Effect of a seed magnetic field on two-fluid plasma Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
Bond, Daryl; Wheatley, Vincent; Samtaney, Ravi; Pullin, Dale
2016-11-01
We investigate the effect of a uniform seed magnetic field on the plasma Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) using two-fluid simulations. These couple sets of conservation equations for the ions and electrons to the full Maxwell's equations. We consider cases where the seed magnetic field is normal to the interface and where the reference Debye length and Larmor radius range from a tenth to a thousandth of the interface perturbation wavelength. In ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), it has been shown that in the presence of such a seed magnetic field, the growth of the RMI is suppressed by the transport of vorticity from the interface by MHD shocks. Our two-fluid plasma simulations reveal that while the RMI is suppressed in the presence of the seed field, the suppression mechanism varies depending on the plasma length-scales. Two-fluid plasma RMI simulations also reveal a secondary, high-wavenumber, electron-driven interface instability. This is not suppressed by the presence of the seed field. This work was partially supported by the KAUST Office of Sponsored Research under Award URF/1/2162-01.
Longcope, D W
2010-01-01
In models of fast magnetic reconnection, flux transfer occurs within a small portion of a current sheet triggering stored magnetic energy to be thermalized by shocks. When the initial current sheet separates magnetic fields which are not perfectly anti-parallel, i.e. they are skewed, magnetic energy is first converted to bulk kinetic energy and then thermalized in slow magnetosonic shocks. We show that the latter resemble parallel shocks or hydrodynamic shocks for all skew angles except those very near the anti-parallel limit. As for parallel shocks, the structures of reconnection-driven slow shocks are best studied using two-fluid equations in which ions and electrons have independent temperature. Time-dependent solutions of these equations can be used to predict and understand the shocks from reconnection of skewed magnetic fields. The results differ from those found using a single-fluid model such as magnetohydrodynamics. In the two-fluid model electrons are heated indirectly and thus carry a heat flux alw...
Two-Fluid Physics and Field Reversed Configurations
Hakim, Ammar
2006-10-01
Fluid models of plasmas are a common tool to study fusion devices. In this talk algorithms for the solution of Two-Fluid plasma equations are presented and applied to the study of Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs). The Two-Fluid model is more general than the often used magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The model takes into account electron inertia, charge separation and the full electromagnetic field equations and allows for separate electron and ion motion. Finite Lamor Radii effects are taken into account by self consistently evolving the anisotropic pressure tensor. The algorithm presented is the high resolution wave propagation scheme. The wave propagation method is based on solutions to the Riemann problem at cell interfaces. Operator splitting is used to incorporate the Lorentz and electromagnetic source terms. To preserve the divergence constraints on the electric and magnetic fields the so called perfectly-hyperbolic form of Maxwell equations are used which explicitly incorporate the divergence equations into the time stepping scheme. A detailed study of Field-Reversed Configuration stability and formation is performed. The study is divided into two parts. In the first, FRC stability is studied. The simulation is initialized with various FRC equilibria and perturbed. The growth rates are calculated and compared with MHD results. It is shown that the FRCs are indeed more stable within the Two-Fluid model than the MHD model. In the second part formation of FRCs is studied. In this set of simulations a cylindrical column of plasma is initialized with a uniform axial magnetic field. The field is reversed at the walls. Via the process of magnetic reconnection FRC formation is observed. The effects of Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) drive on the formation of FRC are also presented. Here, a set of current carrying coils apply a RMF at the plasma boundary, causing a electron flow in the R-Z plane leading to field reversal. The strong azimuthal electron flow causes
Coherent effects in the stochastic electrodynamics of two-fluid plasma
Auluck, S K H
2012-01-01
Random electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in plasmas, the most common example being electromagnetic radiation of thermal origin. They should exert a random force on electrons and ions in a plasma, adding a random component to their motion. Products of randomly fluctuating quantities, such as velocity and magnetic field, which are correlated through the dynamical equations of the two-fluid model of plasma, should then exhibit non-zero average values. Investigation of such effects requires spatial-spectral representation of the non-linear equations of the two-fluid model. Chandrasekhar-Kendall (CK) functions, their generating function and its gradient defined over an infinite domain are shown to simultaneously provide orthogonal basis for solenoidal, scalar and irrotational fields respectively, facilitating transformation from coordinate space to mode number space and back. This paper constructs a theoretical framework for studying coherent effects of random forces due to random electromagnetic fields in a t...
Basic Pilot Code Development for Two-Fluid, Three-Field Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Jae Jun; Bae, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Chung, B. D.; Hwang, M.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, D. H
2006-03-15
A basic pilot code for one-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field model has been developed. Using 9 conceptual problems, the basic pilot code has been verified. The results of the verification are summarized below: - It was confirmed that the basic pilot code can simulate various flow conditions (such as single-phase liquid flow, bubbly flow, slug/churn turbulent flow, annular-mist flow, and single-phase vapor flow) and transitions of the flow conditions. A mist flow was not simulated, but it seems that the basic pilot code can simulate mist flow conditions. - The pilot code was programmed so that the source terms of the governing equations and numerical solution schemes can be easily tested. - The mass and energy conservation was confirmed for single-phase liquid and single-phase vapor flows. - It was confirmed that the inlet pressure and velocity boundary conditions work properly. - It was confirmed that, for single- and two-phase flows, the velocity and temperature of non-existing phase are calculated as intended. - During the simulation of a two-phase flow, the calculation reaches a quasisteady state with small-amplitude oscillations. The oscillations seem to be induced by some numerical causes. The research items for the improvement of the basic pilot code are listed in the last section of this report.
Transient forcing effects on mixing of two fluids for a stable stratification
Pool, María.; Dentz, Marco; Post, Vincent E. A.
2016-09-01
Mixing and dispersion in coastal aquifers are strongly influenced by periodic temporal flow fluctuations on multiple time scales ranging from days (tides), seasons (pumping and recharge) to glacial cycles (regression and transgressions). Transient forcing effects lead to a complex space and time-dependent flow response which induces enhanced spreading and mixing of dissolved substances. We study effective mixing and solute transport in temporally fluctuating one-dimensional flow for a stable stratification of two fluids of different density using detailed numerical simulation as well as accurate column experiments. We quantify the observed transport behaviors and interface evolution by a time-averaged model that is obtained from a two-scale expansion of the full transport problem, and derive explicit expressions for the center of mass and width of the mixing zone between the two fluids. We find that the magnitude of transient-driven mixing is mainly controlled by the hydraulic diffusivity, the period, and the initial interface location. At an initial time regime, mixing can be characterized by an effective dispersion coefficient and both the interface position and width evolve linearly in time. At larger times, the spatial variability of the flow velocity leads to a deceleration of the interface and a compression of its width, which is manifested by a subdiffusive evolution of its width as t1/2.
Development and Verification of a Pilot Code based on Two-fluid Three-field Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Chung, B. D.; Jeong, J. J.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, D. H
2006-09-15
In this study, a semi-implicit pilot code is developed for a one-dimensional channel flow as three-fields. The three fields are comprised of a gas, continuous liquid and entrained liquid fields. All the three fields are allowed to have their own velocities. The temperatures of the continuous liquid and the entrained liquid are, however, assumed to be equilibrium. The interphase phenomena include heat and mass transfer, as well as momentum transfer. The fluid/structure interaction, generally, include both heat and momentum transfer. Assuming adiabatic system, only momentum transfer is considered in this study, leaving the wall heat transfer for the future study. Using 10 conceptual problems, the basic pilot code has been verified. The results of the verification are summarized below: It was confirmed that the basic pilot code can simulate various flow conditions (such as single-phase liquid flow, bubbly flow, slug/churn turbulent flow, annular-mist flow, and single-phase vapor flow) and transitions of the flow conditions. The pilot code was programmed so that the source terms of the governing equations and numerical solution schemes can be easily tested. The mass and energy conservation was confirmed for single-phase liquid and single-phase vapor flows. It was confirmed that the inlet pressure and velocity boundary conditions work properly. It was confirmed that, for single- and two-phase flows, the velocity and temperature of non-existing phase are calculated as intended. Complete phase depletion which might occur during a phase change was found to adversely affect the code stability. A further study would be required to enhance code capability in this regard.
Development of Non-staggered, semi-implicit ICE numerical scheme for a two-fluid, three-field model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Jae Jun; Yoon, H. Y.; Bae, S. W
2007-11-15
A pilot code for one-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field model has been developed. In this code, the semi-implicit ICE numerical scheme has been adapted to a 'non-staggered' grid. Using several conceptual problems, the numerical scheme has been verified. The results of the verifications are summarized below: - It was confirmed that the basic pilot code can simulate various flow conditions (such as single-phase liquid flow, two-phase mixture flow, and single-phase vapor flow) and transitions of the flow conditions. A mist flow was not simulated, but it seems that the basic pilot code can simulate mist flow conditions. - The mass and energy conservation was confirmed for single-phase liquid and single-phase vapor flows. - It was confirmed that the inlet pressure and velocity boundary conditions work properly. - It was confirmed that, for single- and two-phase flows, the velocity and temperature of non-existing phase are calculated as intended. The non-staggered, semi-implicit ICE numerical scheme, which has been developed in this study, will be a starting point of a new code development that adopts an unstructured finite volume method.
Balsara, Dinshaw S; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-01-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. Three important innovations are reported here. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our seco...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Xin-yue; REN Cong-cai; ZHOU Qiang; PANG Qing-feng; WU Chang-yi; ZENG Yin-ming
2007-01-01
Objective: To investigate the effects of two fluid resuscitations on the bacterial translocation and the inflammatory factors of small intestine in rats with hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Fifty SD healthy male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 per group):Group A (Sham group), Group B (Ringer's solution for 1 h), Group C (Ringer's solution for 24 h), Group D (hydroxyethyl starch for 1 h) and Group E ((hydroxyethyl starch for 24 h). A model of rats with hemorrhagic shock was established. The bacterial translocation in liver, content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and changes of myeloperoxidase enzyme (MPO) activities in small intestine were pathologically investigated after these two fluid resuscitations, respectively. Results: The bacterial translocation and the expression of TNF-α in the small intestine were detected at 1 h and 24 h after fluid resuscitation. There were significant increase in the number of translocated bacteria, TNF-α and MPO activities in Group C compared with Group B, significant decrease in Group E compared with Group D and in Group B compared with Group D. The number of translocated bacteria and TNF-α expression significantly decreased in Group E as compared with Group C.Conclusions: The bacterial translocation and the expression of TNF-α in the small intestine exist 24 h after fluid resuscitation. 6% hydroxyethyl starch can improve the intestinal mucosa barrier function better than the Ringer's solution.
Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi [Department of Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-12-15
We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.
Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model
Moradi, Afshin; Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi
2015-12-01
We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.
The effect of a two-fluid atmosphere on relativistic stars
Govender, Gabriel; Maharaj, Sunil D
2015-01-01
We model the physical behaviour at the surface of a relativistic radiating star in the strong gravity limit. The spacetime in the interior is taken to be spherically symmetrical and shear-free. The heat conduction in the interior of the star is governed by the geodesic motion of fluid particles and a nonvanishing radially directed heat flux. The local atmosphere in the exterior region is a two-component system consisting of standard pressureless (null) radiation and an additional null fluid with nonzero pressure and constant energy density. We analyse the generalised junction condition for the matter and gravitational variables on the stellar surface and generate an exact solution. We investigate the effect of the exterior energy density on the temporal evolution of the radiating fluid pressure, luminosty, gravitational redshift and mass flow at the boundary of the star. The influence of the density on the rate of gravitational collapse is also probed and the strong, dominant and weak energy conditions are al...
Conceptual OOP design of Pilot Code for Two-Fluid, Three-field Model with C++ 6.0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, B. D.; Lee, Y. J
2006-09-15
To establish the concept of the objective oriented program (OOP) design for reactor safety analysis code, the preliminary OOP design for PILOT code, which based on one dimensional two fluid three filed model, has been attempted with C++ language feature. Microsoft C++ language has been used since it is available as groupware utilization in KAERI. The language has can be merged with Compac Visual Fortran 6.6 in Visual Studio platform. In the development platform, C++ has been used as main language and Fortran has been used as mixed language in connection with C++ main drive program. The mixed language environment is a specific feature provided in visual studio. Existing Fortran source was utilized for input routine of reading steam table from generated file and routine of steam property calculation. The calling convention and passing argument from C++ driver was corrected. The mathematical routine, such as inverse matrix conversion and tridiagonal matrix solver, has been used as PILOT Fortran routines. Simple volume and junction utilized in PILOT code can be treated as objects, since they are the basic construction elements of code system. Other routines for overall solution scheme have been realized as procedure C functions. The conceptual design which consists of hydraulic loop, component, volume, and junction class has been described in the appendix in order to give the essential OOP structure of system safety analysis code. The attempt shows that many part of system analysis code can be expressed as objects, although the overall structure should be maintained as procedure functions. The encapsulation of data and functions within an object can provide many beneficial aspects in programming of system code.
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is always divergence-free. This
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balsara, Dinshaw S., E-mail: dbalsara@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States); Amano, Takanobu, E-mail: amano@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Garain, Sudip, E-mail: sgarain@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States); Kim, Jinho, E-mail: jkim46@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States)
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is
Two-fluid turbulence including electron inertia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Carlos; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-12-15
We present a full two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure, and electron inertia. According to this description, each plasma species introduces a new spatial scale: the ion inertial length λ{sub i} and the electron inertial length λ{sub e}, which are not present in the traditional MHD description. In the present paper, we seek for possible changes in the energy power spectrum in fully developed turbulent regimes, using numerical simulations of the two-fluid equations in two-and-a-half dimensions. We have been able to reproduce different scaling laws in different spectral ranges, as it has been observed in the solar wind for the magnetic energy spectrum. At the smallest wavenumbers where plain MHD is valid, we obtain an inertial range following a Kolmogorov k{sup −5∕3} law. For intermediate wavenumbers such that λ{sub i}{sup −1}≪k≪λ{sub e}{sup −1}, the spectrum is modified to a k{sup −7∕3} power-law, as has also been obtained for Hall-MHD neglecting electron inertia terms. When electron inertia is retained, a new spectral region given by k>λ{sub e}{sup −1} arises. The power spectrum for magnetic energy in this region is given by a k{sup −11∕3} power law. Finally, when the terms of electron inertia are retained, we study the self-consistent electric field. Our results are discussed and compared with those obtained in the solar wind observations and previous simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Garra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The evolution of strong transients of temperature and pressure in two adjacent fluid-saturated porous rocks is described by a Burgers equation in an early model of Natale and Salusti (1996. We here consider the effect of a realistic intermediate region between the two media and infer how transient processes can also happen, such as chemical reactions, diffusion of fine particles, and filter cake formations. This suggests enlarging our analysis and taking into account not only punctual quantities but also “time averaged” quantities. These boundary effects are here analyzed by using a “memory formalism”; that is, we replace the ordinary punctual time-derivatives with Caputo fractional time-derivatives. We therefore obtain a nonlinear fractional model, whose explicit solution is shown, and finally discuss its geological importance.
Garra, R.; Salusti, E.; Droghei, R.
2015-01-01
The evolution of strong transients of temperature and pressure in two adjacent fluid-saturated porous rocks is described by a Burgers equation in an early model of Natale and Salusti (1996). We here consider the effect of a realistic intermediate region between the two media and infer how transient processes can also happen, such as chemical reactions, diffusion of fine particles, and filter cake formations. This suggests enlarging our analysis and taking into account not only punctual quanti...
Computation of two-fluid, flowing equilibria
Steinhauer, Loren; Kanki, Takashi; Ishida, Akio
2006-10-01
Equilibria of flowing two-fluid plasmas are computed for realistic compact-toroid and spherical-tokamak parameters. In these examples the two-fluid parameter ɛ (ratio of ion inertial length to overall plasma size) is small, ɛ ˜ 0.03 -- 0.2, but hardly negligible. The algorithm is based on the nearby-fluids model [1] which avoids a singularity that otherwise occurs for small ɛ. These representative equilibria exhibit significant flows, both toroidal and poloidal. Further, the flow patterns display notable flow shear. The importance of two-fluid effects is demonstrated by comparing with analogous equilibria (e.g. fixed toroidal and poloidal current) for a static plasma (Grad-Shafranov solution) and a flowing single-fluid plasma. Differences between the two-fluid, single-fluid, and static equilibria are highlighted: in particular with respect to safety factor profile, flow patterns, and electrical potential. These equilibria are computed using an iterative algorithm: it employs a successive-over-relaxation procedure for updating the magnetic flux function and a Newton-Raphson procedure for updating the density. The algorithm is coded in Visual Basic in an Excel platform on a personal computer. The computational time is essentially instantaneous (seconds). [1] L.C. Steinhauer and A. Ishida, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052513 (2006).
A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model
Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.
1999-01-01
We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar Corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and Momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from Corona] holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature above the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer instrument (UVCS), and with the Ulysses/Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun instrument (SWOOPS) proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 and 5 solar radii (2 and 5 R(sub S)) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201.-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta [19941. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al. [1998], and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub S), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models [e.g., Steinolfson et al., 1982; also G. A. Gary and D. Alexander, Constructing the coronal magnetic field, submitted to Solar Physics, 1998].
Two-fluid models of superfluid neutron star cores
Chamel, N
2008-01-01
Both relativistic and non-relativistic two-fluid models of neutron star cores are constructed, using the constrained variational formalism developed by Brandon Carter and co-workers. We consider a mixture of superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons at zero temperature, taking into account mutual entrainment effects. Leptons, which affect the interior composition of the neutron star and contribute to the pressure, are also included. We provide the analytic expression of the Lagrangian density of the system, the so-called master function, from which the dynamical equations can be obtained. All the microscopic parameters of the models are calculated consistently using the non-relativistic nuclear energy density functional theory. For comparison, we have also considered relativistic mean field models. The correspondence between relativistic and non-relativistic hydrodynamical models is discussed in the framework of the recently developed 4D covariant formalism of Newtonian multi-fluid hydrodynamics. We hav...
Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics
Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.
2014-03-01
We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.
Slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with isospin dependent entrainment in a two-fluid model
Kheto, Apurba
2015-01-01
We investigate the slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars including the entrainment effect in a two-fluid model, where one fluid represents the superfluid neutrons and the other is the charge-neutral fluid called the proton fluid, made of protons and electrons. The equation of state and the entrainment effect between the superfluid neutrons and the proton fluid are computed using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by the exchange of $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons and scalar self interactions are also included. The equations governing rotating neutron stars in the slow rotation approximation are second order in rotational velocities of neutron and proton fluids. We explore the effects of the isospin dependent entrainment and the relative rotation between two fluids on the global properties of rotating superfluid neutron stars such as mass, shape, and the mass shedding (Kepler) limit within the RMF model with different parameter sets. ...
Algorithm Development for the Two-Fluid Plasma Model
2009-02-17
of m=0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z-pinch", Physics of Plasmas 13, 082310 (2006). • A. Hakim and U. Shumlak, "Two-fluid physics and...accurate as the solution variables. The high-order representation of the solution variables satisfies the accuracy requirement to preserve the...here. [2] It also illustrates the dispersive nature of the waves which makes capturing the effect difficult in MHD algorithms. The electromagnetic
Numerical study of cryogenic micro-slush particle production using a two-fluid nozzle
Ishimoto, Jun
2009-01-01
The fundamental characteristics of the atomization behavior of micro-slush nitrogen ( SN) jet flow through a two-fluid nozzle was numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is focused on the production mechanism of micro-slush nitrogen particles in a two-fluid nozzle and on the consecutive atomizing spray flow characteristics of the micro-slush jet. Based on the numerically predicted nozzle atomization performance, a new type of superadiabatic two-fluid ejector nozzle is developed. This nozzle is capable of generating and atomizing micro-slush nitrogen by means of liquid-gas impingement of a pressurized subcooled liquid nitrogen ( LN) flow and a low-temperature, high-speed gaseous helium (GHe) flow. The application of micro-slush as a refrigerant for long-distance high-temperature superconducting cables (HTS) is anticipated, and its production technology is expected to result in an extensive improvement in the effective cooling performance of superconducting systems. Computation indicates that the cryogenic micro-slush atomization rate and the multiphase spraying flow characteristics are affected by rapid LN-GHe mixing and turbulence perturbation upstream of the two-fluid nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface, and shear stress between the liquid core and periphery of the LN jet. Calculation of the effect of micro-slush atomization on the jet thermal field revealed that high-speed mixing of LN-GHe swirling flow extensively enhances the heat transfer between the LN 2-phase and the GHe-phase. Furthermore, the performance of the micro-slush production nozzle was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV), which confirmed that the measurement results were in reasonable agreement with the numerical results.
Calculation of two-fluid resonant modes in spheromaks
Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.
2010-11-01
Numerical computation is applied to investigate two-fluid effects on resonant modes in spheromaks using the NIMROD code [C.R. Sovinec et. at., Phys. Plasmas 10(2003)]. Earlier whole-device simulations of SSPX show that MHD stability has a strong influence on confinement during the sustained decay phase [E.B. Hooper et. al., POP 15, 032502 (2008)]. Recent computations of spheromak equilibria in a cylindrical domain with prescribed peaked pressure profiles show ideal interchange behavior. A moderate reduction of growth rate (10-70%) for intermediate toroidal mode numbers (n=16˜20) is observed when two-fluid effects are included [E.C. Howell and C.R. Sovinec, APS 2009]. Here, we consider more realistic pressure and safety-factor profiles from 3D self-consistent nonlinear MHD simulations. Linear analyses of axisymmetric equilibria reconstructed from the simulations are performed, and growth rates calculated using both ion gyroviscosity and a two fluid Ohm's law are compared with resistive MHD results.
An Interacting Two-Fluid Scenario for Quintom Dark Energy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xin
2005-01-01
The Quintom dark energy is a proposal that explains the recent observations that mildly favor the equation of state of dark energy w crossing -1 near the past. The Quintom model is often constructed by two scalar fields, where one is the quintessence field and another is the phantom field. The cosmological implication of the coupling of the two fields of the dark energy is out of question worth investigating. However, the consideration of the coupling in the field scenario is somewhat complex thus we propose an interacting two-fluid Quintom scenario for simplicity. The interaction between the two components is parametrized by a constant η in this scenario. The cosmological implications of this parametrization are investigated in detail in this paper. Also, a diagnostic for this model is performed by using the statefinder pairs {s, r} and {q, r}.
Calculations of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric steady-states
Ferraro, N. M.; Jardin, S. C.
2009-11-01
M3D- C1 is an implicit, high-order finite element code for the solution of the time-dependent nonlinear two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations [S.C. Jardin, J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, A high-order implicit finite element method for integrating the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations in two dimensions, J. Comp. Phys. 226 (2) (2007) 2146-2174]. This code has now been extended to allow computations in toroidal geometry. Improvements to the spatial integration and time-stepping algorithms are discussed. Steady-states of a resistive two-fluid model, self-consistently including flows, anisotropic viscosity (including gyroviscosity) and heat flux, are calculated for diverted plasmas in geometries typical of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device, Nucl. Fusion 40 (3Y) (2000) 557-561]. These states are found by time-integrating the dynamical equations until the steady-state is reached, and are therefore stationary or statistically steady on both magnetohydrodynamic and transport time-scales. Resistively driven cross-surface flows are found to be in close agreement with Pfirsch-Schlüter theory. Poloidally varying toroidal flows are in agreement with comparable calculations [A.Y. Aydemir, Shear flows at the tokamak edge and their interaction with edge-localized modes, Phys. Plasmas 14]. New effects on core toroidal rotation due to gyroviscosity and a local particle source are observed.
Waves in General Relativistic Two-fluid Plasma around a Schwarzschild Black Hole
Rahman, M Atiqur
2010-01-01
Waves propagating in the relativistic electron-positron or ions plasma are investigated in a frame of two-fluid equations using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity developed by Thorne, Price and Macdonald (TPM). The plasma is assumed to be freefalling in the radial direction toward the event horizon due to the strong gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole. The local dispersion relations for transverse and longitudinal waves have been derived, in analogy with the special relativistic formulation as explained in an earlier paper, to take account of relativistic effects due to the event horizon using WKB approximation
A Two-Fluid Study of Oblique Tearing Modes in a Force-Free Current Sheet
Akcay, Cihan; Lukin, Vyacheslav S; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2016-01-01
Kinetic simulations have demonstrated that three-dimensional reconnection in collisionless regimes proceeds through the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes, which are generated due to the growth of tearing instabilities at multiple resonance surfaces. Since kinetic simulations are intrinsically expensive, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of reduced two-fluid models to capture this complex evolution, particularly, in the strong guide field regime, where two-fluid models are better justified. With this goal in mind, this paper compares the evolution of the collisionless tearing instability in a force-free current sheet with a two-fluid model and fully kinetic simulations. Our results indicate that the most unstable modes are oblique for guide fields larger than the reconnecting field, in agreement with the kinetic results. The standard two-fluid tearing theory is extended to address the tearing instability at oblique angles. The resulting theory yields a flat oblique spectrum and underest...
Two-fluid-sourced rotating wormholes
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2016-01-01
We briefly discuss some of the known and new properties of rotating geometries that are relevant to this work. We generalize the analytical method of superposition of fields, known for generating nonrotating solutions, and apply it to construct massless and massive rotating physical wormholes sourced by a source-free electromagnetic field and an exotic fluid both anisotropic. Their stress-energy tensors are presented in compact and general forms. For the massive rotating wormholes there exists a mass-charge constraint yielding almost no more dragging effects than ordinary stars. There are conical spirals through the throat along which the null and weak energy conditions are not violated for these rotating wormholes. This conclusion extends to nonrotating massive type I wormholes derived previously by the author that seem to be the first kind of nonrotating wormholes with this property.
Two-Fluid Interface Instability Being Studied
Niederhaus, Charles E.
2003-01-01
The interface between two fluids of different density can experience instability when gravity acts normal to the surface. The relatively well known Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability results when the gravity is constant with a heavy fluid over a light fluid. An impulsive acceleration applied to the fluids results in the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability. The RM instability occurs regardless of the relative orientation of the heavy and light fluids. In many systems, the passing of a shock wave through the interface provides the impulsive acceleration. Both the RT and RM instabilities result in mixing at the interface. These instabilities arise in a diverse array of circumstances, including supernovas, oceans, supersonic combustion, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The area with the greatest current interest in RT and RM instabilities is ICF, which is an attempt to produce fusion energy for nuclear reactors from BB-sized pellets of deuterium and tritium. In the ICF experiments conducted so far, RM and RT instabilities have prevented the generation of net-positive energy. The $4 billion National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being constructed to study these instabilities and to attempt to achieve net-positive yield in an ICF experiment.
Two-fluid MHD Regime of Drift Wave Instability
Yang, Shang-Chuan; Zhu, Ping; Xie, Jin-Lin; Liu, Wan-Dong
2015-11-01
Drift wave instabilities contribute to the formation of edge turbulence and zonal flows, and thus are believed to play essential roles in the anomalous transport processes in tokamaks. Whereas drift waves are generally assumed to be local and electrostatic, experiments have often found regimes where the spatial scales and the magnetic components of drift waves approach those of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes. In this work we study such a drift wave regime in a cylindrical magnetized plasma using a full two-fluid MHD model implemented in the NIMROD code. The linear dependency of growth rates on resistivity and the dispersion relation found in the NIMROD calculations qualitatively agree with theoretical analysis. As the azimuthal mode number increases, the drift modes become highly localized radially; however, unlike the conventional local approximation, the radial profile of the drift mode tends to shift toward the edge away from the center of the density gradient slope, suggesting the inhomogeneity of two-fluid effects. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 11275200 and National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grant 2014GB124002.
Two-fluid plasma Richtmyer-Meshkov instability
Wheatley, Vincent; Bond, Daryl; Pullin, Dale; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-11-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a shock accelerated perturbed density interface is computationally investigated in the context of ideal two-fluid plasmas. This is accomplished by numerically solving separate sets of conservation equations for the ions and electrons, coupled to the full Maxwell's equations. We focus on cases without an imposed magnetic field and with Debye lengths ranging from a thousandth to a tenth of the interface perturbation wavelength. For all cases investigated, the behavior of the flow is substantially different from that predicted by the Euler or ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations. Electric fields generated by charge separation cause interface oscillations, particularly in the electrons, that drive a secondary high-wavenumber instability. Consequently, the density interface is substantially more unstable than predicted by the Euler equations for all cases investigated. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted within our simulations, but their orientation is such that they do not dampen the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This work was partially supported by the KAUST Office of Sponsored Research under Award URF/1/2162-01.
Two-Fluid Equilibrium for Transonic Poloidal Flows
Guazzotto, Luca; Betti, Riccardo
2012-03-01
Much analytical and numerical work has been done in the past on ideal MHD equilibrium in the presence of macroscopic flow. In recent years, several authors have worked on equilibrium formulations for a two-fluid system, in which inertial ions and massless electrons are treated as distinct fluids. In this work, we present our approach to the formulation of the two-fluid equilibrium problem. Particular attention is given to the relation between the two-fluid equations and the equilibrium equations for the single-fluid ideal MHD system. Our purpose is to reconsider the results of one-fluid calculation with the more accurate two-fluid model, referring in particular to the so-called transonic discontinuities, which occur when the poloidal velocity spans a range crossing the poloidal sound speed (i.e., the sound speed reduced by a factor Bp/B). It is expected that the one-fluid discontinuity will be resolved into a sharp gradient region by the two-fluid model. Also, contrary to the ideal MHD case, in the two-fluid model the equations governing the equilibrium are elliptic in the whole range of interest for transonic equilibria. The numerical solution of the two-fluid system of equations is going to be based on a code built on the structure of the existing ideal-MHD code FLOW.
Yoon, Young Dae; Bellan, Paul M.
2016-10-01
A full three-dimensional computer code was developed in order to simulate a 3D-localized magnetic reconnection. We assume an incompressible two-fluid regime where the ions are stationary, and electron inertia and Hall effects are present. We solve a single dimensionless differential equation for perturbed magnetic fields with arbitrary background fields. The code has successfully reproduced both experimental and analytic solutions to resonance and Gendrin mode whistler waves in a uniform background field. The code was then modified to model 3D-localized magnetic reconnection as a 3D-localized perturbation on a hyperbolic-tangent background field. Three-dimensional properties that are asymmetric in the out-of-plane direction have been observed. These properties pertained to magnetic field lines, electron currents and their convection. Helicity and energy have also been examined, as well as the addition of a guide field.
Oscillatory Instability in a Two-Fluid Benard Problem.
1984-04-01
1963-A ( MRC Technical Summary Report #2681 OSCILLATORY INSTABILITY IN Ar TWO-FLUID BENARD PROBLEM CV Yuriko Renardy and Daniel D. Joseph 4.o...MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER OSCILLATORY INSTABILITY IN A TWO-FLUID BENARD PROBLEM Yuriko Renardy I and Daniel D. Joseph * ’ 2 Technical Summary Report #2681...C. ° * .* * .* • * . -t . . . . .. . . . " -".- ." . o ,- OSCILLATORY INSTABILITY IN A WO-FLUID BENARD PROBLEM Yuriko RenardyI and Daniel D
A two-fluid study of oblique tearing modes in a force-free current sheet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akçay, Cihan, E-mail: akcay@lanl.gov; Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lukin, Vyacheslav S. [National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Liu, Yi-Hsin [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)
2016-01-15
Kinetic simulations have demonstrated that three-dimensional reconnection in collisionless regimes proceeds through the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes, which are generated due to the growth of tearing instabilities at multiple resonance surfaces. Since kinetic simulations are intrinsically expensive, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of reduced two-fluid models to capture this complex evolution, particularly, in the strong guide field regime, where two-fluid models are better justified. With this goal in mind, this paper compares the evolution of the collisionless tearing instability in a force-free current sheet with a two-fluid model and fully kinetic simulations. Our results indicate that the most unstable modes are oblique for guide fields larger than the reconnecting field, in agreement with the kinetic results. The standard two-fluid tearing theory is extended to address the tearing instability at oblique angles. The resulting theory yields a flat oblique spectrum and underestimates the growth of oblique modes in a similar manner to kinetic theory relative to kinetic simulations.
Magnetohydrodynamic motion of a two-fluid plasma
Burby, J. W.
2017-08-01
The two-fluid Maxwell system couples frictionless electrons and ion fluids via Maxwell's equations. When the frequencies of light waves, Langmuir waves, and single-particle cyclotron motion are scaled to be asymptotically large, the two-fluid Maxwell system becomes a fast-slow dynamical system. This fast-slow system admits a formally exact single-fluid closure that may be computed systematically with any desired order of accuracy through the use of a functional partial differential equation. In the leading order approximation, the closure reproduces magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Higher order truncations of the closure give an infinite hierarchy of extended MHD models that allow for arbitrary mass ratio, as well as perturbative deviations from charge neutrality. The closure is interpreted geometrically as an invariant slow manifold in the infinite-dimensional two-fluid phase space, on which two-fluid motions are free of high-frequency oscillations. This perspective shows that the full closure inherits a Hamiltonian structure from the two-fluid theory. By employing infinite-dimensional Lie transforms, the Poisson bracket for the all-order closure may be obtained in the closed form. Thus, conservative truncations of the single-fluid closure may be obtained by simply truncating the single-fluid Hamiltonian. Moreover, the closed-form expression for the all-order bracket gives explicit expressions for a number of the full closure's conservation laws. Notably, the full closure, as well as any of its Hamiltonian truncations, admits a pair of independent circulation invariants.
Explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithms for ideal two-fluid systems
Xiao, Jianyuan; Morrison, Philip J; Liu, Jian; Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang
2016-01-01
An explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithm for ideal two-fluid systems is developed. The fluid is discretized as particles in the Lagrangian description, while the electromagnetic fields and internal energy are treated as discrete differential form fields on a fixed mesh. With the assistance of Whitney interpolating forms, this scheme preserves the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field, and the pressure field is naturally derived from the discrete internal energy. The whole system is solved using the Hamiltonian splitting method discovered by He et al., which was been successfully adopted in constructing symplectic particle-in-cell schemes. Because of its structure preserving and explicit nature, this algorithm is especially suitable for large-scale simulations for physics problems that are multi-scale and require long-term fidelity and accuracy. The algorithm is verified via two tests: studies of the dispersion relation of waves in a two-fluid plasma system and the oscillating two-stream ...
Development of hyperbolic solution method for two fluids equation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sung Jae; Chang, Won Pyo
1997-07-01
Using the concept of surface tension thickness, the mathematical ill-posedness of the two fluids equation system can now be removed by splitting the pressure discontinuity of the two fluids interface. The bulk modulus L1 and L2 derived from the concept of surface tension thickness makes two fluids equation system hyperbolic type. The hyperbolic equation system has five complete sets of eigenvectors, each of which having real eigenvalues. Three sets of them represents the propagation speeds of the physical properties for individual flow regimes such as the dispersed, the slug, and the separated flows. The propagation characteristics of these eigenvalues have good agreements with both the experimental data and other theoretical results in two-phase mixture. The feature of the hyperbolic model allows to apply advanced numerical upwind technique such as Flux vector splitting (FVS) method. The numerical test show that the characteristics of equation system clearly classify all flow regimes. (author). 25 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.
Two-fluid theory of the drift kink instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)
1999-12-01
A simple two-fluid theory of the drift kink instability is developed. The validity of the theory is restricted to the regime where the ion gyroradius is small in comparison with the sheet thickness {rho}{sub i}<
Two-fluid oscillatory flow in a channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
C.Y.Wang
2011-01-01
The validity of Navier's partial slip condition is investigated by studying the oscillatory flow in a coated channel.The two-fluid model is used to solve the unsteady viscous equations exactly.Partial slip is experienced by the core fluid.It is found that Naviers condition does not hold for an unsteady core fluid.
Constant-Differential-Pressure Two-Fluid Accumulator
Piecuch, Benjamin; Dalton, Luke T.
2010-01-01
A two-fluid accumulator has been designed, built, and demonstrated to provide an acceptably close approximation to constant differential static pressure between two fluids over the full ranges of (1) accumulator stroke, (2) rates of flow of the fluids, and (3) common static pressure applied to the fluids. Prior differential- pressure two-fluid accumulators are generally not capable of maintaining acceptably close approximations to constant differential pressures. The inadequacies of a typical prior differential-pressure two-fluid accumulator can be summarized as follows: The static differential pressure is governed by the intrinsic spring rate (essentially, the stiffness) of an accumulator tank. The spring rate can be tailored through selection of the tank-wall thickness, selection of the number and/or shape of accumulator convolutions, and/or selection of accumulator material(s). Reliance on the intrinsic spring rate of the tank results in three severe limitations: (1) The spring rate and the expulsion efficiency tend to be inversely proportional to each other: that is to say, as the stiffness (and thus the differential pressure) is increased, the range of motion of the accumulator is reduced. (2) As the applied common static pressure increases, the differential pressure tends to decrease. An additional disadvantage, which may or may not be considered limiting, depending on the specific application, is that an increase in stiffness entails an increase in weight. (3) The additional weight required by a low expulsion efficiency accumulator eliminates the advantage given to such gas storage systems. The high expulsion efficiency provided by this two-fluid accumulator allows for a lightweight, tightly packaged system, which can be used in conjunction with a fuel cell-based system.
Exact scaling laws for helical three-dimensional two-fluid turbulent plasmas
Andrés, Nahuel; Sahraoui, Fouad
2016-01-01
We derive exact scaling laws for a three-dimensional incompressible helical two-fluid plasma, without the assumption of isotropy. For each ideal invariant of the two-fluid model, i.e. the total energy, the electron helicity and the proton helicity, we derive simple scaling laws in terms of two-point increments correlation functions expressed in terms of the velocity field of each species and the magnetic field. These variables are appropriate for comparison with \\textit{in-situ} measurements in the solar wind at different spatial ranges and data from numerical simulations. Finally, with the exact scaling laws and dimensional analysis we predict the magnetic energy and electron helicity spectra for different ranges of scales.
NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TWO-FLUID MIXING IN A SWIRL MICRO-MIXER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Si-yu; LIU Ying-zheng; WANG Wei-zhe; CAO Zhao-min; KOYAMA Hide S.
2006-01-01
A collaborative investigation of two-fluid mixing in a swirl micro-mixer was carried out by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the Tokyo Denki University. Pure water and a mixture of glycerol and water were separately injected into branch channels and they were subsequently mixed in the central chamber. The two-fluid flow pattern was numerically modeled, in which the dependence of the mixture viscosity and density on the mass fraction of glycerol in the mixing fluid was carefully taken into consideration. The mixing performance of the two fluids was evaluated by varying the Reynolds numbers and the mass fractions of glycerol in water. The mixing process was extensively analyzed using streamline maps and contour plotting distributions of pressure and glycerol concentration. The numerical results show that the acceptable uniformity of mixing at Re = 0.1 is primarily attributed to the time-consuming molecular diffusion, whereas the cost-effective mixing at Re ＞ 500 was obtained because of the generation of the swirling flow. The increasing mass fraction of glycerol in water was found to attenuate the mixing performance. The preliminary microscopic visualization of the two-fluid mixing at Re=1300 demonstrated the consistence with the numerical results.
Phase diagram of the two-fluid Lipkin model: a butterfly catastrophe
García-Ramos, J E; Arias, J M; Freire, E
2016-01-01
Background: In the last few decades quantum phase transitions have been of great interest in Nuclear Physics. In this context, two-fluid algebraic models are ideal systems to study how the concept of quantum phase transition evolves when moving into more complex systems, but the number of publications along this line has been scarce up to now. Purpose: We intend to determine the phase diagram of a two-fluid Lipkin model, that resembles the nuclear proton-neutron interacting boson model Hamiltonian, using both numerical results and analytic tools, i.e., catastrophe theory, and to compare the mean-field results with exact diagonalizations for large systems. Method: The mean-field energy surface of a consistent-Q-like two-fluid Lipkin Hamiltonian is studied and compared with exact results coming from a direct diagonalization. The mean-field results are analyzed using the framework of catastrophe theory. Results: The phase diagram of the model is obtained and the order of the different phase-transition lines and ...
Entropy Stable Numerical Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Equations
Kumar, Harish
2011-01-01
Two-fluid ideal plasma equations are a generalized form of the ideal MHD equations in which electrons and ions are considered as separate species. The design of efficient numerical schemes for the these equations is complicated on account of their non-linear nature and the presence of stiff source terms, especially for high charge to mass ratios and for low Larmor radii. In this article, we design entropy stable finite difference schemes for the two-fluid equations by combining entropy conservative fluxes and suitable numerical diffusion operators. Furthermore, to overcome the time step restrictions imposed by the stiff source terms, we devise time-stepping routines based on implicit-explicit (IMEX)-Runge Kutta (RK) schemes. The special structure of the two-fluid plasma equations is exploited by us to design IMEX schemes in which only local (in each cell) linear equations need to be solved at each time step. Benchmark numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the robustness and accuracy of these schem...
Two-fluid electromagnetic simulations of plasma-jet acceleration with detailed equation-of-state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Bruner, N. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States)
2011-10-15
We describe a new particle-based two-fluid fully electromagnetic algorithm suitable for modeling high density (n{sub i} {approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) and high Mach number laboratory plasma jets. In this parameter regime, traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques are challenging due to electron timescale and lengthscale constraints. In this new approach, an implicit field solve allows the use of large timesteps while an Eulerian particle remap procedure allows simulations to be run with very few particles per cell. Hall physics and charge separation effects are included self-consistently. A detailed equation of state (EOS) model is used to evolve the ion charge state and introduce non-ideal gas behavior. Electron cooling due to radiation emission is included in the model as well. We demonstrate the use of these new algorithms in 1D and 2D Cartesian simulations of railgun (parallel plate) jet accelerators using He and Ar gases. The inclusion of EOS and radiation physics reduces the electron temperature, resulting in higher calculated jet Mach numbers in the simulations. We also introduce a surface physics model for jet accelerators in which a frictional drag along the walls leads to axial spreading of the emerging jet. The simulations demonstrate that high Mach number jets can be produced by railgun accelerators for a variety of applications, including high energy density physics experiments.
Quantitative study of guide-field effects on Hall reconnection in a laboratory plasma.
Tharp, T D; Yamada, M; Ji, H; Lawrence, E; Dorfman, S; Myers, C E; Yoo, J
2012-10-19
The effect of guide field on magnetic reconnection is quantitatively studied by systematically varying an applied guide field in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). The quadrupole field, a signature of two-fluid reconnection at zero guide field, is altered by a finite guide field. It is shown that the reconnection rate is significantly reduced with increasing guide field, and this dependence is explained by a combination of local and global physics: locally, the in-plane Hall currents are reduced, while globally guide field compression produces an increased pressure both within and downstream of the reconnection region.
A fast pressure-correction method for incompressible two-fluid flows
Dodd, Michael S.; Ferrante, Antonino
2014-09-01
We have developed a new pressure-correction method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows with large density and viscosity ratios. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation, which can be solved with an FFT-based, fast Poisson solver. This reduction is achieved by splitting the variable density pressure gradient term in the governing equations. The validity of this splitting is demonstrated from our numerical tests, and it is explained from a physical viewpoint. In this paper, the new pressure-correction method is coupled with a mass-conserving volume-of-fluid method to capture the motion of the interface between the two fluids but, in general, it could be coupled with other interface advection methods such as level-set, phase-field, or front-tracking. First, we verified the new pressure-correction method using the capillary wave test-case up to density and viscosity ratios of 10,000. Then, we validated the method by simulating the motion of a falling water droplet in air and comparing the droplet terminal velocity with an experimental value. Next, the method is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time independent of the VoF method, and it conserves mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the inviscid limit. Also, we show that for solving the two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations, the method is 10-40 times faster than the standard pressure-correction method, which uses multigrid to solve the variable coefficient Poisson equation. Finally, we show that the method is capable of performing fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence with thousands of droplets using a computational mesh of 10243 points.
A two-fluid model for black-hole accretion flows: particle acceleration and disc structure
Lee, Jason P.; Becker, Peter A.
2017-02-01
Hot, tenuous advection-dominated accretion flows around black holes are ideal sites for the Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles at standing shock waves in the accretion disc. Previous work has demonstrated that the shock-acceleration process can be efficient enough to power the observed, strong outflows in radio-loud active galaxies such as M87. However, the dynamical effect (back-reaction) on the flow, exerted by the pressure of the relativistic particles, has not been previously considered, and this effect can have a significant influence on the disc structure. We reexamine the problem by developing a new, two-fluid model for the structure of the accretion disc that includes the dynamical effect of the relativistic particle pressure, combined with the pressure of the background (thermal) gas. The new model is analogous to the two-fluid model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova-driven shock waves. As part of the model, we also develop a new set of shock jump conditions, which are solved along with the hydrodynamic conservation equations to determine the structure of the accretion disc. The solutions include the formation of a mildly relativistic outflow (jet) at the shock radius, driven by the relativistic particles accelerated in the disc. One of our main conclusions is that in the context of the new two-fluid accretion model, global smooth (shock-free) solutions do not exist, and the disc must always contain a standing shock wave, at least in the inviscid case considered here.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, M., E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Coupled Vlasov and two-fluid codes on GPUs
Rieke, M; Grauer, R
2014-01-01
We present a way to combine Vlasov and two-fluid codes for the simulation of a collisionless plasma in large domains while keeping full information of the velocity distribution in localized areas of interest. This is made possible by solving the full Vlasov equation in one region while the remaining area is treated by a 5-moment two-fluid code. In such a treatment, the main challenge of coupling kinetic and fluid descriptions is the interchange of physically correct boundary conditions between the different plasma models. In contrast to other treatments, we do not rely on any specific form of the distribution function, e.g. a Maxwellian type. Instead, we combine an extrapolation of the distribution function and a correction of the moments based on the fluid data. Thus, throughout the simulation both codes provide the necessary boundary conditions for each other. A speed-up factor of around 20 is achieved by using GPUs for the computationally expensive solution of the Vlasov equation and an overall factor of a...
Two-fluid modeling of magnetosonic wave propagation in the partially ionized solar chromosphere
Maneva, Yana; Alvarez Laguna, Alejandro; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan
2016-04-01
We perform 2D two-fluid simulations to study the effects of ion-neutral interactions on the propagation of magnetosonic waves in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, where the number density of neutrals significantly exceeds the number density of protons at low heights. Thus modeling the neutral-ion interactions and studying the effect of neutrals on the ambient plasma properties becomes important for better understanding the observed emission lines and the propagation of disturbances from the photosphere to the transition region and the corona. The role of charged particles (electrons and ions) is combined within resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskii's transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations, allowing for propagation of higher frequency waves neglected by the standard MHD approximation. Separate mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are considered for the neutrals and the interaction between the different fluids is determined by the chemical reactions, such as impact ionization, radiative recombination and charge exchange, provided as additional source terms. To initialize the system we consider an ideal gas equation of state with equal initial temperatures for the electrons, ions and the neutrals and different density profiles. The initial temperature and density profiles are height-dependent and follow VAL C atmospheric model for the solar chromosphere. We have searched for a chemical and collisional equilibrium between the ions and the neutrals to minimize any unphysical outflows and artificial heating induced by initial pressure imbalances. Including different magnetic field profiles brings new source of plasma heating through Ohmic dissipation. The excitation and propagation of the magnetosonic waves depends on the type of the external velocity driver. As the waves propagate through the gravitationally stratified media
Amano, Takanobu
2016-01-01
A new multidimensional simulation code for relativistic two-fluid electrodynamics (RTFED) is described. The basic equations consist of the full set of Maxwell's equations coupled with relativistic hydrodynamic equations for separate two charged fluids, representing the dynamics of either an electron-positron or an electron-proton plasma. It can be recognized as an extension of conventional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Finite resistivity may be introduced as a friction between the two species, which reduces to resistive RMHD in the long wavelength limit without suffering from a singularity at infinite conductivity. A numerical scheme based on HLL (Harten-Lax-Van Leer) Riemann solver is proposed that exactly preserves the two divergence constraints for Maxwell's equations simultaneously. Several benchmark problems demonstrate that it is capable of describing RMHD shocks/discontinuities at long wavelength limit, as well as dispersive characteristics due to the two-fluid effect appearing at small sca...
Two dimensional, two fluid model for sodium boiling in LMFBR fuel assemblies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granziera, M.R.; Kazimi, M.S.
1980-05-01
A two dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transient was developed using the two fluid set of conservation equations. A semiimplicit numerical differencing scheme capable of handling the problems associated with the ill-posedness implied by the complex characteristic roots of the two fluid problems was used, which took advantage of the dumping effect of the exchange terms. Of particular interest in the development of the model was the identification of the numerical problems caused by the strong disparity between the axial and radial dimensions of fuel assemblies. A solution to this problem was found which uses the particular geometry of fuel assemblies to accelerate the convergence of the iterative technique used in the model. Three sodium boiling experiments were simulated with the model, with good agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions.
Comparison of Two Fluid Replacement Protocols During a 20-km Trail Running Race in the Heat.
Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; Jensen, Katherine A; Stearns, Rebecca L; DeMartini, Julie K; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Roti, Melissa W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M
2016-09-01
Lopez, RM, Casa, DJ, Jensen, K, Stearns, RL, DeMartini, JK, Pagnotta, KD, Roti, MW, Armstrong, LE, and Maresh, CM. Comparison of two fluid replacement protocols during a 20-km trail running race in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2609-2616, 2016-Proper hydration is imperative for athletes striving for peak performance and safety, however, the effectiveness of various fluid replacement strategies in the field setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how two hydration protocols affect physiological responses and performance during a 20-km trail running race. A randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design was used in a field setting (mean ± SD: WBGT 28.3 ± 1.9° C). Well-trained male (n = 8) and female (n = 5) runners (39 ± 14 years; 175 ± 9 cm; 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; 13.4 ± 4.6% BF) completed two 20-km trail races (5 × 4-km loop) with different water hydration protocols: (a) ad libitum (AL) consumption and (b) individualized rehydration (IR). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Paired t-tests compared pre-race-post-race measures. Main outcome variables were race time, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), fluid consumed, percent body mass loss (BML), and urine osmolality (Uosm). Race times between groups were similar. There was a significant condition × time interaction (p = 0.048) for HR, but TGI was similar between conditions. Subjects replaced 30 ± 14% of their water losses in AL and 64 ± 16% of their losses in IR (p 2% BML in AL. Ad libitum drinking resulted in 1.3% greater BML over the 20-km race, which resulted in no thermoregulatory or performance differences from IR.
Explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithms for ideal two-fluid systems
Xiao, Jianyuan; Qin, Hong; Morrison, Philip J.; Liu, Jian; Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang
2016-11-01
An explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithm for ideal two-fluid systems is developed. The fluid is discretized as particles in the Lagrangian description, while the electromagnetic fields and internal energy are treated as discrete differential form fields on a fixed mesh. With the assistance of Whitney interpolating forms [H. Whitney, Geometric Integration Theory (Princeton University Press, 1957); M. Desbrun et al., Discrete Differential Geometry (Springer, 2008); J. Xiao et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 112504 (2015)], this scheme preserves the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field, and the pressure field is naturally derived from the discrete internal energy. The whole system is solved using the Hamiltonian splitting method discovered by He et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 124503 (2015)], which was been successfully adopted in constructing symplectic particle-in-cell schemes [J. Xiao et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 112504 (2015)]. Because of its structure preserving and explicit nature, this algorithm is especially suitable for large-scale simulations for physics problems that are multi-scale and require long-term fidelity and accuracy. The algorithm is verified via two tests: studies of the dispersion relation of waves in a two-fluid plasma system and the oscillating two-stream instability.
Phase diagram of the two-fluid Lipkin model: A "butterfly" catastrophe
García-Ramos, J. E.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.; Freire, E.
2016-03-01
Background: In the past few decades quantum phase transitions have been of great interest in nuclear physics. In this context, two-fluid algebraic models are ideal systems to study how the concept of quantum phase transition evolves when moving into more complex systems, but the number of publications along this line has been scarce up to now. Purpose: We intend to determine the phase diagram of a two-fluid Lipkin model that resembles the nuclear proton-neutron interacting boson model Hamiltonian using both numerical results and analytic tools, i.e., catastrophe theory, and compare the mean-field results with exact diagonalizations for large systems. Method: The mean-field energy surface of a consistent-Q -like two-fluid Lipkin Hamiltonian is studied and compared with exact results coming from a direct diagonalization. The mean-field results are analyzed using the framework of catastrophe theory. Results: The phase diagram of the model is obtained and the order of the different phase-transition lines and surfaces is determined using a catastrophe theory analysis. Conclusions: There are two first-order surfaces in the phase diagram, one separating the spherical and the deformed shapes, while the other separates two different deformed phases. A second-order line, where the later surfaces merge, is found. This line finishes in a transition point with a divergence in the second-order derivative of the energy that corresponds to a tricritical point in the language of the Ginzburg-Landau theory for phase transitions.
A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows.
Pitman, E Bruce; Le, Long
2005-07-15
Geophysical mass flows--debris flows, avalanches, landslides--can contain O(10(6)-10(10)) m(3) or more of material, often a mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. These flows can be tens of meters in depth and hundreds of meters in length. The range of scales and the rheology of this mixture presents significant modelling and computational challenges. This paper describes a depth-averaged 'thin layer' model of geophysical mass flows containing a mixture of solid material and fluid. The model is derived from a 'two-phase' or 'two-fluid' system of equations commonly used in engineering research. Phenomenological modelling and depth averaging combine to yield a tractable set of equations, a hyperbolic system that describes the motion of the two constituent phases. If the fluid inertia is small, a reduced model system that is easier to solve may be derived.
Two-fluid Dynamics in Clusters of Galaxies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu-Qing Lou
2005-01-01
We develop a theoretical formulation for the large-scale dynamics of galaxy clusters involving two spherical ‘isothermal fluids’ coupled by their mutual gravity and derive asymptotic similarity solutions analytically. One of the fluids roughly approximates the massive dark matter halo, while the other describes the hot gas, the relatively small mass contribution from the galaxies being subsumed in the gas. By properly choosing the self-similar variables, it is possible to consistently transform the set of time-dependent two-fluid equations of spherical symmetry with self-gravity into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We focus on the analytical analysis and discuss applications of the solutions to galaxy clusters.
Magnetoacoustic waves in a partially ionized two-fluid plasma
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis
2013-01-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by the ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma $\\beta$, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional da...
Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stanier, A.; Browning, P.; Gordovskyy, M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); McClements, K. G.; Gryaznevich, M. P. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lukin, V. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2013-12-15
In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity η≲10{sup −5}. In Hall-MHD, three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the current sheet width to the ion-sound radius. These are a stable collisional regime, an open X-point regime, and an intermediate regime that is highly unstable to tearing-type instabilities. In toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the final state after merging is a MAST-like spherical tokamak with nested flux-surfaces. It is also shown that the evolution of simulated 1D radial density profiles closely resembles the Thomson scattering electron density measurements in MAST. An intuitive explanation for the origin of the measured density structures is proposed, based upon the results of the toroidal Hall-MHD simulations.
A two-fluid model for violent aerated flows
Dias, Frédéric; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel
2008-01-01
In the study of ocean wave impact on structures, one often uses Froude scaling since the dominant force is gravity. However the presence of trapped or entrained air in the water can significantly modify wave impacts. When air is entrained in water in the form of small bubbles, the acoustic properties in the water change dramatically. While some work has been done to study small-amplitude disturbances in such mixtures, little work has been done on large disturbances in air-water mixtures. We propose a basic two-fluid model in which both fluids share the same velocities and analyze some of its properties. It is shown that this model can successfully mimic water wave impacts on coastal structures. The governing equations are discretized by a second-order finite volume method. Numerical results are presented for two examples: the dam break problem and the drop test problem. It is shown that this basic model can be used to study violent aerated flows, especially by providing fast qualitative estimates.
Alfven waves in a partially ionized two-fluid plasma
Soler, R; Ballester, J L; Terradas, J
2013-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfv\\'en waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfv\\'en waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cut-off values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mo...
Two-fluid model stability, simulation and chaos
Bertodano, Martín López de; Clausse, Alejandro; Ransom, Victor H
2017-01-01
This book addresses the linear and nonlinear two-phase stability of the one-dimensional Two-Fluid Model (TFM) material waves and the numerical methods used to solve it. The TFM fluid dynamic stability is a problem that remains open since its inception more than forty years ago. The difficulty is formidable because it involves the combined challenges of two-phase topological structure and turbulence, both nonlinear phenomena. The one dimensional approach permits the separation of the former from the latter. The authors first analyze the kinematic and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with the simplified one-dimensional Fixed-Flux Model (FFM). They then analyze the density wave instability with the well-known Drift-Flux Model. They demonstrate that the Fixed-Flux and Drift-Flux assumptions are two complementary TFM simplifications that address two-phase local and global linear instabilities separately. Furthermore, they demonstrate with a well-posed FFM and a DFM two cases of nonlinear two-phase behavior that are ...
Numerical simulation of fluid bed drying based on two-fluid model and experimental validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assari, M.R. [Jundi-shapur University, Dezful (Iran); Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Saffar-Avval, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)
2007-02-15
A mathematical model for batch drying based on the Eulerian 'two-fluid models' was developed. The two-dimensional, axis-symmetrical cylindrical equations for both phases were solved numerically. The governing equations were discretized using a finite volume method with local grid refinement near the wall and inlet port. The effects of parameters such as inlet gas velocity and inlet gas temperature on the moisture content, temperature of solid and gas at the outlet are shown. This data from the model was compared with that obtained from experiments with a fluidized bed and found to be in reasonably good agreement. (author)
Higgs Effective Field Theories
2016-01-01
The main focus of this meeting is to present new theoretical advancements related to effective field theories, evaluate the impact of initial results from the LHC Run2, and discuss proposals for data interpretation/presentation during Run2. A crucial role of the meeting is to bring together theorists from different backgrounds and with different viewpoints and to extend bridges towards the experimental community. To this end, we would like to achieve a good balance between senior and junior speakers, enhancing the visibility of younger scientists while keeping some overview talks.
Holographic effective field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)
2016-06-28
We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.
ChiBin, Zhang; XiaoHui, Lin; ZhaoMin, Wang; ChangBao, Wang
2017-03-01
In experiments and theoretical analyses, this study examines the capture efficiency (CE) of magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) for implant-assisted magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) in microvessels. It also proposes a three-dimensional statistical transport model of MDCPs for IA-MDT in permeable microvessels, which describes blood flow by the two-fluid (Casson and Newtonian) model. The model accounts for the permeable effect of the microvessel wall and the coupling effect between the blood flow and tissue fluid flow. The MDCPs move randomly through the microvessel, and their transport state is described by the Boltzmann equation. The regulated changes and factors affecting the CE of the MDCPs in the assisted magnetic targeting were obtained by solving the theoretical model and by experimental testing. The CE was negatively correlated with the blood flow velocity, and positively correlated with the external magnetic field intensity and microvessel permeability. The predicted CEs of the MDCPs were consistent with the experimental results. Additionally, under the same external magnetic field, the predicted CE was 5-8% higher in the IA-MDT model than in the model ignoring the permeability effect of the microvessel wall.
3D two-fluid simulations of turbulence in LAPD
Fisher, Dustin M.
The Large Plasma Device (LAPD) is modeled using a modified version of the 3D Global Braginskii Solver code (GBS) for a nominal Helium plasma. The unbiased low-flow regime is explored in simulations where there is an intrinsic E x B rotation of the plasma. In the simulations this rotation is caused primarily by sheath effects with the Reynolds stress and J x B torque due to a cross-field Pederson conductivity having little effect. Explicit biasing simulations are also explored for the first time where the intrinsic rotation of the plasma is modified through boundary conditions that mimic the biasable limiter used in LAPD. Comparisons to experimental measurements in the unbiased case show strong qualitative agreement with the data, particularly the radial dependence of the density fluctuations, cross-correlation lengths, radial flux dependence outside of the cathode edge, and camera imagery. Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) turbulence at relatively large scales is the dominant driver of cross-field transport in these simulations with smaller-scale drift waves and sheath modes playing a secondary role. Plasma holes and blobs arising from KH vortices are consistent with the scale sizes and overall appearance of those in LAPD camera images. The addition of ion-neutral collisions in the unbiased simulations at previously theorized values reduces the radial particle flux due to a modest stabilizing contribution of the collisions on the KH-modes driving the turbulent transport. In the biased runs the ion-neutral collisions have a much smaller effect due to the modification of the potential from sheath terms. In biasing the plasma to increase the intrinsic rotation, simulations show the emergence of a nonlinearly saturated coherent mode of order m = 6. In addition, the plasma inside of the cathode edge becomes quiescent due to the strong influence of the wall bias in setting up the equilibrium plasma potential. Biasing in the direction opposite to the intrinsic flow reduces the
Divergence-free Approximate Riemann Solver for the Quasi-neutral Two-fluid Plasma Model
Amano, Takanobu
2015-01-01
A numerical method for the quasi-neutral two-fluid (QNTF) plasma model is described. The basic equations are ion and electron fluid equations and the Maxwell equations without displacement current. The neglect of displacement current is consistent with the assumption of charge neutrality. It thus reduces to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the long wavelength limit, but the two-fluid effect appearing at ion and electron inertial scales is fully taken into account. It is shown that the basic equations may be rewritten in a form that has formally the same structure as the MHD equations. The total mass, momentum, and energy are all written in the conservative form. A new three-dimensional numerical simulation code has been developed for the QNTF equations. The HLL (Harten-Lax-van Leer) approximate Riemann solver combined with the upwind constrained transport (UCT) scheme is applied. The method was originally developed for MHD (Londrillo & Del Zanna, 2004), but works quite well for the present...
Amano, Takanobu
2016-11-01
A new multidimensional simulation code for relativistic two-fluid electrodynamics (RTFED) is described. The basic equations consist of the full set of Maxwell’s equations coupled with relativistic hydrodynamic equations for separate two charged fluids, representing the dynamics of either an electron-positron or an electron-proton plasma. It can be recognized as an extension of conventional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Finite resistivity may be introduced as a friction between the two species, which reduces to resistive RMHD in the long wavelength limit without suffering from a singularity at infinite conductivity. A numerical scheme based on HLL (Harten-Lax-Van Leer) Riemann solver is proposed that exactly preserves the two divergence constraints for Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. Several benchmark problems demonstrate that it is capable of describing RMHD shocks/discontinuities at long wavelength limit, as well as dispersive characteristics due to the two-fluid effect appearing at small scales. This shows that the RTFED model is a promising tool for high energy astrophysics application.
Capturing nonlinear dynamics of two-fluid Couette flows with asymptotic models
Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Cimpeanu, Radu; Kalogirou, Anna; Keaveny, Eric
2016-11-01
The nonlinear stability of two-fluid Couette flows is studied using a novel evolution equation whose dynamics are validated by direct numerical simulations (DNS). The evolution equation incorporates inertial effects at arbitrary Reynolds numbers through a nonlocal term arising from the coupling between the two fluid regions, and is valid when one of the layers is thin. The equation predicts asymmetric solutions and exhibits bistability as seen in experiments. Related low-inertia models have been used in qualitative predictions using ad hoc modifications rather than the direct comparisons carried out here. Comparisons between model solutions and DNS show excellent agreement at Reynolds numbers of O (103) found in experiments. Direct comparisons are also made with the available experimental results of Barthelet et al. (1995) when the thin layer occupies 1 / 5 of the channel height. Pointwise comparisons of the travelling wave shapes are carried out and once again the agreement is very good. EPSRC Grant Numbers EP/K041134 and EP/L020564.
Simulation of horizontal pipe two-phase slug flows using the two-fluid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega Malca, Arturo J. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica
2005-07-01
Slug flow occurs in many engineering applications, mainly in the transport of hydrocarbon fluids in pipelines. The intermittency of slug flow causes severe unsteady loading on the pipelines carrying the fluids, which gives rise to design problems. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the onset and development of slug flow as well as slug characteristics. The present work consists in the simulation of two-phase flow in slug pattern through horizontal pipes using the two-fluid model in its transient and one-dimensional form. The advantage of this model is that the flow field is allowed to develop naturally from a given initial conditions as part of the transient calculation; the slug evolves automatically as a product of the computed flow development. Simulations are then carried out for a large number of flow conditions that lead a slug flow. (author)
Perturbation of a Multiple Eigenvalue in the Benard Problem for Two Fluid Layers.
1984-12-01
EIGENVAWUE IN THlE BENARtD PROBLEM FOR TWO FLUID LAYERS Ca O~ Yuriko Renardy and Michael Renardy MUathematics Research Center University of Wisconsin...OF WISCONSIN - MADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER PERTUBBATION OF A MULTIPLE EIGENVALUE IN THE BENARD PROBLEM FOR TWO FLUID LAYERS Yuriko Renardy and...PROBLEM FOR TWO FLUID LAYERS Yuriko Renardy and Michael Renardy 1. INTRODUCTION In the B6nard problem for one fluid, "exchange of stabilities" holds
Two-Fluid Mathematical Models for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sankar DS
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The pulsatile flow of blood through stenosed arteries is analyzed by assuming the blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as a non-Newtonian fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as a Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluid in the core region of the artery is assumed as a (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid and (ii Casson fluid. Perturbation method is used to solve the resulting system of non-linear partial differential equations. Expressions for various flow quantities are obtained for the two-fluid Casson model. Expressions of the flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Lee (2006 for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model are used to get the data for comparison. It is found that the plug flow velocity and velocity distribution of the two-fluid Casson model are considerably higher than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. It is also observed that the pressure drop, plug core radius, wall shear stress and the resistance to flow are significantly very low for the two-fluid Casson model than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, the two-fluid Casson model would be more useful than the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model to analyze the blood flow through stenosed arteries.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiang; SU WanHua
2009-01-01
Cavitating flows inside a diesel injection nozzle hole were simulated using a two-fluid model. Attention was focused on the complex cavitation processes and flow characteristics under constant inlet pres-sure and fluctuant inlet pressure modes. To validate the two-fluid model, model predictions were compared with the experimental data available in the literatures, and good agreement was achieved. The numerical results show that the appearance of supercavitation in the diesel nozzle hole induces obvious changes of flow field structures and exit flow conditions, The distributions of liquid phase turbulent kinetic energy and exit velocity profiles corresponding to the supercavitation regime indicate the potential for promoting the primary breakup of a diesel jet. Furthermore, the upstream pressure fluctuations significantly influence the cavitation processes. Both partial cavitation and supercavitation show unsteady behaviors as the rapid rise or fall of upstream pressure.
Field reparametrization in effective field theories
Passarino, Giampiero
2016-01-01
Debate topic for Effective Field Theory (EFT) is the choice of a "basis" for $\\mrdim = 6$ operators Clearly all bases are equivalent as long as they are a "basis", containing a minimal set of operators after the use of equations of motion and respecting gauge invariance. From a more formal point of view a basis is characterized by its closure with respect to renormalization. Equivalence of bases should always be understood as a statement for the S-matrix and not for the Lagrangian, as dictated by the equivalence theorem. Any phenomenological approach that misses one of these ingredients is still acceptable for a preliminar analysis, as long as it does not pretend to be an EFT. Here we revisit the equivalence theorem and its consequences for EFT when two sets of higher dimensional operators are connected by a set of non-linear, noninvariant, field reparametrizations.
Integrable, oblique travelling waves in quasi-charge-neutral two-fluid plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. Webb
2008-02-01
Full Text Available A Hamiltonian description of oblique travelling waves in a two-fluid, charge-neutral, electron-proton plasma reveals that the transverse momentum equations for the electron and proton fluids are exactly integrable in cases where the total transverse momentum flux integrals, P_{y}^{(d} and P_{z}^{(d}, are both zero in the de Hoffman Teller (dHT frame. In this frame, the transverse electric fields are zero, which simplifies the transverse momentum equations for the two fluids. The integrable travelling waves for the case P_{y}^{(d}=P_{z}^{(d}=0, are investigated based on the Hamiltonian trajectories in phase space, and also on the longitudinal structure equation for the common longitudinal fluid velocity component u_{x} of the electron and proton fluids. Numerical examples of a variety of travelling waves in a cold plasma, including oscillitons, are used to illustrate the physics. The transverse, electron and proton velocity components u_{jy} and u_{jz} (j=e, p of the waves exhibit complex, rosette type patterns over several periods for u_{x}. The role of separatrices in the phase space, the rotational integral and the longitudinal structure equation on the different wave forms are discussed.
Two-Fluid Theory for Spin Superfluidity in Magnetic Insulators
Flebus, B.; Bender, S. A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Duine, R. A.
2016-01-01
We investigate coupled spin and heat transport in easy-plane magnetic insulators. These materials display a continuous phase transition between normal and condensate states that is controlled by an external magnetic field. Using hydrodynamic equations supplemented by Gross-Pitaevski phenomenology an
Space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for two-fluid flows
Sollie, Warnerius Egbert Hendrikus
2010-01-01
The aim of this research project was to develop a discontinuous Galerkin method for two-fluid flows, which is accurate, versatile and can alleviate some of the problems commonly encountered with existing methods. A novel numerical method for two-fluid flow computations is presented, which combines t
A physical five-equation model for compressible two-fluid flow, and its numerical treatment
Kreeft, J.J.; Koren, B.
2009-01-01
A novel five-equation model for inviscid, non-heat-conducting, compressible two-fluid flow is derived, together with an appropriate numerical method. The model uses flow equations based on conservation laws and exchange laws only. The two fluids exchange momentum and energy, for which source terms a
Scaling laws for gas-solid riser flow through two-fluid model simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
P.R. Naren; Vivek. V. Ranade
2011-01-01
Scale up of gas-solid circulating fluidized bed (CFB) risers poses many challenges to researchers. In this paper, CFD investigation of hydrodynamic scaling laws for gas-solid riser flow was attempted on the basis of two-fluid model simulations, in particular, the recently developed empirical scaling law of Qi, Zhu,and Huang (2008). A 3D computational model with periodic boundaries was used to perform numerical experiments and to study the effect of various system and operating parameters in hydrodynamic scaling of riser flow. The Qi scaling ratio was found to ensure similarity in global parameters like overall crosssectional average solid holdup or pressure drop gradient. However, similarity in local flow profiles was not observed for all the test cases. The present work also highlighted the significance of error bars in reporting experimental values.
Chromospheric magnetic reconnection: Two-fluid simulations of coalescing current loops
Smith, P D
2008-01-01
Aims: To investigate magnetic reconnection rates during the coalescence of two current loops in the solar chromosphere, by altering the neutral-hydrogen to proton density ratio, ioniziation/recombination coefficients, collision frequency and relative helicity of the loops. Methods: 2.5D numerical simulations of the chromosphere were conducted using a newly developed two-fluid (ion-neutral) numerical code. Developed from the Artificial Wind scheme, the numerical code includes the effects of ion-neutral collisions, ionization/recombination, thermal/resistive diffusivity and collisional/resistive heating. Results: It was found that the rates of magnetic reconnection strongly depend on the neutral-hydrogen to proton density ratio; increasing the density ratio by a thousand-fold decreased the rate of magnetic reconnection by twenty-fold. This result implies that magnetic reconnection proceeds significantly faster in the upper chromosphere, where the density of ions (protons) and neutral-hydrogen is comparable, tha...
Electrohydrodynamic aspects of two-fluid microfluidic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goranovic, Goran
device and the cascade EO-pump, discovery of how to pump non-polar liquids by electroosmosis, theory of clogging pressures of large bubbles in microchannel contractions, and a theoretical analysis of the stability conditions for the interface between two different dielectric liquids under influence...... of external electric fields. A significant effort has been devoted to the creation of a new group at MIC, the Microfluidcs Theory and Simulation Group (MIFTS). During the first year of this PhD-study, simulation of lab-on-a-chip systems was the main topic. Later, as students were attracted to the group...... the activities expanded to include the theoretical studies. At present MIFTS consists of two postdocs, four PhD students and a number of undergraduate students, under the leadership of prof. Henrik Bruus....
Revisiting low-fidelity two-fluid models for gas-solids transport
Adeleke, Najeem; Adewumi, Michael; Ityokumbul, Thaddeus
2016-08-01
Two-phase gas-solids transport models are widely utilized for process design and automation in a broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications include proppant transport in gaseous fracking fluids, air/gas drilling hydraulics, coal-gasification reactors and food processing units. Systems automation and real time process optimization stand to benefit a great deal from availability of efficient and accurate theoretical models for operations data processing. However, modeling two-phase pneumatic transport systems accurately requires a comprehensive understanding of gas-solids flow behavior. In this study we discuss the prevailing flow conditions and present a low-fidelity two-fluid model equation for particulate transport. The model equations are formulated in a manner that ensures the physical flux term remains conservative despite the inclusion of solids normal stress through the empirical formula for modulus of elasticity. A new set of Roe-Pike averages are presented for the resulting strictly hyperbolic flux term in the system of equations, which was used to develop a Roe-type approximate Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is stable regardless of the choice of flux-limiter. The model is evaluated by the prediction of experimental results from both pneumatic riser and air-drilling hydraulics systems. We demonstrate the effect and impact of numerical formulation and choice of numerical scheme on model predictions. We illustrate the capability of a low-fidelity one-dimensional two-fluid model in predicting relevant flow parameters in two-phase particulate systems accurately even under flow regimes involving counter-current flow.
Revisiting low-fidelity two-fluid models for gas–solids transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adeleke, Najeem, E-mail: najm@psu.edu; Adewumi, Michael, E-mail: m2a@psu.edu; Ityokumbul, Thaddeus
2016-08-15
Two-phase gas–solids transport models are widely utilized for process design and automation in a broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications include proppant transport in gaseous fracking fluids, air/gas drilling hydraulics, coal-gasification reactors and food processing units. Systems automation and real time process optimization stand to benefit a great deal from availability of efficient and accurate theoretical models for operations data processing. However, modeling two-phase pneumatic transport systems accurately requires a comprehensive understanding of gas–solids flow behavior. In this study we discuss the prevailing flow conditions and present a low-fidelity two-fluid model equation for particulate transport. The model equations are formulated in a manner that ensures the physical flux term remains conservative despite the inclusion of solids normal stress through the empirical formula for modulus of elasticity. A new set of Roe–Pike averages are presented for the resulting strictly hyperbolic flux term in the system of equations, which was used to develop a Roe-type approximate Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is stable regardless of the choice of flux-limiter. The model is evaluated by the prediction of experimental results from both pneumatic riser and air-drilling hydraulics systems. We demonstrate the effect and impact of numerical formulation and choice of numerical scheme on model predictions. We illustrate the capability of a low-fidelity one-dimensional two-fluid model in predicting relevant flow parameters in two-phase particulate systems accurately even under flow regimes involving counter-current flow.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.
Macrì, M. A.; Di Luzio, Sr.; Di Luzio, S.
2002-01-01
Nowadays, concerns about hazards from electromagnetic fields represent an alarming source for human lives in technologically developed countries. We are surrounded by electromagnetic fields everywhere we spend our working hours, rest or recreational activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the biological effects due to these fields arising from power and transmission lines, electrical cable splices, electronic devices inside our homes and work-places, distribution networks and associated devices such as cellular telephones and wireless communication tower, etc. Special care has been reserved to study the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on cell lines of the mammalian immune system about which our research group has been working for several years.
Microplasma Field Effect Transistors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massood Tabib-Azar
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Micro plasma devices (MPD with power gains are of interest in applications involving operations in the presence of ionizing radiations, in propulsion, in control, amplification of high power electromagnetic waves, and in metamaterials for energy management. Here, we review and discuss MPDs with an emphasis on new architectures that have evolved during the past seven years. Devices with programmable impact ionization rates and programmable boundaries are developed to control the plasma ignition voltage and current to achieve power gain. Plasma devices with 1–10 μm gaps are shown to operate in the sub-Paschen regime in atmospheric pressures where ion-assisted field emission results in a breakdown voltage that linearly depends on the gap distance in contrast to the exponential dependence dictated by the Paschen curve. Small gap devices offer higher operation frequencies at low operation voltages with applications in metamaterial skins for energy management and in harsh environment inside nuclear reactors and in space. In addition to analog plasma devices, logic gates, digital circuits, and distributed amplifiers are also discussed.
On the Study of Second-Order Wave Theory and Its Convergence for a Two-Fluid System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-Min Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Second-order solutions of internal and surface waves in a two-fluid system are theoretically analyzed in this study. Using the perturbation technique, the derivation of second-order solutions for internal waves is revisited, and the results are expressed in one-by-one forms instead of a matrix form. Second-order solutions arising from the interactions of two arbitrary linear waves of different frequencies contain the sum-frequency (superharmonic and the difference-frequency (subharmonic components, which are separately examined. Internal Stokes wave being a special case of present solutions is firstly investigated. Next, the convergence of second-order theory and the second-order effects on wave profiles are analyzed. For general cases, the effects of the thickness ratio of two fluids and the ratio of wavenumbers of two first-order waves on second-order wave characteristics, which include transfer functions and particle velocities, are also examined. Moreover, most existing theories for the one-fluid and two-fluid systems can be deduced from present solutions.
Two-fluid biasing simulations of the large plasma device
Fisher, Dustin M.; Rogers, Barrett N.
2017-02-01
External biasing of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and its impact on plasma flows and turbulence are explored for the first time in 3D simulations using the Global Braginskii Solver code. Without external biasing, the LAPD plasma spontaneously rotates in the ion diamagnetic direction. The application of a positive bias increases the plasma rotation in the simulations, which show the emergence of a coherent Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) mode outside of the cathode edge with poloidal mode number m ≃6 . Negative biasing reduces the rotation in the simulations, which exhibit KH turbulence modestly weaker than but otherwise similar to unbiased simulations. Biasing either way, but especially positively, forces the plasma potential inside the cathode edge to a spatially constant, KH-stable profile, leading to a more quiescent core plasma than the unbiased case. A moderate increase in plasma confinement and an associated steepening of the profiles are seen in the biasing runs. The simulations thus show that the application of external biasing can improve confinement while also driving a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Ion-neutral collisions have only a weak effect in the biased or unbiased simulations.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
CENTORI: a global toroidal electromagnetic two-fluid plasma turbulence code
Knight, P J; Edwards, T D; Hein, J; Romanelli, M; McClements, K G
2011-01-01
A new global two-fluid electromagnetic turbulence code, CENTORI, has been developed for the purpose of studying magnetically-confined fusion plasmas. This code is used to evolve the combined system of electron and ion fluid equations and Maxwell equations in fully toroidal geometry, and is applicable to tokamaks of arbitrary aspect ratio and high plasma beta. A predictor corrector, semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to compute the time evolution of fluid quantities and fields. Vector operations and the evaluation of flux surface averages are speeded up by choosing the Jacobian of the transformation from laboratory to plasma coordinates to be a function of the equilibrium poloidal magnetic flux. A subroutine, GRASS, is used to co-evolve the plasma equilibrium by computing the steady-state solutions of a diffusion equation with a pseudo-time derivative. The code is written in Fortran 95 and is efficiently parallelized using Message Passing Interface (MPI). Illustrative examples of output from a simu...
Dispersion Relations and Polarizations of Low-frequency Waves in Two-fluid Plasmas
Zhao, Jinsong
2015-01-01
Analytical expressions for the dispersion relations and polarizations of low-frequency waves in magnetized plasmas based on two-fluid model are obtained. The properties of waves propagating at different angles (to the ambient magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) and \\beta (the ratio of the plasma to magnetic pressures) values are investigated. It is shown that two linearly polarized waves, namely the fast and Alfv\\'{e}n modes in the low-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\ll 1\\right)$ plasmas, the fast and slow modes in the \\beta \\sim 1 plasmas, and the Alfv\\'{e}n and slow modes in the high-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\gg 1\\right)$ plasmas, become circularly polarized at the near-parallel (to $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) propagation. The negative magnetic-helicity of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode occurs only at small or moderate angles in the low-\\beta plasmas, and the ion cross-helicity of the slow mode is nearly the same as that of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode in the high-\\beta plasmas. It also shown the electric polarization $\\delta E_{z}/\\delta E_{y}$ decreases...
Modelling flow and heat transfer in two-fluid interfacial flows, with applications to drops and jets
Mehdi-Nejad, Vala
2003-10-01
A two-dimensional, axi-symmetric model is developed to calculate flow and heat transfer in a two-fluid system. The model uses one set of the governing equations combined with a volume tracking method on a fixed structured mesh to model the simultaneous movement of mass, momentum and energy across cell boundaries. Both first and second-order methods are used to approximate temperature fields with sharp gradients that exist near a fluid-fluid interface. The model is first used to simulate the effect of surrounding air during a droplet impact. Bubble entrapment is observed in both numerical simulation and experimental photographs. The impact of water, n-heptane and molten nickel droplets on a solid surface is simulated. When a droplet approaches another surface, air in the gap between them was forced out. Increased air pressure below the droplet creates a depression in its surface, in which air is trapped. Different behaviors observed for water and n-heptane simulations are attributed to differences in wetting behavior. Next, to demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the interfacial heat transfer from molten tin droplets falling in an oil bath is modelled. The development of vortices behind droplets is simulated and the effect of fluid recirculation and oil thermal conductivity on heat dissipation is studied. The thesis concludes with application of the model to a study of interfacial heat transfer during jet break up. It is demonstrated that the change of fluid properties associated with interfacial heat transfer affects the jet break up and the resulting droplet size. It is also shown that obtaining a desirable droplet size during jet break up not only depends on hydrodynamic conditions such as nozzle diameter, jet initial velocity, and pressure, but also on thermal conditions such as the initial jet temperature and the surrounding fluid thermal properties.
Steady-State Flows in Two-Fluid Models of NSTX and DIII-D Plasmas
Ferraro, N. M.; Jardin, S. C.; Chen, J.
2009-05-01
Accurate axisymmetric steady-states of a comprehensive two-fluid model are calculated for plasmas in diverted NSTX and DIII-D geometries using the M3D-C^1 code [1]. It is found that gyroviscosity may have a significant effect on the flows in steady-state when a localized density source is present. The model implemented in M3D-C^1 self-consistently includes the effects of flows, anisotropic viscosity, anisotropic thermal conductivity, and resistivity. Results for ohmically driven plasmas are presented. New capabilities of M3D-C^1 allow the three-dimensional linear stability of axisymmetric equilibria to be calculated; these capabilities and preliminary stability results are discussed. Also discussed are recent and future extensions to M3D-C^1, including heuristic bootstrap current models, coupling to a physics-based transport model, and nonlinear non-axisymmetric capability. 3pt[1] S. C. Jardin, J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, J. Comput. Phys, 226 (2007) 2146
Tunneling field effect transistor technology
Chan, Mansun
2016-01-01
This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.
A two-fluid model for reactive dilute solid-liquid mixtures with phase changes
Reis, Martina Costa; Wang, Yongqi
2016-12-01
Based on the Eulerian spatial averaging theory and the Müller-Liu entropy principle, a two-fluid model for reactive dilute solid-liquid mixtures is presented. Initially, some averaging theorems and properties of average quantities are discussed and, then, averaged balance equations including interfacial source terms are postulated. Moreover, constitutive equations are proposed for a reactive dilute solid-liquid mixture, where the formation of the solid phase is due to a precipitation chemical reaction that involves ions dissolved in the liquid phase. To this end, principles of constitutive theory are used to propose linearized constitutive equations that account for diffusion, heat conduction, viscous and drag effects, and interfacial deformations. A particularity of the model is that the mass interfacial source term is regarded as an independent constitutive variable. The obtained results show that the inclusion of the mass interfacial source term into the set of independent constitutive variables permits to easily describe the phase changes associated with precipitation chemical reactions.
A two-fluid model for reactive dilute solid-liquid mixtures with phase changes
Reis, Martina Costa; Wang, Yongqi
2017-03-01
Based on the Eulerian spatial averaging theory and the Müller-Liu entropy principle, a two-fluid model for reactive dilute solid-liquid mixtures is presented. Initially, some averaging theorems and properties of average quantities are discussed and, then, averaged balance equations including interfacial source terms are postulated. Moreover, constitutive equations are proposed for a reactive dilute solid-liquid mixture, where the formation of the solid phase is due to a precipitation chemical reaction that involves ions dissolved in the liquid phase. To this end, principles of constitutive theory are used to propose linearized constitutive equations that account for diffusion, heat conduction, viscous and drag effects, and interfacial deformations. A particularity of the model is that the mass interfacial source term is regarded as an independent constitutive variable. The obtained results show that the inclusion of the mass interfacial source term into the set of independent constitutive variables permits to easily describe the phase changes associated with precipitation chemical reactions.
Double-diffusive two-fluid flow in a slippery channel: A linear stability analysis
Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.; Sahu, Kirti Chandra
2014-12-01
The effect of velocity slip at the walls on the linear stability characteristics of two-fluid three-layer channel flow (the equivalent core-annular configuration in case of pipe) is investigated in the presence of double diffusive (DD) phenomenon. The fluids are miscible and consist of two solute species having different rates of diffusion. The fluids are assumed to be of the same density, but varying viscosity, which depends on the concentration of the solute species. It is found that the flow stabilizes when the less viscous fluid is present in the region adjacent to the slippery channel walls in the single-component (SC) system but becomes unstable at low Reynolds numbers in the presence of DD effect. As the mixed region of the fluids moves towards the channel walls, a new unstable mode (DD mode), distinct from the Tollman Schlichting (TS) mode, arises at Reynolds numbers smaller than the critical Reynolds number for the TS mode. We also found that this mode becomes more prominent when the mixed layer overlaps with the critical layer. It is shown that the slip parameter has nonmonotonic effect on the stability characteristics in this system. Through energy budget analysis, the dual role of slip is explained. The effect of slip is influenced by the location of mixed layer, the log-mobility ratio of the faster diffusing scalar, diffusivity, and the ratio of diffusion coefficients of the two species. Increasing the value of the slip parameter delays the first occurrence of the DD-mode. It is possible to achieve stabilization or destabilization by controlling the various physical parameters in the flow system. In the present study, we suggest an effective and realistic way to control three-layer miscible channel flow with viscosity stratification.
The effect of normal electric field on the evolution of immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Tofighi, Nima; Ozbulut, Murat; Feng, James J.; Yildiz, Mehmet
2016-10-01
Manipulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using an external electric field has been the subject of many studies. However, most of these studies are focused on early stages of the evolution. In this work, the long-term evolution of the instability is investigated, focusing on the forces acting on the interface between the two fluids. To this end, numerical simulations are carried out at various electric permittivity and conductivity ratios as well as electric field intensities using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The electric field is applied in parallel to gravity to maintain unstable evolution. The results show that increasing top-to-bottom permittivity ratio increases the rising velocity of the bubble while hindering the spike descent. The opposite trend is observed for increasing top-to-bottom conductivity ratio. These effects are amplified at larger electric field intensities, resulting in narrower structures as the response to the excitation is non-uniform along the interface.
An implicit second order numerical method for two-fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toumi, I.
1995-12-31
We present an implicit upwind numerical method for a six equation two-fluid model based on a linearized Riemann solver. The construction of this approximate Riemann solver uses an extension of Roe`s scheme. Extension to second order accurate method is achieved using a piecewise linear approximation of the solution and a slope limiter method. For advancing in time, a linearized implicit integrating accurate non-oscillating solutions for two-phase flow calculations. The scheme was applied both to shock tube problems and to standard tests for two-fluid codes. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs.
Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields
Rahman, Asif
Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits
Inflating with Large Effective Fields
Burgess, C P; Quevedo, F; Williams, M
2014-01-01
We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset $G/H$ (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple {\\em large-field} power laws (like $V \\propto \\phi^2$) and exponential potentials, $V(\\phi) = \\sum_{k} V_k \\; e^{-k \\phi/M}$. Both of these can describe the data well and give slo...
Field enhancement effect of metal probe in evanescent field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaogang Hong; Wendong Xu; Xiaogang Li; Chengqiang Zhao; Xiaodong Tang
2009-01-01
Field enhancement effect of metal probe in evanescent field, induced by using a multi-layers structure for exciting surface plasmon resonance (SPR), is analyzed numerically by utilizing two-dimensional (2D) TM wave finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In this letter, we used a fundamental mode Gaussian beam to induce evanescent field, and calculated the electric intensity. The results show that compared with the nonmetal probe, the metal probe has a larger field enhancement effect, and its scattering wave induced by field enhancement has a bigger decay coefficient. The field enhancement effect should conclude that the metal probe has an important application in nanolithography.
Inflating with large effective fields
Burgess, C. P.; Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Williams, M.
2014-11-01
We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V propto phi2) and exponential potentials, V(phi) = ∑kVxe-kphi/M. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| ll epsilon and so predict r simeq (8/3)(1-ns) consequently ns simeq 0.96 gives r simeq 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and ns improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.
Inflating with large effective fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burgess, C.P. [PH-TH Division, CERN, CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Cicoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Williams, M., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: f.quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mwilliams@perimeterinsititute.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON (Canada)
2014-11-01
We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V ∝ φ{sup 2}) and exponential potentials, V(φ) = ∑{sub k}V{sub x}e{sup −kφ/M}. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| || ε and so predict r ≅ (8/3)(1-n{sub s}); consequently n{sub s} ≅ 0.96 gives r ≅ 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and n{sub s} improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.
Core-annular miscible two-fluid flow in a slippery pipe: A stability analysis
Chattopadhyay, Geetanjali; Usha, Ranganathan; Sahu, Kirti Chandra
2017-09-01
This study is motivated by the preliminary direct numerical simulations in double-diffusive (DD) core-annular flows with slip at the wall which displayed elliptical shaped instability patterns as in a rigid pipe case; however, slip at the pipe wall delays the onset of instability for a range of parameters and increases the phase speed. This increased our curiosity to have a thorough understanding of the linear stability characteristics of the miscible DD two-fluid flow in a pipe with slip at the pipe wall. The present study, therefore, addresses the linear stability of viscosity-stratified core-annular Poiseuille flow of miscible fluids with matched density in a slippery pipe in the presence of two scalars diffusing at different rates. The physical mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of instabilities in the DD system are explained through an energy budget analysis. The differences and similarities between core-annular flow in a slippery pipe and in a plane channel with velocity slip at the walls are explored. The stability characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of slip. The diffusivity effect is non-monotonic in a DD system. A striking feature of instability is that only a band of wavenumbers is destabilized in the presence of moderate to large inertial effects. Both the longwave and shortwave are stabilized at small Reynolds numbers. Slip exhibits a dual role of stabilizing or destabilizing the flow. The preliminary direct numerical simulations confirm the predictions of the linear stability analysis. The present study reveals that it may be possible to control the instabilities in core-annular pressure driven pipe flows by imposing a velocity slip at the walls.
Evje, Steinar; Wang, Wenjun; Wen, Huanyao
2016-09-01
In this paper, we consider a compressible two-fluid model with constant viscosity coefficients and unequal pressure functions {P^+neq P^-}. As mentioned in the seminal work by Bresch, Desjardins, et al. (Arch Rational Mech Anal 196:599-629, 2010) for the compressible two-fluid model, where {P^+=P^-} (common pressure) is used and capillarity effects are accounted for in terms of a third-order derivative of density, the case of constant viscosity coefficients cannot be handled in their settings. Besides, their analysis relies on a special choice for the density-dependent viscosity [refer also to another reference (Commun Math Phys 309:737-755, 2012) by Bresch, Huang and Li for a study of the same model in one dimension but without capillarity effects]. In this work, we obtain the global solution and its optimal decay rate (in time) with constant viscosity coefficients and some smallness assumptions. In particular, capillary pressure is taken into account in the sense that {Δ P=P^+ - P^-=fneq 0} where the difference function {f} is assumed to be a strictly decreasing function near the equilibrium relative to the fluid corresponding to {P^-}. This assumption plays an key role in the analysis and appears to have an essential stabilization effect on the model in question.
Effective Field Theories and Inflation
Burgess, C P; Holman, R
2003-01-01
We investigate the possible influence of very-high-energy physics on inflationary predictions focussing on whether effective field theories can allow effects which are parametrically larger than order H^2/M^2, where M is the scale of heavy physics and H is the Hubble scale at horizon exit. By investigating supersymmetric hybrid inflation models, we show that decoupling does not preclude heavy-physics having effects for the CMB with observable size even if H^2/M^2 << O(1%), although their presence can only be inferred from observations given some a priori assumptions about the inflationary mechanism. Our analysis differs from the results of hep-th/0210233, in which other kinds of heavy-physics effects were found which could alter inflationary predictions for CMB fluctuations, inasmuch as the heavy-physics can be integrated out here to produce an effective field theory description of low-energy physics. We argue, as in hep-th/0210233, that the potential presence of heavy-physics effects in the CMB does no...
The effective crystal field potential
Mulak, J
2000-01-01
As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...
Two-fluid sub-grid-scale viscosity in nonlinear simulation of ballooning modes in a heliotron device
Miura, H.; Hamba, F.; Ito, A.
2017-07-01
A large eddy simulation (LES) approach is introduced to enable the study of the nonlinear growth of ballooning modes in a heliotron-type device, by solving fully 3D two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations numerically over a wide range of parameter space, keeping computational costs as low as possible. A model to substitute the influence of scales smaller than the grid size, at sub-grid scale (SGS), and at the scales larger than it—grid scale (GS)—has been developed for LES. The LESs of two-fluid MHD equations with SGS models have successfully reproduced the growth of the ballooning modes in the GS and nonlinear saturation. The numerical results show the importance of SGS effects on the GS components, or the effects of turbulent fluctuation at small scales in low-wavenumber unstable modes, over the course of the nonlinear saturation process. The results also show the usefulness of the LES approach in studying instability in a heliotron device. It is shown through a parameter survey over many SGS model coefficients that turbulent small-scale components in experiments can contribute to keeping the plasma core pressure from totally collapsing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karbunar, L., E-mail: ziloot@verat.net [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Borka, D., E-mail: dusborka@vin.bg.ac.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Radović, I., E-mail: iradovic@vin.bg.ac.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We study the interaction of protons with carbon nanotubes under channeling conditions. • We use the linearized, 2D, two-fluid extended hydrodynamic model. • We analyze the influence of the angular mode for different types of nanotubes. • The image potential and stopping are calculated inside and outside the nanotube. • The angular and spatial distributions of channeled protons are computed. - Abstract: We study the interaction of charged particles with a (6, 4) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) under channeling conditions by means of the linearized, two dimensional (2D), two-fluid extended hydrodynamic model. We use the model to calculate analytically and numerically the image potential and the stopping force for a proton moving parallel to the axis of the SWNT, both inside and outside the nanotube at the speeds from 0.5 a.u. to 15 a.u. The effects of different angular modes on the velocity dependence of the image potential are compared for a proton moving in different types of SWNTs. We also compute the spatial and angular distributions of protons in the 2D two-fluid extended hydrodynamic model and compare them with the 2D two-fluid hydrodynamic model with zero damping.
Simulation of Free Surface Compressible Flows Via a Two Fluid Model
Dias, Frederic; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel
2008-01-01
The purpose of this communication is to discuss the simulation of a free surface compressible flow between two fluids, typically air and water. We use a two fluid model with the same velocity, pressure and temperature for both phases. In such a numerical model, the free surface becomes a thin three dimensional zone. The present method has at least three advantages: (i) the free-surface treatment is completely implicit; (ii) it can naturally handle wave breaking and other topological changes in the flow; (iii) one can easily vary the Equation of States (EOS) of each fluid (in principle, one can even consider tabulated EOS). Moreover, our model is unconditionally hyperbolic for reasonable EOS.
Graphene field-effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reddy, Dharmendar; Register, Leonard F; Banerjee, Sanjay K [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Carpenter, Gary D [IBM Austin Research Labs, Austin, Texas 78728 (United States)
2011-08-10
Owing in part to scaling challenges for metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic, the semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved MOSFET performance beyond the 22 nm node, or provide novel functionality for, e.g. 'beyond CMOS' devices. Graphene, with its novel and electron-hole symmetric band structure and its high carrier mobilities and thermal velocities, is one such material that has garnered a great deal of interest for both purposes. Single and few layer carbon sheets have been fabricated by a variety of techniques including mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition, and field-effect transistors have been demonstrated with room-temperature mobilities as high as 10 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. But graphene is a gapless semiconductor and gate control of current is challenging, off-state leakage currents are high, and current does not readily saturate with drain voltage. However, various ways to overcome, adapt to, or even embrace this property are now being considered for device applications. In this work we explore through illustrative examples the potential of and challenges to graphene use for conventional and novel device applications. (topical review)
Graphene field-effect transistors
Reddy, Dharmendar; Register, Leonard F.; Carpenter, Gary D.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.
2011-08-01
Owing in part to scaling challenges for metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic, the semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved MOSFET performance beyond the 22 nm node, or provide novel functionality for, e.g. 'beyond CMOS' devices. Graphene, with its novel and electron-hole symmetric band structure and its high carrier mobilities and thermal velocities, is one such material that has garnered a great deal of interest for both purposes. Single and few layer carbon sheets have been fabricated by a variety of techniques including mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition, and field-effect transistors have been demonstrated with room-temperature mobilities as high as 10 000 cm2 V-1 s-1. But graphene is a gapless semiconductor and gate control of current is challenging, off-state leakage currents are high, and current does not readily saturate with drain voltage. However, various ways to overcome, adapt to, or even embrace this property are now being considered for device applications. In this work we explore through illustrative examples the potential of and challenges to graphene use for conventional and novel device applications.
Photovoltage field-effect transistors
Adinolfi, Valerio; Sargent, Edward H.
2017-02-01
The detection of infrared radiation enables night vision, health monitoring, optical communications and three-dimensional object recognition. Silicon is widely used in modern electronics, but its electronic bandgap prevents the detection of light at wavelengths longer than about 1,100 nanometres. It is therefore of interest to extend the performance of silicon photodetectors into the infrared spectrum, beyond the bandgap of silicon. Here we demonstrate a photovoltage field-effect transistor that uses silicon for charge transport, but is also sensitive to infrared light owing to the use of a quantum dot light absorber. The photovoltage generated at the interface between the silicon and the quantum dot, combined with the high transconductance provided by the silicon device, leads to high gain (more than 104 electrons per photon at 1,500 nanometres), fast time response (less than 10 microseconds) and a widely tunable spectral response. Our photovoltage field-effect transistor has a responsivity that is five orders of magnitude higher at a wavelength of 1,500 nanometres than that of previous infrared-sensitized silicon detectors. The sensitization is achieved using a room-temperature solution process and does not rely on traditional high-temperature epitaxial growth of semiconductors (such as is used for germanium and III–V semiconductors). Our results show that colloidal quantum dots can be used as an efficient platform for silicon-based infrared detection, competitive with state-of-the-art epitaxial semiconductors.
Non-adiabatic spherical collapse with a two-fluid atmosphere
Govender, M
2014-01-01
In this work we present an exact model of a spherically symmetric star undergoing dissipative collapse in the form of a radial heat flux. The interior of the star is matched smoothly to the generalised Vaidya line element representing a two-fluid atmosphere comprising null radiation and a string fluid. The influence of the string density on the thermal behaviour of the model is investigated by employing a causal heat transport equation of Maxwell-Cattaneo form.
Microscopic construction of the two-fluid model for superfluid helium-4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Shygorin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Using a system of Heisenberg's equation of motion for both the normal and the anomalous correlation functions a two-fluid hydrodynamics for superfluid helium-4 was constructed. The method is based on a gradient expansion of the exact equations of motion for correlation functions about a local equilibrium together with explicit use of the local equilibrium statistical operator for superfluid helium in the frame of reference, where condensate is in the state of rest.
Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keicher, David M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Adam W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.
[Health effects of electromagnetic fields].
Röösli, Martin
2013-12-01
Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.
Effective field theory approach to quasi-single field inflation
Noumi, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Daisuke
2012-01-01
We apply the effective field theory approach to quasi-single field inflation, which contains an additional scalar field with Hubble scale mass other than inflaton. Based on the time-dependent spatial diffeomorphism, which is not broken by the time-dependent background evolution, the most generic action of quasi-single field inflation is constructed up to third order fluctuations. Using the obtained action, the effects of the additional massive scalar field on the primordial curvature perturbations are discussed. In particular, we calculate the power spectrum and discuss the momentum-dependence of three point functions in the squeezed limit for general settings of quasi-single field inflation. Our framework can be also applied to inflation models with heavy particles. We make a qualitative discussion on the effects of heavy particles during inflation and that of sharp turning trajectory in our framework.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haixu Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A pure two-fluid model was used for investigating transverse liquid jet to a supersonic crossflow. The well-posedness problem of the droplet phase governing equations was solved by applying an equation of state in the kinetic theory. A k-ε-kp turbulence model was used to simulate the turbulent compressible multiphase flow. Separation of boundary layer in front of the liquid jet was predicted with a separation shock induced. A bow shock was found to interact with the separation shock in the simulation result, and the adjustment of shock structure caused by the interaction described the whipping phenomena. The predicted penetration height showed good agreement with the empirical correlations. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energies of both the gas and droplet phases were presented for comparison, and effects of the jet-to-air momentum flux ratio and droplet diameter on the penetration height were also examined in this work.
A consistent thermodynamics of the MHD wave-heated two-fluid solar wind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Chashei
Full Text Available We start our considerations from two more recent findings in heliospheric physics: One is the fact that the primary solar wind protons do not cool off adiabatically with distance, but appear to be heated. The other one is that secondary protons, embedded in the solar wind as pick-up ions, behave quasi-isothermal at their motion to the outer heliosphere. These two phenomena must be physically closely connected with each other. To demonstrate this we solve a coupled set of enthalpy flow conservation equations for the two-fluid solar wind system consisting of primary and secondary protons. The coupling of these equations comes by the heat sources that are relevant, namely the dissipation of MHD turbulence power to the respective protons at the relevant dissipation scales. Hereby we consider both the dissipation of convected turbulences and the dissipation of turbulences locally driven by the injection of new pick-up ions into an unstable mode of the ion distribution function. Conversion of free kinetic energy of freshly injected secondary ions into turbulence power is finally followed by partial reabsorption of this energy both by primary and secondary ions. We show solutions of simultaneous integrations of the coupled set of differential thermodynamic two-fluid equations and can draw interesting conclusions from the solutions obtained. We can show that the secondary proton temperature with increasing radial distance asymptotically attains a constant value with a magnitude essentially determined by the actual solar wind velocity. Furthermore, we study the primary proton temperature within this two-fluid context and find a polytropic behaviour with radially and latitudinally variable polytropic indices determined by the local heat sources due to dissipated turbulent wave energy. Considering latitudinally variable solar wind conditions, as published by McComas et al. (2000, we also predict latitudinal variations of primary proton temperatures at
Effective resonant interactions via a driving field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimov, A B [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara 44420 (Mexico); Sainz, I [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara 44420 (Mexico); Saavedra, C [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)
2004-11-01
Effective resonant quantum atom-field interactions are studied. These resonant interactions are induced by the presence of an external classical driving field. An adequate choice for frequencies of the driving field produces nonlinear effective Hamiltonians both for atom-field and for spin-spin interactions. It is shown that the exact numerical evolution for each resonance condition is well described by the corresponding effective Hamiltonian.
A PISO-like algorithm to simulate superfluid helium flow with the two-fluid model
Soulaine, Cyprien; Allain, Hervé; Baudouy, Bertrand; Van Weelderen, Rob
2015-01-01
This paper presents a segregated algorithm to solve numerically the superfluid helium (He II) equations using the two-fluid model. In order to validate the resulting code and illustrate its potential, different simulations have been performed. First, the flow through a capillary filled with He II with a heated area on one side is simulated and results are compared to analytical solutions in both Landau and Gorter–Mellink flow regimes. Then, transient heat transfer of a forced flow of He II is investigated. Finally, some two-dimensional simulations in a porous medium model are carried out.
Organic tunnel field effect transistors
Tietze, Max Lutz
2017-06-29
Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer; source (or drain) contact stacks disposed on portions of the first i-layer; a second i-layer of organic semiconductor material disposed on the first i-layer surrounding the source (or drain) contact stacks; an n-doped organic semiconductor layer disposed on the second i-layer; and a drain (or source) contact layer disposed on the n-doped organic semiconductor layer. The source (or drain) contact stacks can include a p-doped injection layer, a source (or drain) contact layer, and a contact insulating layer. In another example, a method includes disposing a first i-layer over a gate insulating layer; forming source or drain contact stacks; and disposing a second i-layer, an n-doped organic semiconductor layer, and a drain or source contact.
Casimir effect for Elko spinor field
Pereira, S H; Santos, Rubia dos
2016-01-01
The Casimir effect for the Elko spinor field in $3+1$ dimension is obtained using Dirichlet boundary conditions. It is shown the existence of a repulsive force four times greater than the case of the scalar field. The precise reason for such differences are highlighted and interpreted, as well as the right parallel of the Casimir effect due to scalar and fermionic fields.
Observational Diagnostics for Two-Fluid Turbulence in Molecular Clouds As Suggested by Simulations
Meyer, Chad D; Burkhart, Blakesely; Lazarian, Alex
2013-01-01
We present high resolution simulations of two-fluid (ion-neutral) MHD turbulence with resolutions as large as 512^3. The simulations are supersonic and mildly sub-Alfvenic, in keeping with the conditions present in molecular clouds. Such turbulence is thought to influence star formation processes in molecular clouds because typical cores form on length scales that are comparable to the dissipation scales of this turbulence in the ions. The simulations are motivated by the fact that recent studies of isophotologue lines in molecular clouds have found significant differences in the linewidth-size relationship for neutral and ion species. The goals of this paper are to explain those observations using simulations and analytic theory, present a new set of density-based diagnostics by drawing on similar diagnostics that have been obtained by studying single-fluid turbulence, and show that our two-fluid simulations play a vital role in reconciling alternative models of star formation. The velocity-dependent diagnos...
Beyond Darcy's law: The role of phase topology and ganglion dynamics for two-fluid flow
Armstrong, Ryan T.; McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Rücker, Maja; Schlüter, Steffen; Berg, Steffen
2016-10-01
In multiphase flow in porous media the consistent pore to Darcy scale description of two-fluid flow processes has been a long-standing challenge. Immiscible displacement processes occur at the scale of individual pores. However, the larger scale behavior is described by phenomenological relationships such as relative permeability, which typically uses only fluid saturation as a state variable. As a consequence pore scale properties such as contact angle cannot be directly related to Darcy scale flow parameters. Advanced imaging and computational technologies are closing the gap between the pore and Darcy scale, supporting the development of new theory. We utilize fast x-ray microtomography to observe pore-scale two-fluid configurations during immiscible flow and initialize lattice Boltzmann simulations that demonstrate that the mobilization of disconnected nonwetting phase clusters can account for a significant fraction of the total flux. We show that fluid topology can undergo substantial changes during flow at constant saturation, which is one of the underlying causes of hysteretic behavior. Traditional assumptions about fluid configurations are therefore an oversimplification. Our results suggest that the role of fluid connectivity cannot be ignored for multiphase flow. On the Darcy scale, fluid topology and phase connectivity are accounted for by interfacial area and Euler characteristic as parameters that are missing from our current models.
Beyond Darcy's law: The role of phase topology and ganglion dynamics for two-fluid flow.
Armstrong, Ryan T; McClure, James E; Berrill, Mark A; Rücker, Maja; Schlüter, Steffen; Berg, Steffen
2016-10-01
In multiphase flow in porous media the consistent pore to Darcy scale description of two-fluid flow processes has been a long-standing challenge. Immiscible displacement processes occur at the scale of individual pores. However, the larger scale behavior is described by phenomenological relationships such as relative permeability, which typically uses only fluid saturation as a state variable. As a consequence pore scale properties such as contact angle cannot be directly related to Darcy scale flow parameters. Advanced imaging and computational technologies are closing the gap between the pore and Darcy scale, supporting the development of new theory. We utilize fast x-ray microtomography to observe pore-scale two-fluid configurations during immiscible flow and initialize lattice Boltzmann simulations that demonstrate that the mobilization of disconnected nonwetting phase clusters can account for a significant fraction of the total flux. We show that fluid topology can undergo substantial changes during flow at constant saturation, which is one of the underlying causes of hysteretic behavior. Traditional assumptions about fluid configurations are therefore an oversimplification. Our results suggest that the role of fluid connectivity cannot be ignored for multiphase flow. On the Darcy scale, fluid topology and phase connectivity are accounted for by interfacial area and Euler characteristic as parameters that are missing from our current models.
Biological effects of electromagnetic fields
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2012-02-28
Feb 28, 2012 ... cell level studies have shown that electromagnetic fields do not have a directly .... The ionic flows, which can be formed in case these molecules are affected from ...... Electr Magn Biol Med 1st Orlando FL. 13. Magnusson M ...
Field Effect Transistor in Nanoscale
2017-04-26
prominent rectification and NDC properties, due to various factors , such as, internal charge transfer , intrinsic molecular asymmetries, interference...characteristics. The magnetic field induced tuning of current may appear from several factors , such as, tuning of interfering electronic degenerate...play a major role [20,21]. Consequently, these devices remain in Coulomb blockade (CB) regime where integral charge transfer dominates the electron
A hierarchy of simple hyperbolic two-fluid models for bubbly flows
Drui, Florence; Kokh, Samuel; Massot, Marc
2016-01-01
With the objective of modeling both separate and disperse two-phase flows, we use in this paper a methodology for deriving two-fluid models that do not assume any flow topology. This methodology is based on a variational principle and on entropy dissipation requirement. Some of the models that are such derived and studied are already known in the contexts of the description of separate-or disperse-phase flows. However, we here propose an arrangement of these models into a hierarchy based on their links through relaxation parameters. Moreover, the models are shown to be compatible with the description of a monodisperse bubbly flow and, within this frame, the relaxation parameters can be identified. This identification is finally verified and discussed through comparisons with experimental measures of sound dispersion and with dispersion relations of a reference model for bubbly media.
Device modeling of superconductor transition edge sensors based on the two-fluid theory
Wang, Tian-Shun; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Li, Tie-Fu; Liu, Jian-She; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Xingxiang
2012-01-01
In order to support the design and study of sophisticated large scale transition edge sensor (TES) circuits, we use basic SPICE elements to develop device models for TESs based on the superfluid-normal fluid theory. In contrast to previous studies, our device model is not limited to small signal simulation, and it relies only on device parameters that have clear physical meaning and can be easily measured. We integrate the device models in design kits based on powerful EDA tools such as CADENCE and OrCAD, and use them for versatile simulations of TES circuits. Comparing our simulation results with published experimental data, we find good agreement which suggests that device models based on the two-fluid theory can be used to predict the behavior of TES circuits reliably and hence they are valuable for assisting the design of sophisticated TES circuits.
Transport between two fluids across their mutual flow interface: the streakline approach
Balasuriya, Sanjeeva
2016-01-01
Mixing between two different miscible fluids with a mutual interface must be initiated by fluid transporting across this fluid interface, caused for example by applying an unsteady velocity agitation. In general, there is no necessity for this physical flow barrier between the fluids to be associated with extremal or exponential attraction as might be revealed by applying Lagrangian coherent structures, finite-time Lyapunov exponents or other methods on the fluid velocity. It is shown that streaklines are key to understanding the breaking of the interface under velocity agitations, and a theory for locating the relevant streaklines is presented. Simulations of streaklines in a cross-channel mixer and a perturbed Kirchhoff's elliptic vortex are quantitatively compared to the theoretical results. A methodology for quantifying the unsteady advective transport between the two fluids using streaklines is presented.
Nuclear Dynamics with Effective Field Theories
Epelbaum, Evgeny
2013-01-01
These are the proceedings of the international workshop on "Nuclear Dynamics with Effective Field Theories" held at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Germany from July 1 to 3, 2013. The workshop focused on effective field theories of low-energy QCD, chiral perturbation theory for nuclear forces as well as few- and many-body physics. Included are a short contribution per talk.
Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors: Sensing Simplicity?
Mescher, M.
2014-01-01
Silicon nanowires are structures made from silicon with at least one spatial dimension in the nanometer regime (1-100 nm). From these nanowires, silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be constructed. Since their introduction in 2001 silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have been studied
Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao-Wei ZENG
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.
Anisotropic magnetoresistance effect field sensors
Hauser, H; Stangl, G; Chabicovsky, R; Janiba, M; Riedling, K
2000-01-01
The parameters of the sensor layout and sensitivity considerations are discussed. The anisotropic magnetoresistive effect of DC-sputtered Ni 81%-Fe 19% films has been increased up to DELTA rho/rho=3.93% at 50 nm thickness and a sensitivity of 500 mu V/mu T can be achieved by an elliptically shaped sensor layout.
Numerical Studies of Two-Fluid Axisymmetric Steady-States with Flow in Ohmic NSTX-like Plasmas
Ferraro, Nathaniel; Jardin, Stephen
2008-11-01
Axisymmetric steady-states of the resistive two-fluid equations, including flow and gyroviscosity, are obtained by evolving these nonlinear equations from an initial ideal MHD equilibrium using the code M3D-C^1 [1], which has now been extended to toroidal geometry. Steady-states for high-β, inductively driven discharges in diverted NSTX geometries are studied. Excellent agreement with theoretical predictions of cross-surface Pfirsch-Schlüter flows in the axisymmetric steady-states is found. The dependence of flow velocities with resistivity is explored. It is found that in the two-fluid model, the statistical steady-state may be a fixed point, a limit cycle, or chaotic, depending on the parameters. Two-fluid terms lead to a preferred direction of toroidal rotation. The inclusion of gyroviscosity is observed to alter the character of the steady-state. The three-dimensional linear stability of simple equilibria in this two-fluid model are also explored using M3D-C^1 [2]. [1] N. Ferraro, S. Jardin. Phys. Plasmas 13:092101 (2006). [2] S. Jardin, N. Ferraro, J. Breslau, J. Chen, and M. Chance. Initial results for linear 3D Toroidal Two-Fluid stability using M3D-C1. APS DPP Conference, Dallas, TX (2008).
Nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions
Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong
2016-10-01
Axions can be described by a relativistic field theory with a real scalar field ϕ whose self-interaction potential is a periodic function of ϕ . Low-energy axions, such as those produced in the early Universe by the vacuum misalignment mechanism, can be described more simply by a nonrelativistic effective field theory with a complex scalar field ψ whose effective potential is a function of ψ*ψ . We determine the coefficients in the expansion of the effective potential to fifth order in ψ*ψ by matching low-energy axion scattering amplitudes. In order to describe a Bose-Einstein condensate of axions that is too dense to truncate the expansion of the effective potential in powers of ψ*ψ , we develop a sequence of systematically improvable approximations to the effective potential that resum terms of all orders in ψ*ψ .
Nonrelativistic Effective Field Theory for Axions
Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong
2016-01-01
Axions can be described by a relativistic field theory with a real scalar field $\\phi$ whose self-interaction potential is a periodic function of $\\phi$. Low-energy axions, such as those produced in the early universe by the vacuum misalignment mechanism, can be described more simply by a nonrelativistic effective field theory with a complex scalar field $\\psi$ whose effective potential is a function of $\\psi^*\\psi$. We determine the coefficients in the expansion of the effective potential to fifth order in $\\psi^*\\psi$ by matching low-energy axion scattering amplitudes. In order to describe a Bose-Einstein condensate of axions that is too dense to expand the effective potential in powers of $\\psi^*\\psi$, we develop a sequence of systematically improvable approximations to the effective potential that include terms of all orders in $\\psi^*\\psi$.
Development and verification of the modified dynamic two-fluid model GOPS
Song, Chengyi; Li, Yuxing; Meng, Lan; Wang, Haiyan
2013-07-01
In the oil and gas industry, many versions of software have been developed to calculate the flow parameters of multiphase flow. However, the existing software is not perfect. To improve the accuracy, a new version of software GOPS has been developed by Daqing Oilfield Construction Design and Research Institute, and China University of Petroleum. GOPS modifies the general extended two-fluid model, and considers the gas bubble phase in liquid and liquid droplet phase in gas. There are four continuity equations, two momentum equations, one mixture energy-conservation equation and one pressure-conservation equation in the controlling equations of GOPS. These controlling equations are combined with flow pattern transition model and closure relationships for every flow pattern. By this way, GOPS can simulate the dynamic variation of multiphase flow. To verify GOPS, relevant experiment has been made in Surface Engineering Pilot Test Center, CNPC. The experimental pressure gradients are compared with the results from GOPS, and the accuracy of GOPS is high.
Channeling of fast ions through the bent carbon nanotubes: The extended two-fluid hydrodynamic model
Lazar, Karbunar; Duško, Borka; Ivan, Radović; Zoran, L. Mišković
2016-04-01
We investigate the interactions of charged particles with straight and bent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) under channeling conditions in the presence of dynamic polarization of the valence electrons in carbon. This polarization is described by a cylindrical, two-fluid hydrodynamic model with the parameters taken from the recent modelling of several independent experiments on electron energy loss spectroscopy of carbon nano-structures. We use the hydrodynamic model to calculate the image potential for protons moving through four types of SWNTs at a speed of 3 atomic units. The image potential is then combined with the Doyle-Turner atomic potential to obtain the total potential in the bent carbon nanotubes. Using that potential, we also compute the spatial and angular distributions of protons channeled through the bent carbon nanotubes, and compare the results with the distributions obtained without taking into account the image potential. Project supported by the Funds from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. 45005). Z. L. Mišković thanks the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for Finacial Support.
Exploring Vacuum Energy in a Two-Fluid Bianchi Type I Universe
Kohli, Ikjyot Singh
2014-01-01
We use a dynamical systems approach based on the method of orthonormal frames to study the dynamics of a two-fluid, non-tilted Bianchi Type I cosmological model. In our model, one of the fluids is a fluid with bulk viscosity, while the other fluid assumes the role of a cosmological constant and represents nonnegative vacuum energy. We begin by completing a detailed fixed-point analysis of the system which gives information about the local sinks, sources and saddles. We then proceed to analyze the global features of the dynamical system by using topological methods such as finding Lyapunov and Chetaev functions, and finding the $\\alpha$- and $\\omega$-limit sets using the LaSalle invariance principle. The fixed points found were a flat Friedmann-LeMa\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with no vacuum energy, a de Sitter universe, a flat FLRW universe with both vacuum and non-vacuum energy, and a Kasner quarter-circle universe. We also show in this paper that the vacuum energy we observe in our present-day...
Modeling of an atomizer for two fluids; Modelacion de un atomizador de dos fluidos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tapia Ramirez, Zoili [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1998-09-01
The work reported in this article presents the results of the effort to improve the basic understanding of the flow structure that is formed in a two fluid sprayer before and after the interaction between the sprayed fluid and the spraying fluid. The images in the interior of the mixing chamber of the atomizer are shown, which were taken with a high velocity video camera. Also the results of the numerical simulation of the internal flow obtained by means of a package of commercial modeling are shown. [Espanol] El trabajo reportado en este articulo presenta los resultados del esfuerzo por mejorar el entendimiento basico de la estructura del flujo que se forma en un atomizador de dos fluidos antes y despues de la interaccion entre el fluido atomizado y el fluido atomizante. Se muestran imagenes del flujo en el interior de la camara de mezclado del atomizador, las cuales fueron tomadas con una camara de video de alta velocidad. Tambien se incluyen los resultados de la simulacion numerica del flujo interno obtenidas por medio de un paquete de modelacion comercial.
Prediction of subcooled flow boiling characteristics using two-fluid Eulerian CFD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br; Caldeira, Alexandre D.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • CFD multiphase model is used to predict subcooled flow boiling characteristics. • Better agreement is achieved for higher saturation pressures. • Onset of nucleate boiling and saturated boiling are well predicted. • CFD multiphase model tends to underestimate the void fraction. • Factors were adjusted in order to improve the void fraction results. - Abstract: The present study concerns a detailed analysis of flow boiling phenomena under high pressure systems using a two-fluid Eulerian approach provided by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver. For this purpose, a vertical heated pipe made of stainless steel with an internal diameter of 15.4 mm was considered as the modeled domain. Two different uniform heat fluxes and three saturation pressures were applied to the channel wall, whereas water mass flux of 900 kg/m{sup 2} s was considered for all simulation cases. The model was validated against a set of experimental data and results have indicated a promising use of the CFD technique for estimation of the wall temperature, the liquid bulk temperature and the location of the departure of nucleate boiling. Changes in factors applied in the modeling of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and bubble departure frequency were suggested, allowing a better prediction of the void fraction along the heated channel. The commercial CFD solver FLUENT 14.5 was used for the model implementation.
A two-fluid approximation for calculating the cosmic microwave background anisotropies
Seljak, Uros
1994-01-01
We present a simplified treatment for calculating the cosmic microwave background anisotropy power spectrum in adiabatic models. It consists of solving for the evolution of a two-fluid model until the epoch of recombination and then integrating over the sources to obtain the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. The approximation is useful both for a physical understanding of CMB anisotropies as well as for a quantitative analysis of cosmological models. Comparison with exact calculations shows that the accuracy is typically 10%-20% over a large range of angles and cosmological models, including those with curvature and cosmological constant. Using this approximation we investigate the dependence of the CMB anisotropy on the cosmological parameters. We identify six dimensionless parameters that uniquely determine the anisotropy power spectrum within our approximation. CMB experiments on different angular scales could in principle provide information on all these parameters. In particular, mapping of the Doppler peaks would allow an independent determination of baryon mass density, matter mass density, and the Hubble constant.
Chiral effective field theory and nuclear forces
Machleidt, R
2011-01-01
We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field.
Electric field confinement effect on charge transport in organic field-effect transistors
Li, X.; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I.I.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Broer, D.J.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Bässler, H.
2012-01-01
While it is known that the charge-carrier mobility in organic semiconductors is only weakly dependent on the electric field at low fields, the experimental mobility in organic field-effect transistors using silylethynyl-substituted pentacene is found to be surprisingly field dependent at low source-
A New Two-fluid Radiation-hydrodynamical Model for X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns
West, Brent F.; Wolfram, Kenneth D.; Becker, Peter A.
2017-02-01
Previous research centered on the hydrodynamics in X-ray pulsar accretion columns has largely focused on the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface. This type of model has been relatively successful in describing the overall properties of the accretion flows, but it does not account for the possible dynamical effect of the gas pressure. On the other hand, the most successful radiative transport models for pulsars generally do not include a rigorous treatment of the dynamical structure of the column, instead assuming an ad hoc velocity profile. In this paper, we explore the structure of X-ray pulsar accretion columns using a new, self-consistent, “two-fluid” model, which incorporates the dynamical effect of the gas and radiation pressures, the dipole variation of the magnetic field, the thermodynamic effect of all of the relevant coupling and cooling processes, and a rigorous set of physical boundary conditions. The model has six free parameters, which we vary in order to approximately fit the phase-averaged spectra in Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. In this paper, we focus on the dynamical results, which shed new light on the surface magnetic field strength, the inclination of the magnetic field axis relative to the rotation axis, the relative importance of gas and radiation pressures, and the radial variation of the ion, electron, and inverse-Compton temperatures. The results obtained for the X-ray spectra are presented in a separate paper.
The Magnetic Field Effect on Planetary Nebulae
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A. R. Khesali; K. Kokabi
2006-01-01
In our previous work on the 3-dimensional dynamical structure of planetary nebulae the effect of magnetic field was not considered. Recently Jordan et al. have directly detected magnetic fields in the central stars of some planetary nebulae. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the non-spherical shape of most planetary nebulae is caused by magnetic fields in AGB stars. In this study we focus on the role of initially weak toroidal magnetic fields embedded in a stellar wind in altering the shape of the PN. We found that magnetic pressure is probably influential on the observed shape of most PNe.
Electric field control of the magnetocaloric effect.
Gong, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dun-Hui; Cao, Qing-Qi; Liu, En-Ke; Liu, Jian; Du, You-Wei
2015-02-04
Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, it is demonstrated that the magnetocaloric effect of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy can be controlled by an electric field. Large hysteresis and the limited operating temperature region are effectively overcome by applying an electric field on a laminate comprising a piezoelectric and the alloy. Accordingly, a model for an active magnetic refrigerator with high efficiency is proposed in principle.
Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors: Sensing Simplicity?
Mescher, M
2014-01-01
Silicon nanowires are structures made from silicon with at least one spatial dimension in the nanometer regime (1-100 nm). From these nanowires, silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be constructed. Since their introduction in 2001 silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have been studied because of their promising application as selective sensors for biological and chemical species. Their large surface-to-volume ratio promises an increased sensitivity compared to conventional, plan...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two
Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields
Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Duan, Yong; Wang, Junmei
2014-01-01
The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component—polarization energy—and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations. PMID:21828594
Polarization effects in molecular mechanical force fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cieplak, Piotr [Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92120 (United States); Dupradeau, Francois-Yves [UMR CNRS 6219-Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 1 rue des Louvels, F-80037 Amiens (France); Duan, Yong [Genome Center and Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wang Junmei, E-mail: pcieplak@burnham.or [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Boulevard, ND9.136, Dallas, TX 75390-9050 (United States)
2009-08-19
The focus here is on incorporating electronic polarization into classical molecular mechanical force fields used for macromolecular simulations. First, we briefly examine currently used molecular mechanical force fields and the current status of intermolecular forces as viewed by quantum mechanical approaches. Next, we demonstrate how some components of quantum mechanical energy are effectively incorporated into classical molecular mechanical force fields. Finally, we assess the modeling methods of one such energy component-polarization energy-and present an overview of polarizable force fields and their current applications. Incorporating polarization effects into current force fields paves the way to developing potentially more accurate, though more complex, parameterizations that can be used for more realistic molecular simulations. (topical review)
Time-dependent simulation of oblique MHD cosmic-ray shocks using the two-fluid model
Frank, Adam; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu
1995-01-01
Using a new, second-order accurate numerical method we present dynamical simulations of oblique MHD cosmic-ray (CR)-modified plane shock evolution. Most of the calculations are done with a two-fluid model for diffusive shock acceleration, but we provide also comparisons between a typical shock computed that way against calculations carried out using the more complete, momentum-dependent, diffusion-advection equation. We also illustrate a test showing that these simulations evolve to dynamical equilibria consistent with previously published steady state analytic calculations for such shocks. In order to improve understanding of the dynamical role of magnetic fields in shocks modified by CR pressure we have explored for time asymptotic states the parameter space of upstream fast mode Mach number, M(sub f), and plasma beta. We compile the results into maps of dynamical steady state CR acceleration efficiency, epsilon(sub c). We have run simulations using constant, and nonisotropic, obliquity (and hence spatially) dependent forms of the diffusion coefficient kappa. Comparison of the results shows that while the final steady states achieved are the same in each case, the history of CR-MHD shocks can be strongly modified by variations in kappa and, therefore, in the acceleration timescale. Also, the coupling of CR and MHD in low beta, oblique shocks substantially influences the transient density spike that forms in strongly CR-modified shocks. We find that inside the density spike a MHD slow mode wave can be generated that eventually steepens into a shock. A strong layer develops within the density spike, driven by MHD stresses. We conjecture that currents in the shear layer could, in nonplanar flows, results in enhanced particle accretion through drift acceleration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Cabezas-Gómez
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The gas-solids flow in a CFB riser is simulated applying two-fluid modeling. Two different procedures are used for the calculation of the solids phase pressure and stress tensor: the traditional procedure and an algebraic version of the kinetic theory of granular flows. Three different numerical meshes and two different discretization schemes for the advective terms are used. Results are compared to available experimental data from the literature. The effects of the solids phase modeling procedure, advection discretization scheme, and mesh size are discussed.
Two-fluid model for transient analysis of slug flow in oil wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cazarez-Candia, O., E-mail: ocazarez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec, Depto. de Metal-Mecanica, Calzada Tecnologico, No. 27, Zacatepec, Morelos 62780 (Mexico); Benitez-Centeno, O.C. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Depto. de Mecanica, Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av San Rafael Atlixco No 186, Col. Vicentina 55-534, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)
2011-06-15
In this work it is presented a transient, one-dimensional, adiabatic model for slug flow simulation, which appears when liquid (mixture of oil and water) and gas flow simultaneously through pipes. The model is formed by space and time averaged conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy for each phase, the numerical solution is based on the finite difference technique in the implicit scheme. Velocity, pressure, volumetric fraction and temperature profiles for both phases were predicted for inclination angles from the horizontal to the vertical position (unified model) and ascendant flow. Predictions from the model were validated using field data and ten correlations commonly used in the oil industry. The effects of gas heating or cooling, due to compression and expansion processes, on the predictions and numerical stability, were studied. It was found that when these effects are taken into account, a good behavior of temperature predictions and numerical stability are obtained. The model presents deviations lower than 14% regarding field data and it presents better predictions than most of the correlations.
Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model
Bakry, A; Zhang, P M; Zou, L P
2014-01-01
It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of that phenomenon is conditioned by features of the electro-weak interaction, namely, there is mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected in experiment.
Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-04-15
Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO{sub 2}/CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO{sub 2}/CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO{sub 2}/CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled.
The Supersymmetric Effective Field Theory of Inflation
Delacretaz, Luca V; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-01-01
We construct the Supersymmetric Effective Field Theory of Inflation, that is the most general theory of inflationary fluctuations when time-translations and supersymmetry are spontaneously broken. The non-linear realization of these invariances allows us to define a complete SUGRA multiplet containing the graviton, the gravitino, the Goldstone of time translations and the Goldstino, with no auxiliary fields. Going to a unitary gauge where only the graviton and the gravitino are present, we write the most general Lagrangian built out of the fluctuations of these fields, invariant under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms, but softly-breaking time diffeomorphisms and gauged SUSY. With a suitable St\\"uckelberg transformation, we introduce the Goldstone boson of time translation and the Goldstino of SUSY. No additional dynamical light field is needed. In the high energy limit, larger than the inflationary Hubble scale for the Goldstino, these fields decouple from the graviton and the gravitino, greatly simplif...
Global Anomalies and Effective Field Theory
Golkar, Siavash
2015-01-01
We show that matching anomalies under large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms can explain the appearance and non-renormalization of couplings in effective field theory. We focus on %thermal partition functions and thermal effective field theory where we argue that the appearance of certain unusual Chern-Simons couplings is a consequence of global anomalies. As an example, we show that a mixed global anomaly in four dimensions fixes the chiral vortical effect coefficient. This is an experimentally measurable prediction from a global anomaly. For certain situations, we propose a simpler method for calculating global anomalies which uses correlation functions rather than eta invariants.
Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, I: Two-fluid charged sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)
2016-01-15
We briefly discuss some of the known and new properties of rotating geometries that are relevant to this work. We generalize the analytical method of superposition of fields, known for generating nonrotating solutions, and apply it to construct massless and massive rotating physical wormholes sourced by a source-free electromagnetic field and an exotic fluid both anisotropic. Their stress-energy tensors are presented in compact and general forms. For the massive rotating wormholes there exists a mass-charge constraint yielding almost no more dragging effects than ordinary stars. There are conical spirals through the throat along which no local negative energy densities are noticed for these rotating wormholes. This conclusion extends to nonrotating massive type I wormholes derived previously by the author, which seem to be the first kind of nonrotating wormholes with this property. Based on the classification made in Azreg-Ainou (J Cosmol Astropart Phys 07:037, arXiv:1412.828 [gr-qc], 2015): ''Type I wormholes have their radial pressure dying out faster, as one moves away from the throat, than any other component of the stress-energy and thus violate the least the local energy conditions. In type II (resp. III) the radial and transverse pressures are asymptotically proportional and die out faster (resp. slower) than the energy density''. (orig.)
Local field effects in periodic metamaterials
Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.
2016-08-01
In this article we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of periodic metamaterials taking into account the so-called local field effect, caused by interaction between single particles the material consists of. We also consider the spatial dispersion effects. As a result, generalized Clausius-Mossotti techniques have been extended to the case of periodic metamaterials; permittivity tensor and permeability tensor were obtained.
Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.
Kuznetsov, O.
In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn
2008-01-01
understood. This paper provides a systematic and up-to-date review of two-fluid nozzle designs and principles together with a presentation of nozzle fundamentals introducing basic nozzle theory and thermodynamics. Correlations for the prediction of mean droplet diameters are reviewed, compared...
Electromagnetic Effects in Superconductors in Gravitational Field
Ahmedov, B J
2005-01-01
The general relativistic modifications to the resistive state in superconductors of second type in the presence of a stationary gravitational field are studied. Some superconducting devices that can measure the gravitational field by its red-shift effect on the frequency of radiation are suggested. It has been shown that by varying the orientation of a superconductor with respect to the earth gravitational field, a corresponding varying contribution to AC Josephson frequency would be added by gravity. A magnetic flux (being proportional to angular velocity of rotation $\\Omega$) through a rotating hollow superconducting cylinder with the radial gradient of temperature $\
Lattice methods and effective field theory
Nicholson, Amy N
2016-01-01
Lattice field theory is a non-perturbative tool for studying properties of strongly interacting field theories, which is particularly amenable to numerical calculations and has quantifiable systematic errors. In these lectures we apply these techniques to nuclear Effective Field Theory (EFT), a non-relativistic theory for nuclei involving the nucleons as the basic degrees of freedom. The lattice formulation of [1,2] for so-called pionless EFT is discussed in detail, with portions of code included to aid the reader in code development. Systematic and statistical uncertainties of these methods are discussed at length, and extensions beyond pionless EFT are introduced in the final Section.
Anomaly induced effects in a magnetic field
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2007-01-01
We consider a modification of electrodynamics by an additional light massive vector field, interacting with the photon via Chern-Simons-like coupling. This theory predicts observable effects for the experiments studying the propagation of light in an external magnetic field, very similar to those, predicted by theories of axion and axion-like particles. We discuss a possible microscopic origin of this theory from a theory with non-trivial gauge anomaly cancellation between massive and light p...
Schwinger effect in inhomogeneous electric fields
Hebenstreit, Florian
2011-01-01
The vacuum of quantum electrodynamics is unstable against the formation of many-body states in the presence of an external electric field, manifesting itself as the creation of electron-positron pairs (Schwinger effect). This effect has been a long-standing but still unobserved prediction as the generation of the required field strengths has not been feasible so far. However, due to the advent of a new generation of high-intensity laser systems such as the European XFEL or the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), this effect might eventually become observable within the next decades. Based on the equal-time Wigner formalism, various aspects of the Schwinger effect in electric fields showing both temporal and spatial variations are investigated. Regarding the Schwinger effect in time-dependent electric fields, analytic expressions for the equal-time Wigner function in the presence of a static as well as a pulsed electric field are derived. Moreover, the pair creation process in the presence of a pulsed electric...
Fundamentals of nanoscaled field effect transistors
Chaudhry, Amit
2013-01-01
Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors gives comprehensive coverage of the fundamental physical principles and theory behind nanoscale transistors. The specific issues that arise for nanoscale MOSFETs, such as quantum mechanical tunneling and inversion layer quantization, are fully explored. The solutions to these issues, such as high-κ technology, strained-Si technology, alternate devices structures and graphene technology are also given. Some case studies regarding the above issues and solution are also given in the book. In summary, this book: Covers the fundamental principles behind nanoelectronics/microelectronics Includes chapters devoted to solutions tackling the quantum mechanical effects occurring at nanoscale Provides some case studies to understand the issue mathematically Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors is an ideal book for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in the field of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and electronics.
[Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (author's transl)].
Bernhardt, J
1979-08-01
This résumé deals with thermal and nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields on man. In consideration of two aspects a limitation is necessary. Firstly, there will be discussed only direct and immediate influences on biological cells and tissues, secondly, the treatment is limited to such phenomena, for which biophysical aproximations, based on experimental data, could be developed. Hazards for the human being may occur only by thermal effects within the microwave range. Regarding frequencies below approximately 30 kHz, excitation processes cannot be excluded in exceptional cases. Thermal effects are predominant, between 30 kHz and 100 kHz, before excitations can appear. Furthermore, by comparing the electrically and magnetically induced currents with the naturally flowing currents in man caused by the brain's and heart's electrical activity, a "lower boundaryline" was estimated. Regarding electric or magnetic field strengths undercutting this boundary-line, direct effects on the central nervous system may be excluded; other mechanisms should be responsible for demonstrated biological effects. The paper closes referring to some reports--presently discussed--on experimental findings of biological effects, which are observed as a result of the influence of electromagnetic fields of small field strengths.
Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.
2016-06-01
Plasma-wall transition is studied by a one-dimensional steady state two-fluid model. Continuity and momentum exchange equations are used for the electrons, while the continuity, momentum exchange, and energy transport equation are used for the ions. Electrons are assumed to be isothermal. The closure of ion equations is made by the assumption that the heat flux is zero. The model equations are solved for potential, ion and electron density, and velocity and ion temperature as independent variables. The model includes coulomb collisions between ions and electrons and charge exchange collisions between ions and neutral atoms of the same species and same mass. The neutral atoms are assumed to be essentially at rest. The model is solved for finite ratio ɛ = /λ D L between the Debye length and λD and ionization length L in the pre-sheath and in the sheath at the same time. Charge exchange collisions heat the ions in the sheath and the pre-sheath. Even a small increase of the frequency of charge exchange collisions causes a substantial increase of ion temperature. Coulomb collisions have negligible effect on ion temperature in the pre-sheath, while in the sheath they cause a small cooling of ions. The increase of ɛ causes the increase of ion temperature. From the ion density and temperature profiles, the polytropic function κ is calculated according to its definition given by Kuhn et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 013503 (2006)]. The obtained profiles of κ indicate that the ion flow is isothermal only in a relatively narrow region in the pre-sheath, while close to the sheath edge and in the sheath it is closer to adiabatic. The ion sound velocity is space dependent and exhibits a maximum. This maximum indicates the location of the sheath edge only in the limit ɛ → 0 .
Proposal of spin complementary field effect transistor
Kunihashi, Yoji; Kohda, Makoto; Sanada, Haruki; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-03-01
Spin complementary field effect transistor is proposed on the basis of gate-controlled persistent spin helix (PSH) states. Uniaxial effective magnetic field in the PSH state creates coherent spin propagation with or without precession. By the gate control of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction, the PSH state can be reversed to the inverted PSH state. Switching between two PSH states enables complementary output depending on the channel direction. Our proposed device could be a reconfigurable minimum unit of the spin-based logic circuit.
Playing with QCD I: effective field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraga, Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2009-07-01
The building blocks of hadrons are quarks and gluons, although color is confined into singlet states. QCD is believed to be the fundamental theory of strong interactions. Its asymptotically free nature puts the vacuum out of reach for perturbation theory. The Lagrangian of QCD and the Feynman rules associated were built by using the Gauge Principle, starting from the quark matter fields and obtaining gluons as connections. A simpler, and sometimes necessary or complementary, approach is provided by effective field theories or effective models, especially when one has to deal with the nonperturbative sector of the theory. (author)
The Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation
Senatore, Leonardo
2010-01-01
We generalize the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to include additional light scalar degrees of freedom that are in their vacuum at the time the modes of interest are crossing the horizon. In order to make the scalars light in a natural way we consider the case where they are the Goldstone bosons of a global symmetry group or are partially protected by an approximate supersymmetry. We write the most general Lagrangian that couples the scalar mode associated to the breaking of time translation during inflation to the additional light scalar fields. This Lagrangian is constrained by diffeomorphism invariance and the additional symmetries that keep the new scalars light. This Lagrangian describes the fluctuations around the time of horizon crossing and it is supplemented with a general parameterization describing how the additional fluctuating fields can affect cosmological perturbations. We find that multifield inflation can reproduce the non-Gaussianities that can be generated in single field inflation but...
Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK
2009-09-21
Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.
Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dudas, Emilian; Schweizer, Julian
2016-01-01
Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N=1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of a symmetry of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson line as Goldstone boson.
Effective Field Theory for Jet Processes.
Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Rothen, Lorena; Shao, Ding Yu
2016-05-13
Processes involving narrow jets receive perturbative corrections enhanced by logarithms of the jet opening angle and the ratio of the energies inside and outside the jets. Analyzing cone-jet processes in effective field theory, we find that in addition to soft and collinear fields their description requires degrees of freedom that are simultaneously soft and collinear to the jets. These collinear-soft particles can resolve individual collinear partons, leading to a complicated multi-Wilson-line structure of the associated operators at higher orders. Our effective field theory provides, for the first time, a factorization formula for a cone-jet process, which fully separates the physics at different energy scales. Its renormalization-group equations control all logarithmically enhanced higher-order terms, in particular also the nonglobal logarithms.
On the derivation of effective field theories
Uzunov, D I
2004-01-01
A general self-consistency approach allows a thorough treatment of the corrections to the standard mean-field approximation (MFA). The natural extension of standard MFA with the help of a cumulant expansion leads to a new point of view on the effective field theories. The proposed approach can be used for a systematic treatment of fluctuation effects of various length scales and, perhaps, for the development of a new coarse graining procedure. We outline and justify our method by some preliminary calculations. Concrete results are given for the critical temperature and the Landau parameters of the $\\phi^4_d$-theory - the field counterpart of the Ising model. An important unresolved problem of the modern theory of phase transitions - the problem for the calculation of the true critical temperature, is considered within the framework of the present approach. A comprehensive description of the ground state properties of many-body systems is also demonstrated.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons
Gullans, M. J.; Thompson, J. D.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Q.-Y.; Vuletić, V.; Lukin, M. D.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2016-01-01
We develop an effective field theory (EFT) to describe the few- and many-body propagation of one dimensional Rydberg polaritons. We show that the photonic transmission through the Rydberg medium can be found by mapping the propagation problem to a non-equilibrium quench, where the role of time and space are reversed. We include effective range corrections in the EFT and show that they dominate the dynamics near scattering resonances in the presence of deep bound states. Finally, we show how the long-range nature of the Rydberg-Rydberg interactions induces strong effective N-body interactions between Rydberg polaritons. These results pave the way towards studying non-perturbative effects in quantum field theories using Rydberg polaritons. PMID:27661685
Ferromagnetic hysteresis and the effective field
Naus, H.W.L.
2002-01-01
The Jiles-Atherton model of the behavior of ferromagnetic materials determines the irreversible magnetization from the effective field by using a differential equation. This paper presents an exact, analytical solution to the equation, one displaying hysteresis. The inclusion of magnetomechanical co
Magnetic field effects on photosynthetic reactions
Liu, Yan
2008-01-01
Although the influence of magnetic fields on the rates and product yields of a host of chemical reactions are well documented and can be understood in the framework of the Radical Pair Mechanism (RPM), it has so far proved impossible to demonstrate convincingly a biological RPM effect. In this work
An Introduction to Effective Field Theory
Burgess, C. P.
2007-11-01
This review summarizes effective field theory techniques, which are the modern theoretical tools for exploiting the existence of hierarchies of scale in a physical problem. The general theoretical framework is described and evaluated explicitly for a simple model. Power-counting results are illustrated for a few cases of practical interest, and several applications to quantum electrodynamics are described.
Well-posedness and convergence of cfd two-fluid model for bubbly flows
Vaidheeswaran, Avinash
The current research is focused on developing a well-posed multidimensional CFD two-fluid model (TFM) for bubbly flows. Two-phase flows exhibit a wide range of local flow instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, plume and jet instabilities. They arise due to the density difference and/or the relative velocity between the two phases. A physically correct TFM is essential to model these instabilities. However, this is not the case with the TFMs in numerical codes, which can be shown to have complex eigenvalues due to incompleteness and hence are ill-posed as initial value problems. A common approach to regularize an incomplete TFM is to add artificial physics or numerically by using a coarse grid or first order methods. However, it eliminates the local physical instabilities along with the undesired high frequency oscillations resulting from the ill-posedness. Thus, the TFM loses the capability to predict the inherent local dynamics of the two-phase flow. The alternative approach followed in the current study is to introduce appropriate physical mechanisms that make the TFM well-posed. First a well-posed 1-D TFM for vertical bubbly flows is analyzed with characteristics, and dispersion analysis. When an incomplete TFM is used, it results in high frequency oscillations in the solution. It is demonstrated through the travelling void wave problem that, by adding the missing short wavelength physics to the numerical TFM, this can be removed by making the model well-posed. To extend the limit of well-posedness beyond the well-known TFM of Pauchon and Banerjee [1], the mechanism of collision is considered, and it is shown by characteristics analysis that the TFM then becomes well-posed for all void fractions of practical interest. The aforementioned ideas are then extended to CFD TFM. The travelling void wave problem is again used to demonstrate that by adding appropriate physics, the problem of ill-posedness is resolved. Furthermore, issues pertaining to
Effective field theory for deformed atomic nuclei
Papenbrock, T.; Weidenmüller, H. A.
2016-05-01
We present an effective field theory (EFT) for a model-independent description of deformed atomic nuclei. In leading order this approach recovers the well-known results from the collective model by Bohr and Mottelson. When higher-order corrections are computed, the EFT accounts for finer details such as the variation of the moment of inertia with the band head and the small magnitudes of interband E2 transitions. For rotational bands with a finite spin of the band head, the EFT is equivalent to the theory of a charged particle on the sphere subject to a magnetic monopole field.
Effective field theory for deformed atomic nuclei
Papenbrock, T
2015-01-01
We present an effective field theory (EFT) for a model-independent description of deformed atomic nuclei. In leading order this approach recovers the well-known results from the collective model by Bohr and Mottelson. When higher-order corrections are computed, the EFT accounts for finer details such as the variation of the moment of inertia with the band head and the small magnitudes of interband $E2$ transitions. For rotational bands with a finite spin of the band head, the EFT is equivalent to the theory of a charged particle on the sphere subject to a magnetic monopole field.
Renormalizability of effective scalar field theory
Ball, R D
1994-01-01
We present a comprehensive discussion of the consistency of the effective quantum field theory of a single $Z_2$ symmetric scalar field. The theory is constructed from a bare Euclidean action which at a scale much greater than the particle's mass is constrained only by the most basic requirements; stability, finiteness, analyticity, naturalness, and global symmetry. We prove to all orders in perturbation theory the boundedness, convergence, and universality of the theory at low energy scales, and thus that the theory is perturbatively renormalizable in the sense that to a certain precision over a range of such scales it depends only on a finite number of parameters. We then demonstrate that the effective theory has a well defined unitary and causal analytic S--matrix at all energy scales. We also show that redundant terms in the Lagrangian may be systematically eliminated by field redefinitions without changing the S--matrix, and discuss the extent to which effective field theory and analytic S--matrix theory...
Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory
DeTar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2016-01-01
We report on the first observation of magnetic catalysis at zero temperature in a fully nonperturbative simulation of the graphene effective field theory. Using lattice gauge theory, a nonperturbative analysis of the theory of strongly-interacting, massless, (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. We show that in the zero-temperature limit, a nonzero value for the chiral condensate is obtained which signals the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. This result implies a nonzero value for the dynamical mass of the Dirac quasiparticle. This in turn has been posited to account for the quantum-Hall plateaus that are observed at large magnetic fields.
Anomaly induced effects in a magnetic field
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2008-04-01
We consider a modification of electrodynamics by an additional light massive vector field, interacting with the photon via Chern-Simons-like coupling. This theory predicts observable effects for the experiments studying the propagation of light in an external magnetic field, very similar to those, predicted by theories of axion and axion-like particles. We discuss a possible microscopic origin of this theory from a theory with non-trivial gauge anomaly cancellation between massive and light particles (including, for example, millicharged fermions). Due to the conservation of the gauge current, the production of the new vector field is suppressed at high energies. As a result, this theory can avoid both stellar bounds (which exist for axions) and the bounds from CMB considered recently, allowing for positive results in experiments like ALPS, LIPPS, OSQAR, PVLAS-2, BMV, Q&A, etc.
Anomaly induced effects in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Boyarsky, Alexey [Department of Physics, CERN, Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Theoretical Physics, FSB/ITP/LPPC, BSP 720, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: oleg.ruchayskiy@epfl.ch
2008-04-11
We consider a modification of electrodynamics by an additional light massive vector field, interacting with the photon via Chern-Simons-like coupling. This theory predicts observable effects for the experiments studying the propagation of light in an external magnetic field, very similar to those, predicted by theories of axion and axion-like particles. We discuss a possible microscopic origin of this theory from a theory with non-trivial gauge anomaly cancellation between massive and light particles (including, for example, millicharged fermions). Due to the conservation of the gauge current, the production of the new vector field is suppressed at high energies. As a result, this theory can avoid both stellar bounds (which exist for axions) and the bounds from CMB considered recently, allowing for positive results in experiments like ALPS, LIPPS, OSQAR, PVLAS-2, BMV, Q and A, etc.
Anomaly induced effects in a magnetic field
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Ruchayskiy, O
2008-01-01
We consider a modification of electrodynamics by an additional light massive vector field, interacting with the photon via Chern-Simons-like coupling. This theory predicts observable effects for the experiments studying the propagation of light in an external magnetic field, very similar to those, predicted by theories of axion and axion-like particles. We discuss a possible microscopic origin of this theory from a theory with non-trivial gauge anomaly cancellation between massive and light particles (including, for example, millicharged fermions). Due to the conservation of the gauge current, the production of the new vector field is suppressed at high energies. As a result, this theory can avoid both stellar bounds (which exist for axions) and the bounds from CMB considered recently, allowing for positive results in experiments like ALPS, LIPPS, OSQAR, PVLAS-2, BMV, Q&A, etc.
Multisymplectic effective General Boundary Field Theory
Arjang, Mona
2013-01-01
The transfer matrix in lattice field theory connects the covariant and the initial data frameworks; in spin foam models, it can be written as a composition of elementary cellular amplitudes/propagators. We present a framework for discrete spacetime classical field theory in which solutions to the field equations over elementary spacetime cells may be amalgamated if they satisfy simple gluing conditions matching the composition rules of cellular amplitudes in spin foam models. Furthermore, the formalism is endowed with a multisymplectic structure responsible for local conservation laws. Some models within our framework are effective theories modeling a system at a given scale. Our framework allows us to study coarse graining and the continuum limit.
Numerical Construction of Magnetosphere with Relativistic Two-fluid Plasma Flows
Kojima, Yasufumi
2009-01-01
We present a numerical model in which a cold pair plasma is ejected with relativistic speed through a polar cap region and flows almost radially outside the light cylinder. Stationary axisymmetric structures of electromagnetic fields and plasma flows are self-consistently calculated. In our model, motions of positively and negatively charged particles are assumed to be determined by electromagnetic forces and inertial terms, without pair creation and annihilation or radiation loss. The global electromagnetic fields are calculated by the Maxwell's equations for the plasma density and velocity, without using ideal MHD condition. Numerical result demonstrates the acceleration and deceleration of plasma due to parallel component of the electric fields. Numerical model is successfully constructed for weak magnetic fields or highly relativistic fluid velocity, i.e, kinetic energy dominated outflow. It is found that appropriate choices of boundary conditions and plasma injection model at the polar cap should be expl...
Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory
Saraswat, Prashant
2017-01-01
The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.
Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour
Hnilica, Jaroslav; Slapanska, Marta; Klein, Peter; Vasina, Petr
2016-09-01
The investigations of the non-reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using high-speed camera imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probes showed that plasma is not homogeneously distributed over the target surface, but it is concentrated in regions of higher local plasma density called spokes rotating above the erosion racetrack. Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour was studied by high-speed camera imaging in HiPIMS discharge using 3 inch titanium target. An employed camera enabled us to record two successive images in the same pulse with time delay of 3 μs between them, which allowed us to determine the number of spokes, spoke rotation velocity and spoke rotation frequency. The experimental conditions covered pressure range from 0.15 to 5 Pa, discharge current up to 350 A and magnetic fields of 37, 72 and 91 mT. Increase of the magnetic field influenced the number of spokes observed at the same pressure and at the same discharge current. Moreover, the investigation revealed different characteristic spoke shapes depending on the magnetic field strength - both diffusive and triangular shapes were observed for the same target material. The spoke rotation velocity was independent on the magnetic field strength. This research has been financially supported by the Czech Science Foundation in frame of the project 15-00863S.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Yoon, Han Young [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Byoung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-01-15
Two-fluid equations are widely used to obtain averaged behaviors of two-phase flows. This study addresses a problem that may arise when the two-fluid equations are used for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. If steady drag is the only accounted force for the interfacial momentum transfer, the disperse-phase velocity would be the same as the continuous-phase velocity when the flow is fully developed without gravity. However, existing momentum equations may show unphysical results in estimating the relative velocity of the disperse phase against the continuous-phase. First, we examine two types of existing momentum equations. One is the standard two-fluid momentum equation in which the disperse-phase is treated as a continuum. The other is the averaged momentum equation derived from a solid/ fluid particle motion. We show that the existing equations are not proper for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. To resolve the problem mentioned above, we modify the form of the Reynolds stress terms in the averaged momentum equation based on the solid/fluid particle motion. The proposed equation shows physically correct results for both multi-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows.
Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications
Jeong, Yoon-Ha
2014-01-01
“Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.
Effective Field Theories and Lattice QCD
Bernard, C
2015-01-01
I describe some of the many connections between lattice QCD and effective field theories, focusing in particular on chiral effective theory, and, to a lesser extent, Symanzik effective theory. I first discuss the ways in which effective theories have enabled and supported lattice QCD calculations. Particular attention is paid to the inclusion of discretization errors, for a variety of lattice QCD actions, into chiral effective theory. Several other examples of the usefulness of chiral perturbation theory, including the encoding of partial quenching and of twisted boundary conditions, are also described. In the second part of the talk, I turn to results from lattice QCD for the low energy constants of the two- and three-flavor chiral theories. I concentrate here on mesonic quantities, but the dependence of the nucleon mass on the pion mass is also discussed. Finally I describe some recent preliminary lattice QCD calculations by the MILC Collaboration relating to the three-flavor chiral limit.
Halo Effective Field Theory of 6He
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thapaliya Arbin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available 6He has a cluster structure with a tight 4He (α core surrounded by two loosely bound neutrons (n making it a halo nucleus. The leading-order (LO Halo Effective Field Theory (EFT [1, 2] calculations using momentum-space Faddeev equations pertinent to a bound 6He were carried out in [3]. In this work, we investigate 6He up to next-to-leading order (NLO within Halo EFT.
Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shrivastava, H.P.
1994-11-01
Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.
Verification of a Higher-Order Finite Difference Scheme for the One-Dimensional Two-Fluid Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William D. Fullmer
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The one-dimensional two-fluid model is widely acknowledged as the most detailed and accurate macroscopic formulation model of the thermo-fluid dynamics in nuclear reactor safety analysis. Currently the prevailing one-dimensional thermal hydraulics codes are only first-order accurate. The benefit of first-order schemes is numerical viscosity, which serves as a regularization mechanism for many otherwise ill-posed two-fluid models. However, excessive diffusion in regions of large gradients leads to poor resolution of phenomena related to void wave propagation. In this work, a higher-order shock capturing method is applied to the basic equations for incompressible and isothermal flow of the one-dimensional two-fluid model. The higher-order accuracy is gained by a strong stability preserving multi-step scheme for the time discretization and a minmod flux limiter scheme for the convection terms. Additionally the use of a staggered grid allows for several second-order centered terms, when available. The continuity equations are first tested by manipulating the two-fluid model into a pair of linear wave equations and tested for smooth and discontinuous initial data. The two-fluid model is benchmarked with the water faucet problem. With the higher-order method, the ill-posed nature of the governing equations presents severe challenges due to a growing void fraction jump in the solution. Therefore the initial and boundary conditions of the problem are modified in order to eliminate a large counter-current flow pattern that develops. With the modified water faucet problem the numerical models behave well and allow a convergence study. Using the L1 norm of the liquid fraction, it is verified that the first and higher-order numerical schemes converge to the quasi-analytical solution at a rate of O(1/2 and O(2/3, respectively. It is also shown that the growing void jump is a contact discontinuity, i.e. it is a linearly degenerate wave. The sub
Quantum gravity, effective fields and string theory
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J
2004-01-01
We look at the various aspects of treating general relativity as a quantum theory. It is briefly studied how to consistently quantize general relativity as an effective field theory. A key achievement here is the long-range low-energy leading quantum corrections to both the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics. The leading quantum corrections to the pure gravitational potential between two sources are also calculated, both in the mixed theory of scalar QED and quantum gravity and in the pure gravitational theory. The (Kawai-Lewellen-Tye) string theory gauge/gravity relations is next dealt with. We investigate if the KLT-operator mapping extends to the case of higher derivative effective operators. The KLT-relations are generalized, taking the effective field theory viewpoint, and remarkable tree-level amplitude relations between the field theory operators are derived. Quantum gravity is finally looked at from the the perspective of taking the limit of infinitely many spatial dimensions. It is verified that only a c...
The Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy
Gubitosi, Giulia; Vernizzi, Filippo
2012-01-01
We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar ca...
Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Perturbations
Piazza, Federico
2013-01-01
The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related Nambu-Goldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for late-time cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetry---that allows to write down the most general Lagrangian---and of the Stueckelberg "trick"---that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed ana...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kh. H. EL-SHORBAGY
2008-01-01
The effect of a high frequency (HF) electric field on the propagation of electrostatic wave in a 2D non-uniform relativistic plasma waveguide is investigated. A variable separation method is applied to the two-fluid plasma model. An analytical study of the reflection of electro-static wave propagation along a magnetized non-uniform relativistic plasma slab subjected to an intense HF electric field is presented and compared with the case of a non relativistic plasma. It is found that, when the frequency of the incident wave is close to the relativistic electron plasma frequency, the plasma is less reflective due to the presence of both an HF field and the effect of rel-ativistic electrons. On the other hand, for a low-frequency incident wave the reflection coefficient is directly proportional to the amplitude of the HF field. Also, it is shown that the relativistic electron plasma leads to a decrease in the value of reflection coefficient in comparison with the case of the non relativistic plasma.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Lixing; ZHANG Xia
2004-01-01
A two-fluid particle-wall collision model with consideration of wall roughness is proposed. It takes into account the effects of the friction, restitution and in particular the wall roughness,and hence the redistribution of Reynolds stress in different directions, the absorption of turbulent energy from the mean motion and the attenuation of particle motion by the wall. The proposed model is used to simulate sudden-expansion and swirling gas-particle flows and is validated by comparing with experimental results. The results show that the proposed model gives better results than those obtained by the presently used zero-gradient condition. Hence, it is suggested that the proposed model should be used as the wall boundary condition for the particle phase in place of the presently used boundary condition.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons
Gullans, M J; Thompson, J D; Liang, Q -Y; Vuletic, V; Lukin, M D; Gorshkov, A V
2016-01-01
We study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and determine the photon number at which the EFT description breaks down. We find good agreement throughout between the predictions of EFT and numerical simulations of the exact two and three photon wavefunction transmission.
Effective field theory analysis of Higgs naturalness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bar-Shalom, Shaouly [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel); Soni, Amarjit [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wudka, Jose [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2015-07-20
Assuming the presence of physics beyond the Standard Model ( SM) with a characteristic scale M ~ O (10) TeV, we investigate the naturalness of the Higgs sector at scales below M using an effective field theory (EFT) approach. We obtain the leading 1 -loop EFT contributions to the Higgs mass with a Wilsonian-like hard cutoff, and determine t he constraints on the corresponding operator coefficients for these effects to alleviate the little hierarchy problem up to the scale of the effective action Λ < M , a condition we denote by “EFT-naturalness”. We also determine the types of physics that can lead to EFT-naturalness and show that these types of new physics are best probed in vector-boson and multiple-Higgs production. The current experimental constraints on these coefficients are also discussed.
Effective Field Theory with Two Higgs Doublets
Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the effective field theory framework describing new physics effects to the case where the underlying low-energy theory is a Two-Higgs-Doublet model. We derive a complete set of independent operators up to dimension six assuming a $Z_2$-invariant CP-conserving Higgs potential. The effects on Higgs and gauge boson masses, mixing angles in the Higgs sector as well as couplings to fermions and gauge bosons are computed. At variance with the case of a single Higgs doublet, we find that pair production of SM-like Higgses, arising through dimension-six operators, is not fixed by fermion-fermion-Higgs couplings and can therefore be sizable.
Nakayama, T.; Hanao, T.; Hirono, H.; Hyobu, T.; Ito, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Kanki, T.
2012-10-01
Spherical torus (ST) plasmas have been successfully maintained by Muti-pulsing Coaxial Helicity Injection (M-CHI) on HIST. This research object is to clarify relations between plasma characteristics and magnetic flux amplifications, and to compare magnetic field structures measured in the plasma interior to a flowing equilibrium calculation. Two-dimensional magnetic probe array has been newly introduced nearby the gun muzzle. The initial result shows that the diverter configuration with a single X-point can be formed after a bubble burst process of the plasma. The closed magnetic flux is surrounded by the open magnetic field lines intersecting with the gun electrodes. To evaluate the sustained configurations, we use the two-fluid equilibrium code containing generalized Bernoulli and Grad-Shafranov equations which was developed by L.C. Steinhauer. The radial profiles of plasma flow, density and magnetic fields measured on the midplane of the FC are consistent to the calculation. We also found that the poloidal shear flow generation is attributed to ExB drift and ion diamagnetic drift. In addition, we will study temporal behaviors of impurity lines such as OV and OVI during the flux amplification by VUV spectroscopic measurements.
Higgs effective field theories. Systematics and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krause, Claudius G.
2016-07-28
Researchers of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced on July 4th, 2012, the observation of a new particle. The properties of the particle agree, within the relatively large experimental uncertainties, with the properties of the long-sought Higgs boson. Particle physicists around the globe are now wondering, ''Is it the Standard Model Higgs that we observe; or is it another particle with similar properties?'' We employ effective field theories (EFTs) for a general, model-independent description of the particle. We use a few, minimal assumptions - Standard Model (SM) particle content and a separation of scales to the new physics - which are supported by current experimental results. By construction, effective field theories describe a physical system only at a certain energy scale, in our case at the electroweak-scale v. Effects of new physics from a higher energy-scale, Λ, are described by modified interactions of the light particles. In this thesis, ''Higgs Effective Field Theories - Systematics and Applications'', we discuss effective field theories for the Higgs particle, which is not necessarily the Higgs of the Standard Model. In particular, we focus on a systematic and consistent expansion of the EFT. The systematics depends on the dynamics of the new physics. We distinguish two different consistent expansions. EFTs that describe decoupling new-physics effects and EFTs that describe non-decoupling new-physics effects. We briefly discuss the first case, the SM-EFT. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the non-decoupling EFTs. We argue that the loop expansion is the consistent expansion in the second case. We introduce the concept of chiral dimensions, equivalent to the loop expansion. Using the chiral dimensions, we expand the electroweak chiral Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order, O(f{sup 2}/Λ{sup 2})=O(1/16π{sup 2}). Further, we discuss how different
Instabilities in two-fluid magnetized media with inter-component drift
Tytarenko, P V; Falle, S A
2002-01-01
We analyse the stability of a magnetized medium consisting of a neutral fluid and a fluid of charged particles, coupled to each other through a drag force and exposed to differential body forces (for example, as the result of radiation forces on one phase). We consider a uniform equilibrium and simple model input physics, but do not arbitrarily restrict the relative orientations of the magnetic field, slip velocity and wave vector of the disturbance. We find several instabilities and classify these in terms of wave resonances. We briefly apply our results to the structure of SiO maser regions appearing in the winds from late-type stars.
Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van der Laan, G. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sokaras, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Weng, T. -C. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bagus, P. S. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States)
2015-07-06
An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO_{2}), uranium trioxide (UO_{3}), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF_{4}). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.
The Effective Field Theory of nonsingular cosmology
Cai, Yong; Li, Hai-Guang; Qiu, Taotao; Piao, Yun-Song
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explore the nonsingular cosmology within the framework of the Effective Field Theory(EFT) of cosmological perturbations. Due to the recently proved no-go theorem, any nonsingular cosmological models based on the cubic Galileon suffer from pathologies. We show how the EFT could help us clarify the origin of the no-go theorem, and offer us solutions to break the no-go. Particularly, we point out that the gradient instability can be removed by using some spatial derivative operators in EFT. Based on the EFT description, we obtain a realistic healthy nonsingular cosmological model, and show the perturbation spectrum can be consistent with the observations.
Hysteresis modeling in graphene field effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winters, M.; Rorsman, N. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 412-96 Göteborg (Sweden); Sveinbjörnsson, E. Ö. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)
2015-02-21
Graphene field effect transistors with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric are fabricated on H-intercalated bilayer graphene grown on semi-insulating 4H-SiC by chemical vapour deposition. DC measurements of the gate voltage v{sub g} versus the drain current i{sub d} reveal a severe hysteresis of clockwise orientation. A capacitive model is used to derive the relationship between the applied gate voltage and the Fermi energy. The electron transport equations are then used to calculate the drain current for a given applied gate voltage. The hysteresis in measured data is then modeled via a modified Preisach kernel.
Doyeux, Vincent; Chabannes, Vincent; Prud'Homme, Christophe; Ismail, Mourad
2012-01-01
A new framework for two-fluids flow using a Finite Element/Level Set method is presented and verified through the simulation of the rising of a bubble in a viscous fluid. This model is then enriched to deal with vesicles (which mimic red blood cells mechanical behavior) by introducing a Lagrange multiplier to constrain the inextensibility of the membrane. Moreover, high order polynomial approximation is used to increase the accuracy of the simulations. A validation of this model is finally presented on known behaviors of vesicles under flow such as "tank treading" and tumbling motions.
Nuclear effective field theory on the lattice
Krebs, H; Epelbaum, E; Lee, D; ner, Ulf-G Mei\\ss
2008-01-01
In the low-energy region far below the chiral symmetry breaking scale (which is of the order of 1 GeV) chiral perturbation theory provides a model-independent approach for quantitative description of nuclear processes. In the two- and more-nucleon sector perturbation theory is applicable only at the level of an effective potential which serves as input in the corresponding dynamical equation. To deal with the resulting many-body problem we put chiral effective field theory (EFT) on the lattice. Here we present the results of our lattice EFT study up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. Accurate description of two-nucleon phase-shifts and ground state energy ratio of dilute neutron matter up to corrections of higher orders shows that lattice EFT is a promising tool for a quantitative description of low-energy few- and many-body systems.
Wake field effects in APT linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurennoy, S.S.
1998-12-31
The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the author studies these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Here he concentrates on two features specific to the APT linac: loss factors for the design {beta} < 1 and CW beam structure.
Wake Field Effects in the APT Linac.
Kurennoy, Sergey
1998-04-01
The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, an analysis for the APT accelerator has been performed to exclude potential problems at such a high current leading to beam losses. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. However, it has an acceptable level and will be further reduced by HOM couplers.
Polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors
Yan, F.; Estrela, P.; Mo, Y.; Migliorato, P.; Maeda, H.; Inoue, S.; Shimoda, T.
2005-01-01
We report the operation of polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors. These devices can be fabricated on inexpensive disposable substrates such as glass or plastics and are, therefore, promising candidates for low cost single-use intelligent multisensors. In this work we have developed an extended gate structure with a Si3N4 sensing layer. Nearly ideal pH sensitivity (54mV /pH) and stable operation have been achieved. Temperature effects have been characterized. A penicillin sensor has been fabricated by functionalizing the sensing area with penicillinase. The sensitivity to penicillin G is about 10mV/mM, in solutions with concentration lower than the saturation value, which is about 7 mM.
Effective Field Theories for the LHC
Moult, Ian
2016-01-01
In this thesis I study applications of effective field theories to understand aspects of QCD jets and their substructure at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, I introduce an observable, $D_2$, which can be used for distinguishing boosted $W/Z/H$ bosons from the QCD background using information about the radiation pattern within the jet, and perform a precision calculation of this observable. To simplify calculations in the soft collinear effective theory, I also develop a helicity operator basis, which facilitates matching calculations to fixed order computations performed using spinor-helicity techniques, and demonstrate its utility by computing an observable relevant for studying the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson.
Oxide-on-graphene field effect biosensors
Wang, Bei; Liddell, Kristi; Wang, Junjie; Koger, Brandon; Keating, Christine; Zhu, J.
2013-03-01
Nanoelectronics-based detection schemes offer fast and label-free alternatives to bioanalysis. Here we report on the design, fabrication, and operation of ion-sensitive field-effect biosensors using large-area graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The graphene transducer channel has a high carrier mobility of approximately 5000cm2/Vs. Our oxide-on-graphene design uses thin HfO2 and SiO2 films to passivate the graphene channel and electrodes from electrolyte and uses the top SiO2 surface for sensing and linker chemistry. The pH sensitivity of the bare SiO2 is measured to be 46mV/pH, in good agreement with literature results. We demonstrate the silanization of the SiO2 surface with aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The pH sensitivity of the APTMS-functionalized SiO2 is measured to be 43mV/pH. By applying the solution gate voltage in pulse, we eliminate hysteresis in the transfer curve of the graphene channel, which is a common challenge in achieving high-solution detection using nanostructure-based field effect sensors. The amine-functionalized SiO2 surface can be further functionalized with bio-probes to perform the detection of specific binding events such as DNA hybridization.
Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina
Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.
2008-01-01
The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurr...
Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.
Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J
2015-01-01
Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF
Special Effect of Parallel Inductive Electric Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈涛; 刘振兴; W.Heikkila
2002-01-01
Acceleration of electrons by a field-aligned electric field during a magnetospheric substorm in the deep geomagnetic tail is studied by means of a one-dimensional electromagnetic particle code. It was found that the free acceleration of the electrons by the parallel electric field is obvious; kinetic energy variation is greater than electromagnetic energy variation in the presence of parallel electric field. Magnetic energy is greater than kinetic energy variation and electric energy variation in the absence of the parallel electric field. More wave modes in the presence of the parallel electric field are generated than those in the absence of the parallel electric field.
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
Two Fluid Design Improvement of Molten Salt Reactors%熔盐堆的双流设计改进
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩东; 王文林
2011-01-01
熔盐堆(MSR)是六种第四代反应堆中唯一的液体燃料反应堆,在很多方面具有其它反应堆无法比拟的优点.相对于传统的单流熔盐堆设计,一个重大的有前途的变化就是回归到了橡树岭实验室曾经为绝大多数熔盐堆而提出双流设计模型,通过对反应堆活性区设计的改进,解决所谓的“管道问题”,使熔盐堆双流设计的各种优势得以实现.%The molten salt reactor (MSR) is the only liquid fuels reactor in the six candidates of the Gen-eration IV advanced nuclear reactor, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in many ways. A major potential change to the traditional Single Fluid, MSBR design and a subject of this presentation is a return to the mode of operation that ORNL proposed for the majority of its MSR program - the Two Fluid design. Through the improvement of core, this article aims to solve so -called "plumbing problem" and to enable the many advantages of the Two Fluid design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cachard, F. de [Laboratory for Thermal Hydraulics, Villigen (Switzerland)
1995-09-01
Inverted-Annular Film-Boiling (IAFB) is one of the post-burnout heat transfer modes taking place during the reflooding phase of the loss-of-coolant accident, when the liquid at the quench front is subcooled. Under IAFB conditions, a continuous, liquid core is separated from the wall by a superheated vapour film. the heat transfer rate in IAFB is influenced by the flooding rate, liquid subcooling, pressure, and the wall geometry and temperature. These influences can be accounted by a two-fluid model with physically sound closure laws for mass, momentum and heat transfers between the wall, the vapour film, the vapour-liquid interface, and the liquid core. Such closure laws have been developed and adjusted using IAFB-relevant experimental results, including heat flux, wall temperature and void fraction data. The model is extensively assessed against data from three independent sources. A total of 46 experiments have been analyzed. The overall predictions are good. The IAFB-specific closure laws proposed have also intrinsic value, and may be used in other two-fluid models. They should allow to improve the description of post-dryout, low quality heat transfer by the safety codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abu Saleem, Rabie A., E-mail: raabusaleem@just.edu.jo [Nuclear Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Kozlowski, Tomasz, E-mail: txk@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shrestha, Rijan, E-mail: rijan.shrestha@intel.com [Portland Technology Development, Intel Corporation, 2501 NW 229th Ave Hillsboro OR 97124 (United States)
2016-05-15
Highlights: • The two-fluid model and the challenges associated with its numerical modeling are investigated. • A high-order solver based on flux limiter schemes and the theta method was developed. • The solver was compared to existing thermal hydraulics codes used in nuclear industry. • The solver was shown to handle fast transients with discontinuities and phase change. - Abstract: Finite volume techniques with staggered mesh are used to develop a new numerical solver for the one-dimensional two-phase two-fluid model using a high-resolution, Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme. The solver is implemented to analyze numerical benchmark problems for verification and testing its abilities to handle discontinuities and fast transients with phase change. Convergence rates are investigated by comparing numerical results to analytical solutions available in literature for the case of the faucet flow problem. The solver based on a new TVD scheme is shown to exhibit higher-order of accuracy compared to other numerical schemes. Mass errors are also examined when phase change occurs for the shock tube problem, and compared to those of the 1st-order upwind scheme implemented in the nuclear thermal-hydraulics code TRACE. The solver is shown to exhibit numerical stability when applied to problems with discontinuous solutions and results of the new solver are free of spurious oscillations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, W.; Camassa, R.
1998-12-31
The authors derive model equations that govern the evolution of internal gravity waves at the interface of two immiscible fluids. These models follow from the original Euler equations under the sole assumption that the waves are long compared to the undisturbed thickness of one of the fluid layers. No smallness assumption on the wave amplitude is made. Here the shallow water configuration is first considered, whereby the waves are taken to be long with respect to the total undisturbed thickness of the fluids. In part 2, the authors derive models for the configuration in which one of the two fluids has a thickness much larger than the wavelength. The fully nonlinear models contain the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and the intermediate-long-wave (ILW) equation, for shallow and deep water configurations respectively, as special cases in the limit of weak nonlinearity and unidirectional wave propagation. In particular, for a solitary wave of given amplitude, the characteristic wavelength is larger and the wave speed smaller than their counterparts for solitary wave solutions of the weakly nonlinear equations. These features are compared and found in overall good agreement with available experimental data for solitary waves of large amplitude in two-fluid systems.
Marx, Alain; Lütjens, Hinrich
2017-03-01
A hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallel version of the XTOR-2F code [Lütjens and Luciani, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 8130] solving the two-fluid MHD equations in full tokamak geometry by means of an iterative Newton-Krylov matrix-free method has been developed. The present work shows that the code has been parallelized significantly despite the numerical profile of the problem solved by XTOR-2F, i.e. a discretization with pseudo-spectral representations in all angular directions, the stiffness of the two-fluid stability problem in tokamaks, and the use of a direct LU decomposition to invert the physical pre-conditioner at every Krylov iteration of the solver. The execution time of the parallelized version is an order of magnitude smaller than the sequential one for low resolution cases, with an increasing speedup when the discretization mesh is refined. Moreover, it allows to perform simulations with higher resolutions, previously forbidden because of memory limitations.
Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes
Ebersohn, F.; Shebalin, J.; Girimaji, S.; Staack, D.
2012-01-01
Here, we will discuss our numerical studies of plasma jets and loops, of basic interest for plasma propulsion and plasma astrophysics. Space plasma propulsion systems require strong guiding magnetic fields known as magnetic nozzles to control plasma flow and produce thrust. Propulsion methods currently being developed that require magnetic nozzles include the VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) [1] and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Magnetic nozzles are functionally similar to de Laval nozzles, but are inherently more complex due to electromagnetic field interactions. The two crucial physical phenomenon are thrust production and plasma detachment. Thrust production encompasses the energy conversion within the nozzle and momentum transfer to a spacecraft. Plasma detachment through magnetic reconnection addresses the problem of the fluid separating efficiently from the magnetic field lines to produce maximum thrust. Plasma jets similar to those of VASIMR will be studied with particular interest in dual jet configurations, which begin as a plasma loops between two nozzles. This research strives to fulfill a need for computational study of these systems and should culminate with a greater understanding of the crucial physics of magnetic nozzles with dual jet plasma thrusters, as well as astrophysics problems such as magnetic reconnection and dynamics of coronal loops.[2] To study this problem a novel, hybrid kinetic theory and single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver known as the Magneto-Gas Kinetic Method is used.[3] The solver is comprised of a "hydrodynamic" portion based on the Gas Kinetic Method and a "magnetic" portion that accounts for the electromagnetic behaviour of the fluid through source terms based on the resistive MHD equations. This method is being further developed to include additional physics such as the Hall effect. Here, we will discuss the current level of code development, as well as numerical simulation results
Biological effects of electric fields: an overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, L.E.; Phillips, R.D.
1983-11-01
An overview of the literature suggests tha electric-field exposure is an environmental agent/influence of relatively low potential toxicity to biological systems. Generally, many of the biological effects which have been reported are quite subtle and differences between exposed and unexposed subjects may be masked by normal biological variations. However, several recent reports indicate possibly more serious consequences from chronic exposure, emphasizing the need for more research in epidemiology and laboratory experiments. This paper presents a cursory overview of investigations on the biological consequences of exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields. Three important topics are discussed, including: 1) the general methodology of exposure experiments, including those elements which are critical for definitive studies in biological systems; 2) a brief discussion of epidemiological and clinical studies conducted to date; and 3) a somewhat more extensive examination of animal experiments representing major areas of investigation (behavior, biological rhythms, nervous and endocrine systems, bone growth and repair, cardiovascular system and blood chemistry, immunology, reproduction, growth and development mortality and pathology, cellular and membrane studies, and mutagenesis). A discussion of current concepts, possible mechanisms and future directions of research is presented. 110 references.
CRYSTAL-FIELD AND TRANSVERSE-FIELD EFFECTS OF THE SPIN-ONE ISING MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋为基; 杨传章
1993-01-01
A mean-field approximation (MFA) is used to treat the crystal-field and transverse-field effects of the spin-1 Ising modle in the presence of longitudinal field. In spite of its simplicity, this scheme still gives the satisfied results.
Ei-Shorbagy, K H
2002-01-01
The stabilization effect of a strong HP electric field on beam-plasma instability in a cylindrical warm plasma waveguide is discussed. A new mathematical technique 'separation method' which has been applied to the two-fluid plasma model to separate the equations, which describe the system, into two parts, temporal and space parts. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a warm plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to cold plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem.
Quantifying truncation errors in effective field theory
Furnstahl, R J; Phillips, D R; Wesolowski, S
2015-01-01
Bayesian procedures designed to quantify truncation errors in perturbative calculations of quantum chromodynamics observables are adapted to expansions in effective field theory (EFT). In the Bayesian approach, such truncation errors are derived from degree-of-belief (DOB) intervals for EFT predictions. Computation of these intervals requires specification of prior probability distributions ("priors") for the expansion coefficients. By encoding expectations about the naturalness of these coefficients, this framework provides a statistical interpretation of the standard EFT procedure where truncation errors are estimated using the order-by-order convergence of the expansion. It also permits exploration of the ways in which such error bars are, and are not, sensitive to assumptions about EFT-coefficient naturalness. We first demonstrate the calculation of Bayesian probability distributions for the EFT truncation error in some representative examples, and then focus on the application of chiral EFT to neutron-pr...
Bayesian parameter estimation for effective field theories
Wesolowski, S; Furnstahl, R J; Phillips, D R; Thapaliya, A
2015-01-01
We present procedures based on Bayesian statistics for effective field theory (EFT) parameter estimation from data. The extraction of low-energy constants (LECs) is guided by theoretical expectations that supplement such information in a quantifiable way through the specification of Bayesian priors. A prior for natural-sized LECs reduces the possibility of overfitting, and leads to a consistent accounting of different sources of uncertainty. A set of diagnostic tools are developed that analyze the fit and ensure that the priors do not bias the EFT parameter estimation. The procedures are illustrated using representative model problems and the extraction of LECs for the nucleon mass expansion in SU(2) chiral perturbation theory from synthetic lattice data.
Effective field theory of dissipative fluids
Crossley, Michael; Liu, Hong
2015-01-01
We develop an effective field theory for dissipative fluids which governs the dynamics of gapless modes associated to conserved quantities. The system is put in a curved spacetime and coupled to external sources for charged currents. The invariance of the hydrodynamical action under gauge symmetries and diffeomorphisms suggests a natural set of dynamical variables which provide a mapping between an emergent "fluid spacetime" and the physical spacetime. An essential aspect of our formulation is to identify the appropriate symmetries in the fluid spacetime. Our theory applies to nonlinear disturbances around a general density matrix. For a thermal density matrix, we require an additional Z_2 symmetry, to which we refer as the local KMS condition. This leads to the standard constraints of hydrodynamics, as well as a nonlinear generalization of the Onsager relations. It also leads to an emergent supersymmetry in the classical statistical regime, with a higher derivative version required for the full quantum regim...
Bayesian parameter estimation for effective field theories
Wesolowski, S.; Klco, N.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Phillips, D. R.; Thapaliya, A.
2016-07-01
We present procedures based on Bayesian statistics for estimating, from data, the parameters of effective field theories (EFTs). The extraction of low-energy constants (LECs) is guided by theoretical expectations in a quantifiable way through the specification of Bayesian priors. A prior for natural-sized LECs reduces the possibility of overfitting, and leads to a consistent accounting of different sources of uncertainty. A set of diagnostic tools is developed that analyzes the fit and ensures that the priors do not bias the EFT parameter estimation. The procedures are illustrated using representative model problems, including the extraction of LECs for the nucleon-mass expansion in SU(2) chiral perturbation theory from synthetic lattice data.
Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.
Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu
2015-12-09
A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.
Hadronic Transport Coefficients from Effective Field Theories
Torres-Rincon, Juan M
2012-01-01
This dissertation focuses on the calculation of transport coefficients in the matter created in a relativistic heavy-ion collision after the chemical freeze-out. This matter can be well approximated by a pion gas out of equilibrium. We describe the theoretical framework to obtain the shear and bulk viscosities, the thermal and electrical conductivities and the flavor diffusion coefficients of a meson gas at low temperatures. To describe the interactions of the degrees of freedom, we use effective field theories with chiral and heavy quark symmetries. We introduce the unitarization methods in order to obtain a scattering amplitude that satisfies the unitarity condition exactly. We perform the calculation of the transport properties of the low temperature phase of quantum chromodynamics -the hadronic medium- that can be used in the hydrodynamic simulations of a relativistic heavy-ion collision and its subsequent evolution. We show that the shear viscosity over entropy density exhibits a minimum in a phase trans...
Wake field effect analysis in APT linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurennoy, S.S.
1998-12-31
The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (< 1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the authors study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.
Wake Field Effect Analysis in APT Linac
Kurennoy, S S
1998-01-01
The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, we study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Our main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.
Higgs Effective Field Theories - Systematics and Applications
Krause, Claudius
2016-01-01
We discuss effective field theories (EFTs) for the Higgs particle, which is not necessarily the Higgs of the Standard Model. We distinguish two different consistent expansions: EFTs that describe decoupling new-physics effects and EFTs that describe non-decoupling new-physics effects. We briefly discuss the first case, the SM-EFT. The focus of this thesis is on the non-decoupling EFTs. We argue that the loop expansion is the consistent expansion in the second case. We introduce the concept of chiral dimensions, equivalent to the loop expansion. Using the chiral dimensions, we expand the electroweak chiral Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order, $\\mathcal{O}(f^{2}/\\Lambda^{2})=\\mathcal{O}(1/16\\pi^{2})$. We then compare the decoupling and the non-decoupling EFT. We also consider scenarios in which the new-physics sector is non-decoupling at a scale $f$, far above the electroweak-scale $v$. We discuss the relevance of the resulting double expansion in $\\xi=v^{2}/f^{2}$ and $f^{2}/\\Lambda^{2}$ for the data analys...
Hydrogel Actuation by Electric Field Driven Effects
Morales, Daniel Humphrey
Hydrogels are networks of crosslinked, hydrophilic polymers capable of absorbing and releasing large amounts of water while maintaining their structural integrity. Polyelectrolyte hydrogels are a subset of hydrogels that contain ionizable moieties, which render the network sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the media and provide mobile counterions, which impart conductivity. These networks are part of a class of "smart" material systems that can sense and adjust their shape in response to the external environment. Hence, the ability to program and modulate hydrogel shape change has great potential for novel biomaterial and soft robotics applications. We utilized electric field driven effects to manipulate the interaction of ions within polyelectrolyte hydrogels in order to induce controlled deformation and patterning. Additionally, electric fields can be used to promote the interactions of separate gel networks, as modular components, and particle assemblies within gel networks to develop new types of soft composite systems. First, we present and analyze a walking gel actuator comprised of cationic and anionic gel legs attached by electric field-promoted polyion complexation. We characterize the electro-osmotic response of the hydrogels as a function of charge density and external salt concentration. The gel walkers achieve unidirectional motion on flat elastomer substrates and exemplify a simple way to move and manipulate soft matter devices in aqueous solutions. An 'ionoprinting' technique is presented with the capability to topographically structure and actuate hydrated gels in two and three dimensions by locally patterning ions induced by electric fields. The bound charges change the local mechanical properties of the gel to induce relief patterns and evoke localized stress, causing rapid folding in air. The ionically patterned hydrogels exhibit programmable temporal and spatial shape transitions which can be tuned by the duration and/or strength of
Generalized Bogoliubov Transformation for Confined Fields Applications in Casimir Effect
Silva, J C; Neto, A M; Santana, A E
2002-01-01
The Bogoliubov transformation in thermofield dynamics, an operator formalism for the finite-temperature quantum-field theory, is generalized to describe a field in arbitrary confined regions of space and time. Starting with the scalar field, the approach is extended to the electromagnetic field and the energy-momentum tensor is written via the Bogoliubov transformation. In this context, the Casimir effect is calculated for zero and non-zero temperature, and therefore it can be considered as a vacuum condensation effect of the electromagnetic field. This aspect opens an interesting perspective for using this procedure as an effective scheme for calculations in the studies of confined fields, including the interacting fields.
Measuring the effect of field viability on wheat yield
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Schou, Jesper Sølver
showing a significant effect on yields. Further research may involve estimating the effect of field characteristics on the aggregated economic farm performance. The field viability index has multiple applications in e.g. benchmarking, leasing or buying arrangements, and for identifying potential land...... contributes by introducing a new joint index for field shape and field size, field viability index (FVI), aiming at measuring the effect of land fragmentation on farm performance based on field characteristics. The index is calculated for Danish wheat fields and is tested on a large sample of Danish farmers...
Field Discontinuities and the Memory Effect
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert
2017-01-01
The ``memory effect,'' a permanent change in the separation of test particles after the passage of a pulse of gravitational radiation, is a well-defined and fairly well-understood phenomenon in spacetimes with a notion of null infinity. However, many valid questions remain unanswered. For example, how do we define memory in the absence of null infinity? Or, does memory depend on the precise details of the radiation source or just on the source's asymptotic behavior? We believe that such questions are best answered using a simplified, distributional model of memory. If we consider linearized gravity on fixed background spacetimes, we can study the scattering of point particles, which radiate metric perturbations with sharp, step-function wave fronts. These steps correspond to derivative-of-delta-function discontinuities in the curvature, and according to the geodesic deviation equation, it is these discontinuities (and these alone) that contribute to permanent, finite changes in test particle separation-i.e., memory. Using this analysis of field discontinuities (as well as scalar and electromagnetic analogues of gravitational memory) we can isolate the physics of the memory effect from other, background phenomena.
Superluminality, Black Holes and Effective Field Theory
Goon, Garrett
2016-01-01
Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-per...
Effective field theory description of halo nuclei
Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.
2017-10-01
Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.
Effective field theory approaches for tensor potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Maximilian
2016-11-14
Effective field theories are a widely used tool to study physical systems at low energies. We apply them to systematically analyze two and three particles interacting via tensor potentials. Two examples are addressed: pion interactions for anti D{sup 0}D{sup *0} scattering to dynamically generate the X(3872) and dipole interactions for two and three bosons at low energies. For the former, the one-pion exchange and for the latter, the long-range dipole force induce a tensor-like structure of the potential. We apply perturbative as well as non-perturbative methods to determine low-energy observables. The X(3872) is of major interest in modern high-energy physics. Its exotic characteristics require approaches outside the range of the quark model for baryons and mesons. Effective field theories represent such methods and provide access to its peculiar nature. We interpret the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule consisting of neutral D and D{sup *} mesons. It is possible to apply an effective field theory with perturbative pions. Within this framework, we address chiral as well as finite volume extrapolations for low-energy observables, such as the binding energy and the scattering length. We show that the two-point correlation function for the D{sup *0} meson has to be resummed to cure infrared divergences. Moreover, next-to-leading order coupling constants, which were introduced by power counting arguments, appear to be essential to renormalize the scattering amplitude. The binding energy as well as the scattering length display a moderate dependence on the light quark masses. The X(3872) is most likely deeper bound for large light quark masses. In a finite volume on the other hand, the binding energy significantly increases. The dependence on the light quark masses and the volume size can be simultaneously obtained. For bosonic dipoles we apply a non-perturbative, numerical approach. We solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-dipole system and the Faddeev
Lee, D S; Ng, Y J; Shovkovy, I A
1999-01-01
The effective potential for the composite fields responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in weakly coupled QED in a magnetic field is derived. The global minimum of the effective potential is found to acquire a non-vanishing expectation value of the composite fields that leads to generating the dynamical fermion mass by an external magnetic field. The results are compared with those for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.
Effective field theory for halo nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagen, Philipp Robert
2014-02-19
We investigate properties of two- and three-body halo systems using effective field theory. If the two-particle scattering length a in such a system is large compared to the typical range of the interaction R, low-energy observables in the strong and the electromagnetic sector can be calculated in halo EFT in a controlled expansion in R/ vertical stroke a vertical stroke. Here we focus on universal properties and stay at leading order in the expansion. Motivated by the existence of the P-wave halo nucleus {sup 6}He, we first set up an EFT framework for a general three-body system with resonant two-particle P-wave interactions. Based on a Lagrangian description, we identify the area in the effective range parameter space where the two-particle sector of our model is renormalizable. However, we argue that for such parameters, there are two two-body bound states: a physical one and an additional deeper-bound and non-normalizable state that limits the range of applicability of our theory. With regard to the three-body sector, we then classify all angular-momentum and parity channels that display asymptotic discrete scale invariance and thus require renormalization via a cut-off dependent three-body force. In the unitary limit an Efimov effect occurs. However, this effect is purely mathematical, since, due to causality bounds, the unitary limit for P-wave interactions can not be realized in nature. Away from the unitary limit, the three-body binding energy spectrum displays an approximate Efimov effect but lies below the unphysical, deep two-body bound state and is thus unphysical. Finally, we discuss possible modifications in our halo EFT approach with P-wave interactions that might provide a suitable way to describe physical three-body bound states. We then set up a halo EFT formalism for two-neutron halo nuclei with resonant two-particle S-wave interactions. Introducing external currents via minimal coupling, we calculate observables and universal correlations for
Analysis of the two-fluid model and the drift-flux model for numerical calculation of two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munkejord, Svend Tollak
2006-05-11
This thesis analyses models for two-phase flows and methods for the numerical resolution of these models. It is therefore one contribution to the development of reliable design tools for multiphase applications. Such tools are needed and expected by engineers in a range of fields, including in the oil and gas industry. The approximate Riemann solver of Roe has been studied. Roe schemes for three different two-phase flow models have been implemented in the framework of a standard numerical algorithm for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws. The schemes have been analysed by calculation of benchmark tests from the literature, and by comparison with each other. A Roe scheme for the four-equation one-pressure two-fluid model has been implemented, and a second-order extension based on wave decomposition and flux-difference splitting was shown to work well and to give improved results compared to the first-order scheme. The convergence properties of the scheme were tested on smooth and discontinuous solutions. A Roe scheme has been proposed for a five-equation two-pressure two-fluid model with pressure relaxation. The use of analogous numerical methods for the five-equation and four-equation models allowed for a direct comparison of a method with and without pressure relaxation. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the two approaches converged to the same results, but that the five-equation pressure-relaxation method was significantly more dissipative, particularly for contact discontinuities. Furthermore, even though the five-equation model with instantaneous pressure relaxation has real eigenvalues, the calculations showed that it produced oscillations for cases where the four-equation model had complex eigenvalues. A Roe scheme has been constructed for the drift-flux model with general closure laws. For the case of the Zuber-Findlay slip law describing bubbly flows, the Roe matrix is completely analytical. Hence the present Roe scheme is more efficient than
Transverse Field Effect in Fluxgate Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V
1997-01-01
A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non-linearity......A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non...
A periodic table of effective field theories
Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav
2017-02-01
We systematically explore the space of scalar effective field theories (EFTs) consistent with a Lorentz invariant and local S-matrix. To do so we define an EFT classification based on four parameters characterizing 1) the number of derivatives per interaction, 2) the soft properties of amplitudes, 3) the leading valency of the interactions, and 4) the spacetime dimension. Carving out the allowed space of EFTs, we prove that exceptional EFTs like the non-linear sigma model, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory, and the special Galileon lie precisely on the boundary of allowed theory space. Using on-shell momentum shifts and recursion relations, we prove that EFTs with arbitrarily soft behavior are forbidden and EFTs with leading valency much greater than the spacetime dimension cannot have enhanced soft behavior. We then enumerate all single scalar EFTs in d < 6 and verify that they correspond to known theories in the literature. Our results suggest that the exceptional theories are the natural EFT analogs of gauge theory and gravity because they are one-parameter theories whose interactions are strictly dictated by properties of the S-matrix.
A Periodic Table of Effective Field Theories
Cheung, Clifford; Novotny, Jiri; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
We systematically explore the space of scalar effective field theories (EFTs) consistent with a Lorentz invariant and local S-matrix. To do so we define an EFT classification based on four parameters characterizing 1) the number of derivatives per interaction, 2) the soft properties of amplitudes, 3) the leading valency of the interactions, and 4) the spacetime dimension. Carving out the allowed space of EFTs, we prove that exceptional EFTs like the non-linear sigma model, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory, and the special Galileon lie precisely on the boundary of allowed theory space. Using on-shell momentum shifts and recursion relations, we prove that EFTs with arbitrarily soft behavior are forbidden and EFTs with leading valency much greater than the spacetime dimension cannot have enhanced soft behavior. We then enumerate all single scalar EFTs in d<6 and verify that they correspond to known theories in the literature. Our results suggest that the exceptional theories are the natural EFT analogs of gauge theor...
Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-Lon Fern
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed
Silicon nanowire field effect transistor for biosensing
Chen, Yu
Detection and recognition of chemical ions and biological molecules are important in basic science as well as in pharmacology and medicine. Nanotechnology has made it possible to greatly enhance detection sensitivity through the use of nanowires, nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanocantilevers, and quantum dots as sensing platforms. In this work silicon nanowires are used as the conductance channel between the source and drain of a FET (field effect transistor) device and the biomolecular binding on the surface of nanowire modifies the conductance like a change in gate voltage. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and unique character of the silicon nanowires, this device has significant advantages in real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of species, including proteins, nucleic acids and other small molecules. Here we present a biosensor fabricated from CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) compatible top-down methods including electron beam lithography. This method enables scalable manufacturing of multiple sensor arrays with high efficiency. In a systematic study of the device characteristics with different wire widths, we have found the sensitivity of the device increases when wire width decreases. By operating the device in appropriate bias region, the sensitivity of the device can be improved without doping or high temperature annealing. Not only can this device be used to detect the concentration of proteins and metabolites like urea or glucose, but also dynamic information like the dissociation constant can be extracted from the measurement. The device is also used to detect the clinically related cancer antigen CA 15.3 and shows potential application in cancer studies.
Graphene junction field-effect transistor
Ou, Tzu-Min; Borsa, Tomoko; van Zeghbroeck, Bart
2014-03-01
We have demonstrated for the first time a novel graphene transistor gated by a graphene/semiconductor junction rather than an insulating gate. The transistor operates much like a semiconductor junction Field Effect Transistor (jFET) where the depletion layer charge in the semiconductor modulates the mobile charge in the channel. The channel in our case is the graphene rather than another semiconductor layer. An increased reverse bias of the graphene/n-silicon junction increases the positive charge in the depletion region and thereby reduces the total charge in the graphene. We fabricated individual graphene/silicon junctions as well as graphene jFETs (GjFETs) on n-type (4.5x1015 cm-3) silicon with Cr/Au electrodes and 3 μm gate length. As a control device, we also fabricated back-gated graphene MOSFETs using a 90nm SiO2 on a p-type silicon substrate (1019 cm-3) . The graphene was grown by APCVD on copper foil and transferred with PMMA onto the silicon substrate. The GjFET exhibited an on-off ratio of 3.75, an intrinsic graphene doping of 1.75x1012 cm-2, compared to 1.17x1013 cm-2 in the MOSFET, and reached the Dirac point at 13.5V. Characteristics of the junctions and transistors were measured as a function of temperature and in response to light. Experimental data and a comparison with simulations will be presented.
Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields on Photoionised Clouds
Mackey, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Simulations are presented of the photoionisation of three dense gas clouds threaded by magnetic fields, showing the dynamical effects of different initial magnetic field orientations and strengths. For moderate magnetic field strengths the initial radiation-driven implosion phase is not strongly affected by the field geometry, and the photoevaporation flows are also similar. Over longer timescales, the simulation with an initial field parallel to the radiation propagation direction (parallel field) remains basically axisymmetric, whereas in the simulation with a perpendicular initial field the pillar of neutral gas fragments in a direction aligned with the magnetic field. For stronger initial magnetic fields, the dynamics in all gas phases are affected at all evolutionary times. In a simulation with a strong initially perpendicular field, photoevaporated gas forms filaments of dense ionised gas as it flows away from the ionisation front along field lines. These filaments are potentially a useful diagnostic of...
Casimir Effects in Renormalizable Quantum Field Theories
Graham, N; Weigel, H; Graham, Noah; Jaffe, Robert L.; Weigel, Herbert
2002-01-01
We review the framework we and our collaborators have developed for the study of one-loop quantum corrections to extended field configurations in renormalizable quantum field theories. We work in the continuum, transforming the standard Casimir sum over modes into a sum over bound states and an integral over scattering states weighted by the density of states. We express the density of states in terms of phase shifts, allowing us to extract divergences by identifying Born approximations to the phase shifts with low order Feynman diagrams. Once isolated in Feynman diagrams, the divergences are canceled against standard counterterms. Thus regulated, the Casimir sum is highly convergent and amenable to numerical computation. Our methods have numerous applications to the theory of solitons, membranes, and quantum field theories in strong external fields or subject to boundary conditions.
Casimir Effects in Renormalizable Quantum Field Theories
Graham, Noah; Jaffe, Robert L.; Weigel, Herbert
We present a framework for the study of one-loop quantum corrections to extended field configurations in renormalizable quantum field theories. We work in the continuum, transforming the standard Casimir sum over modes into a sum over bound states and an integral over scattering states weighted by the density of states. We express the density of states in terms of phase shifts, allowing us to extract divergences by identifying Born approximations to the phase shifts with low order Feynman diagrams. Once isolated in Feynman diagrams, the divergences are canceled against standard counterterms. Thus regulated, the Casimir sum is highly convergent and amenable to numerical computation. Our methods have numerous applications to the theory of solitons, membranes, and quantum field theories in strong external fields or subject to boundary conditions.
Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences
MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.
2014-12-01
Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.
Local Approximations for Effective Scalar Field Equations of Motion
Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O
2007-01-01
Fluctuation and dissipation dynamics is examined at all temperature ranges for the general case of a background time evolving scalar field coupled to heavy intermediate quantum fields which in turn are coupled to light quantum fields. The evolution of the background field induces particle production from the light fields through the action of the intermediate catalyzing heavy fields. Such field configurations are generically present in most particle physics models, including Grand Unified and Supersymmetry theories, with application of this mechanism possible in inflation, heavy ion collision and phase transition dynamics. The effective evolution equation for the background field is obtained and a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived for this system. The effective evolution in general is nonlocal in time. Appropriate conditions are found for when these time nonlocal effects can be approximated by local terms. Here careful distinction is made between a local expansion and the special case of a derivative...
Modulation of continuous electron beams in plasma wake-fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenzweig, J.B.
1988-09-08
In this paper we discuss the interaction of a continuous electron beam with wake-field generated plasma waves. Using a one-dimensional two fluid model, a fully nonlinear analytical description of the interaction is obtained. The phenomena of continuous beam modulation and wave period shortening are discussed. The relationship between these effects and the two-stream instability is also examined. 12 refs., 1 fig.
Gunn effect in field-emission phenomena
Litovchenko, V.; Evtukh, A.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Mutamba, K.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.
2005-02-01
The peculiarities of electron field emission from nanostructured GaN surface have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of emission current in Fowler-Nordheim plot show two parts with different slopes. There are emission current oscillations in the changing slope region. As an explanation for the experimental results a model based on the electron-emission analysis from lower (Γ) valley, upper (U) valley, and electron transition between valleys due to heating in electric field has been proposed. The electron affinities for the emission from Γ and U valleys have been determined. The decreased affinities from there valleys have been estimated for quantization in nanostructured GaN.
Magnetic field effect in photodetachment from negative ion in electric field near metal surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Tian-Tian; Wang De-Hua; Huang Kai-Yun; Wang Shan-Shan
2011-01-01
Based on the closed-orbit theory, the magnetic field effect in the photodetachment of negative ion in the electric field near a metal surface is studied for the first time. The results show that the magnetic field can produce a significant effect on the photodetachment of negative ion near a metal surface. Besides the closed orbits previously found by Du et al. for the H-in the electric field near a metal surface (J. Phys. B 43 035002 (2010)), some additional closed orbits are produced due to the effect of magnetic field. For a given ion-surface distance and an electric field strength, the cross section depends sensitively on the magnetic field strength. As the magnetic field strength is very small, its influence can be neglected. With the increase of the magnetic field strength, the number of the closed orbits increases greatly and the oscillation in the cross section becomes much more complex. Therefore we can control the photodetachment cross section of the negative ion by changing the magnetic field strength. We hope that our results may guide future experimental studies for the photodetachment process of negative ion in the presence of external fields and surfaces.
Field-effect transistors (2nd revised and enlarged edition)
Bocharov, L. N.
The design, principle of operation, and principal technical characteristics of field-effect transistors produced in the USSR are described. Problems related to the use of field-effect transistors in various radioelectronic devices are examined, and tables of parameters and mean statistical characteristics are presented for the main types of field-effect transistors. Methods for calculating various circuit components are discussed and illustrated by numerical examples.
Nonideal effects in quantum field-effect directional coupler
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Yue-E; Yan Xiao-Hong; Chen Yuan-Ping
2006-01-01
The nonideal effects in a quantum field-effect directional coupler where two quantum wires are coupled through a finite potential barrier are studied by adopting the lattice Green function method. The results show that the electron energy distribution, asymmetric geometry and finite temperature all have obvious influence on the electron transfer of the coupler. Only for the electrons with energies in a certain region, can the complete periodic transfer between two quantum wires take place. The conductance of these electrons as a function of the barrier length and potential height exhibits a fine periodic or quasi-periodic pattern. For the electrons with energies beyond the region, however, the complete periodic transfer does not hold any more since many irregular oscillations are superimposed on the conductance profile. In addition, the finite temperature and asymmetric geometry both can reduce the electron transfer efficiency.
Is the Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy Effective?
Linder, Eric V; Watson, Scott
2015-01-01
The effective field theory of cosmic acceleration systematizes possible contributions to the action, accounting for both dark energy and modifications of gravity. Rather than making model dependent assumptions, it includes all terms, subject to the required symmetries, with four (seven) functions of time for the coefficients. These correspond respectively to the Horndeski and general beyond Horndeski class of theories. We address the question of whether this general systematization is actually effective, i.e. useful in revealing the nature of cosmic acceleration when compared with cosmological data. The answer is no and yes: {\\it there is no simple time dependence of the free functions} -- assumed forms in the literature are poor fits, but one can derive some general characteristics in early and late time limits. For example, we prove that the gravitational slip must restore to general relativity in the de Sitter limit of Horndeski theories, and why it doesn't more generally. We also clarify the relation betw...
Dias, Frédéric; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel
2008-01-01
In the study of ocean wave impact on structures, one often uses Froude scaling since the dominant force is gravity. However the presence of trapped or entrained air in the water can significantly modify wave impacts. When air is entrained in water in the form of small bubbles, the acoustic properties in the water change dramatically and for example the speed of sound in the mixture is much smaller than in pure water, and even smaller than in pure air. While some work has been done to study small-amplitude disturbances in such mixtures, little work has been done on large disturbances in air-water mixtures. We propose a basic two-fluid model in which both fluids share the same velocities. It is shown that this model can successfully mimic water wave impacts on coastal structures. Even though this is a model without interface, waves can occur. Their dispersion relation is discussed and the formal limit of pure phases (interfacial waves) is considered. The governing equations are discretized by a second-order fin...
Focus Group Effects on Field Practicum Preferences
Sandel, Mark H.; Cohen, Harriet L.; Thomas, Cecilia L.; Barton, Thomas R.
2006-01-01
During the coming years the need for professionals to work with the nation's elders will increase several fold. This will place a great responsibility on university educational programs to prepare enough qualified future professionals to work in the greatly expanding field of gerontology. Prior research has identified several nonacademic and…
Field-effect detection using phospholipid membranes -Topical Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiho Kataoka-Hamai and Yuji Miyahara
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The application of field-effect devices to biosensors has become an area of intense research interest. An attractive feature of field-effect sensing is that the binding or reaction of biomolecules can be directly detected from a change in electrical signals. The integration of such field-effect devices into cell membrane mimics may lead to the development of biosensors useful in clinical and biotechnological applications. This review summarizes recent studies on the fabrication and characterization of field-effect devices incorporating model membranes. The incorporation of black lipid membranes and supported lipid monolayers and bilayers into semiconductor devices is described.
Effective-Field Theory on High Spin Systems with Biaxial Crystal Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Wei; GUO An-Bang; LI Xin; WANG Xi-Kun; BAI Bao-Dong
2006-01-01
Based on the effective-field theory with self-spin correlations and the differential operator technique,physical properties of the spin-2 system with biaxial crystal field on the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, as well as faced-centered lattice have been studied. The influences of the external longitudinal magnetic field on the magnetization,internal energy, specific heat, and susceptibility have been discussed in detail. The phenomenon that the magnetization in the ground state shows quantum effects produced by the biaxial transverse crystal field has been found.
Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation
Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; At'kov, O. Yu.; Vasin, A. L.; Breus, T. K.; Sasonko, M. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu.
2016-02-01
The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling "ARFA" has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions.
Covariant and single-field effective action with the background-field formalism
Safari, Mahmoud
2016-01-01
In the context of scalar quantum field theory we introduce a class of generically nonlinear quantum-background splits for which the splitting Ward identity, encoding the single field dependence in the effective action, can be solved exactly. We show that this can be used to construct an effective action which is both covariant and dependent on the background and fluctuation fields only through a single total field in a way independent from the dynamics. Moreover we discuss the criteria under which the ultraviolet symmetries are inherited by the quantum effective action. The approach is demonstrated through some examples, including the $O(N)$ effective field theory, which might be of interest for the Higgs sector of the Standard Model or its extensions.
Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation
Berezin, M; Shavit, R
2015-01-01
Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and topological properties of these fields are different from topological properties of the free space electromagnetic (EM) fields. Such MDM originated fields, called magnetoelectric (ME) fields, carry both spin and orbital angular momentums. They are characterized by power flow vortices and non zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far field microwave radiation based ...
Effective field theory in time-dependent settings
Collins, Hael; Ross, Andreas
2012-01-01
We use the in-in or Schwinger-Keldysh formalism to explore the construction and interpretation of effective field theories for time-dependent systems evolving out of equilibrium. Starting with a simple model consisting of a heavy and a light scalar field taken to be in their free vacuum states at a finite initial time, we study the effects from the heavy field on the dynamics of the light field by analyzing the equation of motion for the expectation value of the light background field. New terms appear which cannot arise from a local action of an effective field theory in terms of the light field, though they disappear in the adiabatic limit. We discuss the origins of these terms as well as their possible implications for time dependent situations such as inflation.
Collisional effects on Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manuel, M. J.-E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flaig, M.; Plewa, T. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hu, S. X.; Betti, R.; Hager, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2015-05-15
Magnetic-field generation from the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability was predicted more than 30 years ago, though experimental measurements of this phenomenon have only occurred in the past few years. These pioneering observations demonstrated that collisional effects are important to B-field evolution. To produce fields of a measurable strength, high-intensity lasers irradiate solid targets to generate the nonaligned temperature and density gradients required for B-field generation. The ablation process naturally generates an unstable system where RT-induced magnetic fields form. Field strengths inferred from monoenergetic-proton radiographs indicate that in the ablation region diffusive effects caused by finite plasma resistivity are not negligible. Results from the first proof-of-existence experiments are reviewed and the role of collisional effects on B-field evolution is discussed in detail.
Mechanism of magnetic field effect in cryptochrome
Solov'yov, Ilia A
2011-01-01
Creatures as varied as mammals, fish, insects, reptiles, and migratory birds have an intriguing `sixth' sense that allows them to distinguish north from south by using the Earth's intrinsic magnetic field. Yet despite decades of study, the physical basis of this magnetic sense remains elusive. A likely mechanism is furnished by magnetically sensitive radical pair reactions occurring in the retina, the light-sensitive part of the eyes. A photoreceptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to endow birds with magnetoreceptive abilities as the protein has been shown to exhibit the biophysical properties required for an animal magnetoreceptor to operate properly. Here, we propose a concrete light-driven reaction cycle in cryptochrome that lets a magnetic field influence the signaling state of the photoreceptor. The reaction cycle ties together transient absorption and electron-spin-resonance observations with known facts on avian magnetoreception. Our analysis establishes the feasibility of cryptochrome to act as a g...
Electromagnetic Field Effects in Semiconductor Crystal Growth
Dulikravich, George S.
1996-01-01
This proposed two-year research project was to involve development of an analytical model, a numerical algorithm for its integration, and a software for the analysis of a solidification process under the influence of electric and magnetic fields in microgravity. Due to the complexity of the analytical model that was developed and its boundary conditions, only a preliminary version of the numerical algorithm was developed while the development of the software package was not completed.
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.
2010-01-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ik Kyu; Cho, Heong Kyu; Kim, Jong Tae; Yoon, Han Young; Jeong, Jae Jun
2007-12-15
A computational model for transient, 3 dimensional 2 phase flows was developed by using 'unstructured-FVM-based, non-staggered, semi-implicit numerical scheme' considering the thermally non-equilibrium droplets. The assumption of the thermally equilibrium between liquid and droplets of previous studies was not used any more, and three energy conservation equations for vapor, liquid, liquid droplets were set up. Thus, 9 conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy were established to simulate 2 phase flows. In this report, the governing equations and a semi-implicit numerical sheme for a transient 1 dimensional 2 phase flows was described considering the thermally non-equilibrium between liquid and liquid droplets. The comparison with the previous model considering the thermally non-equilibrium between liquid and liquid droplets was also reported.
Magnetic field control of the spin Seebeck effect
Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Kehlberger, Andreas; Guo, Er-Jia; Kläui, Mathias; Nowak, Ulrich
2015-11-01
The origin of the suppression of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect by applied magnetic fields is studied. We perform numerical simulations of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion for an atomistic spin model and calculate the magnon accumulation in linear temperature gradients for different strengths of applied magnetic fields and different length scales of the temperature gradient. We observe a decrease of the magnon accumulation with increasing magnetic field and we reveal that the origin of this effect is a field dependent change of the frequency distribution of the propagating magnons. With increasing field the magnonic spin currents are reduced due to a suppression of parts of the frequency spectrum. By comparison with measurements of the magnetic field dependent longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in YIG thin films with various thicknesses, we find qualitative agreement between our model and the experimental data, demonstrating the importance of this effect for experimental systems.
Effective critical electric field for runaway electron generation
Stahl, Adam; Decker, Joan; Embréus, Ola; Fülöp, Tünde
2014-01-01
In this letter we investigate factors that influence the effective critical electric field for runaway electron generation in plasmas. We present numerical solutions of the kinetic equation, and discuss the implications for the threshold electric field. We show that the effective electric field necessary for significant runaway formation often is higher than previously calculated due to both (1) extremely strong dependence of primary generation on temperature, and (2) synchrotron radiation losses. We also address the effective critical field in the context of a transition from runaway growth to decay. We find agreement with recent experiments, but show that the observation of an elevated effective critical field can mainly be attributed to changes in the momentum-space distribution of runaways, and only to a lesser extent to a de facto change in the critical field.
Effective Action of Scalar QED in Electric Field Backgrounds
Kim, Sang Pyo; Yoon, Yongsung
2008-01-01
We use the evolution operator method to find the one-loop effective action of scalar QED in electric field backgrounds in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficient between the ingoing and the outgoing vacuum. The effective action shows the general relation between the vacuum persistence and the mean number of created pairs for any electric field. We obtain the exact effective action for a constant electric field and a pulsed electric field, E_0 sech^2 (t/tau), and show that the imaginary part correctly yields the vacuum persistence.
Electric field effects on electronic characteristics of arsenene nanoribbons
Luo, Yanwei; Li, Yuxiao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Peng; Jia, Yu
2017-10-01
By using the first-principles calculations, we investigate the effects of electric field on electronic structures of armchair and zigzag arsenene nanoribbons (AsNRs) with different widths. The results show that for each case, quantum size effects induce a smaller band gap in larger AsNRs. Moreover, electric field can reduce effectively the band gap of AsNRs. In addition, the electric field can induce only the transition of band structures in the A-AsNRs or Z-AsNRs with narrow size. The band gap decrease more rapidly and the threshold electric field induced metal becomes smaller in the wider AsNRs.
Effect of strong magnetic fields on the pasta phase structure
de Lima, Rafael Camargo Rodrigues; Providência, Constança
2013-01-01
The effect of strong magnetic fields on the properties of the pasta structures is calculated within a Thomas Fermi approach using relativistic mean field models to modulate stellar matter. It is shown how quantities such as the size of the clusters and Wigner-Seitz cells, the surface tension and the transition between configurations are affected. It is expected that these effects may give rise to large stresses in the pasta phase if the local magnetic field suffers fluctuations.
Dissipative Effects in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez Nacir, Diana; /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Buenos Aires U.; Porto, Rafael A.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /ISCAP, New York /Columbia U.; Senatore, Leonardo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Zaldarriaga, Matias; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2012-09-14
We generalize the effective field theory of single clock inflation to include dissipative effects. Working in unitary gauge we couple a set of composite operators, {Omicron}{sub {mu}{nu}}..., in the effective action which is constrained solely by invariance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We restrict ourselves to situations where the degrees of freedom responsible for dissipation do not contribute to the density perturbations at late time. The dynamics of the perturbations is then modified by the appearance of 'friction' and noise terms, and assuming certain locality properties for the Green's functions of these composite operators, we show that there is a regime characterized by a large friction term {gamma} >> H in which the {zeta}-correlators are dominated by the noise and the power spectrum can be significantly enhanced. We also compute the three point function <{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}> for a wide class of models and discuss under which circumstances large friction leads to an increased level of non-Gaussianities. In particular, under our assumptions, we show that strong dissipation together with the required non-linear realization of the symmetries implies |f{sub NL}| {approx} {gamma}/c{sub s}{sup 2} H >> 1. As a paradigmatic example we work out a variation of the 'trapped inflation' scenario with local response functions and perform the matching with our effective theory. A detection of the generic type of signatures that result from incorporating dissipative effects during inflation, as we describe here, would teach us about the dynamics of the early universe and also extend the parameter space of inflationary models.
Effect of stress on field dependence.
Sarris, V; Heineken, E; Peters, H
1976-08-01
60 subjects were tested in the rod-and-frame test under flicker conditions (stress). As compared to scores in a control situation (no flicker), the rod-and-frame scores were large under stress and increased monotonically during the session. Futhermore, both intra- and interindividual variability of rod-and-frame performance changed under stress conditions in a consistent manner. The general results, which clearly point to a reliable influence of stress on field dependency, are discussed within the methodological framework of Witkin's theory of perception and personality.
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.
White, George L.; And Others
1995-01-01
Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.
2010-07-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.
1983-03-01
This work involves the development of physical models for the constitutive relations of a two-fluid, three-dimensional sodium boiling code, THERMIT-6S. The code is equipped with a fluid conduction model, a fuel pin model, and a subassembly wall model suitable for stimulating LMFBR transient events. Mathematically rigorous derivations of time-volume averaged conservation equations are used to establish the differential equations of THERMIT-6S. These equations are then discretized in a manner identical to the original THERMIT code. A virtual mass term is incorporated in THERMIT-6S to solve the ill-posed problem. Based on a simplified flow regime, namely cocurrent annular flow, constitutive relations for two-phase flow of sodium are derived. The wall heat transfer coefficient is based on momentum-heat transfer analogy and a logarithmic law for liquid film velocity distribution. A broad literature review is given for two-phase friction factors. It is concluded that entrainment can account for some of the discrepancies in the literature. Mass and energy exchanges are modelled by generalization of the turbulent flux concept. Interfacial drag coefficients are derived for annular flows with entrainment. Code assessment is performed by simulating three experiments for low flow-high power accidents and one experiment for low flow/low power accidents in the LMFBR. While the numerical results for pre-dryout are in good agreement with the data, those for post-dryout reveal the need for improvement of the physical models. The benefits of two-dimensional non-equilibrium representation of sodium boiling are studied.
Field variation is one of the important factors that can have a significant impact on genetic data analysis. Ineffective control of field variation may result in an inflated residual variance and/or biased estimation of genetic variations and/or effects. In this study, we addressed this problem by m...
Effects of vegetated field borders on arthropods in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina.
Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bradley, J R
2008-01-01
The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens.
Effective gravitational fields in transplackian scattering
Betti, Luca S G
2014-01-01
After a short introduction to the general Quantum Gravity problem, we compare a result from the S-matrix description of gravitational interaction due to Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano (ACV) with classical General Relativity results. In Chapter 1, we introduce the metric produced by a massless particle moving at the speed of light. In Chapter 2, we review ACV's semiclassical approach to gravitation and show some of its result. In Chapter 3, we detail the computation of gravitational field expectation values in a high-energy scattering process, following ACV's prescriptions. In Chapter 4, we analyze our results. The main feature is that the leading contributions to the metric computed in terms of the Feynman diagrams deriving from ACV's model perfectly reproduce classical results.
Andhariya, Nidhi; Chudasama, Bhupendra; Patel, Rajesh; Upadhyay, R V; Mehta, R V
2008-07-01
In the present investigation we report the effect of capillary diameter and the direction of applied magnetic field on the rotational viscosity of water and kerosene based ferrofluids. We found that changes in the field induced rotational viscosity are larger in the case of water based magnetic fluid than that of kerosene based fluid. The field induced rotational viscosity is found to be inversely proportional to the capillary diameter and it falls exponentially as a function of the angle between the direction of field and vorticity of flow. Magnetophoretic mobility and hydrodynamic volume fraction of nanomagnetic particles are determined for above cases.
Is the effective field theory of dark energy effective?
Linder, Eric V.; Sengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott
2016-05-01
The effective field theory of cosmic acceleration systematizes possible contributions to the action, accounting for both dark energy and modifications of gravity. Rather than making model dependent assumptions, it includes all terms, subject to the required symmetries, with four (seven) functions of time for the coefficients. These correspond respectively to the Horndeski and general beyond Horndeski class of theories. We address the question of whether this general systematization is actually effective, i.e. useful in revealing the nature of cosmic acceleration when compared with cosmological data. The answer is no and yes: there is no simple time dependence of the free functions—assumed forms in the literature are poor fits, but one can derive some general characteristics in early and late time limits. For example, we prove that the gravitational slip must restore to general relativity in the de Sitter limit of Horndeski theories, and why it doesn't more generally. We also clarify the relation between the tensor and scalar sectors, and its important relation to observations; in a real sense the expansion history H(z) or dark energy equation of state w(z) is 1/5 or less of the functional information! In addition we discuss the de Sitter, Horndeski, and decoupling limits of the theory utilizing Goldstone techniques.
Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo
2011-01-01
Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.
The effects of static magnetic fields on bone.
Zhang, Jian; Ding, Chong; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yimin; Shang, Peng
2014-05-01
All the living beings live and evolve under geomagnetic field (25-65 μT). Besides, opportunities for human exposed to different intensities of static magnetic fields (SMF) in the workplace have increased progressively, such SMF range from weak magnetic field (1 T). Given this, numerous scientific studies focus on the health effects and have demonstrated that certain magnetic fields have positive influence on our skeleton systems. Therefore, SMF is considered as a potential physical therapy to improve bone healing and keep bones healthy nowadays. Here, we review the mechanisms of effects of SMF on bone tissue, ranging from physical interactions, animal studies to cellular studies.
Electric field effects in hyperexcitable neural tissue: A review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand, D.M
2003-07-01
Uniform electric fields applied to neural tissue can modulate neuronal excitability with a threshold value of about 1mV mm{sup -1} in normal physiological conditions. However, electric fields could have a lower threshold in conditions where field sensitivity is enhanced, such as those simulating epilepsy. Uniform electrical fields were applied to hippocampal brain slices exposed to picrotoxin, high potassium or low calcium solutions. The results in the low calcium medium show that neuronal activity can be completely blocked in 10% of the 30 slices tested with a field amplitude of 1mV mm{sup -1}. These results suggest that the threshold for this effect is clearly smaller than 1mV mm{sup -1}. The hypothesis that the extracellular resistance could affect the sensitivity to the electrical fields was tested by measuring the effect of the osmolarity of the extracellular solution on the efficacy of the field. A 10% decrease on osmolarity resulted in a 56% decrease (n=4) in the minimum field required for full suppression. A 14% in osmolarity produced an 81% increase in the minimum field required for full suppression. These results show that the extracellular volume can modulate the efficacy of the field and could lower the threshold field amplitudes to values lower than {approx}1mmV mm{sup -.} (author)
Quantum and field effects of oxide heterostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trier, Felix
, these interfaces are the ones between CaZrO3/SrTiO3 and amorphous-LaAlO3/(La, Sr)MnO3/SrTiO3. The sample preparation section is ended by outlininga patterning strategy for the high-electron mobility interface at amorphous-LaAlO3/(La, Sr)MnO3/SrTiO3. Subsequently, the effects of electrostatic gating is studied...... with a gradual tuning of the interface conductivity. Finally, the so-called quantum Hall effect is demonstrated at the interface between amorphous-LaAlO3/(La, Sr)MnO3/SrTiO3. The manifestation of the quantum Hall effect reveals that the interface conductivity is comprised of several subbands conducting...
Graphene-based field effect transistors for radiation-induced field sensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Gaspare, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.digaspare@lnf.infn.it [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Valletta, Antonio [CNR-Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); Fortunato, Guglielmo [CNR-Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Larciprete, Rosanna [CNR-Istituto di Sistemi Complessi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi [CNR-Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, TorVergata, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Notargiacomo, Andrea [CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Rome (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Cimino, Roberto [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-07-11
We propose the implementation of graphene-based field effect transistor (FET) as radiation sensor. In the proposed detector, graphene obtained via chemical vapor deposition is integrated into a Si-based field effect device as the gate readout electrode, able to sense any change in the field distribution induced by ionization in the underneath absorber, because of the strong variation in the graphene conductivity close to the charge neutrality point. Different 2-dimensional layered materials can be envisaged in this kind of device.
Effective and fundamental quantum fields at criticality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherer, Michael
2010-10-28
We employ Wetterich's approach to functional renormalization as a suitable method to investigate universal phenomena in non-perturbative quantum field theories both qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore we derive and investigate flow equations for a class of chiral Yukawa models with and without gauge bosons and reveal fixed-point mechanisms. In four dimensions chiral Yukawa systems serve as toy models for the standard model Higgs sector and show signatures of asymptotically safe fixed points by a balancing of bosonic and fermionic contributions. In the approximations investigated this renders the theory fundamental and solves the triviality problem. Further, we obtain predictions for the Higgs mass and even for the top mass of our toy model. In three dimensions we compute the critical exponents which define new universality classes and provide benchmark values for systems of strongly correlated chiral fermions. In a Yukawa system of non-relativistic two-component fermions a fixed point dominates the renormalization flow giving rise to universality in the BCS-BEC crossover. We push the functional renormalization method to a quantitative level and we compute the critical temperature and the single-particle gap with a considerable precision for the whole crossover. Finally, we provide further evidence for the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity by confirming the existence of an ultraviolet fixed point under inclusion of a curvature-ghost coupling. (orig.)
Quantum Gravity Effects in Scalar, Vector and Tensor Field Propagation
Dutta, Anindita
Quantum theory of gravity deals with the physics of the gravitational field at Planck length scale (10-35 m). Even though it is experimentally hard to reach the Planck length scale, on can look for evidence of quantum gravity that is detectable in astrophysics. In this thesis, we try to find effects of loop quantum gravity corrections on observable phenomena. We show that the quantum fluctuation strain for LIGO data would be 10 -125 on the Earth. Th correction is, however, substantial near the black hole horizon. We discuss the effect of this for scalar field propagation followed by vector and tensor fields. For the scalar field, the correction introduces a new asymmetry; for the vector field, we found a new perturbation solution and for the tensor field, we found the corrected Einstein equations which are yet to solve. These will affect phenomena like Hawking radiation, black hole entropy and gravitational waves.
Highly Effective Action from Large N Gauge Fields
Yang, Hyun Seok
2014-01-01
Recently John H. Schwarz put forward a conjecture that the world-volume action of a probe $D3$-brane in an AdS5 x S5 background of type IIB superstring theory can be reinterpreted as the highly effective action (HEA) of four-dimensional N=4 superconformal field theory on the Coulomb branch. We argue that the HEA can be derived from the noncommutative (NC) field theory representation of the AdS/CFT correspondence and the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map defining a spacetime field redefinition between ordinary and NC gauge fields. It is based only on the well-known facts that the master fields of large N matrices are higher-dimensional NC U(1) gauge fields and the SW map is a local coordinate transformation eliminating U(1) gauge fields known as the Darboux theorem in symplectic geometry.
Magnetic Field Effects on the Plume of a Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster
Matlock, Taylor
2010-07-25
The Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster (DCFT) uses three permanent ring magnets of alternating polarity to create a unique magnetic topology intended to reduce plasma losses to the discharge chamber surfaces. The magnetic field strength within the DCFT discharge chamber (up to 4 kG on axis) is much higher than in thrusters of similar geometry, which is believed to be a driving factor in the high measured anode efficiencies. The field strength in the near plume region is large as well, which may bear on the high beam divergences measured, with peaks in ion current found at angles of around 30-35 from the thruster axis. Characterization of the DCFT has heretofore involved only one magnetic topology. It is then the purpose of this study to investigate changes to the near-field plume caused by altering the shape and strength of the magnetic field. A thick magnetic collar, encircling the thruster body, is used to lower the field strength outside of the discharge chamber and thus lessen any effects caused by the external field. Changes in the thruster plume with field topology are monitored by the use of normal Langmuir and emissive probes interrogating the near-field plasma. Results are related to other observations that suggest a unified conceptual framework for the important near-exit region of the thruster.
Magnetoreception in birds: the effect of radio-frequency fields.
Wiltschko, Roswitha; Thalau, Peter; Gehring, Dennis; Nießner, Christine; Ritz, Thorsten; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
2015-02-01
The avian magnetic compass, probably based on radical pair processes, works only in a narrow functional window around the local field strength, with cryptochrome 1a as most likely receptor molecule. Radio-frequency fields in the MHz range have been shown to disrupt the birds' orientation, yet the nature of this interference is still unclear. In an immuno-histological study, we tested whether the radio-frequency fields interfere with the photoreduction of cryptochrome, but this does not seem to be the case. In behavioural studies, birds were not able to adjust to radio-frequency fields like they are able to adjust to static fields outside the normal functional range: neither a 2-h pre-exposure in a 7.0 MHz field, 480 nT, nor a 7-h pre-exposure in a 1.315 MHz field, 15 nT, allowed the birds to regain their orientation ability. This inability to adjust to radio-frequency fields suggests that these fields interfere directly with the primary processes of magnetoreception and therefore disable the avian compass as long as they are present. They do not have lasting adverse after-effects, however, as birds immediately after exposure to a radio-frequency field were able to orient in the local geomagnetic field.
Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Growth
Eftekhari, Beheshte; Wilson, James; Masood, Samina
2012-10-01
The interaction of organisms with environmental magnetic fields at the cellular level is well documented, yet not fully understood. We review the existing experimental results to understand the physics behind the effects of ambient magnetic fields on the growth, metabolism, and proliferation of in vitro cell cultures. Emphasis is placed on identifying the underlying physical principles responsible for alterations to cell structure and behavior.
Effect of superconductor filament magnetization on the field errors
Wolf, R
1999-01-01
One of the main source of field errors in a superconducting magnet is the magnetization M of the superconducting filaments. Screening currents, of persistent nature, are induced by any. field change during operation of the magnet. This chapter describes the models for the calculation of these effects and the parameters to be defined in ROXIE. (3 refs).
Effective field theory of dark matter: a global analysis
Liem, S.; Bertone, G.; Calore, F.; Ruiz de Austri, R.; Tait, T.M.P.; Trotta, R.; Weniger, C.
2016-01-01
We present global fits of an effective field theory description of real, and complex scalar dark matter candidates. We simultaneously take into account all possible dimension 6 operators consisting of dark matter bilinears and gauge invariant combinations of quark and gluon fields. We derive constra
Electric-field effect in partially deoxygenated YBCO thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kula, W. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Lab. for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland)); Sobolewski, R. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Lab. for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland))
1994-02-01
We report our studies on the electric-field effect in partially oxygen-depleted YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub y] (YBCO) thin-film test structures fabricated by a laser-writing patterning technique. Our preliminary results indicate substantial, field-induced changes of the sample critical current. (orig.)
Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli
2013-07-15
The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.
Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor
Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
2015-12-29
A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.
Frequentist limit setting in effective field theories
Gregersen, Kristian Damlund
2015-01-01
The original frequentist approach for computing confidence intervals involves the construction of the confidence belt which provides a mapping between the true value of the parameter and its maximum likelihood estimator. Alternative methods based on the frequentist idea exist, including the delta likelihood method, the $CL_s$ method and a method here referred to as the $p$-value method, which have all been commonly used in high energy experiments. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a series of potential problems when applying these alternative methods to the important case where the predicted signal depends quadratically on the parameter of interest, a situation which is common in high energy physics as it covers scenarios encountered in effective theories. These include anomalous Higgs couplings and anomalous trilinear and quartic gauge couplings. It is found that the alternative methods, contrary to the original method using the confidence belt, in general do not manage to correctly describ...
Effects of magnetic field perturbations in the ATF torsatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Isler, R.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aceto, S.C.; Zielinski, J.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
1993-10-01
The effects of errors in the magnetic fields of tokamaks on the plasma are quite different from those in stellarators. In tokamaks, field errors can cause disruptive locked modes through the non-linear evolution of tearing modes acting on initially small error-induced islands. Scaling predictions for these effects indicate that the critical relative field error which can be tolerated becomes smaller as the tokamak size becomes larger. In stellarators, the effect is more benign, as field errors appear only to cause increased plasma transport in the vicinity of islands. Great care has been taken to minimize magnetic field errors in the most recent generation of stellarator-type magnetic plasma traps. In the past six years, several new and sensitive techniques have been developed to detect and map field errors. These methods all rely on the detection of electrons injected along magnetic field lines. During the commissioning of ATF, flux surfaces were mapped using the fluorescent screen technique. Field errors were discovered and traced to uncompensated dipoles in the helical current feeds. Prior to elimination of these errors, plasma discharges indicated centrally peaked plasma profiles. After correction of the uncompensated dipoles, flux surfaces were mapped a second time, and the island widths were found to be greatly reduced. Field errors were then deliberately introduced using a set of perturbation coils that had been added to ATF, and electron-beam mapping of the flux surfaces showed that islands several centimeters in width could easily be created by these coils. After elimination of the error fields, the measured plasma temperature and density profiles were much broader. The field-perturbation coils were then used to produce magnetic field asymmetries, and the measured plasma profiles were again shown to narrow as a result of islands.
Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.
Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S
2016-04-30
The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Effects of static magnetic field on mutagenesis in in vitro
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ikehata, M; Yoshie, S; Hayakawa, T [Railway Technical Research Institute, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Hirota, N [Nano Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 277-8561 (Japan)], E-mail: ikehata@rtri.or.jp
2009-03-01
Effects of static magnetic field up to 13 T were estimated in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that exposure to a 5 T static magnetic field resulted in a slight but significant increase in gene recombination frequency while frequency of reverse point mutation was not altered in S. cerevisiae. This mutagenic effect showed a dose response relationship as J-shape. To investigate an involvement of reactive oxygen species in possible mutagenic effect of static magnetic field, SOD deficient E. coli QC774 was used in thymine synthesis-based mutation assay. The result shows that static magnetic field up to 13 T did not indicate mutagenicity. Thus, it is suggested that frequency of point mutation does not changed under static magnetic field regardless of its susceptibility to superoxide. These results suggest that strong static magnetic field would have small but detectable mutagenic potential. Although mechanism of the mutagenic effect of static magnetic field has not been elucidated yet, the extent of this effect is estimated extremely small by comparison with other mutagens such as ultraviolet irradiation.
Diffraction patterns in ferrofluids: Effect of magnetic field and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radha, S., E-mail: radhasri12@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); Mohan, Shalini [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); Pai, Chintamani [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India)
2014-09-01
In this paper, we report the experimental observation of diffraction patterns in a ferrofluid comprising of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in hexane by a 10 mW He–Ne laser beam. An external dc magnetic field (0–2 kG) was applied perpendicular to the beam. The diffraction pattern showed a variation at different depths of the sample in both zero and applied magnetic field. The patterns also exhibit a change in shape and size as the external field is varied. This effect arises due to thermally induced self-diffraction under the influence of gravity and external magnetic field.
Novel electric field effects on Landau levels in graphene.
Lukose, Vinu; Shankar, R; Baskaran, G
2007-03-16
A new effect in graphene in the presence of crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields is predicted. Landau levels are shown to be modified in an unexpected fashion by the electric field, leading to a collapse of the spectrum, when the value of electric to magnetic field ratio exceeds a certain critical value. Our theoretical results, strikingly different from the standard 2D electron gas, are explained using a "Lorentz boost," and as an "instability of a relativistic quantum field vacuum." It is a remarkable case of emergent relativistic type phenomena in nonrelativistic graphene. We also discuss few possible experimental consequence.
Effects of aging in electric field on 2024 alloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王秀芳; 孙东立; 武高辉; 王美玲
2002-01-01
The effect of heat treatment in an electric field on micro-plastic deformation characteristics of 2024 Al alloy was investigated.The mechanism of aging in an electric field affecting the micro-plastic deformation behavior was preliminarily discussed.The results show that the resistance to micro-plastic deformation of the alloy can be greatly increased by aging in an electric field.Aging temperature,aging time and electric field strength are selected by adopting the orthogonal design method and the optimum technological parameters are obtained.
Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter from membrane inflationary paradigm
Choudhury, Sayantan
2015-01-01
In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation using tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r$), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance ($\\Omega_{DM}h^2$) and primordial gravity waves ($r$), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, $\\sigma$, bulk mass scale $M_5$, and cosmological constant $\\tilde{\\Lambda}_{5}$, in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field ...
Chemically modified field effect transistors with nitrite or fluoride selectivity
Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Snellink-Ruël, Bianca H.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.
1998-01-01
Polysiloxanes with different types of polar substituents are excellent membrane materials for nitrite and fluoride selective chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs). Nitrite selectivity has been introduced by incorporation of a cobalt porphyrin into the membrane; fluoride selectivity
Chemically modified field effect transistors with nitrite or fluoride selectivity
Antonisse, M.M.G.; Ruel, Bianca H.M.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David
1998-01-01
Polysiloxanes with different types of polar substituents are excellent membrane materials for nitrite and fluoride selective chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs). Nitrite selectivity has been introduced by incorporation of a cobalt porphyrin into the membrane; fluoride selectivity
Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Prakash, M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States)
1998-06-01
We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)
The effect of toroidal field on the rotating magnetic field current drive in rotamak plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong Fang-Chuan; Huang Tian-Sen; Petrov Yuri
2007-01-01
A rotamak is one kind of compact spherically shaped magnetic-confinement device. In a rotamak the plasma current is driven by means of rotating magnetic field (RMF). The driven current can reverse the original equilibrium field and generate a field-reversed-configuration. In a conventional rotamak, a toroidal field (TF) is not necessary for the RMF to drive plasma current, but it was found that the present of an additional TF can influence the RMF current drive. In this paper the effect of TF on the RMF current drive in a rotamak are investigated in some detail.The experimental results show that addition of TF increases the RMF driven current greatly and enhances the RMF penetration dramatically. Without TF, the RMF can only penetrate into plasma in the edge region. When a TF is added, the RMF can reach almost the whole plasma region. This is an optimal strength of toroidal magnetic field for getting maximum plasma current when Bv and radio frequency generator power are fixed. Besides driving current,the RMF generates high harmonic fields in rotamak plasma. The effect of TF on the harmonic field spectra are also reported.
Some effects of quiet geomagnetic field changes upon values used for main field modeling
Campbell, W.H.
1987-01-01
The effects of three methods of data selection upon the assumed main field levels for geomagnetic observatory records used in main field modeling were investigated for a year of very low solar-terrestrial activity. The first method concerned the differences between the year's average of quiet day field values and the average of all values during the year. For H these differences were 2-3 gammas, for D they were -0.04 to -0.12???, for Z the differences were negligible. The second method of selection concerned the effects of the daytime internal Sq variations upon the daily mean values of field. The midnight field levels when the Sq currents were a minimum deviated from the daily mean levels by as much as 4-7 gammas in H and Z but were negligible for D. The third method of selection was designed to avoid the annual and semi-annual quiet level changes of field caused by the seasonal changes in the magnetosphere. Contributions from these changes were found to be as much as 4-7 gammas in quiet years and expected to be greater than 10 gammas in active years. Suggestions for improved methods of improved data selection in main field modeling are given. ?? 1987.
Kobayashi, Kaya; Saito, Masaki; Ohmichi, Eiji; Osada, Toshihito
2004-04-01
We have investigated a new electric field effect on magnetotransport in the multilayer systems where each layer is highly anisotropic. Under tilted magnetic fields, the resonant increase of interlayer conduction occurs when open electron orbits become periodic in k-space. The interlayer electric fields tilt the open orbits on two sheetlike Fermi surfaces in the different way, causing the split of the resonance. Using an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4, we have successfully proved the above scenario experimentally.
Quantum statistical correlations in thermal field theories: boundary effective theory
Bessa, A; de Carvalho, C A A; Fraga, E S
2010-01-01
We show that the one-loop effective action at finite temperature for a scalar field with quartic interaction has the same renormalized expression as at zero temperature if written in terms of a certain classical field $\\phi_c$, and if we trade free propagators at zero temperature for their finite-temperature counterparts. The result follows if we write the partition function as an integral over field eigenstates (boundary fields) of the density matrix element in the functional Schr\\"{o}dinger field-representation, and perform a semiclassical expansion in two steps: first, we integrate around the saddle-point for fixed boundary fields, which is the classical field $\\phi_c$, a functional of the boundary fields; then, we perform a saddle-point integration over the boundary fields, whose correlations characterize the thermal properties of the system. This procedure provides a dimensionally-reduced effective theory for the thermal system. We calculate the two-point correlation as an example.
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno
2010-10-13
In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno
2010-10-13
In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.
Transit-Time Spin Field-Effect-Transistor
Appelbaum, Ian; Monsma, Douwe
2007-01-01
We propose and analyze a four-terminal metal-semiconductor device that uses hot-electron transport through thin ferromagnetic films to inject and detect a charge-coupled spin current transported through the conduction band of an arbitrary semiconductor. This provides the possibility of realizing a spin field-effect-transistor in Si, using electrostatic transit-time control in a perpendicular magnetic field, rather than Rashba effect with spin-orbit interaction.
Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Weiping; Xu Wei; Hu Wenping; Liu Yunqi; Zhu Daoben
2006-01-01
In the past years,organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs).In this review,we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including materials design,device physics,molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.
Effective Field Theory of Interactions on the Lattice
Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2015-12-01
We consider renormalization of effective field theory interactions by discretizing the continuum on a tight-binding lattice. After studying the one-dimensional problem, we address s-wave collisions in three dimensions and relate the bare lattice coupling constants to the continuum coupling constants. Our method constitutes a very simple avenue for the systematic renormalization in effective field theory, and is especially useful as the number of interaction parameters increases.
Baryon non-invariant couplings in Higgs effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merlo, Luca; Saa, Sara; Sacristan-Barbero, Mario [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fsica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
2017-03-15
The basis of leading operators which are not invariant under baryon number is constructed within the Higgs effective field theory. This list contains 12 dimension six operators, which preserve the combination B - L, to be compared to only 6 operators for the standard model effective field theory. The discussion of the independent flavour contractions is presented in detail for a generic number of fermion families adopting the Hilbert series technique. (orig.)
Local approximations for effective scalar field equations of motion
Berera, Arjun; Moss, Ian G.; Ramos, Rudnei O.
2007-10-01
Fluctuation and dissipation dynamics is examined at all temperature ranges for the general case of a background time evolving scalar field coupled to heavy intermediate quantum fields which in turn are coupled to light quantum fields. The evolution of the background field induces particle production from the light fields through the action of the intermediate catalyzing heavy fields. Such field configurations are generically present in most particle physics models, including grand unified and supersymmetry theories, with application of this mechanism possible in inflation, heavy ion collision, and phase transition dynamics. The effective evolution equation for the background field is obtained and a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived for this system. The effective evolution, in general, is nonlocal in time. Appropriate conditions are found for when these time nonlocal effects can be approximated by local terms. Here careful distinction is made between a local expansion and the special case of a derivative expansion to all orders, which requires analytic behavior of the evolution equation in Fourier space.
Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berezin, M.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R. [Microwave Magnetic Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)
2016-07-21
Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME-coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently, it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and the topological properties of these fields are different from the topological properties of the free-space electromagnetic fields. Such MDM-originated fields—called magnetoelectric (ME) fields—carry both spin and orbital angular momenta. They are characterized by power-flow vortices and non-zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far-field microwave radiation based on a small microwave antenna with a MDM ferrite resonator. We show that the microwave far-field radiation can be manifested with a torsion structure where an angle between the electric and magnetic field vectors varies. We discuss the question on observation of the regions of localized ME energy in far-field microwave radiation.
Magnetic Field Design by Using Image Effect from Iron Shield
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Quanling PENG; S.M. McMurry; J.M.D.Coey
2004-01-01
Permanent magnet rings are presented, which exploit the image effect in the surrounding circular iron shields. The theory is given for a general permanent ring when the magnetization orientation Ψ at each coordinate angle Ψ changes by Ψ=(n+1)Ψ,where n is a positive or negative integer. For the uniformly magnetized case n=-1, the permanent ring produces no field in its bore, and the field is that of a dipole outside. When the ring is surrounded by a soft iron shield, its field becomes uniform in the bore, and zero outside the ring. The field can be varied continuously by moving the iron shield along the magnet axis.A small variable field device was constructed by using NdFeB permanent rings, which produced a field flux density of 0～0.5 T in the central region.
Raouafi, N -E; Wiegelmann, T
2008-01-01
Our understanding of coronal phenomena, such as coronal plasma thermodynamics, faces a major handicap caused by missing coronal magnetic field measurements. Several lines in the UV wavelength range present suitable sensitivity to determine the coronal magnetic field via the Hanle effect. The latter is a largely unexplored diagnostic of coronal magnetic fields with a very high potential. Here we study the magnitude of the Hanle-effect signal to be expected outside the solar limb due to the Hanle effect in polarized radiation from the H {\\sc{i}} Ly$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ lines, which are among the brightest lines in the off-limb coronal FUV spectrum. For this purpose we use a magnetic field structure obtained by extrapolating the magnetic field starting from photospheric magnetograms. The diagnostic potential of these lines for determining the coronal magnetic field, as well as their limitations are studied. We show that these lines, in particular H {\\sc{i}} Ly$\\beta$, are useful for such measurements.
Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue
Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.
2011-02-01
Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.
Novel Topological Effects in Dense QCD in a Magnetic Field
Ferrer, E J
2015-01-01
We show that in dense QCD an axion field can be dynamically generated as the phase of the dual chiral density wave condensate that forms in the presence of a magnetic field. The coupling of the axion with the external magnetic field leads to several macroscopically observable effects. They are the generation of an anomalous uniform electric charge proportional to the magnetic field, the induction of a nondissipative anomalous Hall current, a linear magnetoelectric effect, and the formation of an axion polariton due to the fluctuations of the axion field at finite temperature. Connection to topological insulators, as well as possible observable signatures in heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are all highlighted.
Magnetic Field Effects on Quantum-Dot Spin Valves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Jin-Hua; SUN Qing-Feng; XIE Xin-Cheng
2009-01-01
We study the magnetic field effects on the spin-polarized transport of the quantum dot (QD) spin valve in the sequential tunneling regime. A set of generalized master equation is derived. Based on that, we discuss the collinear and noneollinear magnetic field effects, respectively. In the collinear magnetic field case, we find that the Zeeman splitting can induce a negative differential conductance (NDC), which is quite different from the one found in previous studies. It has a critical polarization in the parallel arrangement and will disappear in the antiparallel configuration. In the noncollinear magnetic field case, the current shows two plateaus and their angular dependence is analyzed. Although sometimes the two current plateaus have similar angular dependence, their mechanisms are different. Our formalism is also suitable for calculating the transport in magnetic molecules, in which the spin splitting is induced not by a magnetic field but by the intrinsic magnetization.
Phenomenological approach to introduce damping effects on radiation field states
D'Almeida, N G; Serra, R M; Moussa, M H Y
2000-01-01
In this work we propose an approach to deal with radiation field states which incorporates damping effects at zero temperature. By using some well known results on dissipation of a cavity field state, obtained by standard ab-initio methods, it was possible to infer through a phenomenological way the explicit form for the evolution of the state vector for the whole system: the cavity-field plus reservoir. This proposal turns out to be of extreme convenience to account for the influence of the reservoir over the cavity field. To illustrate the universal applicability of our approach we consider the attenuation effects on cavity-field states engineering. A proposal to maximize the fidelity of the process is presented.
Do Mixed States save Effective Field Theory from BICEP?
Collins, Hael; Vardanyan, Tereza
2014-01-01
The BICEP2 collaboration has for the first time observed the B-mode polarization associated with inflationary gravitational waves. Their result has some discomfiting implications for the validity of an effective theory approach to single-field inflation since it would require an inflaton field excursion larger than the Planck scale. We argue that if the quantum state of the gravitons is a mixed state based on the Bunch-Davies vacuum, then the tensor to scalar ratio r measured by BICEP is different than the quantity that enters the Lyth bound. When this is taken into account, the tension between effective field theory and the BICEP result is alleviated.
Effect of magnetic field on the crystallization of zinc sulfate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freitas A. M. B.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of magnetic field on the crystallization of diamagnetic zinc sulfate was investigated in a series of controlled batch cooling experiments. Zinc sulfate solutions were exposed to magnetic fields of different intensities, up to a maximum of 0.7T. A clear influence of magnetic field on the following zinc sulfate crystallization parameters was found: an increase in saturation temperature, a decrease in metastable zone width, and an increase in growth rate and average crystal size. These effects were observed for the diamagnetic zinc sulfate, but not in similar, previously reported experiments for paramagnetic copper sulfate.
Field-effect induced tunability in planar hyperbolic metamaterials
Papadakis, Georgia T
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that use of the field effect to tune the effective optical parameters of a layered hyperbolic metamaterial leads to topological transitions in its dispersion characteristics in the optical regime. Field effect gating electrically modulates the permittivity in transparent conductive oxides via changes in the carrier density. These permittivity changes lead to active extreme modulation of ~200% of the effective electromagnetic parameters along with active control of the anisotropic dispersion surface of hyperbolic metamaterials and enable the opening and closing of photonic band gaps.
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Humidity sensitive organic field effect transistor
Murtaza, I.; Karimov, Kh S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Qazi, I.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Khan, T. A.; Amin, T.
2010-05-01
This paper reports the experimental results for the humidity dependent properties of an organic field effect transistor. The organic field effect transistor was fabricated on thoroughly cleaned glass substrate, in which the junction between the metal gate and the organic channel plays the role of gate dielectric. Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and semitransparent Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum thermal evaporation on the glass substrate with preliminarily deposited Ag source and drain electrodes. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated device were performed. The effect of humidity on the drain current, drain current-drain voltage relationship, and threshold voltage was investigated. It was observed that humidity has a strong effect on the characteristics of the organic field effect transistor.
Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation
Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross
2005-06-01
Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.
Effects of landscape features on waterbird use of rice fields
King, S.; Elphick, C.S.; Guadagnin, D.; Taft, O.; Amano, T.
2010-01-01
Literature is reviewed to determine the effects of landscape features on waterbird use of fields in regions where rice (Oryza sativa) is grown. Rice-growing landscapes often consist of diverse land uses and land cover, including rice fields, irrigation ditches, other agricultural fields, grasslands, forests and natural wetlands. Numerous studies indicate that local management practices, such as water depth and timing of flooding and drawdown, can strongly influence waterbird use of a given rice field. However, the effects of size and distribution of rice fields and associated habitats at a landscape scale have received less attention. Even fewer studies have focused on local and landscape effects simultaneously. Habitat connectivity, area of rice, distance to natural wetlands, and presence and distance to unsuitable habitat can be important parameters influencing bird use of rice fields. However, responses to a given landscape vary with landscape structure, scale of analysis, among taxa and within taxa among seasons. A lack of multi-scale studies, particularly those extending beyond simple presence and abundance of a given species, and a lack of direct tests comparing the relative importance of landscape features with in-field management activities limits understanding of the importance of landscape in these systems and hampers waterbird conservation and management.
A class of effective field theory models of cosmic acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Flanagan, Éanna É., E-mail: jkb84@cornell.edu, E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Space Science Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2012-10-01
We explore a class of effective field theory models of cosmic acceleration involving a metric and a single scalar field. These models can be obtained by starting with a set of ultralight pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons whose couplings to matter satisfy the weak equivalence principle, assuming that one boson is lighter than all the others, and integrating out the heavier fields. The result is a quintessence model with matter coupling, together with a series of correction terms in the action in a covariant derivative expansion, with specific scalings for the coefficients. After eliminating higher derivative terms and exploiting the field redefinition freedom, we show that the resulting theory contains nine independent free functions of the scalar field when truncated at four derivatives. This is in contrast to the four free functions found in similar theories of single-field inflation, where matter is not present. We discuss several different representations of the theory that can be obtained using the field redefinition freedom. For perturbations to the quintessence field today on subhorizon lengthscales larger than the Compton wavelength of the heavy fields, the theory is weakly coupled and natural in the sense of t'Hooft. The theory admits a regime where the perturbations become modestly nonlinear, but very strong nonlinearities lie outside its domain of validity.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Lellouch, L; Portelli, A; Szabo, K K; Toth, B C
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fodor, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Hoelbling, C. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Katz, S.D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); MTA-ELTE Lendület Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Lellouch, L., E-mail: lellouch@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [CNRS, Aix-Marseille U., U. de Toulon, CPT, UMR 7332, F-13288, Marseille (France); Portelli, A. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Szabo, K.K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Toth, B.C. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany)
2016-04-10
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Fodor
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Effective field theory analysis of the self-interacting chameleon
Sanctuary, Hillary; Sturani, Riccardo
2010-08-01
We analyse the phenomenology of a self-interacting scalar field in the context of the chameleon scenario originally proposed by Khoury and Weltman. In the absence of self-interactions, this type of scalar field can mediate long range interactions and simultaneously evade constraints from violation of the weak equivalence principle. By applying to such a scalar field the effective field theory method proposed for Einstein gravity by Goldberger and Rothstein, we give a thorough perturbative evaluation of the importance of non-derivative self-interactions in determining the strength of the chameleon mediated force in the case of orbital motion. The self-interactions are potentially dangerous as they can change the long range behaviour of the field. Nevertheless, we show that they do not lead to any dramatic phenomenological consequence with respect to the linear case and solar system constraints are fulfilled.
Effects of simulated cosmological magnetic fields on the galaxy population
Marinacci, Federico
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of varying the intensity of the primordial magnetic seed field on the global properties of the galaxy population in ideal MHD cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We vary the seed field in our calculations in a range of values still compatible with the current cosmological upper limits. We show that above a critical intensity of $\\simeq 10^{-9}\\,{\\rm G}$ the additional pressure arising from the field strongly affects the evolution of gaseous structures, leading to a suppression of the cosmic star formation history. The suppression is stronger for larger seed fields, and directly reflects into a lower galaxy number density at fixed stellar mass and a less massive stellar component at fixed virial mass at all mass scales. These signatures may be used, in addition to the existing methods, to derive tighter constraints on primordial magnetic seed field intensities.
HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB
2009-11-01
The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.
On the Renormalization of Heavy Quark Effective Field Theory
Kilian, W
1994-01-01
The construction of heavy quark effective field theory (HqEFT) is extended to arbitrary order in both expansion parameters $\\alpha_s$ and $1/m_q$. Matching conditions are discussed for the general case, and it is verified that this approach correctly reproduces the infrared behaviour of full QCD. Choosing a renormalization scheme in the full theory fixes the renormalization scheme in the effective theory except for the scale of the heavy quark field. Explicit formulae are given for the effective Lagrangian, and one--loop matching renormalization constants are computed for the operators of order $1/m$. Finally, the multiparticle sector of HqEFT is considered.
Initial Conditions in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation
O'Connell, Ross
2011-01-01
Many different models of inflation give rise to the same effective field theory of the inflaton. While effective field theories in flat space provide little information about UV physics, we propose that in inflationary backgrounds a large amount of information can be encoded by the initial conditions of the effective theory. We identify conditions under which this information would remain available at late times, e.g. through observation of non-gaussianities. We also study the power spectrum of a simple set of initial conditions, and find that it is constrained by the WMAP7 results.
Organic single-crystal field-effect transistors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin Reese
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Organic molecular crystals hold great promise for the rational development of organic semiconductor materials. Their long-range order not only reveals the performance limits of organic materials, but also provides unique insight into their intrinsic transport properties. The field-effect transistor (FET has served as a versatile tool for electrical characterization of many facets of their performance. In the last few years, breakthroughs in single-crystal FET fabrication techniques have enabled the realization of field-effect mobilities far surpassing amorphous Si, observation of the Hall effect in an organic material, and the study of transport as an explicit function of molecular packing and chemical structure.
Single event burnout sensitivity of embedded field effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crawford, K.B.; Yu, P.; Gordon, M.J.
1999-12-01
Observations of single event burnout (SEB) in embedded field effect transistors are reported. Both SEB and other single event effects are presented for several pulse width modulation and high frequency devices. The microscope has been employed to locate and to investigate the damaged areas. A model of the damage mechanism based on the results so obtained is described.
Effective field theory of slowly-moving "extreme black holes"
Degura, Yoshitaka; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2000-01-01
We consider the non-relativistic effective field theory of ``extreme black holes'' in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with an arbitrary dilaton coupling. We investigate finite-temperature behavior of gas of ``extreme black holes'' using the effective theory. The total energy of the classical many-body system is also derived.
Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields
Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S
2002-01-01
In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)
Critical suppression of spin Seebeck effect by magnetic fields
Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Qiu, Zhiyong; Shiomi, Yuki; Saitoh, Eiji
2015-08-01
The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in Pt /Y3Fe5O12(YIG ) junction systems has been investigated at various magnetic fields and temperatures. We found that the LSSE voltage in a Pt/YIG-slab system is suppressed by applying high magnetic fields and this suppression is critically enhanced at low temperatures. The field-induced suppression of the LSSE in the Pt/YIG-slab system is too large at around room temperature to be explained simply by considering the effect of the Zeeman gap in magnon excitation. This result requires us to introduce a magnon-frequency-dependent mechanism into the scenario of LSSE; low-frequency magnons dominantly contribute to the LSSE. The magnetic field dependence of the LSSE voltage was observed to change by changing the thickness of YIG, suggesting that the thermospin conversion by the low-frequency magnons is suppressed in thin YIG films due to the long characteristic lengths of such magnons.
Diffusion affected magnetic field effect in exciplex fluorescence.
Burshtein, Anatoly I; Ivanov, Anatoly I
2014-07-14
The fluorescence of the exciplex, (1)[D(+δ)A(-δ)], formed at contact of photoexcited acceptor (1)A(*) with an electron donor (1)D, is known to be very sensitive to an external magnetic field, reducing the spin conversion efficiency in the resulting geminate radical ion pair, (1, 3)[D(+)…A(-)]. The relative increase of the exciplex fluorescence in the highest magnetic field compared to the lowest one, known as the magnetic field effect, crucially depends on the viscosity of the solvent. This phenomenon first studied experimentally is at first reproduced here theoretically. The magnetic field effect is shown to vanish in both limits of high and low solvent diffusivity reaching a maximum in between. It is also very sensitive to the solvent dielectric constant and to the exciplex and radical-ion pair conversion rates.
Classical Effective Field Theory and Caged Black Holes
Kol, Barak
2007-01-01
Matched Asymptotic Expansion (MAE) is a useful technique in General Relativity and other fields whenever interaction takes place between physics at two different length scales. Here MAE is argued to be equivalent quite generally to Classical Effective Field Theory (ClEFT) where one (or more) of the zones is replaced by an effective theory whose terms are organized in order of increasing irrelevancy, as demonstrated by Goldberger and Rothstein in a certain gravitational context. The ClEFT perspective has advantages as the procedure is clearer, it allows a representation via Feynman diagrams, and divergences can be regularized and renormalized in standard field theoretic methods. As a side product we obtain a wide class of classical examples of regularization and renormalization, concepts which are usually associated with Quantum Field Theories. We demonstrate these ideas through the thermodynamics of caged black holes, both simplifying the non-rotating case, and computing the rotating case. In particular we ar...
Transverse electric fields' effects in the Dark Energy Camera CCDs
Plazas, Andres; Sheldon, Erin
2014-01-01
Spurious electric fields transverse to the surface of thick, fully-depleted, high-resistivity CCDs displace the photo-generated charges in the bulk of the detector, effectively modifying the pixel area and producing noticeable signals in astrometric and photometric measurements. We use data from the science verification period of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to characterize these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs. The transverse fields mainly manifest as concentric rings (tree rings) and bright stripes near the boundaries of the detectors (edge distortions) with relative amplitudes of about 1 % and 10 % in the flat-field images, respectively. Their nature as pixel size variations is confirmed by comparing their photometric and astrometric signatures. Using flat-field images from DECam, we derive templates in the five DES photometric bands (grizY) for the tree rings and the edge distortions as a function of their position in each DECam detector. The templates are directly incorporated into the der...
Effects of magnetic fields on dissolution of arthritis causing crystals
Takeuchi, Y.; Iwasaka, M.
2015-05-01
The number of gout patients has rapidly increased because of excess alcohol and salt intake. The agent responsible for gout is the monosodium urate (MSU) crystal. MSU crystals are found in blood and consist of uric acid and sodium. As a substitute for drug dosing or excessive water intake, physical stimulation by magnetic fields represents a new medical treatment for gout. In this study, we investigated the effects of a magnetic field on the dissolution of a MSU crystal suspension. The white MSU crystal suspension was dissolved in an alkaline solution. We measured the light transmission of the MSU crystal suspension by a transmitted light measuring system. The magnetic field was generated by a horizontal electromagnet (maximum field strength was 500 mT). The MSU crystal suspension that dissolved during the application of a magnetic field of 500 mT clearly had a higher dissolution rate when compared with the control sample. We postulate that the alkali solution promoted penetration upon diamagnetic rotation and this magnetic field orienting is because of the pronounced diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy of the MSU crystal. The results indicate that magnetic fields represent an effective gout treatment approach.
Effects of static magnetic fields on growth of Paramecium caudatum.
Elahee, Khouaildi B; Poinapen, Danny
2006-01-01
Little is known about the influence of magnetic fields on growth of primitive eukaryotes such as the ciliate Paramecium. The latter are known to exhibit interesting characteristics such as electrotaxis, gravitaxis, and membrane excitability not commonly encountered in higher organisms. This preliminary study reports the effects of static magnetic fields on growth of Paramecium caudatum. The microorganisms were either permanently or 24 h on-and-off exposed to North and South polarity magnetic fields of average field gradient 4.3 T/m, for a period of 96 h. The growth rate and lag phase of all exposed populations were not significantly different from control ones exposed to normal geomagnetic field (P > .05). However, a significant negative shift in t(max) (time taken for maximum growth) of 10.5%-12.2% and a significant decrease (P fields, irrespective of polarity and exposure period reduce Paramecium growth by triggering early senescence of the population. The mechanisms underlying the small changes in population growth are unknown at this level, but various hypotheses have been suggested, including disorganization of swimming patterns resulting from (i) changes in cell membrane electric potential due to high speed movement through a gradient magnetic field and (ii) thermodynamic effect of anisotropic magnetic energies on cell membrane components affecting functioning of calcium channels. Altered swimming movements could in turn affect highly orchestrated processes such as conjugation, essential for survival of the organisms during development of adverse environmental conditions as thought to occur in the closed culture system used in this study.
Effects of pulsed electric field on ULQ and RFP plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, M. [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Saito, K.; Suzuki, T. [and others
1997-12-31
Dynamo activity and self-organization processes are investigated using the application of pulsed poloidal and toroidal electric fields on ULQ and RFP plasmas. Synchronized to the application of the pulsed electric fields, the remarkable responses of the several plasma parameters are observed. The plasma has a preferential magnetic field structure, and the external perturbation activates fluctuation to maintain the structure through dynamo effect. This process changes the total dissipation with the variation of magnetic helicity in the system, showing that self organization accompanies an enhanced dissipation. (author)
Effects of Orthogonal Rotating Electric Fields on Electrospinning Process
Cipolletta, Federico; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro
2016-01-01
Electrospinning is an nanotechnology process whereby an external electric field is used to accelerate and stretch a charged polymer jet, so as to produce fibers at nanoscale diameters. In quest of a further reduction in the cross section of electrified jets hence of the resulting electrospun fibers, we explore the effects of an external rotating electric field orthogonal to the jet direction. Through extensive particle simulations, it is shown that by a proper tuning of the electric field amplitude and frequency, a reduction of up to a 30% in the aforementioned radius can be obtained, thereby opening new perspectives in the design of future ultra-thin electrospun fibres.
Simple field theoretical approach of Coulomb systems. Entropic effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Caprio, D; Badiali, J P [Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, University Paris 6, CNRS, ENSCP, BP 39, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Holovko, M [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 1 Svientsitskii Str, 79011 Lviv (Ukraine)], E-mail: dung.di_caprio@upmc.fr
2009-05-29
We discuss a new simple field theory approach of Coulomb systems. Using a description in terms of fields, we introduce in a new way the statistical degrees of freedom in relation to the quantum mechanics. We show by a series of examples that these fundamental entropic effects can help account for physical phenomena in relation to Coulomb systems whether symmetric or asymmetric in valence. Overall, this gives a new understanding of these systems.
Organic Field-effect Transistors Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
1 Restults Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and its derivatives have been extensively investigated in the field of organic conductors and superconductors since 1973. Recently, their application in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has attracted considerable attention. So far, on the one hand, the fabrication techniques of the TTF-based FETs have been primarily limited to high vacuum evaporation, which is a relatively expensive process. On the other hand, low FET performances, such as the low on/off ratio...
Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.
1978-10-01
This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.
Topics in lattice QCD and effective field theory
Buchoff, Michael I.
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory that governs hadronic physics. However, due to its non-perturbative nature at low-energy/long distances, QCD calculations are difficult. The only method for performing these calculations is through lattice QCD. These computationally intensive calculations approximate continuum physics with a discretized lattice in order to extract hadronic phenomena from first principles. However, as in any approximation, there are multiple systematic errors between lattice QCD calculation and actual hardronic phenomena. Developing analytic formulae describing the systematic errors due to the discrete lattice spacings is the main focus of this work. To account for these systematic effects in terms of hadronic interactions, effective field theory proves to be useful. Effective field theory (EFT) provides a formalism for categorizing low-energy effects of a high-energy fundamental theory as long as there is a significant separation in scales. An example of this is in chiral perturbation theory (chiPT), where the low-energy effects of QCD are contained in a mesonic theory whose applicability is a result of a pion mass smaller than the chiral breaking scale. In a similar way, lattice chiPT accounts for the low-energy effects of lattice QCD, where a small lattice spacing acts the same way as the quark mass. In this work, the basics of this process are outlined, and multiple original calculations are presented: effective field theory for anisotropic lattices, I=2 pipi scattering for isotropic, anisotropic, and twisted mass lattices. Additionally, a combination of effective field theory and an isospin chemical potential on the lattice is proposed to extract several computationally difficult scattering parameters. Lastly, recently proposed local, chiral lattice actions are analyzed in the framework of effective field theory, which illuminates various challenges in simulating such actions.
Power Counting and Wilsonian Renormalization in Nuclear Effective Field Theory
Valderrama, Manuel Pavon
2016-01-01
Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental ---perhaps unknown or unsolvable--- high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding ...
Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1985-01-01
A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds. The the......A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds....... The theory gives explicitly a temperature dependent renormalization of both the crystal field and the interactions, and a damping of the excitations and in addition a central park component. The general theory is illustrated by a discussion of the singlet-doublet system. The correlation effects...... on the susceptibility, the first and second moment frequencies and the line shape are calculated self-consistently....
Strontium titanate resistance modulation by ferroelectric field effect
Marré, D; Bellingeri, E; Pallecchi, I; Pellegrino, L; Siri, A S
2003-01-01
Among perovskite oxides strontium titanate (STO) SrTiO sub 3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at very low carrier concentration and exhibits high mobility values at low temperature. We exploited such electrical properties and the structural compatibility of perovskite oxide materials in realizing ferroelectric field effect epitaxial heterostructures. By pulsed laser deposition, we grew patterned field effect devices, consisting of lanthanum doped STO and Pb(Zr,Ti)O sub 3. Such devices showed a resistance modulation up to 20%, consistent with geometrical parameters and carrier concentration of the semiconducting channel.
Contact engineering in organic field-effect transistors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan Liu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs are promising for numerous potential applications but suffer from poor charge injection, such that their performance is severely limited. Recent efforts in lowering contact resistance have led to significantly improved field-effect mobility of OFETs, up to 100 times higher, as the results of careful choice of contact materials and/or chemical treatment of contact electrodes. Here we review the innovative developments of contact engineering and focus on the mechanisms behind them. Further improvement toward Ohmic contact can be expected along with the rapid advance in material research, which will also benefit other organic and electronic devices.
Massive gravitons from Extended Gravity to Effective Field Theories
Capozziello, Salvatore; Paolella, Mariacristina; Ricciardi, Giulia
2013-01-01
Massive gravitons in effective field theories can be recovered by extending General Relativity and taking into account generic functions of the curvature invariants not necessarily linear in the Ricci scalar R. In particular, adopting the minimal extension of f(R) gravity, an effective field theory with a massive state is straightforwardly recovered. This approach allows to evade shortcomings like ghosts and discontinuities if a suitable choice of expansion parameters is performed. We show that the massive state can be identified with a massive graviton.
Key aspects of cost effective collector and solar field design
von Reeken, Finn; Nicodemo, Dario; Keck, Thomas; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Balz, Markus
2016-05-01
A study has been performed where different key parameters influencing solar field cost are varied. By using levelised cost of energy as figure of merit it is shown that parameters like GoToStow wind speed, heliostat stiffness or tower height should be adapted to respective site conditions from an economical point of view. The benchmark site Redstone (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) has been compared to an alternate site close to Phoenix (AZ, USA) regarding site conditions and their effect on cost-effective collector and solar field design.
Finite baryon density effects on gauge field dynamics
Bödeker, Dietrich
2001-01-01
We discuss the effective action for QCD gauge fields at finite temperatures and densities, obtained after integrating out the hardest momentum scales from the system. We show that a non-vanishing baryon density induces a charge conjugation (C) odd operator to the gauge field action, proportional to the chemical potential. Even though it is parametrically smaller than the leading C even operator, it could have an important effect on C odd observables. The same operator appears to be produced by classical kinetic theory, allowing in principle for a non-perturbative study of such processes.
Deceleration Effect of Magnetic Field on Black Hole Accretion Disks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Ding-Xiong
2000-01-01
The deceleration effect of magnetic field near the horizon of a spinning black hole (BH) of accretion disk is investigated in the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. It is shown that rates of change with respect to time for both the angular velocities of BH horizon and accreting particles at the inner edge of an accretion disk are reduced in the BZ process, behaving with non-monotonous evolution characteristics. This result implies that the magnetic field near the BH horizon has & deceleration effect not only on the spinning BH but also on the surrounding accretion disk.
Pauli Spin Blockade and the Ultrasmall Magnetic Field Effect
Danon, Jeroen
2013-08-06
Based on the spin-blockade model for organic magnetoresistance, we present an analytic expression for the polaron-bipolaron transition rate, taking into account the effective nuclear fields on the two sites. We reveal the physics behind the qualitatively different magnetoconductance line shapes observed in experiment, as well as the ultrasmall magnetic field effect (USFE). Since our findings agree in detail with recent experiments, they also indirectly provide support for the spin-blockade interpretation of organic magnetoresistance. In addition, we predict the existence of a similar USFE in semiconductor double quantum dots tuned to the spin-blockade regime.
Effective Field Theory for Low-Energy np Systems
Park, T S
1998-01-01
The properties of low-energy neutron-proton systems are studied in an effective field theory where only nucleons figure as relevant degrees of freedom. With a finite momentum cut-off regularization scheme, we show that the large scattering lengths of the np systems do not spoil the convergence of the effective field theory, which turns out to be extremely successful in reproducing, with little cut-off dependence, the deuteron properties, the np 1S0 scattering amplitude and most significantly, the M1 transition amplitude entering into the radiative np capture process.
Wiggle Instability of Galactic Spiral Shocks: Effects of Magnetic Fields
Kim, Yonghwi; Elmegreen, Bruce G
2015-01-01
It has been suggested that the wiggle instability (WI) of spiral shocks in a galactic disk is responsible for the formation of gaseous feathers observed in grand-design spiral galaxies. We perform both a linear stability analysis and numerical simulations to investigate the effect of magnetic fields on the WI. The disk is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. We control the strengths of magnetic fields and spiral-arm forcing using the dimensionless parameters $\\beta$ and $\\mathcal{F}$, respectively. By solving the perturbation equations as a boundary-eigenvalue problem, we obtain dispersion relations of the WI for various values of $\\beta=1-\\infty$ and $\\mathcal{F}=5\\%$ and $10\\%$. We find that the WI arising from the accumulation of potential vorticity at disturbed shocks is suppressed, albeit not completely, by magnetic fields. The stabilizing effect of magnetic fields is not from the perturbed fields but from the unperturbed fields that reduce the density compression fac...
Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac
Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S
2004-01-01
The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.
Electromechanical field effect transistors based on multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Z.T., E-mail: jiangzhaotan@hotmail.com; Lv, Z.T.; Zhang, X.D.
2017-06-21
Based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we demonstrate that the electromechanical field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized by using the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). The synergistic combination of the electric field and the external strains can establish the on–off switching since the electric field can shift or split the energy band, and the mechanical strains can widen or narrow the band widths. This kind of multilayer PNR FETs, much solider than the monolayer PNR one and more easily biased by different electric fields, has more transport channels consequently leading to the higher on–off current ratio or the higher sensitivity to the electric fields. Meanwhile, the strain-induced band-flattening will be beneficial for improving the flexibility in designing the electromechanical FETs. In addition, such electromechanical FETs can act as strain-controlled FETs or mechanical detectors for detecting the strains, indicating their potential applications in nano- and micro-electromechanical fields. - Highlights: • Electromechanical transistors are designed with multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons. • Electromechanical synergistic effect can establish the on–off switching more flexibly. • Multilayer transistors, solider and more easily biased, has more transport channels. • Electromechanical transistors can act as strain-controlled transistors or mechanical detectors.
Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory
Mallik, S; Mishra, Hiranmaya
2007-01-01
We treat the propagation of nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of nucleon currents in the framework of the chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass was known previously and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg's method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of nucleon are compared with those in the literature.
Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Mishra, H. [Physical Research Laboratory, Theory Divison, Ahmedabad (India)
2007-05-15
We treat the propagation of a nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of the nucleon currents in the framework of chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of the nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass has been known since before and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg's method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of the nucleon are compared with those in the literature. (orig.)
Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory
Mallik, S.; Mishra, H.
2007-05-01
We treat the propagation of a nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of the nucleon currents in the framework of chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of the nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass has been known since before and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg’s method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of the nucleon are compared with those in the literature.
Effect of Magnetic Field on L-Strain Cells
Ulakoglu, G; Atak, C; Rzakoulieva, A; Danilov, V I; Alikamanoglu, S
2000-01-01
The effects of electromagnetic and magnetic fields are currently being made useful in many fields, especially in medicine. In this research work, L-Strain cells which are a type of fibrosarcoma cells were exposed to a magnetic flow of 2-26 mT in periods of 1, 2, 3 and 4 minutes. The L-Strain cells, which were exposed to the magnetic field for these periods, were counted after 24 and 48 hours, when compared with the controls, it was observed that in groups of 1 and 4 minutes exposure a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of cells occurred. The per cent of labelling index of L-Strain cells exposed to the magnetic field for 1 and 4 minutes decreased significantly also in comparison to the controls.
Application of Terahertz Field Enhancement Effect in Metal Microstructures
Nakajima, M.; Kurihara, T.; Tadokoro, Y.; Kang, B.; Takano, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Watanabe, H.; Oto, K.; Suemoto, T.; Hangyo, M.
2016-12-01
Applications of high-field terahertz pulses are attractive in physics and terahertz technology. In this study, two applications related to high-intensity terahertz pulses are demonstrated. The field enhancement effect by subwavelength metallic microstructures is utilized for terahertz excitation measurement. The spin precession dynamics in magnetic materials was induced by a terahertz magnetic field. Spin precession was amplified by one order of magnitude in amplitude by the enhanced magnetic terahertz field in orthoferrite ErFeO3 with metal microstructures. The induced spin dynamics was analyzed and explained by LLG-LCR model. Moreover, a detection method for terahertz pulses was developed using a cholesteric liquid crystal at room temperature without any electronic devices. The beam profile of terahertz pulses was visualized and compared to other methods such as the knife edge method using pyroelectric detector and micro-bolometer array. The liquid crystal terahertz imager is very simple and has good applicability as a portable terahertz-sensing card.
Acoustic field effects on a negative corona discharge
Bálek, R.; Červenka, M.; Pekárek, S.
2014-06-01
For a negative corona discharge under atmospheric pressure in different regimes, we investigated the effects of an acoustic field both on its electrical parameters and on the change in its visual appearance. We found that the application of an acoustic field on the true corona discharge, for particular currents, decreases the discharge voltage. The application of an acoustic field on the discharge in the filamentary streamer regime substantially extends the range of currents for which the discharge voltage remains more or less constant, i.e. it allows a substantial increase in the power delivered to the discharge. The application of an acoustic field on the discharge causes the discharge to spread within the discharge chamber and consequently, a highly reactive non-equilibrium plasma is created throughout the inter-electrode space. Finally, our experimental apparatus radiates almost no acoustic energy from the discharge chamber.
Subleading Effects and the Field Range in Axion Inflation
Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-01-01
An attractive candidate for the inflaton is an axion slowly rolling down a flat potential protected by a perturbative shift symmetry. Realisations of this idea within large field, natural and chaotic inflation have been disfavoured by observations and are difficult to embed in string theory. We show that subleading, but significant non-perturbative corrections can superimpose sharp cliffs and gentle plateaus into the potential, whose overall effect is to enhance the number of e-folds of inflation. Sufficient e-folds are therefore achieved for smaller field ranges compared to the potential without such corrections. Thus, both single-field chaotic and natural inflation in UV complete theories like string theory, can be restored into the favour of current observations, with distinctive signatures. Tensor modes result un-observably small, but there is a large negative running of the spectral index. Remarkably, natural inflation can be achieved with a single field whose axion decay constant is sub-Planckian.
Subleading effects and the field range in axion inflation
Parameswaran, Susha; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-04-01
An attractive candidate for the inflaton is an axion slowly rolling down a flat potential protected by a perturbative shift symmetry. Realisations of this idea within large field, natural and monomial inflation have been disfavoured by observations and are difficult to embed in string theory. We show that subleading, but significant non-perturbative corrections can superimpose sharp cliffs and gentle plateaus into the potential, whose overall effect is to enhance the number of e-folds of inflation. Sufficient e-folds are therefore achieved for smaller field ranges compared to the potential without such corrections. Thus, both single-field natural and monomial inflation in UV complete theories like string theory, can be restored into the favour of current observations, with distinctive signatures. Tensor modes result un-observably small, but there is a large negative running of the spectral index. Remarkably, natural inflation can be achieved with a single field whose axion decay constant is sub-Planckian.
Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tenforde, T.S.
1994-06-01
Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.
Field effects and ictal synchronization: insights from in homine observations.
Weiss, Shennan A; McKhann, Guy; Goodman, Robert; Emerson, Ronald G; Trevelyan, Andrew; Bikson, Marom; Schevon, Catherine A
2013-12-05
It has been well established in animal models that electrical fields generated during inter-ictal and ictal discharges are strong enough in intensity to influence action potential firing threshold and synchronization. We discuss recently published data from microelectrode array recordings of human neocortical seizures and speculate about the possible role of field effects in neuronal synchronization. We have identified two distinct seizure territories that cannot be easily distinguished by traditional EEG analysis. The ictal core exhibits synchronized neuronal burst firing, while the surrounding ictal penumbra exhibits asynchronous and relatively sparse neuronal activity. In the ictal core large amplitude rhythmic ictal discharges produce large electric fields that correspond with highly synchronous neuronal firing. In the penumbra rhythmic ictal discharges are smaller in amplitude, but large enough to influence spike timing, yet neuronal synchrony is not observed. These in homine observations are in accord with decades of animal studies supporting a role of field effects in neuronal synchronization during seizures, yet also highlight how field effects may be negated in the presence of strong synaptic inhibition in the penumbra.
Field effects and ictal synchronization: insights from in homine observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shennan Aibel Weiss
2013-12-01
Full Text Available It has been well established in animal models that electrical fields generated during inter-ictal and ictal discharges are strong enough in intensity to influence action potential firing threshold and synchronization. We discuss recently published data from microelectrode array recordings of human neocortical seizures and what they imply about the possible role of field effects in neuronal synchronization. We have identified two distinct seizure territories that cannot be easily distinguished by traditional EEG analysis. The ictal core exhibits synchronized neuronal burst firing, while the surrounding ictal penumbra exhibits asynchronous and relatively sparse neuronal activity. In the ictal core large amplitude rhythmic ictal discharges produce large electric fields that correspond with relatively synchronous neuronal firing. In the penumbra rhythmic ictal discharges are smaller in amplitude, but large enough to influence spike timing, yet neuronal synchrony is not observed. These in homine observations are in accord with decades of animal studies supporting a role of field effects in neuronal synchronization during seizures, yet also highlight how field effects may be negated in the presence of strong synaptic inhibition in the penumbra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: pfrire@eia.edu.co [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Envigado (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonóma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)
2015-01-15
This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties (the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficients) in an asymmetric quantum well. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the asymmetric quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the asymmetric quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The asymmetric quantum well is constructed by using different aluminium concentrations in both right and left barriers. The confinement in the quantum well is changed drastically by either the effect of electric and magnetic fields or by the application of intense laser field. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix approach. The results show that the effect of the intense laser field competes with the effects of the electric and magnetic fields. Consequently, peak position shifts to lower photon energies due to the effect of the intense laser field and it shifts to higher photon energies by the effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, it is found that the concentration of aluminum, electric and magnetic fields and intense laser field are external agents that modify the optical responses in the asymmetric quantum well.
Sound field reconstruction based on the acousto-optic effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn
2011-01-01
Acoustic measurements are usually carried out with transducers that interact mechanically with the sound field under investigation. The goal of this work is to employ a completely different measurement principle, the determination of sound pressure based on the interaction between sound and light......, namely the acousto-optic effect. When sound propagates through a medium, it gives rise to pressure fluctuations that change the instantaneous density of the medium. Under such circumstances, the speed of light is not constant, but changed by the acoustic field. This acousto-optic interaction can...... be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer; furthermore, it can be exploited to characterize an arbitrary sound field using tomographic techniques. This paper briefly reviews the fundamental principles governing the acousto-optic effect in air, and presents an investigation of the tomographic reconstruction...
Effects of microwave and radio frequency electromagnetic fields on lichens.
Urech, M; Eicher, B; Siegenthaler, J
1996-01-01
The effects of electromagnetic fields on lichens were investigated. Field experiments of long duration (1-3 years) were combined with laboratory experiments and theoretical considerations. Samples of the lichen species Parmelia tiliacea and Hypogymnia physodes were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz; 0.2, 5, and 50 mW/cm2; and control). Both species showed a substantially reduced growth rate at 50 mW/cm2. A differentiation between thermal and nonthermal effects was not possible. Temperature measurements on lichens exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz, 50 mW/cm2) showed a substantial increase in the surface temperature and an accelerated drying process. The thermal effect of microwave on lichens was verified. The exposure of lichens of both species was repeated near a short-wave broadcast transmitter (9.5 MHz, amplitude modulated; maximum field strength 235 V/m, 332 mA/m). No visible effects on the exposed lichens were detected. At this frequency, no thermal effects were expected, and the experimental results support this hypothesis. Theoretical estimates based on climatic data and literature showed that the growth reductions in the initial experiments could very likely have been caused by drying of the lichens from the heating with microwaves. The results of the other experiments support the hypothesis that the response of the lichens exposed to microwaves was mainly due to thermal effects and that there is a low probability of nonthermal effects.
Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.
Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy
2008-02-01
During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to
Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame
Mannaa, Ossama
2012-06-01
The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spherical premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly propagating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been investigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The combustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.
Zero magnetic field effect observed in human cognitive processes.
Binhi, V N; Sarimov, R M
2009-01-01
In our previous works, we reported that compensation of the geomagnetic field to a level less than 0.4 microT ("zero magnetic field," or ZMF) affected human cognitive processes. ZMF exposure increased the number of errors and the task processing time by 2.4% in average. However, in the array of the magnetic effects calculated from the experimental data, some readings have been found to deviate from the mean magnetic effect by more than three standard deviations. This finding could give rise to doubt as to whether the magnetic effect observed was a mere sequence of the presence of such unlikely data values. In the present work we examine the results of the unlikely data elimination and show that the corrected magnetic effect in tested humans remains statistically significant, though at a reduced magnitude 1.5%.
Thermoelectric Conductivities at Finite Magnetic Field and the Nernst Effect
Kim, Keun-Young; Seo, Yunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin
2015-01-01
We study electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities of a strongly correlated system in the presence of magnetic field by gauge/gravity duality. We consider a general class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with axion fields imposing momentum relaxation. Analytic general formulas for DC conductivities and the Nernst signal are derived in terms of the black hole horizon data. For an explicit model study we analyse in detail the Dyonic black hole modified by momentum relaxation effect. In this model, the Nernst signal shows a typical vortex-liquid effect when momentum relaxation effect is comparable to chemical potential. We compute all AC electric, thermal, and thermal conductivities by numerical analysis and confirms that their zero frequency limits precisely reproduce our analytic formulas, which is a non-trivial consistency check of our methods. We discuss the momentum relaxation effect on conductivities including cyclotron frequencies.
EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FIELD ON CONTINUOUS LIQUID STREAM
The effect of an electrical field on a continous water jet is considered. The higher electrification of water jets, the more intense are jet sprays...It seems possible to contract an electrized water jet by letting it pass the cylinder charged with the same sign. An attempt to electrify kerosene and spindel oil jets (good insulators) was unsucessful.
Mean-field versus microconvection effects in nanofluid thermal conduction.
Eapen, Jacob; Williams, Wesley C; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen; Yip, Sidney; Rusconi, Roberto; Piazza, Roberto
2007-08-31
Transient hot-wire data on thermal conductivity of suspensions of silica and perfluorinated particles show agreement with the mean-field theory of Maxwell but not with the recently postulated microconvection mechanism. The influence of interfacial thermal resistance, convective effects at microscales, and the possibility of thermal conductivity enhancements beyond the Maxwell limit are discussed.
On the exotic Higgs decays in effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belusca-Maito, Hermes; Falkowski, Adam [Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France)
2016-09-15
We discuss exotic Higgs decays in an effective field theory where the Standard Model is extended by dimension-6 operators. We review and update the status of two-body lepton- and quark-flavor-violating decays involving the Higgs boson. We also comment on the possibility of observing three-body flavor-violating Higgs decays in this context. (orig.)
Durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors
Reinhoudt, D.N.
1995-01-01
The design of durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) is described. After modification of an ion-sensitive FET (ISFET) with a polysiloxane membrane matrix, it is possible to attach all electroactive components covalently. Preliminary results of measurements with a sodium-se
Recent Advance in Organic Spintronics and Magnetic Field Effect
Valy Vardeny, Z.
2013-03-01
In this talk several important advances in the field of Organic Spintronics and magnetic field effect (MFE) of organic films and optoelectronic devices that have occurred during the past two years from the Utah group will be surveyed and discussed. (i) Organic Spintronics: We demonstrated spin organic light emitting diode (spin-OLED) using two FM injecting electrodes, where the electroluminescence depends on the mutual orientation of the electrode magnetization directions. This development has opened up research studies into organic spin-valves (OSV) in the space-charge limited current regime. (ii) Magnetic field effect: We demonstrated that the photoinduced absorption spectrum in organic films (where current is not involved) show pronounced MFE. This unravels the underlying mechanism of the MFE in organic devices, to be more in agreement with the field of MFE in Biochemistry. (iii) Spin effects in organic optoelectronic devices: We demonstrated that certain spin 1/2 radical additives to donor-acceptor blends substantially enhance the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. This effect shows that studies of spin response and MFE in OPV devices are promising. In collaboration with T. Nguyen, E. Ehrenfreund, B. Gautam, Y. Zhang and T. Basel. Supported by the DOE grant 04ER46109 ; NSF Grant # DMR-1104495 and MSF-MRSEC program DMR-1121252 [2,3].
Oil dehydration using hydrodynamic effects and electrical fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skipin, V.S.; Cherepnin, V.V.; Didenko, V.I.
1980-01-01
This article examines the influence of hydrodynamic effects and electrical fields upon the water content of commercial oil. It is demonstrated that increasing the period of contact of the emulsion with a reagent and a unit for emulsive perturbation and reagent transfer, leads to a dosage reduction with a resulting high-quality of oil.
Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment
J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
2010-01-01
textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four w
Effective action for hard thermal loops in gravitational fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.R. Francisco
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We examine, through a Boltzmann equation approach, the generating action of hard thermal loops in the background of gravitational fields. Using the gauge and Weyl invariance of the theory at high temperature, we derive an explicit closed-form expression for the effective action.
Environmental Effects on Learning: The Outdoor Field Trip.
Martin, W. Wade; And Others
1981-01-01
Reports effects of an outdoor field trip on learning within the context of a community-based Summery Ecology Program for children between 7 and 13 years of age. Results include the finding that novel environments are poor settings for imposed task learning when compared with familiar environments. (CS)
Field-effect pH Control in Nanochannels
Veenhuis, Rogier B.H.; Wouden, van der Egbert J.; Nieuwkasteele, van Jan W.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Kim, Tae Song; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Taek-Dong; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Kaph-Yang; Choo, Jaebum; Kim, Yong-Kweon
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a novel capacitive method to change the pH in nanochannels. The device employs metal electrodes outside an insulating channel wall to change the electrical double layer potential by the field effect (‘voltage gating’). We demonstrate that this potential change is accompanied by a rele
Towards a quantum Hall effect for atoms using electric fields
Ericsson, M; Ericsson, Marie; Sjoqvist, Erik
2002-01-01
An atomic analogue of Landau quantization based on the Aharonov-Casher (AC) interaction is developed. The effect provides a first step towards an atomic quantum Hall system using electric fields, which may be realized in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.
2002-01-01
multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...
Conductance switching in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors
Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de
2011-01-01
Staggered bottom-contact top-gate organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors are fabricated with poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) as ferroelectric gate and poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)amine] as semiconductor. Polarization reversal of the ferroelectric gate
Field-effect transistors on tetracene single crystals
De Boer, R.W.I.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Morpurgo, A.F
2003-01-01
We report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors at the surface of tetracene single crystals. We find that the mobility of these transistors reaches the room-temperature value of 0.4 cm2/V s. The nonmonotonous temperature dependence of the mobility, its weak g
Mean-Field Versus Microconvection Effects in Nanofluid Thermal Conduction
Eapen, Jacob; Williams, Wesley C.; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen; Yip, Sidney; Rusconi, Roberto; Piazza, Roberto
2007-08-01
Transient hot-wire data on thermal conductivity of suspensions of silica and perfluorinated particles show agreement with the mean-field theory of Maxwell but not with the recently postulated microconvection mechanism. The influence of interfacial thermal resistance, convective effects at microscales, and the possibility of thermal conductivity enhancements beyond the Maxwell limit are discussed.
π-Conjugated Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yun-qi
2005-01-01
@@ 1Results and Discussion Organic semiconductors employed as active layers in field-effect transistors (FETs) are of great current interest because such FETs can potentially be fabricated at low cost, over large areas, and on flexible substrates. Such facile fabrication approaches offer a significant advantage over silicon technology in numerous applications.
Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt;
2014-01-01
Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...
Effective field theory of interactions on the lattice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj T.
2015-01-01
We consider renormalization of effective field theory interactions by discretizing the continuum on a tight-binding lattice. After studying the one-dimensional problem, we address s-wave collisions in three dimensions and relate the bare lattice coupling constants to the continuum coupling consta...
Reference field effect transistor based on chemically modified ISFETs
Skowronska-Ptasinska, Maria; Wal, van der Peter D.; Berg, van den Albert; Bergveld, Piet; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Reinhoudt, David N.
1990-01-01
Different hydrophobic polymers were used for chemical modification of ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) in order to prepare a reference FET (REFET). Chemical attachment of the polymer to the ISFET gate results in a long lifetime of the device. Properties of polyacrylate (polyACE) REFET
Effective action for a quantum scalar field in warped spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Mendonca, E.L.; Scatena, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista ' ' Julio de Mesquita Filho' ' -UNESP, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)
2015-11-15
We investigate the one-loop corrections, at zero as well as finite temperature, of a scalar field taking place in a braneworld motivated warped background. After to reach a well-defined problem, we calculate the effective action with the corresponding quantum corrections to each case. (orig.)
Effect of field-of-view on the Coriolis illusion
Groen, E.L.; Muis, H.; Kooi, F.L.
2008-01-01
Tilting the head during rotation about an Earth-vertical axis produces cross-coupled stimulation of the semicircular canals. Without visual feedback on the actual self-motion, this leads to the so-called Coriolis illusion. We investigated the effect of the field-of-view (FOV) on the magnitude and du
Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants
Belyavskaya, N. A.
2004-01-01
magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.
Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
1996-04-01
The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.
A scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor
Vali, Mehran; Dideban, Daryoosh; Moezi, Negin
2015-05-01
We propose a scheme for a topological insulator field effect transistor. The idea is based on the gate voltage control of the Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic topological insulator channel with perpendicular magnetization connecting to two metallic topological insulator leads. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed device displays a switching effect with high on/off current ratio and a negative differential conductance with a good peak to valley ratio.
Radiative Neutron Capture on Carbon-14 in Effective Field Theory
Rupak, Gautam; Vaghani, Akshay
2012-01-01
The cross section for radiative capture of neutron on carbon-14 is calculated using the model-independent formalism of halo effective field theory. The dominant contribution from E1 transition is considered, and the cross section is expressed in terms of elastic scattering parameters of the effective range expansion. Contributions from both resonant and non-resonant interaction are calculated. Significant interference between these leads to a capture contribution that deviates from simple Breit-Wigner resonance form.
HETEROSTRUCTURE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR, PHYSICAL ANALYSIS AND NEW STRUCTURES
Salmer, G.
1988-01-01
Physical phenomena that occur in conventional AlGaAs-GaAs MODFETs are briefly described. This covers quantum effects, carrier transport properties, influence of electric field... Progress in device modeling allow to obtain valuable information on device behaviour as well as various intervening physical effects and to predict the performance. Limitations resulting from both technological imperfections and specific device operations, e.g. low temperature, large power, are investigated. New stru...
Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.
Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M
2013-06-01
There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.
Effect of superheat and electric field on saturated film boiling
Pandey, Vinod; Biswas, Gautam; Dalal, Amaresh
2016-05-01
The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of superheat temperature and applied uniform electric field across the liquid-vapor interface during film boiling using a coupled level set and volume of fluid algorithm. The hydrodynamics of bubble growth, detachment, and its morphological variation with electrohydrodynamic forces are studied considering the medium to be incompressible, viscous, and perfectly dielectric at near critical pressure. The transition in interfacial instability behavior occurs with increase in superheat, the bubble release being periodic both in space and time. Discrete bubble growth occurs at a smaller superheat whereas vapor columns form at the higher superheat values. Destabilization of interfacial motion due to applied electric field results in decrease in bubble separation distance and increase in bubble release rate culminating in enhanced heat transfer rate. A comparison of maximum bubble height owing to application of different intensities of electric field is performed at a smaller superheat. The change in dynamics of bubble growth due to increasing superheat at a high intensity of electric field is studied. The effect of increasing intensity of electric field on the heat transfer rate at different superheats is determined. The boiling characteristic is found to be influenced significantly only above a minimum critical intensity of the electric field.
Electric-field effects in resistive oxides: facts and artifacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reisner G. M.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Striking non-linear conductivity effects induced by surprisingly low electric-fields in charge-ordered oxides, were reported variously as dielectric breakdown, charge-order collapse, depinning of charge-density-waves or other electronic effects. Our pulsed and d.c. I-V measurements on resistive oxides show that non-linear conductivity of electronic origin at low electric-fields is a rare phenomenon. In the majority of cases we detected no deviations from linearity in pulsed I-V characteristics under fields up to E ~ 500 V/cm. Current-controlled negative-differential-resistance (NDR and hysteresis were found in d.c. measurements at fields that decrease with increasing temperatures, a behavior typical of Joule heating in materials with negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. For the d.c. I-V characteristics of our samples exhibiting NDR, we found a rather unexpected correlation between ρ(Em - the resistivity at maximum field (at the onset of NDR and ρ(E=0 – the ohmic resistivity. The data points for ρ(Em versus ρ(E=0 obtained from such characteristics of 13 samples (8 manganites, 4 nickelates and one multiferroic at various ambient temperatures, plotted together on a log-log scale, follow closely a linear dependence with slope one that spans more than five orders of magnitude. This dependence is reproduced by several simple models.
Thermoregulation in rats: Effects of varying duration of hypergravic fields
Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.
1980-01-01
The effects of hypergravitational fields on the thermoregulatory system of the rat are examined. The question underlying the investigation was whether the response of the rat to the one hour cold exposure depends only upon the amplitude of the hypergravic field during the period of cold exposure or whether the response is also dependent on the amplitude and duration of the hypergravic field prior to cold exposure. One hour of cold exposure applied over the last hour of either a 1, 4, 7, 13, 19, 25, or 37 hr period of 3G evoked a decrease in core temperature (T sub c) of about 3 C. However, when rats were subjected concurrently to cold and acceleration following 8 days at 3G, they exhibited a smaller fall in T sub c, suggesting partial recovery of the acceleration induced impairment of temperature regulation. In another series of experiments, the gravitational field profile was changed in amplitude in 3 different ways. Despite the different gravitational field profiles used prior to cold, the magnitude of the fall in T sub c over the 1 hr period of cold exposure was the same in all cases. These results suggest that the thermoregulatory impairment has a rapid onset, is a manifestation of an ongoing effect of hypergravity, and is not dependent upon the prior G profile.
Thermal-rheology effect and temperature field of engineering polymers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李之达; 王花平; 黄婧
2008-01-01
The formation and evolution laws of the defect temperature field,heat dissipation in the process of defect evolution were studied.On the basis,the formation and evolution laws of the defect temperature field were investigated,the interaction among defects in the process of defect evolution was carried out.The numerical simulation of the temperature field of ABS was made.The results show that the process of defect evolution is one of energy dissipation,in which the defect temperature field forms due to that its heat dissipation possesses fractal property and its fractal dimension not only relates to the interaction among the defects,but also is the function of time,this incarnates the efficiency of coordinated actions of striding over the different gradations in the process of defect evolution and among gradations.The increase of the local temperature with the increase of deformation-induced heating effect in ABS is obvious.Moreover,the shape of plastic zone and inner heat source density function has big effect on the temperature field.
Electric field effects on resonance structures in negative ion photodetachment
Slonim, V. Z.; Greene, C. H.
1991-12-01
The photodetachment of negative ions in a static electric field exhibits some new characteristic features and has beer considered in various theortical approaches.1 Most of them, however, neglect the short-range interaction between the escaping electron and the atomic core, and must be modified to describe various resonant effects. Experiments2 have shown very rich resonant structure in a dc-field, which can be attributed to the mixing of different excited states in the negative ion, to competition between elastic and inelastic decay channels, and to tunneling effects induced by the field. It is known that various resonant structures in Photoprocesses can be successfully described within standard multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT). We present a modified MQDT frame transformation approach to extend the standard method to long-range potentials with nonspherical symmetry. In our treatment both the electron-field and electron-atom interactions are treated nonperturbatively and on an equal footing. The resulting theoretical calculations are compared with experimental data on field-modified H? photodetachment in the vicinity of the n = 2 resonances.
Effects of Martian crustal magnetic field on its ionosphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The effect of the Martian crustal magnetic field is one of the hot topics of the study of Martian ionosphere.The studies on this topic are summarized in this paper.Main data of the Martian ionosphere were resulted from radio occultation experiments.According to the observations,the electron density scale height and the peak electron density of the Martian ionosphere are influenced by its crustal magnetic field.The strong horizontal magnetic field prevents the vertical diffusion of the plasma and makes the electron density scale height in the topside ionosphere close to that in the photo equilibrium region.In the cusp-like regions with strong vertical magnetic field,the enhanced vertical diffusion leads to a larger electron density scale height in the diffusion equilibrium region.The observation of radio occultation experiment onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) showed that the averaged peak electron density observed in the southern hemisphere with strong crustal magnetic field was slightly larger than that in the northern hemisphere with weak crustal magnetic field.The Mars advanced radar for subsurface and ionosphere sounding (MARSIS) onboard Mars Express (MEX) was the first topside sounder to be used to observe Martian ionosphere.The MARSIS results confirmed that the enhancement of the peak electron density occurred in cusp-like regions with open field lines,and the amount of the enhancement was much larger than that observed by the radio occultation experiment.There are two possible mechanisms for the peak electron density enhancement in the cusp-like crustal magnetic field regions:One is the precipitation of the energetic particles and the other is the heating by the waves excited by plasma instabilities.It’s difficult to determine which one is the key mechanism for the peak electron density enhancement.Based on these studies,several interesting problems on the Martian ionosphere and plasma environment are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masella, J.M.
1997-05-29
This thesis is devoted to the numerical simulation of some two-fluid models describing gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipes. The numerical models developed here can be more generally used in the modelling of a wide class of physical models which can be put under an hyperbolic form. We introduce first two isothermal two-fluid models, composed of a mass balance equation and a momentum equation written in each phase, describing respectively a stratified two-phase flow and a dispersed two-phase flow. These models are hyperbolic under some physical assumptions and can be written under a nonconservative vectorial system. We define and analyse a new numerical finite volume scheme (v{integral}Roe) founded on a linearized Riemann solver. This scheme does not need any analytical calculation and gives good results in the tracking of shocks. We compare this new scheme with the classical Roe scheme. Then we propose and study some numerical models, with and without flux splitting method, which are adapted to the discretization of the two-fluid models. This numerical models are given by a finite volume integration of the equations, and lean on the v{integral} scheme. In order to reducing cpu time, due to the low Mach number of two-phase flows, acoustic waves are implicit. Afterwards we proposed a discretization of boundary conditions, which allows the generation of transient flows in pipe. Some numerical academic and more physical tests show the good behaviour of the numerical methods. (author) 77 refs.
Weingarten, W
2011-01-01
Superconducting cavities made from niobium allow accelerating gradients of about 50 MV/m close to the theoretical limit. Quite often, however, the RF losses increase with the gradient faster than quadratic. This observation is equivalent with a decrease of the quality factor Q with the gradient, called “Q-slope” for intermediate gradients, and “Q-drop” for larger ones. The paper provides an explanation by an elementary model based on the London two fluid theory of RF superconductivity and compares the model with experimental data for a large variety of cavity tests.
Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications
Chen, Ching-Jen
2001-03-01
While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when
Electric field effects in scanning tunneling microscope imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stokbro, Kurt; Quaade, Ulrich; Grey, Francois
1998-01-01
We present a high-voltage extension of the Tersoff-Hamann theory of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which includes the effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample. The theoretical model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and has no adjustable...... parameters. We use the method to calculate theoretical STM images of the monohydrate Si(100)-H(2x1) surface with missing hydrogen defects at -2V and find an enhanced corrugation due to the electric field, in good agreement with experimental images....
Effects of magnetic fields on the quark–gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bali, G.S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bruckmann, F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Endrődi, G., E-mail: gergely.endrodi@physik.uni-r.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Fodor, Z. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Theoretical Physics, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Katz, S.D. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); MTA-ELTE Lendület Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group (Hungary); Schäfer, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2014-11-15
In this talk, the response of the thermal QCD medium to external (electro)magnetic fields is studied using continuum extrapolated lattice results at physical quark masses. The magnetic susceptibility of QCD is calculated, revealing a strong paramagnetic response at high temperatures. This paramagnetism is shown to result in an anisotropic squeezing of the quark–gluon plasma in non-central heavy-ion collisions, implying a sizeable contribution to the elliptic flow. Another aspect is the magnetic response of topologically non-trivial domains to the magnetic field. We quantify this effect on the lattice and compare the results to a simple model estimate.
Electric field and temperature effects in irradiated MOSFETs
Silveira, M. A. G.; Santos, R. B. B.; Leite, F. G.; Araújo, N. E.; Cirne, K. H.; Melo, M. A. A.; Rallo, A.; Aguiar, Vitor. A. P.; Aguirre, F.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H.
2016-07-01
Electronic devices exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit degradation on their electrical characteristics, which may compromise the functionality of the device. Understanding the physical phenomena responsible for radiation damage, which may be specific to a particular technology, it is of extreme importance to develop methods for testing and recovering the devices. The aim of this work is to check the influence of thermal annealing processes and electric field applied during irradiation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) in total ionizing dose experiments analyzing the changes in the electrical parameters in these devices
Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.
2017-01-01
) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look...... of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing...
Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering
Schott, Mathias
2011-06-01
In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).
Poole-Frenkel Effect in Terahertz Electromagnetic Fields
1995-01-01
The ionisation of deep impurity centres in germanium has been observed with radiation in the terahertz range where the photon energy is much less than the binding energy of the impurities. It is shown that for not too high radiation intensities the ionisation is caused by the Poole-Frenkel effect. As in the well-known case of d.c. fields, the electric field of the high-frequency radiation lowers the Coulomb potential barrier and enhances the thermal emission of carriers.
Hyperpolarisation effects on the electric field gradient at a nucleus
Fowler, P. W.
1989-04-01
The electric field gradient at the nucleus of an atom or ion depends quadratically on the external electric field through the ɛ hyperpolarisability. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations on the He, Ne and Ar isoelectronic series show that ɛ is positive for s 2 and negative for p 6 electronic configurations, always having the opposite sign to the Sternheimer antishielding factor. The ab initio values for free atoms and ions conflict in sign with the effective hyperpolarisation term in one ionic model of nuclear quadrupole constants of gaseous alkali halides but the sign of the empirical parameter could change if overlap damping of the Sternheimer response were included in the model.
Giant low field magnetocaloric effect and field-induced metamagnetic transition in TmZn
Li, Lingwei; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yikun; Namiki, Takahiro; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Pöttgen, Rainer; Zhou, Shengqiang
2015-09-01
The magnetic properties and the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in TmZn have been studied by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The TmZn compound exhibits a ferromagnetic state below a Curie temperature of TC = 8.4 K and processes a field-induced metamagnetic phase transition around and above TC. A giant reversible MCE was observed in TmZn. For a field change of 0-5 T, the maximum values of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and adiabatic temperature change (ΔTadmax) are 26.9 J/kg K and 8.6 K, the corresponding values of relative cooling power and refrigerant capacity are 269 and 214 J/kg, respectively. Particularly, the values of -ΔSMmax reach 11.8 and 19.6 J/kg K for a low field change of 0-1 and 0-2 T, respectively. The present results indicate that TmZn could be a promising candidate for low temperature and low field magnetic refrigeration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-01
Engineering software for design purpose in nuclear industries have been developed since early 1970s, and well established in 1980s. The most popular and common language for the software development has been FORTRAN series, until the more sophisticated GUI and software coupling is needed. The advanced computer language, such as C++, C has been developed to help the programming for the easy GUI need and reuse of well developed routines, with adopting the objective oriented program. A recent trend of programming becomes objective-oriented since the results are often more intuitive and easier to maintain than procedure program. The main motivation of this work is to capture objective oriented concepts for conventional safety analysis programs which consist of many functions and procedure oriented structures. In this work, the new objective programming with C++ 6.0 language has been tried for the PILOT code written in FORTRAN language, and conceptual OOP design of the system safety analysis code has been done.
Topics in effective field theory as applied to lattice QCD
Smigielski, Brian
This thesis focuses on understanding aspects of hadronic physics using numerical and analytic computations which comprise the research fields of Lattice QCD and Effective Field Theories. Lattice QCD is a numerical approximation to QCD that is computed within a finite spacetime volume, a finite lattice spacing, and unphysically large values of the quark mass used to limit computational run time. Because Lattice QCD calculations are implemented with these constraints, it becomes necessary to understand how these constraints influence the physics if we are to extract physical observables. This requires the use and matching of an effective field theory for mesons and baryons which are the fundamental degrees of freedom of the effective field theory Lagrangian. We consider pion and nucleon interactions in Chapter 3 when computational demands force the use of small, spacetime lattices, and extract the axial charge of the nucleon. In Chapters 4 and 5 we examine systems of up to twelve particles of single species, pions or kaons, and mixed species systems of pions and kaons. From these systems we learn about the scattering lengths and three-body forces of these particles. These multi-particle systems also allow one to understand the behavior of finite density systems on the lattice. Lastly in Chapter 6, we examine parton distributions of the pion for a nonzero change in the pion's momentum. These are known as generalized parton distributions and reveal information regarding the valence quarks within a particular hadron. Before the advent of QCD, however, these particles were also known as partons.
[Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on mammalian spermatogenesis].
Susa, Martina; Pavicić, Ivan
2007-12-01
This article reviews studies about the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF EM) fields on male reproductive system and reproductive health in mammals. According to current data, there are almost 4 million active mobile phone lines in Croatia while this number has risen to 2 billion in the world. Increased use of mobile technology raises scientific and public concern about possible hazardous effects of RF fields on human health. The effects of radiofrequencies on reproductive health and consequences for the offspring are still mainly unknown. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that RF fields could interact with charged intracellular macromolecular structures. Results of several laboratory studies on animal models showed how the RF fields could affect the mammalian reproductive system and sperm cells. Inasmuch as, in normal physiological conditions spermatogenesis is a balanced process of division, maturation and storage of cells, it is particularly vulnerable to the chemical and physical environmental stimuli. Especially sensitive could be the cytoskeleton, composed of charged proteins; actin, intermedial filaments and microtubules. Cytoskeleton is a functional and structural part of the cell that has important role in the sperm motility, and is actively involved in the morphologic changes that occur during mammalian spermiogenesis.
An Effective Field Theory for Forward Scattering and Factorization Violation
Rothstein, Ira Z
2016-01-01
Starting with QCD, we derive an effective field theory description for forward scattering and factorization violation as part of the soft-collinear effective field theory (SCET) for high energy scattering. These phenomena are mediated by long distance Glauber gluon exchanges, which are static in time, localized in the longitudinal distance, where $|t| \\ll s$. In hard scattering, Glauber gluons can induce corrections which invalidate factorization. With SCET, Glauber exchange graphs can be calculated explicitly, and are distinct from graphs with soft, collinear, or ultrasoft gluons. We derive a complete basis of operators which describe the leading power effects of Glauber exchange. Key ingredients include regulating light-cone rapidity singularities and subtractions which prevent double counting. Our results include a novel all orders gauge invariant pure glue soft operator which appears between two collinear rapidity sectors. The 1-gluon Feynman rule for the soft operator coincides with the Lipatov vertex, b...
Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory
Sugama, H; Nunami, M
2015-01-01
Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the pres...
Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems
Evans, Emrys W.; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C. J.; Timmel, Christiane R.
2013-01-01
Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388
Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Psenakova
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.
Biological effects of pulsating magnetic fields: role of solitons
Brizhik, Larissa
2014-01-01
In this paper, we analyze biological effects produced by magnetic fields in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms, which can produce them. We show that there is a chierarchy of such mechanisms and that the mutual interplay between them can result in the synergetic outcome. In particular, we analyze the biological effects of magnetic fields on soliton mediated charge transport in the redox processes in living organisms. Such solitons are described by nonlinear systems of equations and represent electrons that are self-trapped in alpha-helical polypeptides due to the moderately strong electron-lattice interaction. They represent a particular type of disssipativeless large polarons in low-dimensional systems. We show that the effective mass of solitons in the is different from the mass of free electrons, and that there is a resonant effect of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of solitons, and, hence, on charge transport that accompanies photosynthesis and respiration. These effects can result in non-therm...
Browning, P K; Evans, M; Lucini, F Arese; Lukin, V S; McClements, K G; Stanier, A
2015-01-01
Twisted magnetic flux ropes are ubiquitous in space and laboratory plasmas, and the merging of such flux ropes through magnetic reconnection is an important mechanism for restructuring magnetic fields and releasing free magnetic energy. The merging-compression scenario is one possible start up scheme for spherical tokamaks, which has been used on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak MAST. Two current-carrying plasma rings, or flux ropes, approach each other through the mutual attraction of their like currents, and merge, through magnetic reconnection, into a single plasma torus, with substantial plasma heating. 2D resistive MHD and Hall MHD simulations of this process are reported, and new results for the temperature distribution of ions and electrons are presented. A model of the based on relaxation theory is also described, which is now extended to tight aspect ratio geometry. This model allows prediction of the final merged state and the heating. The implications of the relaxation model for heating of the solar ...
Lorentz breaking Effective Field Theory and observational tests
Liberati, Stefano
2012-01-01
Analogue models of gravity have provided an experimentally realizable test field for our ideas on quantum field theory in curved spacetimes but they have also inspired the investigation of possible departures from exact Lorentz invariance at microscopic scales. In this role they have joined, and sometime anticipated, several quantum gravity models characterized by Lorentz breaking phenomenology. A crucial difference between these speculations and other ones associated to quantum gravity scenarios, is the possibility to carry out observational and experimental tests which have nowadays led to a broad range of constraints on departures from Lorentz invariance. We shall review here the effective field theory approach to Lorentz breaking in the matter sector, present the constraints provided by the available observations and finally discuss the implications of the persisting uncertainty on the composition of the ultra high energy cosmic rays for the constraints on the higher order, analogue gravity inspired, Lore...
Abnormal Dirac point shift in graphene field-effect transistors
Wang, Shaoqing; Jin, Zhi; Huang, Xinnan; Peng, Songang; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan
2016-09-01
The shift of Dirac point in graphene devices is of great importance, influencing the reliability and stability. Previous studies show the Dirac point shifts slightly to be more positive when the drain bias increases. Here, an abnormal shift of Dirac point is observed in monolayer graphene field effect transistors by investigating the transfer curves under various drain biases. The voltage of Dirac point shifts positively at first and then decreases rapidly when the channel electric field exceeds some threshold. The negative Dirac point shift is attributed to holes injection into oxide layer and captured by the oxide traps under high channel electric field. This can also be demonstrated through a simple probability model and the graphene Raman spectra before and after the DC measurement.
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement.
Stark, T M; Sinclair, P M
1987-02-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of a simple surgically noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field could increase both the rate and amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed in guinea pigs. In addition, the objective was to evaluate the electromagnetic field's effects on bony physiology and metabolism and to search for possible systemic side effects. Laterally directed orthodontic force was applied to the maxillary central incisors of a sample of 40 young male, Hartley guinea pigs (20 experimental, 20 control) by means of a standardized intraoral coil spring inserted under constricting pressure into holes drilled in the guinea pigs' two maxillary central incisors. During the experimental period, the guinea pigs were placed in specially constructed, plastic animal holders with their heads positioned in an area of uniform electromagnetic field. Control animals were placed in similar plastic holders that did not carry the electrical apparatus. The application of a pulsed electromagnetic field to the experimental animals significantly increased both the rate and final amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed over the 10-day experimental period. The experimental animals also demonstrated histologic evidence of significantly greater amounts of bone and matrix deposited in the area of tension between the orthodontically moved maxillary incisors. This increase in cellular activity was also reflected by the presence of significantly greater numbers of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone surrounding the maxillary incisors of the experimental animals. After a 10-day exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field, minor changes in serologic parameters relating to protein metabolism and muscle activity were noted. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and bone deposition through the application of a noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field.
Open Effective Field Theories from Deeply Inelastic Reactions
Braaten, Eric; Hammer, Hans-Werner; Lepage, G. Peter
2017-01-01
Effective field theories have often been applied to systems with inelastic reactions that produce particles with large momenta outside the domain of validity of the effective theory. The effects of the deeply inelastic reactions have been taken into account in previous work by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian density. We show that an additional modification is required in equations governing the density matrix when multi-particle states are considered. We define an effective density matrix by tracing out states containing high-momentum particles, and show that it satisfies a Lindblad equation, with Lindblad operators determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian density. This research was supported in part by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.
Open Effective Field Theories from Deeply Inelastic Reactions
Braaten, Eric; Lepage, G Peter
2016-01-01
Effective field theories have often been applied to systems with deeply inelastic reactions that produce particles with large momenta outside the domain of validity of the effective theory. The effects of the deeply inelastic reactions have been taken into account in previous work by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian. Here we show that when multi-particle systems are considered, an additional modification is required in equations governing the density matrix. We define an effective density matrix by tracing over the states containing high-momentum particles, and show that it satisfies a Lindblad equation, with local Lindblad operators determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian density.
New parameterization of the effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field model
Kumar, Bharat; Singh, S. K.; Agrawal, B. K.; Patra, S. K.
2017-10-01
A new parameter set is generated for finite and infinite nuclear system within the effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field (ERMF) formalism. The isovector part of the ERMF model employed in the present study includes the coupling of nucleons to the δ and ρ mesons and the cross-coupling of ρ mesons to the σ and ω mesons. The results for the finite and infinite nuclear systems obtained using our parameter set are in harmony with the available experimental data. We find the maximum mass of the neutron star to be 2.03M⊙ and yet a relatively smaller radius at the canonical mass, 12.69 km, as required by the available data.
Cyclotron Line Features from Near-Critical Fields II on the Effect of Anisotropic Radiation Fields
Araya-Gochez, R A; Araya-Gochez, Rafael A.; Harding, Alice K.
2000-01-01
We assess the impact of radiation anisotropy on the line shapes that result from relativistic magnetic Compton scattering in the low-density/high-field regime. A Monte Carlo implementation of radiation transport allows for spatial diffusion of photons in arbitrary geometries and accounts for relativistic angular redistribution. The cross section includes natural line widths and photon "spawning" from up to fourth harmonic photons. In our first paper we noted that even if the photon injection is isotropic a strongly anisotropic radiation field rapidly ensues. We now investigate the angular distribution of cyclotron spectra emerging from an internally irradiated magnetized plasma with a prescribed global geometry (either cylindrical or plane parallel) and the effects of anisotropic photon injection on the line shapes. Varying the input angular distribution permits a better understanding of the line formation process in more realistic scenarios where the radiative mechanisms are influenced by the intrinsic aniso...
The effect of magnetic fields on star cluster formation
Price, Daniel
2008-01-01
We examine the effect of magnetic fields on star cluster formation by performing simulations following the self-gravitating collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud to form stars in ideal MHD. The collapse of the cloud is computed for global mass-to-flux ratios of infinity, 20, 10, 5 and 3, that is using both weak and strong magnetic fields. Whilst even at very low strengths the magnetic field is able to significantly influence the star formation process, for magnetic fields with plasma beta < 1 the results are substantially different to the hydrodynamic case. In these cases we find large-scale magnetically-supported voids imprinted in the cloud structure; anisotropic turbulent motions and column density structure aligned with the magnetic field lines, both of which have recently been observed in the Taurus molecular cloud. We also find strongly suppressed accretion in the magnetised runs, leading to up to a 75% reduction in the amount of mass converted into stars over the course of the calculations and a m...
Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect under low magnetic field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Qian Liu; Xiao-Bing Bian; Jian-Ping Zhou; Peng Liu
2011-04-01
The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the amplitude and resonance frequency change with the external magnetic field. The colossal magnetodielectric coefficient of 5 × 104%at low magnetic field of 20 Oe is achieved near the electromechanical resonance frequency.
Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions
Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.
2016-09-01
In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.
Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatsuo Hasegawa and Jun Takeya
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs, the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20–40 cm2 Vs−1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals
Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun
2009-04-01
Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm2 Vs-1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.
Fowler-Nordheim field emission. Effects in semiconductor nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Sitangshu [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory; Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad [Calcutta Univ. (India). Dept. of Electronics Science
2012-07-01
This monograph solely presents the Fowler-Nordheim field emission (FNFE) from semiconductors and their nanostructures. The materials considered are quantum confined non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, carbon nanotubes, PtSb{sub 2}, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe superlattices with graded interfaces and effective mass superlattices under magnetic quantization and quantum wires of the aforementioned superlattices. The FNFE in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The importance of band gap measurements in opto-electronic materials in the presence of external fields is discussed from this perspective. This monograph contains 200 open research problems which form the very core and are useful for Ph. D students and researchers. The book can also serve as a basis for a graduate course on field emission from solids. (orig.)
Gravity effects on thick brane formation from scalar field dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrianov, Alexander A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, V.A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Universitat de Barcelona, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona (Spain); Andrianov, Vladimir A.; Novikov, Oleg O. [Saint-Petersburg State University, V.A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2013-12-15
The formation of a thick brane in five-dimensional space-time is investigated when warp geometries of AdS{sub 5} type are induced by scalar matter dynamics and triggered by a thin-brane defect. The scalar matter is taken to consist of two fields with O(2) symmetric self-interaction and with manifest O(2) symmetry breaking by terms quadratic in fields. One of them serves as a thick brane formation mode around a kink background and another one is of a Higgs-field type which may develop a classical background as well. Scalar matter interacts with gravity in the minimal form and gravity effects on (quasi)localized scalar fluctuations are calculated with usage of gauge invariant variables suitable for perturbation expansion. The calculations are performed in the vicinity of the critical point of spontaneous breaking of the combined parity symmetry where a non-trivial v.e.v. of the Higgs-type scalar field is generated. The non-perturbative discontinuous gravitational effects in the mass spectrum of light localized scalar states are studied in the presence of a thin-brane defect. The thin brane with negative tension happens to be the most curious case when the singular barriers form a potential well with two infinitely tall walls and the discrete spectrum of localized states arises completely isolated from the bulk. (orig.)
Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-06-11
Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.
Microwave Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mina A. N.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The quantum transport property of a carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET is investigated under the effect of microwave radiation and magnetic field. The photon-assisted tunneling probability is deduced by solving Dirac equation. Then the current is deduced according to Landauer-Buttiker formula. Oscillatory behavior of the current is observed which is due to the Coulomb blockade oscillations. It was found, also, that the peak heights of the dependence of the current on the parameters under study are strongly affected by the interplay between the tunneled electrons and the photon energy. This interplay affects on the sidebands resonance. The results obtained in the present paper are found to be in concordant with those in the literature, which confirms the correctness of the proposed model. This study is valuable for nanotechnology applications, e.g., photo-detector devices and solid state quantum computing systems and quantum information processes.
Preparation of organic thin-film field effect transistor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The organic thin-film field effect transistor was prepared through vacuum deposition by using teflon as di-electric material. Indium-tin-oxide acted as the source and drain electrodes. Copper phthalocyanine and teflon were used as the semiconductor layer and dielectric layer, respectively. The gate electrode was made of Ag. The channel length between the source and drain was 50 μm. After preparing the source and drain electrodes by lithography, the copper phthalocyanine layer, teflon layer and Ag layerwere prepared by vacuum deposition sequentially. The field effect electron mobility of the device reached 1.1×10ˉ6 cm2/(V@s), and the on/off current ratio reached 500.
Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes.
Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-06-05
We derive scalar effective field theories-Lagrangians, symmetries, and all-from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.
Consistent constraints on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory
Berthier, Laure
2015-01-01
We develop the global constraint picture in the (linear) effective field theory generalisation of the Standard Model, incorporating data from detectors that operated at PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SpS, Tevatron, SLAC, LEPI and LEP II, as well as low energy precision data. We fit one hundred observables. We develop a theory error metric for this effective field theory, which is required when constraints on parameters at leading order in the power counting are to be pushed to the percent level, or beyond, unless the cut off scale is assumed to be large, $\\Lambda \\gtrsim \\, 3 \\, {\\rm TeV}$. We more consistently incorporate theoretical errors in this work, avoiding this assumption, and as a direct consequence bounds on some leading parameters are relaxed. We show how an $\\rm S,T$ analysis is modified by the theory errors we include as an illustrative example.
Power Counting Regime of Chiral Effective Field Theory and Beyond
Hall, J M M; Leinweber, D B
2010-01-01
Chiral effective field theory complements numerical simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a space-time lattice. It provides a model-independent formalism for connecting lattice simulation results at finite volume and a variety of quark masses to the physical world. The asymptotic nature of the chiral expansion places the focus on the first few terms of the expansion. Thus, knowledge of the power-counting regime (PCR) of chiral effective field theory, where higher-order terms of the expansion may be regarded as negligible, is as important as knowledge of the expansion itself. Through the consideration of a variety of renormalization schemes and associated parameters, techniques to identify the PCR where results are independent of the renormalization scheme are established. The nucleon mass is considered as a benchmark for illustrating this general approach. Because the PCR is small, the numerical simulation results are also examined to search for the possible presence of an intrinsic scale which may b...
Universal dimer-dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam
2016-01-01
We consider two-component fermions with short-range interactions and large scattering length. This system has universal properties that are realized in many different fields including atomic, nuclear and particle physics. In the limit of large fermion-fermion scattering length $a_\\mathrm{ff}$ and zero range interaction, all properties of the system scale proportionally with the only length scale $a_\\mathrm{ff}$. We consider the case where there are bound dimers and calculate the scattering phase shifts for the two-dimer system near threshold using lattice effective field theory. From the scattering phase shifts, we extract the universal dimer-dimer scattering length $a_\\mathrm{dd}/a_\\mathrm{ff}=0.645(89)$ and effective range $r_\\mathrm{dd}/a_\\mathrm{ff}=-0.413(79)$.
Topics in Effective Field Theory for Lattice QCD
Walker-Loud, A
2006-01-01
In this work, we extend and apply effective field theory techniques to systematically understand a subset of lattice artifacts which pollute the lattice correlation functions for a few processes of physical interest. Where possible, we compare to existing lattice QCD calculations. In particular, we extend the heavy baryon Lagrangian to the next order in partially quenched chiral perturbation theory and use it to compute the masses of the lightest spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 baryons to next-to-next-to leading order. We then construct the twisted mass chiral Lagrangian for baryons and apply it to compute the lattice spacing corrections to the baryon masses simulated with twisted mass lattice QCD. We extend computations of the nucleon electromagnetic structure to account for finite volume effects, as these observables are particularly sensitive to the finite extent of the lattice. We resolve subtle peculiarities for lattice QCD simulations of polarizabilities and we show that using background field techniques, one can...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, D.A.B.; Feuer, M.D.; Chang, T.Y.; Shunk, S.C.; Henry, J.E.; Burrows, D.J.; Chemla, D.S.
1989-03-01
The authors propose and demonstrate the integration of a photodiode, a quantum-confined Stark effect quantum well optical modulator and a metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET), to make a field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device. This integration allows optical inputs and outputs on the surface of a GaAs-integrated circuit chip, compatible with standard MESFET processing. As an illustration of feasibility, the authors demonstrate optical signal amplification with a single MESFET.
Yoshihiro Shimazu; Mitsuki Tashiro; Satoshi Sonobe; Masaki Takahashi
2016-01-01
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently received much attention for nanoscale electronic and photonic applications. To explore the intrinsic properties and enhance the performance of MoS2-based field-effect transistors, thorough understanding of extrinsic effects such as environmental gas and contact resistance of the electrodes is required. Here, we report the effects of environmental gases on the transport properties of back-gated multilayered MoS2 field-effect transistors. Comparisons bet...
Efeito do campo magnético na precipitação de parafinas Magnetic field effect on paraffin deposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelson de Oliveira Rocha
1998-02-01
Full Text Available In the oil industry, the paraffination phenomenon is a major problem during oil production, displacement and treatment. Paraffin deposition in subsea flowlines, surface equipment, production string or even in the reservoir, can cause significant and increasing oil losses. To minimize paraffin precipitation, the application of magnetic field in the petroleum path has been suggested based on empiric studies. In this study, we assembled a labscale magnetic conditioner to determine the influence of magnetic field on the physical-chemical properties of two fluids : oil and a paraffin mixture. We observed that magnetic field reduce sample aparent viscosity due to crystal morphology alteration.
Uncertainties of Euclidean Time Extrapolation in Lattice Effective Field Theory
Lähde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam
2014-01-01
Extrapolations in Euclidean time form a central part of Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) calculations using the Projection Monte Carlo method, as the sign problem in many cases prevents simulations at large Euclidean time. We review the next-to-next-to-leading order NLEFT results for the alpha nuclei up to $^{28}$Si, with emphasis on the Euclidean time extrapolations, their expected accuracy and potential pitfalls. We also discuss possible avenues for improving the reliability of Euclidean time extrapolations in NLEFT.
Fiber field-effect device via in situ channel crystallization.
Danto, Sylvain; Sorin, Fabien; Orf, Nicholas D; Wang, Zheng; Speakman, Scott A; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel
2010-10-01
The in situ crystallization of the incorporated amorphous semiconductor within the multimaterial fiber device yields a large decrease in defect density and a concomitant five-order-of-magnitude decrease in resistivity of the novel metal-insulator-crystalline semiconductor structure. Using a post-drawing crystallization process, the first tens-of-meters-long single-fiber field-effect device is demonstrated. This work opens significant opportunities for incorporating higher functionality in functional fibers and fabrics.
The Effect of Magnetic Fields on Wound Healing
Henry, Steven L.; Concannon, Matthew J; Yee, Gloria J
2008-01-01
Objective: Magnets are purported to aid wound healing despite a paucity of scientific evidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields on cutaneous wound healing in an animal model. The literature was reviewed to explore the historical and scientific basis of magnet therapy and to define its current role in the evidence-based practice of plastic surgery. Methods: Standardized wounds were created on the backs of 33 Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided...
Electromagnetic and transient shielding effectiveness for near-field sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Möller
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with an investigation of the recently proposed definitions for the electromagnetic and transient shielding effectiveness (SE in the case of an electric-dipole near-field source. To this end, new factors are introduced which depend on the distance between the dipole source and the measurement point inside the shield and which are valid for perpendicularly (with respect to the distance vector polarized dipoles. Numerical results support and confirm the theoretical derivations.
Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures
Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Jalil, R.; Belle, B. D.; Schedin, F.; Mishchenko, A.; Georgiou, T; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eaves, L.; Morozov, S. V.; Peres, N. M. R.; Leist, J.; Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K.S.; Ponomarenko, L. A.
2012-01-01
We report a bipolar field effect tunneling transistor that exploits to advantage the low density of states in graphene and its one atomic layer thickness. Our proof-of-concept devices are graphene heterostructures with atomically thin boron nitride acting as a tunnel barrier. They exhibit room temperature switching ratios ~50, a value that can be enhanced further by optimizing the device structure. These devices have potential for high frequency operation and large scale integration.
Scalable graphene field-effect sensors for specific protein detection.
Saltzgaber, Grant; Wojcik, Peter; Sharf, Tal; Leyden, Matthew R; Wardini, Jenna L; Heist, Christopher A; Adenuga, Adeniyi A; Remcho, Vincent T; Minot, Ethan D
2013-09-06
We demonstrate that micron-scale graphene field-effect transistor biosensors can be fabricated in a scalable fashion from large-area chemical vapor deposition derived graphene. We electrically detect the real-time binding and unbinding of a protein biomarker, thrombin, to and from aptamer-coated graphene surfaces. Our sensors have low background noise and high transconductance, comparable to exfoliated graphene devices. The devices are reusable and have a shelf-life greater than one week.
Advances in organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong; JI ZhuoYu; LIU Ming; SHANG LiWei; LIU Ge; LIU XingHua; LIU Jiang; PENG YingQuan
2009-01-01
Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have received significant research interest because of their promising applications in low cast, lager area, plastic circuits, and tremendous progress has been made in materials, device performance, OFETs based circuits in recent years.In this article we intro-duce the advances in organic semiconductor materials, OFETs based integrating techniques, and in particular highlight the recent progress.Finally, the prospects and problems of OFETs are discussed.
Opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.
2015-09-01
In January 2015, the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) published its final opinion on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields." The purpose of this document was to update previous SCENIHR opinions in the light of recently available information since then, and to give special consideration to areas that had not been dealt with in the previous opinions or in which important knowledge gaps had been identified.