairs used and re-occupied nest-boxes. Nevertheless, the use of natural cavities did not decrease after 5 years. At the between-patch scale, rollers were revealed to colonise nest-boxes based on conspecific social attraction, namely distance to the nearest neighbour in the same season. Despite the unpredictability of patch productivity, at the within--patch scale, the selection of previously unoccupied cavities was consistent with the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis. Philopatry could account for the repeated use of cavities, because nests that were used for two successive years were more likely to also be reused in the subsequent season.

  16. Population structure of Pacific Common Eiders breeding in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.; Flint, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to study the migration routes and wintering areas of two allopatric breeding populations of Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) in Alaska: the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and the western Beaufort Sea coast. Only 6% (2 of 36) of females wintered within the wintering area of the other breeding population. Both breeding populations wintered in the closest available ice-free habitat, perhaps to minimize migratory distance. Two Beaufort Sea females wintered in areas used by Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta females, implying potential gene flow among breeding areas. Yet, we conclude that these two populations are largely geographically isolated throughout the annual cycle and the environmental factors influencing survival and reproduction likely differ between these groups of birds. Thus, regardless of the potential gene flow among breeding populations, we suggest that birds from these two breeding areas should be managed as separate populations. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  17. Avian cooperative breeding: Old hypotheses and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, R G; Cockburn, A; Mulder, R A

    1990-12-01

    In cooperatively breeding birds, individuals that appear capable of reproducing on their own may instead assist others with their breeding efforts. Research into avian cooperative breeding has attempted to reconcile the apparent altruism of this behaviour with maximization of inclusive fitness. Most explanations of cooperative breeding have suggested that philopatry is enforced by ecological constraints, such as a shortage of resources critical to breeding. Non-dispersers may then benefit both directly and indirectly from contributing at the nest. Recent research has shown that such benefits may be sufficient to promote philopatry, without the need for ecological constraints, and emphasizes that consideration of both costs and benefits of philopatry is essential for a comprehensive approach to the problem. The growing body of data from long-term studies of different species should combine with an improved phylogenetic perspective on cooperative breeding, to provide a useful base for future comparative analyses and experimentation. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    simulation package was used for the population viability analysis. First, we investigated the future viability of these breeds based on present demographic and environmental parameters. Second, a sensitivity analysis revealed the most important variables for the viability of these breeds. Third, we examined...... concerning reproduction of the mares had the greatest impact, with the number of mares actively breeding being the most influential on the population forecasts. The results suggest that closing the Knabstrupper studbooks can be done only if increasing the number of mares actively breeding counteracts...... the loss of genetic variation attributable to such a management strategy. It is recommended, based on these results, that the number of Frederiksborg and Knabstrupper mares actively breeding must be increased to approximately 30% in the 2 breeds that are presently using only 13%, while leaving the third...

  19. ADHD and Other Associated Developmental Problems in Children with Mild Mental Retardation. The Use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" Questionnaire in a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the…

  20. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  1. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats) are widespread in the tropics and are important to the subsistence, economic and social livelihoods of a large human population in these areas. The aim of this thesis was to identify the breeding objectives for tropical small ruminants, and to develop

  2. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... 1The Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Pig Breeding and Production, ul. Wolynska 33,. 60-637 ... ZS x D had significantly higher share of meat cuts in comparison with purebred fatteners ZS and crossbred fatteners ZS x (ZS x D). ... Proximate composition of diets. Item. Diet. Starter. Grower.

  3. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multi.breed beef herd under intensive management. A.G. Paterson, G.O. .... also the use of Kamar heat detectors have met with limited success under the .... of the positive relation- ship between lactational stress and post partum anoestrus t4.

  5. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  6. Cisgenesis strongly improves introgression breeding and induced translocation breeding of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two ways for genetic improvement in classical plant breeding: crossing and mutation. Plant varieties can also be improved through genetic modification; however, the present GMO regulations are based on risk assessments with the transgenes coming from non-crossable species. Nowadays, DNA

  7. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing in the National Beef Performance Testing Scheme (1980-1985), was investigated by means of a computer simulation program. Simulation runs were ... developments and computer-based genetic evaluation, the potential for greater ..... 1988), while composite and SangalZebu breed types have superior adaptive capacity.

  8. A quantitative study of α-synuclein pathology in fifteen cases of dementia associated with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A; Kotzbauer, Paul T; Perlmutter, Joel S; Campbell, Meghan C; Hurth, Kyle M; Schmidt, Robert E; Cairns, Nigel J

    2014-02-01

    The α-synuclein-immunoreactive pathology of dementia associated with Parkinson disease (DPD) comprises Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG). The densities of LB, LN, LG together with vacuoles, neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), and glial cell nuclei were measured in fifteen cases of DPD. Densities of LN and LG were up to 19 and 70 times those of LB, respectively, depending on region. Densities were significantly greater in amygdala, entorhinal cortex (EC), and sectors CA2/CA3 of the hippocampus, whereas middle frontal gyrus, sector CA1, and dentate gyrus were least affected. Low densities of vacuoles and EN were recorded in most regions. There were differences in the numerical density of neurons between regions, but no statistical difference between patients and controls. In the cortex, the density of LB and vacuoles was similar in upper and lower laminae, while the densities of LN and LG were greater in upper cortex. The densities of LB, LN, and LG were positively correlated. Principal components analysis suggested that DPD cases were heterogeneous with pathology primarily affecting either hippocampus or cortex. The data suggest in DPD: (1) ratio of LN and LG to LB varies between regions, (2) low densities of vacuoles and EN are present in most brain regions, (3) degeneration occurs across cortical laminae, upper laminae being particularly affected, (4) LB, LN and LG may represent degeneration of the same neurons, and (5) disease heterogeneity may result from variation in anatomical pathway affected by cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein.

  9. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Vafidis

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012-2014. Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites. The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net

  10. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible....

  11. PUBLIC SECTOR PLANT BREEDING IN A PRIVATIZING WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Thirtle, Colin G.; Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Heisey, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private act...

  12. Sustainable apple breedings needs sustainable marketing and management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and rising cost levels for high tech breeding methods entire programmes are nowadays urged to...

  13. Simulated breeding with QU-GENE graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Adrian; Chapman, Scott; Dieters, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Comparing the efficiencies of breeding methods with field experiments is a costly, long-term process. QU-GENE is a highly flexible genetic and breeding simulation platform capable of simulating the performance of a range of different breeding strategies and for a continuum of genetic models ranging from simple to complex. In this chapter we describe some of the basic mechanics behind the QU-GENE user interface and give a simplified example of how it works.

  14. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel Roy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  15. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  16. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid.

  17. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  18. Introduction and Breeding of Rhododendrons in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratovičs Rihards

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons are relatively new beautiful ornamental plants in Latvia forming an essential part of public and private gardens, although they were introduced in Latvian territory already during the first half of 19th century. Rhododendrons deserve their immense popularity due to the diversity of their habitat, size and type of blossoms and leaves and their flowering season. There are about 1000 rhododendron species in the wild up to now whereas breeders in various countries have created more than 30 000 cultivars. Intensive rhododendrons introduction and acclimatization in Latvia started in 1957 when Rihards Kondratovičs, at the time director of the Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, started his research on the introduction and acclimatization of rhododendrons. Winterhardiness of about 400 wild species in Latvia was tested and 76 species were found to be suitable. Following the development of an extensive collection of wild rhododendron species and cultivars, the Rhododendron Breeding and Experimental Nursery “Babīte”, University of Latvia, was established at 1980 and the active breeding of new winterhardy cultivars was started. In 2017, the collection of outdoor rhododendrons of the University of Latvia consists of 76 species and 265 cultivars, including 109 cultivars bred in Latvia by Professor Rihards Kondratovičs.

  19. Induced mutations in pomoid trees breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Faysal

    1986-01-01

    Induction of mutations in fruit trees by ionizing radiation complements a cross-breeding program. The objectives are: 1) the improvements of methods of induction, identification and selection of useful mutations, and 2) the initiation of useful mutations either for immediate use as improved cultivars or as a parent material for conventional cross-breeding. The induction of mutants in pomoid fruits, with special emphasis on apple, was realized by gamma-ray treatment of dormant scions subsequently propagated on a rootstoch in the nursery. The aim was to obtain compacts, presuming the feasibility of selecting compact shoots formed by the irradiated scions in the first vegetative generation and also assuming that chance of finding (e.g. fruit mutants) would be thus increased rather than lessened. Selection was carried out on one-season old shoots, formed on the same material for two or three seasons, by using a cut-back at the end of the first and second season. The procedure was highly effective. Moderate exposures, resulting in 60% survival gave high mutation frequencies. Buds 6-10 on the primary shoot gave higher frequencies of recognizable mutations than either buds 1-5 or 11-15. Preliminary results seem to indicate that, at least in some apple cultivars, there is opportunity to obtain compact growth types with good biological characteristics. 8 refs. (author)

  20. Low technology high tritium breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    The main function of this low technology blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for INTOR operation with minimum first wall coverage. The INTOR first wall, blanket, and shield are constrained by the dimensions of the reference design and the protection criteria required for different reactor components and dose equivalent after shutdown in the reactor hall. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions and the proper temperature for power generation can be sacrificed to achieve the highest possible tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and developments and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. A set of blanket evaluation criteria has been used to compare possible blanket concepts. Six areas: performance, operating requirements, impact on reactor design and operation, safety and environmental impact, technology assessment, and cost have been defined for the evaluation process. A water-cooled blanket was developed to operate with a low temperature and pressure. The developed blanket contains a 24 cm of beryllium and 6 cm of solid breeder both with a 0.8 density factor. This blanket provides a local tritium breeding ratio of ∼2.0. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which eliminates the tritium buildup in the water by permeation and reduces the changes for water-breeder interaction. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. 12 refs., 13 tabs