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Sample records for fields processes affecting

  1. Models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.Y. [Nottingham Trent University Burton Street, Dept. of Mechinal and Manufacturing Engineering (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the theoretical models for general phase change phenomena in heat exchangers and in industrial processes affected by applying an electric field. The models are on the basis of nucleation and surface fluctuation theories to study the generality of phase change processes under the action of an electric field. Theoretical analysis is carried out and highlights the effect of an electric field on phase change processes from an existing phase to a new phase. The analysis has shown that a critical value of the filed strength could be found theoretically for a certain phase change process. This could be a mechanism of control the processes. (authors)

  2. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  3. Processes and features affecting the near field hydrochemistry. Groundwater-bentonite interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L. [QuantiSci SL, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-12-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the near field aqueous chemistry as a result of the interactions between three different intruding groundwaters (Aespoe, Gideaa and Finnsjoen) with the MX-80 bentonite buffer material. The main emphasis has been placed on studying the evolution of the main chemical buffers of the system (alkalinity and redox capacities) and the resulting master variables (pH and pe). The calculations have been done by using a set of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters previously calibrated against experimental data on bentonite/granitic groundwater interactions, in combination with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The results of the calculations indicate that the alkalinity buffercapacity is mainly exerted by the accessory content of carbonate minerals (calcite) in the bentonite system, while the ion exchange process plays a secondary (but not negligible) role. The Ca(II) content of the intruding groundwater has an impact on the resulting pH. For Ca(II) rich waters, like Aespoe, the resulting pH remains in the range of granitic groundwaters (7.5-9.5) during the overall repository lifetime (1 million years). For Ca(II) poor groundwaters, the systems evolves to high alkalinity (pH : 10.5 - 10.8) due to the depletion of calcite and the release of carbonate in to the near field aqueous chemistry. Concerning the reducing capacity of the system, this is mainly controlled by the accessory pyrite content, although the Fe(II) content in montmorillonite and in the carbonates cannot be disregarded. Reducing conditions in the bentonite/groundwater system are ensured throughout the lifetime of the repository system unless this is placed in direct and lifetime contact with the atmosphere (surface storage)

  4. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...... works have been performed with astronomical calibration based on stable isotope stratigraphy, wireline logs as well as several palaeontological proxies and detailed sedimentological analysis. Since a couple of decades, a specific kind of fractures has been described in the Chalk of Denmark, the so......-called hairline fractures. They have recently been interpreted as compaction bands associated with the pore collapse of the chalk. We have observed these fractures on the field and on the cores in specific intervals. At depth, these fractures are in genetic relation with the formation of some stylolithes...

  5. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  6. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (To), peak (Tp), and conclusion (Tc) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities.

  7. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  8. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  9. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  10. Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.R.; Quené, H.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Anne van Leeuwen Utrecht institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension We often smile (and frown) while we talk. Speakers use facial expression, posture and prosody to provide additional cues that signal speaker stance. Speaker stance

  11. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  12. Parallel Processing of Affective Visual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyk, Peter; Schupp, Harald T.; Keil, Andreas; Elbert, Thomas; Junghöfer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies of affective picture processing have demonstrated an early posterior negativity (EPN) for emotionally arousing pictures that are embedded in a rapid visual stream. The present study examined the selective processing of emotional pictures while systematically varying picture presentation rates between 1 and 16 Hz. Previous results with presentation rates up to 5 Hz were replicated in that emotional compared to neutral pictures were associated with a greater EPN. Discrimination among emotional and neutral contents was maintained up to 12 Hz. To explore the notion of parallel processing, convolution analysis was used: EPNs generated by linear superposition of slow rate ERPs explained 70-93% of the variance of measured EPNs, giving evidence for an impressive capacity of parallel affective discrimination in rapid serial picture presentation. PMID:19055507

  13. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  14. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  15. Impact of Chronic Hypercortisolemia on Affective Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenecker, Scott A.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Giordani, Bruno; Briceno, Emily M.; GuidottiBreting, Leslie M.; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Leon, Hadia M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Schteingart, David E.; Starkman, Monica N.

    2011-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD.Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy controlsubjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated.CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CSgroup, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulatewas related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD. PMID:21787793

  16. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  17. Mental processes affecting the piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra Gültek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the mental processes that affect the piano performance. An efficient performance and education of the piano instrument depends on a complex systematic structure of a combination of some musical and technical challenges. To succeed in piano playing, one shall overcome the difficulties systematically over several years. Naturally, this process depends on many variables and the correct organization of the central nervous system plays a very important role on it. Having a complete understanding on the subject matter, it might guide the performance of piano playing and its educationBy the analysis of the historical processes, the activity of playing the piano was initially seen as a pure mechanical activity. However, at the beginning of the 20th Century, scholars had started to consider it not without its physiological and mental elements. This trend has reached today by gradually increasing its importance. Today in the contemporary piano performance and education, the mental processes are not being isolated from the whole matter of subject. In this study, the importance of the practicing methods that are based on correct organization of the central nervous system is set forth and to increase the efficiency of the piano performance, some practicing examples are given.

  18. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlut, Noah G; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Strong, Allan M; Donovan, Therese M; Kilpatrick, C William; Zalik, Nathan J

    2008-03-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes.

  19. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Cloud Processed CCN Affect Cloud Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.; Tabor, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the bimodality/monomodality of CCN spectra (Hudson et al. 2015) exert opposite effects on cloud microphysics in two aircraft field projects. The figure shows two examples, droplet concentration, Nc, and drizzle liquid water content, Ld, against classification of CCN spectral modality. Low ratings go to balanced separated bimodal spectra, high ratings go to single mode spectra, strictly monomodal 8. Intermediate ratings go merged modes, e.g., one mode a shoulder of another. Bimodality is caused by mass or hygroscopicity increases that go only to CCN that made activated cloud droplets. In the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) small cumuli with lower Nc, greater droplet mean diameters, MD, effective radii, re, spectral widths, σ, cloud liquid water contents, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal (lower modal ratings) below cloud CCN spectra whereas clouds with higher Nc, smaller MD, re, σ, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN (higher modal ratings). In polluted stratus clouds of the MArine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) clouds that had greater Nc, and smaller MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal CCN spectra whereas clouds with lower Nc, and greater MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN. These relationships are opposite because the dominant ICE-T cloud processing was coalescence whereas chemical transformations (e.g., SO2 to SO4) were dominant in MASE. Coalescence reduces Nc and thus also CCN concentrations (NCCN) when droplets evaporate. In subsequent clouds the reduced competition increases MD and σ, which further enhance coalescence and drizzle. Chemical transformations do not change Nc but added sulfate enhances droplet and CCN solubility. Thus, lower critical supersaturation (S) CCN can produce more cloud droplets in subsequent cloud cycles, especially for the low W and effective S of stratus. The increased competition reduces MD, re, and σ, which inhibit coalescence and thus reduce drizzle

  1. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  2. Factors affecting multifunctional teams in innovation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xin

    2002-01-01

    Structuring the innovation process and managing multifunctional teams is a basic prerequisite successful innovation. A well-structured process gives the possibility to implement effective multifunctional teamwork. Meanwhile, multifunctional teamwork helps to optimise and accomplish the innovation process. Organizational support is necessary to achieve effective teamwork. Designing or changing the organizational structures for multifunctional collaboration is an important issue. Changing the s...

  3. Do unconscious processes affect educational institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2009-10-01

    In this article I discuss the way that aspects of school and teaching have unconscious roots. Where anxiety about the process, for teachers and children, is high then there is the risk that unconscious defensive processes may occur resulting in institutionalized phenomena. These take the form of cultural attitudes and common practices which may not necessarily enhance the work and in some cases may actively interfere.

  4. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  5. Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

  6. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  7. Vector field processing on triangle meshes

    OpenAIRE

    De Goes, Fernando; Desbrun, Mathieu; Tong, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    While scalar fields on surfaces have been staples of geometry processing, the use of tangent vector fields has steadily grown in geometry processing over the last two decades: they are crucial to encoding directions and sizing on surfaces as commonly required in tasks such as texture synthesis, non-photorealistic rendering, digital grooming, and meshing. There are, however, a variety of discrete representations of tangent vector fields on triangle meshes, and each approach offers different tr...

  8. Crossmodal interactions during affective picture processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrari

    Full Text Available "Natural" crossmodal correspondences, such as the spontaneous tendency to associate high pitches with high spatial locations, are often hypothesized to occur preattentively and independently of task instructions (top-down attention. Here, we investigate bottom-up attentional engagement by using emotional scenes that are known to naturally and reflexively engage attentional resources. We presented emotional (pleasant and unpleasant or neutral pictures either below or above a fixation cross, while participants were required to discriminate between a high or a low pitch tone (experiment 1. Results showed that despite a robust crossmodal attentional capture of task-irrelevant emotional pictures, the general advantage in classifying the tones for congruent over incongruent visual-auditory stimuli was similar for emotional and neutral pictures. On the other hand, when picture position was task-relevant (experiment 2, task-irrelevant tones did not interact with pictures with regard to their combination of pitch and visual vertical spatial position, but instead they were effective in minimizing the interference effect of emotional picture processing on the ongoing task. These results provide constraints on our current understanding of natural crossmodal correspondences.

  9. Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Cognitive control modulates preferential sensory processing of affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Marco; Flaisch, Tobias; Meinzer, Marcus; Schupp, Harald T

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive human behavior crucially relies on the ability of the brain to allocate resources automatically to emotionally significant stimuli. This ability has consistently been demonstrated by studies showing preferential processing of affective stimuli in sensory cortical areas. It is still unclear, however, whether this putatively automatic mechanism can be modulated by cognitive control processes. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether preferential processing of an affective face distractor is suppressed when an affective distractor has previously elicited a response conflict in a word-face Stroop task. We analyzed this for three consecutive stages in the ventral stream of visual processing for which preferential processing of affective stimuli has previously been demonstrated: the striate area (BA 17), category-unspecific extrastriate areas (BA 18/19), and the fusiform face area (FFA). We found that response conflict led to a selective suppression of affective face processing in category-unspecific extrastriate areas and the FFA, and this effect was accompanied by changes in functional connectivity between these areas and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, preferential processing of affective face distractors was unaffected in the striate area. Our results indicate that cognitive control processes adaptively suppress preferential processing of affective stimuli under conditions where affective processing is detrimental because it elicits response conflict.

  11. Affective priming during the processing of news articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Wirth, W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read

  12. Affective priming during the processing of news articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Wirth, W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read

  13. Core Processes: Earth's eccentric magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause.......Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause....

  14. Physical Processes in Strong Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2003-01-01

    Neutron stars have inferred surface magnetic fields of up to 10^{14} Gauss, in the case of radio pulsars, and up to possibly 10^{15} Gauss, in the case of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars. In fields this high, QED effects will profoundly change the characteristics of continuum radiation processes such as synchrotron emission and Compton scattering and will also allow the possibility of additional physical processes such as one-photon pair production, vacuum polarization and photon splitting. Atomic line processes will also be significantly affected by the presence of strong fields. I will review some of the properties of radiation processes in strong magnetic fields that are most relevant to pulsars, SGRs and AXPs and the role they play in models for these sources.

  15. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  16. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Quarto

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task while the sound environment was defined either by a a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure, b a noise sequence or c silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals.

  17. Discrete space charge affected field emission: Flat and hemisphere emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin L., E-mail: kevin.jensen@nrl.navy.mil [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Shiffler, Donald A.; Tang, Wilkin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Rittersdorf, Ian M. [Code 6770, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lebowitz, Joel L. [Department of Mathematics and Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Harris, John R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Lau, Y. Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Petillo, John J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States); Luginsland, John W. [Physics and Electronics Directorate, AFOSR, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Models of space-charge affected thermal-field emission from protrusions, able to incorporate the effects of both surface roughness and elongated field emitter structures in beam optics codes, are desirable but difficult. The models proposed here treat the meso-scale diode region separate from the micro-scale regions characteristic of the emission sites. The consequences of discrete emission events are given for both one-dimensional (sheets of charge) and three dimensional (rings of charge) models: in the former, results converge to steady state conditions found by theory (e.g., Rokhlenko et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014904 (2010)]) but show oscillatory structure as they do. Surface roughness or geometric features are handled using a ring of charge model, from which the image charges are found and used to modify the apex field and emitted current. The roughness model is shown to have additional constraints related to the discrete nature of electron charge. The ability of a unit cell model to treat field emitter structures and incorporate surface roughness effects inside a beam optics code is assessed.

  18. Effective Field Theory for Jet Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias; Rothen, Lorena; Shao, Ding Yu

    2016-05-13

    Processes involving narrow jets receive perturbative corrections enhanced by logarithms of the jet opening angle and the ratio of the energies inside and outside the jets. Analyzing cone-jet processes in effective field theory, we find that in addition to soft and collinear fields their description requires degrees of freedom that are simultaneously soft and collinear to the jets. These collinear-soft particles can resolve individual collinear partons, leading to a complicated multi-Wilson-line structure of the associated operators at higher orders. Our effective field theory provides, for the first time, a factorization formula for a cone-jet process, which fully separates the physics at different energy scales. Its renormalization-group equations control all logarithmically enhanced higher-order terms, in particular also the nonglobal logarithms.

  19. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Andero; Uibo, Helen; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Tamm, Maria; Raidvee, Aire; Allik, Jüri

    2013-01-01

    Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting affective images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using early posterior negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms) as well as P3-like (P3, 300-500 ms) and slow wave (SW, 500-1500 ms) portions of the late positive potential. All analyzed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  20. Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009’s special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the automa

  1. Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the rationale behind ACII2009’s special session: Guidelines for Affective Signal Processing (ASP): From lab to life. Although affect is embraced by both science and engineering, its recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of ASP and the

  2. Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C.D.; Wittbrodt, P R

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitat...

  3. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  4. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  5. Visualization and processing of tensor fields

    CERN Document Server

    Weickert, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Presents information on the visualization and processing of tensor fields. This book serves as an overview for the inquiring scientist, as a basic foundation for developers and practitioners, and as a textbook for specialized classes and seminars for graduate and doctoral students.

  6. Affective value and associative processing share a cortical substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bar, Moshe

    2013-03-01

    The brain stores information in an associative manner so that contextually related entities are connected in memory. Such associative representations mediate the brain's ability to generate predictions about which other objects and events to expect in a given context. Likewise, the brain encodes and is able to rapidly retrieve the affective value of stimuli in our environment. That both contextual associations and affect serve as building blocks of numerous mental functions often makes interpretation of brain activation ambiguous. A critical brain region where such activation has often resulted in equivocal interpretation is the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), which has been implicated separately in both affective and associative processing. To characterize its role more unequivocally, we tested whether activity in the mOFC was most directly attributable to affective processing, associative processing, or a combination of both. Subjects performed an object recognition task while undergoing fMRI scans. Objects varied independently in their affective valence and in their degree of association with other objects (associativity). Analyses revealed an overlapping sensitivity whereby the left mOFC responded both to increasingly positive affective value and to stronger associativity. These two properties individually accounted for mOFC response, even after controlling for their interrelationship. The role of the mOFC is either general enough to encompass associations that link stimuli both with reinforcing outcomes and with other stimuli or abstract enough to use both valence and associativity in conjunction to inform downstream processes related to perception and action. These results may further point to a fundamental relationship between associativity and positive affect.

  7. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  8. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Cahn, W.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Kahn, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as we

  9. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, Mascha van 't; Aleman, Andre; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Cahn, Wiepke; Haan, Edward H. F. de; Kahn, Rene S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as we

  10. How current ginning processes affect fiber length uniformity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop cotton ginning methods that improve fiber characteristics that are compatible with the newer and more efficient spinning technologies. A literature search produced recent studies that described how current ginning processes affect HVI fiber length uniformity index. Resul...

  11. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  12. The kinetics of chemical processes affecting acidity in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienaar, J.J.; Helas, G. [Potchefstroom University of Christian Higher Education, Potchefstroom (South Africa). Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group

    1996-03-01

    The dominant chemical reactions affecting atmospheric pollution chemistry and in particular, those leading to the formation of acid rain are outlined. The factors controlling the oxidation rate of atmospheric pollutants as well as the rate laws describing these processes are discussed in the light of our latest results and the current literature.

  13. Phonological Processing In Human Auditory Cortical Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We used population-based cortical-surface analysis of functional magnetic imaging (fMRI data to characterize the processing of consonant-vowel-consonant syllables (CVCs and spectrally-matched amplitude-modulated noise bursts (AMNBs in human auditory cortex as subjects attended to auditory or visual stimuli in an intermodal selective attention paradigm. Average auditory cortical field (ACF locations were defined using tonotopic mapping in a previous study. Activations in auditory cortex were defined by two stimulus-preference gradients: (1 Medial belt ACFs preferred AMNBs and lateral belt and parabelt fields preferred CVCs. This preference extended into core ACFs with medial regions of primary auditory cortex (A1 and rostral field (R preferring AMNBs and lateral regions preferring CVCs. (2 Anterior ACFs showed smaller activations but more clearly defined stimulus preferences than did posterior ACFs. Stimulus preference gradients were unaffected by auditory attention suggesting that different ACFs are specialized for the automatic processing of different spectrotemporal sound features.

  14. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  15. Positive affect and psychobiological processes relevant to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Dockray, Samantha; Wardle, Jane

    2009-12-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that there are marked associations between positive psychological states and health outcomes, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk and increased resistance to infection. These observations have stimulated the investigation of behavioral and biological processes that might mediate protective effects. Evidence linking positive affect with health behaviors has been mixed, though recent cross-cultural research has documented associations with exercising regularly, not smoking, and prudent diet. At the biological level, cortisol output has been consistently shown to be lower among individuals reporting positive affect, and favorable associations with heart rate, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 have also been described. Importantly, these relationships are independent of negative affect and depressed mood, suggesting that positive affect may have distinctive biological correlates that can benefit health. At the same time, positive affect is associated with protective psychosocial factors such as greater social connectedness, perceived social support, optimism, and preference for adaptive coping responses. Positive affect may be part of a broader profile of psychosocial resilience that reduces risk of adverse physical health outcomes.

  16. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  17. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  18. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  19. Microflora of Processed Cheese and the Factors Affecting It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2015-09-11

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese". During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but they are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  20. Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affect misattribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yohei; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    The affect misattribution procedure (AMP) was proposed as a technique to measure an implicit attitude to a prime image [1]. In the AMP, neutral symbols (e.g., a Chinese pictograph, called the target) are presented, following an emotional stimulus (known as the prime). Participants often misattribute the positive or negative affect of the priming images to the targets in spite of receiving an instruction to ignore the primes. The AMP effect has been investigated using behavioral measures; however, it is difficult to identify when the AMP effect occurs in emotional processing-whether the effect may occur in the earlier attention allocation stage or in the later evaluation stage. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of affect misattribution, using event-related potential (ERP) dividing the participants into two groups based on their tendency toward affect misattribution. The ERP results showed that the amplitude of P2 was larger for the prime at the parietal location in participants showing a low tendency to misattribution than for those showing a high tendency, while the effect of judging neutral targets amiss according to the primes was reflected in the late processing of targets (LPP). In addition, the topographic pattern analysis revealed that EPN-like component to targets was correlated with the difference of AMP tendency as well as P2 to primes and LPP to targets. Taken together, the mechanism of the affective misattribution was closely related to the attention allocation processing. Our findings provide neural evidence that evaluations of neutral targets are misattributed to emotional primes.

  1. Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affect misattribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The affect misattribution procedure (AMP was proposed as a technique to measure an implicit attitude to a prime image [1]. In the AMP, neutral symbols (e.g., a Chinese pictograph, called the target are presented, following an emotional stimulus (known as the prime. Participants often misattribute the positive or negative affect of the priming images to the targets in spite of receiving an instruction to ignore the primes. The AMP effect has been investigated using behavioral measures; however, it is difficult to identify when the AMP effect occurs in emotional processing-whether the effect may occur in the earlier attention allocation stage or in the later evaluation stage. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of affect misattribution, using event-related potential (ERP dividing the participants into two groups based on their tendency toward affect misattribution. The ERP results showed that the amplitude of P2 was larger for the prime at the parietal location in participants showing a low tendency to misattribution than for those showing a high tendency, while the effect of judging neutral targets amiss according to the primes was reflected in the late processing of targets (LPP. In addition, the topographic pattern analysis revealed that EPN-like component to targets was correlated with the difference of AMP tendency as well as P2 to primes and LPP to targets. Taken together, the mechanism of the affective misattribution was closely related to the attention allocation processing. Our findings provide neural evidence that evaluations of neutral targets are misattributed to emotional primes.

  2. Spelling-to-sound correspondences affect acronym recognition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfoot, David; Izura, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the factors that affect the speed with which words are recognized in lexical decision tasks. Nothing has yet been reported concerning the important factors in differentiating acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NASA) from nonwords. It appears that this task poses little problem for skilled readers, in spite of the fact that acronyms have uncommon, even illegal, spellings in English. We used regression techniques to examine the role of a number of lexical and nonlexical variables known to be important in word processing in relation to lexical decision for acronym targets. Findings indicated that acronym recognition is affected by age of acquisition and imageability. In a departure from findings in word recognition, acronym recognition was not affected by frequency. Lexical decision responses for acronyms were also affected by the relationship between spelling and sound-a pattern not usually observed in word recognition. We argue that the complexity of acronym recognition means that the process draws phonological information in addition to semantics.

  3. Post-processing scheme for modelling the lithospheric magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lesur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the noise in satellite magnetic data affects magnetic lithospheric field models derived from these data in the special case where this noise is correlated along satellite orbit tracks. For this we describe the satellite data noise as a perturbation magnetic field scaled independently for each orbit, where the scaling factor is a random variable, normally distributed with zero mean. Under this assumption, we have been able to derive a model for errors in lithospheric models generated by the correlated satellite data noise. Unless the perturbation field is known, estimating the noise in the lithospheric field model is a non-linear inverse problem. We therefore proposed an iterative post-processing technique to estimate both the lithospheric field model and its associated noise model. The technique has been successfully applied to derive a lithospheric field model from CHAMP satellite data up to spherical harmonic degree 120. The model is in agreement with other existing models. The technique can, in principle, be extended to all sorts of potential field data with "along-track" correlated errors.

  4. Zero magnetic field effect observed in human cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binhi, V N; Sarimov, R M

    2009-01-01

    In our previous works, we reported that compensation of the geomagnetic field to a level less than 0.4 microT ("zero magnetic field," or ZMF) affected human cognitive processes. ZMF exposure increased the number of errors and the task processing time by 2.4% in average. However, in the array of the magnetic effects calculated from the experimental data, some readings have been found to deviate from the mean magnetic effect by more than three standard deviations. This finding could give rise to doubt as to whether the magnetic effect observed was a mere sequence of the presence of such unlikely data values. In the present work we examine the results of the unlikely data elimination and show that the corrected magnetic effect in tested humans remains statistically significant, though at a reduced magnitude 1.5%.

  5. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s, and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the essence. In these types of cases, investigators dealing with the suspect or crime scene need investigative leads quickly; in some cases it is the difference between life and death for the victim(s. The Cyber Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence in a short time frame, without the requirement of having to take the system(s/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image(s. The proposed model adheres to commonly held forensic principles, and does not negate the ability that once the initial field triage is concluded, the system(s/storage media be transported back to a lab environment for a more thorough examination and analysis. The CFFTPM has been successfully used in various real world cases, and its investigative importance and pragmatic approach has been amply demonstrated. Furthermore, the derived evidence from these cases has not been challenged in the court proceedings where it has been introduced. The current article describes the CFFTPM in detail, discusses the model’s forensic soundness, investigative support capabilities and practical considerations.

  6. Adaptive and compressive matched field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemba, Kay L; Hodgkiss, William S; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Matched field processing is a generalized beamforming method that matches received array data to a dictionary of replica vectors in order to locate one or more sources. Its solution set is sparse since there are considerably fewer sources than replicas. Using compressive sensing (CS) implemented using basis pursuit, the matched field problem is reformulated as an underdetermined, convex optimization problem. CS estimates the unknown source amplitudes using the replica dictionary to best explain the data, subject to a row-sparsity constraint. This constraint selects the best matching replicas within the dictionary when using multiple observations and/or frequencies. For a single source, theory and simulations show that the performance of CS and the Bartlett processor are equivalent for any number of snapshots. Contrary to most adaptive processors, CS also can accommodate coherent sources. For a single and multiple incoherent sources, simulations indicate that CS offers modest localization performance improvement over the adaptive white noise constraint processor. SWellEx-96 experiment data results show comparable performance for both processors when localizing a weaker source in the presence of a stronger source. Moreover, CS often displays less ambiguity, demonstrating it is robust to data-replica mismatch.

  7. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M.

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern

  8. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M.

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Nethe

  9. ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES IN STRONG CRYSTALLINE FIELDS

    CERN Document Server

    Uggerhoj, U I; Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Lund, M; Møller, S P; Sørensen, A H; Thomsen, A H; Uggerhøj, U I; Geissel, H; Scheidenberger, C; Weick, H; Winfield, J; Sona, P; Connell S; Ballestrero, S; Ketel, T; Dizdar, A; Mangiarotti, A

    2009-01-01

    As an addendum to the NA63 proposal cite{Ande05}, we propose to measure 1) the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect in low-$Z$ targets, 2) Magnetic suppression of incoherent bremsstrahlung resulting from exposure to an external field during the emission event, and 3) the bremsstrahlung emission from relativistic ($gamma=170$), fully stripped Pb nuclei penetrating various amorphous targets. Concerning the LPM effect, both the 'traditional' Migdal approach and the modern treatment by Baier and Katkov display inaccuracies, i.e. a possible lack of applicability in low-$Z$ targets. Moreover, the LPM effect has been shown to have a significant impact on giant air showers for energies in the EeV range - evidently processes in a low-$Z$ material. A measurement of magnetic suppression is demanding in terms of necessary accuracy (an expected $lesssim$15% effect), but would prove the existence of a basic interplay between coherent and incoherent processes, also believed to be significant in beamstrahlung emission. For...

  10. Women are more strongly affected by dizziness in static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2014-10-01

    Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7 T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields.

  11. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  12. Diffusion affected magnetic field effect in exciplex fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, Anatoly I; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2014-07-14

    The fluorescence of the exciplex, (1)[D(+δ)A(-δ)], formed at contact of photoexcited acceptor (1)A(*) with an electron donor (1)D, is known to be very sensitive to an external magnetic field, reducing the spin conversion efficiency in the resulting geminate radical ion pair, (1, 3)[D(+)…A(-)]. The relative increase of the exciplex fluorescence in the highest magnetic field compared to the lowest one, known as the magnetic field effect, crucially depends on the viscosity of the solvent. This phenomenon first studied experimentally is at first reproduced here theoretically. The magnetic field effect is shown to vanish in both limits of high and low solvent diffusivity reaching a maximum in between. It is also very sensitive to the solvent dielectric constant and to the exciplex and radical-ion pair conversion rates.

  13. Affective collaborative robots for safety & crisis management in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kruijff, G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of human-robot collaboration currently presents a bottleneck to widespread use of robots in urban search & rescue (USAR) missions. The paper argues that an important aspect of realizing human-robot collaboration is collaborative control, and the recognition and expression of affect.

  14. Affective collaborative robots for safety & crisis management in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kruijff, G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of human-robot collaboration currently presents a bottleneck to widespread use of robots in urban search & rescue (USAR) missions. The paper argues that an important aspect of realizing human-robot collaboration is collaborative control, and the recognition and expression of affect. Affecti

  15. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  16. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  17. Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change.

  18. Polymerization and processing of organic polymers in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, E.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The use of magnetic fields to affect the structure and properties of polymeric materials remains an area of great promise. Liquid crystalline polymers have been actively studied over the past 20 years for use in high performance structural applications. In particular, highly oriented fibers can exhibit remarkable increases in strength to weight performance compared to conventional materials. For example, the fibers marketed by DuPont under the tradename Kevlar are 20 times stronger than steel on an equivalent weight basis. However, larger bulk parts do not exhibit the same increases in strength due to a lack of orientation of the polymer molecules. Magnetic field processing of polymers remains an attractive solution to this problem.

  19. Coagulation-flocculation pretreatment of oil sands process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrezaei, P.; El-Din, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of water use in the oil sands industry and efforts to use this limited resource more efficiently. Three wastewater treatment schemes for oil sands tailings ponds were proposed, notably primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment involves the removal of suspended solids using physical-chemical treatments. Secondary treatment involves the removal of dissolved solids and organics using chemical oxidation, ultrafiltration or nanofiltration. Tertiary treatment involves removal of residual organics/solids using biological activated carbon filtration, sand filtration or reverse osmosis. The composition of oil sands process water (OSPW) was also discussed with reference to suspended solids, salts, hydrocarbons, other dissolved organics (such as naphthenic acids and phenols), ammonia, inorganic compounds and trace elements. The conventional coagulation/flocculation process is essential in industrial wastewater treatment. It is cost effective, easy to operate and energy efficient. The process is used because small suspended and colloidal particles and dissolved constituents cannot be removed quickly by sedimentation. A chemical method must be used. Coagulation/flocculation brings small suspended and colloidal particles into contact so that they collide, stick and grow to a size that settles readily. Alum is the predominant and least expensive water treatment coagulant used for the coagulation/flocculation process. It provides positively charged ions to neutralize the negative charge of colloidal particles resulting in aggregation. It creates big settling flocs that enmesh colloids as it settles. The factors affecting the process include pH, chemical type, chemical concentration, rapid mixing intensity, slow mixing intensity and time. tabs., figs.

  20. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  1. Panic! Affect Contagion, Mimesis and Suggestion in the Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gibbs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes the phenomenon of panic from both neurological and affective points of view. It draws on the work of Japp Panksepp, who argues for the importance of distinguishing between fear as a response to physical threat, and panic as a response to the loss of the attachment object. While fear flees, panic, perhaps contrary to appearances, seeks security. This view of panic throws a new light on classic analyses of crowd behaviour, among them those of Le Bon, Tarde and Canetti, but it also has implications for how panic takes hold via electronic media, and for how outbreaks may be calmed. Finally, the essay argues that mediatised panic is a distraction from fear—in which anything at all may represent physical danger, but which at least offers a range of possible responses for addressing the problem, and offers the opportunity for the transformative work performed by cognition on affect. Here the paper draws on the script theory of Silvan Tomkins to provoke questions of the social usefulness of fear in the face of some current arguments to the contrary.

  2. Breathing and affective picture processing across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Patrick; Filippou, Dimitra; Pais, Bruno; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated differences between healthy younger, middle-aged, and older adults in their respiratory responses to pictures of different valence and arousal. Expiratory time shortened and end-tidal PCO2 decreased with increasing arousal in all age groups; yet, compared to younger adults, older adults' overall change from baseline was smaller for expiratory time and larger for end-tidal PCO2. Contrary to their younger counterparts, older adults' inspiratory time did not shorten with increasing arousal. Inspiratory duty cycle did not covary with affective ratings for younger adults, increased with unpleasantness for middle-aged adults, and increased with arousal for older adults. Thoracic breathing increased with increasing unpleasantness only among older adults. Age had no effects on mean inspiratory flow and minute ventilation, which both augmented as arousal increased. We discuss how age effects on respiratory response magnitude and pattern may depend on age-associated biological changes or reflect age-related differences in emotional processing.

  3. The Musical Emotional Bursts: A validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePaquette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analogue of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV – a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 sec improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (n:40 or a clarinet (n:40. The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, nonlinguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli (30 stimuli x 4 [3 emotions + neutral] x 2 instruments by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task; 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80 was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0% and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  4. The "Musical Emotional Bursts": a validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear) and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analog of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV)-a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 s) improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]), or a clarinet (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]). The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, non-linguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli [30 stimuli × 4 (3 emotions + neutral) × 2 instruments] by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task); 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80) was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0%) and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each) MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  5. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  6. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Menghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field include MHD effect, magnetizing force, affecting the physical and chemical properties of the bath, affecting the disperse ability and coverage capacity of bath, affecting the mass transfer process of electro-deposition, affecting the chemical reaction process and current distribution of electrode surface. Some examples of electro-depositing single metal coatings, alloy coatings and composite coatings under action of magnetic field are explained. During the electro-depositing process, the external magnetic field has different degrees of impact on solution properties, mass transfer, charge transfer, content of composited nanoparticles, crystal growth and crystal orientation etc. The specific impact of magnetic field during the electro-depositing is also classified and summarized. The problems that existed in electro-deposition process while applying magnetic field and the next development trend were summarized.

  7. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Sara; Valstar, Johan; van Gaans, Pauline; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub

    2012-05-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion.

  8. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk

    KAUST Repository

    Picone, Sara

    2012-03-30

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Quantum information processing and relativistic quantum fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Borsten, Leron; Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay

    2014-04-01

    It is shown that an ideal measurement of a one-particle wave packet state of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski spacetime enables superluminal signalling. The result holds for a measurement that takes place over an intervention region in spacetime whose extent in time in some frame is longer than the light-crossing time of the packet in that frame. Moreover, these results are shown to apply not only to ideal measurements but also to unitary transformations that rotate two orthogonal one-particle states into each other. In light of these observations, possible restrictions on the allowed types of intervention are considered. A more physical approach to such questions is to construct explicit models of the interventions as interactions between the field and other quantum systems such as detectors. The prototypical Unruh-DeWitt detector couples to the field operator itself and so most likely respects relativistic causality. On the other hand, detector models which couple to a finite set of frequencies of field modes are shown to lead to superluminal signalling. Such detectors do, however, provide successful phenomenological models of atom-qubits interacting with quantum fields in a cavity but are valid only on time scales many orders of magnitude larger than the light-crossing time of the cavity.

  10. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  11. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    Uggerhoj, U I; Mikkelsen, F K

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  12. Molecular processes and turbulent magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. I.

    2008-08-01

    parts which reflect the two consecutive steps in the modeling of the polarized solar spectrum. First, the physical properties of the molecular scattering process have to be understood. For the CN violet system, it implies taking into account the Paschen-Back effect on the fine structure (which results in a change of intensities and line positions) and interference effects between the fine structure components itself. Both effects influence the Hanle effect and lead to the consequences which are analyzed in detail in the first part of this thesis. Then, to connect the coherent scattering and physical properties of the solar plasma with the emerged solar radiation, which is measured by our detectors, radiative transfer theory has to be applied. The presence of the scattering processes implies the non-equilibrium nature of the problem. Its self-consistent solution is especially complicated for molecular bands as they usually consist of a huge number of transitions which couple the numerous vibrational-rotational molecular levels. This, for example, makes the two-level approximation, often used in atomic calculations unsuitable. Moreover, there is a strong lack of information about the molecular collision rates so they basically enter the calculations as additional free parameter. In the second part of the thesis we present two radiative transfer models with different degrees of complexity and applicability. These models allow us to successfully fit the observations of the CN violet system in both polarized and unpolarized spectra and provide us with a magnetic field estimation. We discuss in detail the model-dependence of our results and general problems of the 1D solar spectrum modeling. The enormous potential of the linearly polarized solar spectrum makes it one of the main tools for studying solar magnetic fields, which becomes very urgent nowadays, as they can affect the Earth's climate and, hence, our life.

  13. Brain Potentials During Affective Picture Processing in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajcak, Greg; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2008-01-01

    In adults, emotional (e.g., both unpleasant and pleasant) compared to neutral pictures elicit an increase in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP); modulation of these ERP components are thought to reflect the facilitated processing of, and increased attention to, motivationally salient stimuli. To determine whether the EPN and LPP are sensitive to emotional content in children, high-density EEG was recorded from 18 children who were 5 to 8 years of age (mean age = 77 months, SD = 11 months) while they viewed developmentally appropriate pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reported ratings of valence and arousal were also obtained. An EPN was not evident following emotional compared to neutral pictures; however, a positivity maximal at occipital-parietal recording sites was increased from 500 to 1,000 ms following pleasant pictures and from 500 to 1,500 ms following unpleasant pictures. Comparisons between the EPN and LPP observed in children and adults, and implications for developmental studies of emotion, are discussed. PMID:19103249

  14. Quantum Information Processing and Relativistic Quantum Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that an ideal measurement of a one-particle wave packet state of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski spacetime enables superluminal signalling. The result holds for a measurement that takes place over an intervention region in spacetime whose extent in time in some frame is longer than the light-crossing time of the packet in that frame. Moreover, these results are shown to apply not only to ideal measurements but also to unitary transformations that rotate two orthogonal one-particle states into each other. In light of these observations, possible restrictions on the allowed types of intervention are considered. A more physical approach to such questions is to construct explicit models of the interventions as interactions between the field and other quantum systems such as detectors. The prototypical Unruh-DeWitt detector couples to the field operator itself and so most likely respects relativistic causality. On the other hand, detector models which couple to a finite set of frequencies of ...

  15. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  16. Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…

  17. Affective Signal Processing (ASP): Unraveling the mystery of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den Egon L.

    2011-01-01

    Slowly computers are being dressed and becoming huggable and tangible. They are being personalized and are expected to understand more of their users' feelings, emotions, and moods: This we refer to as affective computing. The work and experiences from 50+ publications on affective computing is coll

  18. Toward affective dialogue management using partially observable Markov decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Trung Huu

    2008-01-01

    Designing and developing affective dialogue systems have recently received much interest from the dialogue research community. A distinctive feature of these systems is affect modeling. Previous work was mainly focused on showing system's emotions to the user in order to achieve the designer's goal

  19. Pulsed electric field processing of egg products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, K

    2016-02-01

    Thermal processing ensures safety and enhances the shelf-life of most of the food products. It alters the structural-chemical composition, modifies heat labile components, as well as affects the functional properties of food products. This has driven the development of non-thermal food processing techniques, primarily for extending the shelf-life of different food products. These techniques are currently also being evaluated for their effects on product processing, quality and other safety parameters. Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an example of non-thermal technique which can be applied for a variety of purpose in the food processing industry. PEF can be used for antimicrobial treatment of various food products to improve the storability or food safety, for extraction and recovery of some high-value compounds from a food matrix or for stabilization of various food products through inactivation of some enzymes or catalysts. Research on the application of PEF to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in different egg products is being currently focused. It has been reported that PEF effectively reduces the activity of various microorganisms in a variety of egg products. However, the PEF treatment also alters the structural and functional properties to some extent and there is a high degree of variability between different studies. In addition to integrating findings, the present review also provides several explanations for the inconsistency in findings between different studies related to PEF processing of egg products. Several specific recommendations for future research directions on PEF processing are well discussed in this review.

  20. Level sets and extrema of random processes and fields

    CERN Document Server

    Azais, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    A timely and comprehensive treatment of random field theory with applications across diverse areas of study Level Sets and Extrema of Random Processes and Fields discusses how to understand the properties of the level sets of paths as well as how to compute the probability distribution of its extremal values, which are two general classes of problems that arise in the study of random processes and fields and in related applications. This book provides a unified and accessible approach to these two topics and their relationship to classical theory and Gaussian processes and fields, and the most modern research findings are also discussed. The authors begin with an introduction to the basic concepts of stochastic processes, including a modern review of Gaussian fields and their classical inequalities. Subsequent chapters are devoted to Rice formulas, regularity properties, and recent results on the tails of the distribution of the maximum. Finally, applications of random fields to various areas of mathematics a...

  1. Temperature fields in machining processes and heat transfer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazzo, G.; Pasquino, R. [University of Salerno Via Ponte Donmelillo, Fisciano (Italy). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Bellomo, N. [Politecnico Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, Torino (Italy). Department of Mathematics

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the heat transfer process with special attention to the characterization of the thermal field during turning processes. Specifically, the measurement of the thermal field and the selection of the proper heat transfer models are dealt with. The analysis is developed in view of the solution of direct and inverse problems. (author)

  2. Supervisor Attachment, Supervisory Working Alliance, and Affect in Social Work Field Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susanne; Mohr, Jonathan; Deal, Kathleen Holtz; Hwang, Jeongha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on interrelationships among supervisor attachment, supervisory working alliance, and supervision-related affect, plus the moderating effect of a field instructor training. Method: The researchers employed a pretest-posttest follow-up design of 100 randomly assigned field instructors and 64 students in two…

  3. ClassSTRONG: Classical simulations of Strong Field processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    A set of Mathematica functions is presented to model classically two of the most important processes in strong field physics, namely high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI). Our approach is based on the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz equation of an electron moving on an electric field and takes advantage of the symbolic languages features and graphical power of Mathematica. Similarly as in the Strong Field Approximation (SFA), the effects of atomic potential on the motion of electron in the laser field are neglected. The SFA has proven to be an essential tool in strong field physics in the sense that it is able to predict with great precision the harmonic (in the HHG) and energy (in the ATI) limits. We have extended substantially the conventional classical simulations, where the electric field is only dependent on time, including spatial nonhomogeneous fields and spatial and temporal synthesized fields. Spatial nonhomogeneous fields appear when metal nanosystems int...

  4. Dynamic modelling of processes in rivers affected by precipitation runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Judith L.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, models for the dynamics of oxygen and organic matter in receiving waters (such as rivers and creeks), which are affected by rain, are developed. A time series analysis framework is used, but presented with special emphasis on continuous time state space models. Also, the concept...

  5. Application of high magnetic fields in advanced materials processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei; XIAO Liye; YAN Luguang

    2006-01-01

    Recently, steady magnetic fields available from cryogen-free superconducting magnets open up new ways to process materials. In this paper,the main results obtained by using a high magnetic field to process several advanced materials are reviewed. These processed objects primarily include superconducting, magnetic, metallic and nanometer-scaled materials. It has been found that a high magnetic field can effectively align grains when fabricating the magnetic and non-magnetic materials and make inclusions migrate in a molten metal. The mechanism is discussed from the theoretical viewpoint of magnetization energy.

  6. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1978-03-01

    The objectives of the project were to determine the physical/dynamical processes controlling/affecting the distribution of phytoplankton nutrients on the continental shelf in the South Atlantic Bight. The initial objectives were to determine the short term, i.e., 2 to 10 day and longer term flux of nutrients onto the continental shelf. This is clearly related to the more general problem of combined physical and biogenic control of phytoplankton nutrients. During the period from June, 1975 to March, 1978 the study of the continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight has been principally involved with a substantial, coordinated field effort. The success of the data acquisition phase of the program has now required an intensive data analysis phase which has been slowly increasing in effort. Emphasis is placed on the main phase of the field program, located in Onslow Bay, which has beel completed and the data are being analyzed. During the three-year period 20 cruises were made into the Carolina Capes area and samples were collected. A list is included of some 100 publications during the period.

  7. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  8. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  9. Flawed processing of airborne EM data affecting hydrogeological interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Jørgensen, Flemming; Sørensen, Camilla

    2013-03-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (AEMs) is increasingly being used across the globe as a tool for groundwater and environmental management. Focus is on ensuring the quality of the source data, their processing and modeling, and the integration of results with ancillary information to generate accurate and relevant products. Accurate processing and editing of raw AEM data, the topic of this article, is one of the crucial steps in obtaining quantitative information for groundwater modeling and management. In this article, we examine the consequences that different levels of processing of helicopter transient electromagnetic method data have on the resulting electrical models and subsequently on hydrogeological models. We focus on different approaches used in the industry for processing of the raw data and show how the electrical resistivity-depth models, which is the end "geophysical" product (after data inversion) of an AEM survey, change with different levels of processing of the raw data. We then extend the study to show the impact on some of the hydrogeological parameters or models, which can be derived from the geophysical results. The consequences of improper handling of raw data to groundwater and environmental management can be significant and expensive.

  10. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  11. Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaut, L R

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin--It\\^{o} and Fokker--Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general n...

  12. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  13. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  15. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  16. THE ACCOUNTING REGULATION PROCESS IN THE FIELD OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper develops an analysis on the accounting regulation process by considering the field of financial instruments as one of the most controversial areas of financial reporting. After a brief introduction, comprising aspects related to the accounting regulation process, we first stop upon the historical evolution of the two main accounting referential that currently collaborate through the convergence process. Our analysis focuses both on standards first issuance and on their amendment process. A special emphasize is given to the international accounting referential. The obtained results enhance the complexity of the approached field and indicate significant steps still needed to be taken.

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT THERMAL FIELD IN LASER MELTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国凤; 陈光南

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation of thermal field was studied in laser processing. The 3 -D finite element model of transient thermal calculation is given by thermal conductive equation.The effects of phase transformation latent are considered. Numerical example is given to verify the model. Finally the real example of transient thermal field is given.

  18. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  19. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  20. Can Process Portfolios Affect Students' Writing Self-Efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou, Iolie

    2012-01-01

    Can process portfolios that support students in goal setting, reflection, self-evaluation and feedback have a positive impact on students' writing self-efficacy? This article presents the findings of a yearlong study conducted in three 4th grade elementary classes in Cyprus where paper-based and web-based portfolios were implemented to help…

  1. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picone, S.; Valstar, J.R.; Gaans, van P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the v

  2. How gender-expectancy affects the processing of "them".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alice; Conklin, Kathy

    2017-04-01

    How sensitive is pronoun processing to expectancies based on real-world knowledge and language usage? The current study links research on the integration of gender stereotypes and number-mismatch to explore this question. It focuses on the use of them to refer to antecedents of different levels of gender-expectancy (low-cyclist, high-mechanic, known-spokeswoman). In a rating task, them is considered increasingly unnatural with greater gender-expectancy. However, participants might not be able to differentiate high-expectancy and gender-known antecedents online because they initially search for plural antecedents (e.g., Sanford & Filik), and they make all-or-nothing gender inferences. An eye-tracking study reveals early differences in the processing of them with antecedents of high gender-expectancy compared with gender-known antecedents. This suggests that participants have rapid access to the expected gender of the antecedent and the level of that expectancy.

  3. Robust adaptive matched field processing with sector eigenvector constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang

    2006-01-01

    Standard adaptive beamforming or matched field processing requires accurate replica fields finely gridded over the search parameter space for localization with sidelobe control. This paper presents an Adaptive Matched Field Processing (AMFP) algo rithm, which aims at gaining robustness for the environmentai mismatch, and simultaneously reducing the real-time computational load. The new method integrates the merits of several AMFP beamformers with neighboring location constraints, environmental perturbation constraints and sector focusing constraints. The robustness and effectiveness of the suggested algorithm has been illustrated through the numerical simulation and the experimental Mediterranean benchmark shallow-water data.

  4. External magnetic fields affect the biological impacts of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Ghavami, Mahdi; Azhdarzadeh, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized as one of the promising nanomaterials for applications in various field of nanomedicine such as targeted imaging/drug delivery, tissue engineering, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Besides their suitable biocompatibility, SPIONs' unique magnetic properties make them an outstanding candidate for theranostic nanomedicine. Very recent progress in the field revealed that the presence of external magnetic fields may cause considerable amount of SPIONs' agglomeration in their colloidal suspension. As variation of physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has strong effect on their biological outcomes, one can expect that the SPIONs' agglomeration in the presence of external magnetic fields could change their well-recognized biological impacts. In this case, here, we probed the cellular uptake and toxicity of the SPIONs before and after exposure to external magnetic fields. We found that the external magnetic fields can affect the biological outcome of magnetic nanoparticles.

  5. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  6. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Lorea; Bailey, R. A.; Elosegi, Arturo; Larrañaga, Aitor; Reiss, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge) but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants), in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants); and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension). The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology). We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, ‘habitat complexity’ by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27802267

  7. Suprasegmental information affects processing of talking faces at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellai, Bahia; Mersad, Karima; Streri, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    From birth, newborns show a preference for faces talking a native language compared to silent faces. The present study addresses two questions that remained unanswered by previous research: (a) Does the familiarity with the language play a role in this process and (b) Are all the linguistic and paralinguistic cues necessary in this case? Experiment 1 extended newborns' preference for native speakers to non-native ones. Given that fetuses and newborns are sensitive to the prosodic characteristics of speech, Experiments 2 and 3 presented faces talking native and nonnative languages with the speech stream being low-pass filtered. Results showed that newborns preferred looking at a person who talked to them even when only the prosodic cues were provided for both languages. Nonetheless, a familiarity preference for the previously talking face is observed in the "normal speech" condition (i.e., Experiment 1) and a novelty preference in the "filtered speech" condition (Experiments 2 and 3). This asymmetry reveals that newborns process these two types of stimuli differently and that they may already be sensitive to a mismatch between the articulatory movements of the face and the corresponding speech sounds.

  8. Left hand dominance affects supra-second time processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous works exploring the brain functions of left-handed and right-handed people have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing temporal intervals, we designed a study investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose left-handed and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproduction of sub-second vs. supra-second time intervals with their left and right hand.Our results show that left-handed participants sub-estimated the processing of the supra-second intervals, independently of the hand used to perform the task, while no differences were reported for the sub-second intervals. These results are discussed according to recent advances on suprasecond motor timing research as well as emerging evidences which suggest a linear representation of time with a left-to-right displacing.

  9. Does Signal Degradation Affect Top-Down Processing of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anita; Pals, Carina; de Blecourt, Charlotte M; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is formed based on both the acoustic signal and listeners' knowledge of the world and semantic context. Access to semantic information can facilitate interpretation of degraded speech, such as speech in background noise or the speech signal transmitted via cochlear implants (CIs). This paper focuses on the latter, and investigates the time course of understanding words, and how sentential context reduces listeners' dependency on the acoustic signal for natural and degraded speech via an acoustic CI simulation.In an eye-tracking experiment we combined recordings of listeners' gaze fixations with pupillometry, to capture effects of semantic information on both the time course and effort of speech processing. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with sentences with or without a semantically constraining verb (e.g., crawl) preceding the target (baby), and their ocular responses were recorded to four pictures, including the target, a phonological (bay) competitor and a semantic (worm) and an unrelated distractor.The results show that in natural speech, listeners' gazes reflect their uptake of acoustic information, and integration of preceding semantic context. Degradation of the signal leads to a later disambiguation of phonologically similar words, and to a delay in integration of semantic information. Complementary to this, the pupil dilation data show that early semantic integration reduces the effort in disambiguating phonologically similar words. Processing degraded speech comes with increased effort due to the impoverished nature of the signal. Delayed integration of semantic information further constrains listeners' ability to compensate for inaudible signals.

  10. Simultanagnosia does not affect processes of auditory Gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennig, Johannes; Bleyer, Anna Lena; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2017-05-01

    Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia. We also included control tasks for auditory working memory deficits and for auditory extinction. We tested four simultanagnosia patients who suffered from severe symptoms in the visual domain. Two of them indeed showed significant impairments in recognition of simultaneously presented sounds. However, the same two patients also suffered from severe auditory working memory deficits and from symptoms comparable to auditory extinction, both sufficiently explaining the impairments in simultaneous auditory perception. We thus conclude that deficits in auditory Gestalt perception do not appear to be characteristic for simultanagnosia and that the human brain obviously uses independent mechanisms for visual and for auditory Gestalt perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaise, Janis; Johnson, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    Trophic coherence, a measure of the extent to which the nodes of a directed network are organised in levels, has recently been shown to be closely related to many structural and dynamical aspects of complex systems, including graph eigenspectra, the prevalence or absence of feedback cycles, and linear stability. Furthermore, non-trivial trophic structures have been observed in networks of neurons, species, genes, metabolites, cellular signalling, concatenated words, P2P users, and world trade. Here, we consider two simple yet apparently quite different dynamical models—one a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model adapted to include complex contagion and the other an Amari-Hopfield neural network—and show that in both cases the related spreading processes are modulated in similar ways by the trophic coherence of the underlying networks. To do this, we propose a network assembly model which can generate structures with tunable trophic coherence, limiting in either perfectly stratified networks or random graphs. We find that trophic coherence can exert a qualitative change in spreading behaviour, determining whether a pulse of activity will percolate through the entire network or remain confined to a subset of nodes, and whether such activity will quickly die out or endure indefinitely. These results could be important for our understanding of phenomena such as epidemics, rumours, shocks to ecosystems, neuronal avalanches, and many other spreading processes.

  12. Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.

    2003-04-01

    Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.

  13. Field Research: Learning through the Process of Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the process of a participant observation. Its focus is its process, not on what was observed. This report provides the following: (1) an overview of this observation, (2) the purpose of this observation, (3) the site and situation of this observation, (4) two samples of reflective field notes from this observation, and (5) an…

  14. Processes affecting coastal wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1993-01-01

    Nowhere are the problems of coastal wetland loss more serious and dramatic than in the Mississippi River deltaic plain region of south-central Louisiana. In that area, rates of shoreline erosion of 20 m.yr and loss of land area of up to 75 km/yr result from a complex combination of natural (delta switching, subsidence, sea-level rise, storms) and human (flood control, navigation, oil and gas development, land reclamation) factors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Coastal Geology Program, has undertaken joint filed investigations with Federal, State, and university partners. The objective of these long-term studies is to gather and interpret baseline information in order to improve our scientific understanding of the critical processes and responses responsible for creation, maintenance, and deterioration of coastal wetlands.

  15. From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes

    CERN Document Server

    Klaise, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Trophic coherence, a measure of the extent to which the nodes of a directed network are organised in levels, has recently been shown to be closely related to many structural and dynamical aspects of complex systems, including graph eigenspectra, the prevalence or absence of feed-back cycles, and linear stability. Furthermore, non-trivial trophic structures have been observed in networks of neurons, species, genes, metabolites, cellular signalling, concatenated words, P2P users, and world trade. Here we consider two simple yet apparently quite different dynamical models -- one a Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic model adapted to include complex contagion, the other an Amari-Hopfield neural network -- and show that in both cases the related spreading processes are modulated in similar ways by the trophic coherence of the underlying networks. To do this, we propose a network assembly model which can generate structures with tunable trophic coherence, limiting in either perfectly stratified networks...

  16. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  17. Full-field feature profile models in process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavecz, Terrence E.

    2005-05-01

    Most process window analysis applications are capable of deriving the functional focus-dose workspace available to any set of device specifications. Previous work in this area has concentrated on calculating the superpositioned optimum operating points of various combinations of feature orientations or feature types. These studies invariably result in an average performance calculation that is biased by the impact of the substrate, reticle and exposure tool contributed perturbations. Many SEM's and optical metrology tools now provide full-feature profile information for multiple points in the exposure field. The inclusion of field spatial information into the process window analysis results in a calculation of greater accuracy and process understanding because now the capabilities of each exposure tool can be individually modeled and optimized. Such an analysis provides the added benefit that after the exposure tool is characterized, it's process perturbations can be removed from the analysis to provide greater understanding of the true process performance. Process window variables are shown to vary significantly across the exposure field of the scanner. Evaluating the depth-of-focus and optimum focus-dose at each point in the exposure field yields additional information on the imaging response of the reticle and scan-linearity of the exposure tool's reticle stage. The optimal focus response of the reticle is then removed from a full wafer exposure and the results are modeled to obtain a true process response and performance.

  18. Beta decay and other processes in strong electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmedov, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    We consider effects of the fields of strong electromagnetic waves on various characteristics of quantum processes. After a qualitative discussion of the effects of external fields on the energy spectra and angular distributions of the final-state particles as well as on the total probabilities of the processes (such as decay rates and total cross sections), we present a simple method of calculating the total probabilities of processes with production of non-relativistic charged particles. Using nuclear beta-decay as an example, we study the weak and strong field limits, as well as the field-induced beta-decay of nuclei stable in the absence of the external fields, both in the tunneling and multi-photon regimes. We also consider the possibility of accelerating forbidden nuclear beta-decays by lifting the forbiddeness due to the interaction of the parent or daughter nuclei with the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. It is shown that for currently attainable electromagnetic fields all effects on total beta-...

  19. On refractive processes in strong laser field quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A

    2013-01-01

    Refractive processes in strong-field QED are pure quantum processes, which involve only external photons and the background electromagnetic field. We show analytically that such processes occurring in a plane-wave field are all characterized by a surprisingly modest net exchange of laser photons even at ultrarelativistic laser intensities. We obtain this result by a direct calculation of the transition matrix element of an arbitrary refractive QED process and accounting exactly for the background plane-wave field. A simple physical explanation of this modest net exchange of laser photons is provided, based on the fact that the laser field couples with the external photons only indirectly through virtual electron-positron pairs. For stronger and stronger laser fields, the pairs cover a shorter and shorter distance before they annihilate again, such that the laser can transfer to them an energy corresponding to only a few photons. These results apply to both optical and x-free electron lasers, and are relevant ...

  20. Earthworm assemblages as affected by field margin strips and tillage intensity: An on-farm approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Huerta, E.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm species contribute to soil ecosystem functions in varying ways. Important soil functions like structural maintenance and nutrient cycling are affected by earthworms, thus it is essential to understand how arable farm management influences earthworm species. One aim of arable field margin s

  1. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, P.S.; Vargas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare

  2. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like formu

  3. Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team

    2016-10-01

    Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.

  4. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Alexander I; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g.\\ laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields

  5. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  6. Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakka, Noriyuki Hirota, Shigeru Horii and Tsutomu Ando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan.Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3, which was held on 14–16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields.This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings

  7. Effects of Orthogonal Rotating Electric Fields on Electrospinning Process

    CERN Document Server

    Cipolletta, Federico; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is an nanotechnology process whereby an external electric field is used to accelerate and stretch a charged polymer jet, so as to produce fibers at nanoscale diameters. In quest of a further reduction in the cross section of electrified jets hence of the resulting electrospun fibers, we explore the effects of an external rotating electric field orthogonal to the jet direction. Through extensive particle simulations, it is shown that by a proper tuning of the electric field amplitude and frequency, a reduction of up to a 30% in the aforementioned radius can be obtained, thereby opening new perspectives in the design of future ultra-thin electrospun fibres.

  8. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  9. Microscopic Processes in Global Relativistic Jets Containing Helical Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Niemiec, Jacek; Kobzar, Oleh; Pohl, Martin; Gomez, Jose L; Dutan, Ioana; Pe'er, Asaf; Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Nordlund, AAke; Meli, Athina; Sol, Helene; Hardee, Philip E; Hartmann, Dieter H

    2016-01-01

    In the study of relativistic jets one of the key open questions is their interaction with the environment on the microscopic level. Here, we study the initial evolution of both electron$-$proton ($e^{-}-p^{+}$) and electron$-$positron ($e^{\\pm}$) relativistic jets containing helical magnetic fields, focusing on their interaction with an ambient plasma. We have performed simulations of "global" jets containing helical magnetic fields in order to examine how helical magnetic fields affect kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (kKHI) and the Mushroom instability (MI). In our initial simulation study these kinetic instabilities are suppressed and new types of instabilities can grow. In the $e^{-}-p^{+}$ jet simulation a recollimation-like instability occurs and jet electrons are strongly perturbed. In the $e^{\\pm}$ jet simulation a recollimation-like instability occurs at early times followed by a kinetic instability and the general structure is similar to ...

  10. Science Process Skills of Students Having Field Dependent and Field Independent Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out to compare the integrated science process of the students having field dependent and independent cognitive style. A total of 496 students (285 female, 211 male) participated using by stratified sampling method from seven high schools located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey. While students' science process skills…

  11. Generalized Poisson processes in quantum mechanics and field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Faculte des Sciences de Luminy); Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.

    1981-11-01

    In section 2 we describe more carefully the generalized Poisson processes, giving a realization of the underlying probability space, and we characterize these processes by their characteristic functionals. Section 3 is devoted to the proof of the previous formula for quantum mechanical systems, with possibly velocity dependent potentials and in section 4 we give an application of the previous theory to some relativistic Bose field models.

  12. Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) data processing system specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D.; Gomez, R.; Miller, A.

    1980-01-01

    The software specifications for the MAGSAT data processing system (MDPS) are presented. The MDPS is divided functionally into preprocessing of primary input data, data management, chronicle processing, and postprocessing. Data organization and validity, and checks of spacecraft and instrumentation are dicussed. Output products of the MDPS, including various plots and data tapes, are described. Formats for important tapes are presented. Dicussions and mathematical formulations for coordinate transformations and field model coefficients are included.

  13. Pulsed electric field processing for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for fruits and vegetables to improve their safety and quality. This month’s column coauthor, Stefan Toepfl, is advanced research manager at the German Institute of Food Technologies and professo...

  14. Process Improvement Education with Professionals in the Addiction Treatment Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermacher, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Continuing education is being provided to professionals in the addiction treatment field to help them develop skills in process improvement and better meet the needs and requests they encounter. Access and retention of individuals seeking addiction treatment have been two of the greatest challenges addiction treatment professionals face.…

  15. Polymer Field-Theory Simulations on Graphics Processing Units

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Kris T

    2012-01-01

    We report the first CUDA graphics-processing-unit (GPU) implementation of the polymer field-theoretic simulation framework for determining fully fluctuating expectation values of equilibrium properties for periodic and select aperiodic polymer systems. Our implementation is suitable both for self-consistent field theory (mean-field) solutions of the field equations, and for fully fluctuating simulations using the complex Langevin approach. Running on NVIDIA Tesla T20 series GPUs, we find double-precision speedups of up to 30x compared to single-core serial calculations on a recent reference CPU, while single-precision calculations proceed up to 60x faster than those on the single CPU core. Due to intensive communications overhead, an MPI implementation running on 64 CPU cores remains two times slower than a single GPU.

  16. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare system, where the transfer is received conditional on the unemployed spending some time on ancillary activities. First, we fi nd that having an unemployment bene fit institution, regardless of whe...

  17. Microscopic Processes in Global Relativistic Jets Containing Helical Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Nishikawa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study of relativistic jets one of the key open questions is their interaction with the environment on the microscopic level. Here, we study the initial evolution of both electron–proton ( e − – p + and electron–positron ( e ± relativistic jets containing helical magnetic fields, focusing on their interaction with an ambient plasma. We have performed simulations of “global” jets containing helical magnetic fields in order to examine how helical magnetic fields affect kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (kKHI and the Mushroom instability (MI. In our initial simulation study these kinetic instabilities are suppressed and new types of instabilities can grow. In the e − – p + jet simulation a recollimation-like instability occurs and jet electrons are strongly perturbed. In the e ± jet simulation a recollimation-like instability occurs at early times followed by a kinetic instability and the general structure is similar to a simulation without helical magnetic field. Simulations using much larger systems are required in order to thoroughly follow the evolution of global jets containing helical magnetic fields.

  18. Basic Abnormalities in Visual Processing Affect Face Processing at an Early Age in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Background: A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD an

  19. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  20. Strong field effects on physics processes at the Interaction Point of future linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, A; Porto, S

    2013-01-01

    Future lepton colliders will be precision machines whose physics program includes close study of the Higgs sector and searches for new physics via polarised beams. The luminosity requirements of such machines entail very intense lepton bunches at the interaction point with associated strong electromagnetic fields. These strong fields not only lead to obvious phenomena such as beamstrahlung, but also potentially affect every particle physics process via virtual exchange with the bunch fields. For precision studies, strong field effects have to be understood to the sub-percent level. Strong external field effects can be taken into account exactly via the Furry Picture or, in certain limits, via the Quasi-classical Operator method . Significant theoretical development is in progress and here we outline the current state of play.

  1. Two-photon Compton process in pulsed intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D

    2012-01-01

    Based on strong-field QED in the Furry picture we use the Dirac-Volkov propagator to derive a compact expression for the differential emission probability of the two-photon Compton process in a pulsed intense laser field. The relation of real and virtual intermediate states is discussed, and the natural regularization of the on-shell contributions due to the finite laser pulse is highlighted. The inclusive two-photon spectrum is two orders of magnitude stronger than expected from a perturbative estimate.

  2. Unsaturated flow processes in structurally-variable pathways in wildfire-affected soils and ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Prediction of flash flood and debris flow generation in wildfire-affected soils and ash hinges on understanding unsaturated flow processes. Water resources issues, such as groundwater recharge, also rely on our ability to quantify subsurface flow. Soil-hydraulic property data provide insight into unsaturated flow processes and timescales. A literature review and synthesis of existing data from the literature for wildfire-affected soils, including ash and unburned soils, facilitated calculating metrics and timescales of hydrologic response related to infiltration and surface runoff generation. Sorptivity (S) and the Green-Ampt wetting front parameter (Ψf) were significantly lower in burned soils compared to unburned soils, while field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) was not significantly different. The magnitude and duration of the influence of capillarity was substantially reduced in burned soils, leading to faster ponding times in response to rainfall. Ash had large values of S and Kfs compared to unburned and burned soils but intermediate values of Ψf, suggesting that ash has long ponding times in response to rainfall. The ratio of S2/Kfs was nearly constant ( 100 mm) for unburned soils, but was more variable in burned soils. Post-wildfire changes in this ratio suggested that unburned soils had a balance between gravity and capillarity contributions to infiltration, which may depend on soil organic matter, while burning shifted infiltration more towards gravity contributions by reducing S. Taken together, the changes in post-wildfire soil-hydraulic properties increased the propensity for surface runoff generation and may have enhanced subsurface preferential flow through pathways altered by wildfire.

  3. Die Radius Affecting Sheet Metal Extrusion Quality for Fine Blanking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatkaew Suriyapha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sheet metal extrusion is a process in which the punch penetrates one surface of the sheet metal material to cause it to extrude and flow toward the outlet of the die. Therefore, the process can invent different thickness of sheet metal work piece. From these advantages on the sheet metal extrusion, nowadays, it is generally used in many manufacturing of industrial elements fields. The Sheet Metal Extrusions in Fine Blanking (SME-FB advantages, over a conventional extrusion, are possible due to a blank holder force, a counterpunch force and a large die radius. However, the selection on those parameter values affects on the material flow and the surface quality on the extrusion parts also. Namely, it causes the crack surface and shrinkage failure which are the general problems in the SME-FB. Approach: Objective of this research was to study the effect of die radius on the SME-FB surface which investigated the formation of the failure defection with respect to the several die radiuses by using the Finite Element Method (FEM. Results: From the results, it indicated that applying the small die radius caused the material flow difficult resulting in the decreasing of smooth surface. Vice versa, in the case of large die radius, the material flow easy is resulting in the increasing of smooth surface. Conclusion: The FEM simulation results of a larger die radius will cause the residual stress at work piece.

  4. Differences in the dynamics of affective and cognitive processing - An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christina J; Fritsch, Nathalie; Hofmann, Markus J; Kuchinke, Lars

    2017-01-15

    A controversy in emotion research concerns the question of whether affective or cognitive primacy are evident in processing affective stimuli and the factors contributing to each alternative. Using electrophysiological recordings in an adapted visual oddball paradigm allowed tracking the dynamics of affective and cognitive effects. Stimuli consisted of face pictures displaying affective expressions with rare oddballs differing from frequent stimuli in either affective expression, structure (while frequent stimuli were shown frontally these deviants were turned sideways) or they differed on both dimensions, i.e. in affective expression and structure. Results revealed a defined sequence of differences in ERP amplitudes: For stimuli deviating in their affective expression only, P1 modulations ~100ms were evident, while affective differences of structure deviants were not evident before the N170 time window. All three types of deviants differed in P300 amplitudes, indicating integration of affective and structural information. These results encompass evidence for both, cognitive and affective primacy depending on stimulus properties. Specifically affective primacy is only visible when the respective facial features can be extracted with ease. When structural differences make face processing harder, however, cognitive primacy is brought forward.

  5. Magnetic field intensification by three-dimensional explosion process

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, H; Yokoyama, T

    2012-01-01

    We investigate an intensification mechanism for the magnetic field near the base of the solar convection zone that does not rely on differential rotation. Such mechanism in addition to differential rotation has been suggested by studies of flux emergence, which typically require field strength in excess of those provided by differential rotation alone. We study here a process in which potential energy of the superadiabatically stratified convection zone is converted into magnetic energy. This mechanism, know as explosion of magnetic flux tubes, has been previously studied in the thin flux tube approximation as well as two-dimensional MHD simulations, we expand the investigation to three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our main result is that enough intensification can be achieved in a three-dimensional magnetic flux sheet as long as the spatial scale of the imposed perturbation normal to the magnetic field is sufficiently large. When this spatial scale is small, the flux sheet tends to rise toward the surface, r...

  6. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  7. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  8. Robust adaptive matched field processing with environmental uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang; ZHANG Zhongbing; ZOU Shixin

    2006-01-01

    The main challenges on detection and localization of quiet targets in littoral regions for passive sonar are the complicated acoustic propagation and the prevalence of loud ship interferences on the surface. Adaptive matched field processing can provide the ability to null surface interferences, but the mismatch between the computed and actual array steering vectors due to environment uncertainty, and the motion of both targets and interferences can result in loss of array gain significantly. To address the problem of environmental mismatch and target motion, a robust motion compensation algorithm and a system scheme for adaptive matched field processing have been developed. Both Numerical simulation and analysis of experimental data demonstrates that the robust AMFP scheme could suppress surface loud interferences and improve the detection performance for underwater weak moving targets in complex shallow water.

  9. Binaries in the field: fossils of the star formation process?

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of binary stars in the Galactic field show that the binary fraction and the mean orbital separation both decrease as a function of decreasing primary mass. We present $N$-body simulations of the effects of dynamical evolution in star-forming regions on primordial binary stars to determine whether these observed trends can be explained by the dynamical processing of a common binary population. We find that dynamical processing of a binary population with an initial binary fraction of unity and an initial excess of intermediate/wide separation (100 - 10$^4$ au) binaries does not reproduce the observed properties in the field, even in initially dense ($\\sim 10^3$M$_\\odot$ pc$^{-3}$) star-forming regions. If instead we adopt a field-like population as the initial conditions, most brown dwarf and M-dwarf binaries are dynamically hard and their overall fractions and separation distributions are unaffected by dynamical evolution. G-dwarf and A-star binaries in the field are dynamically intermedia...

  10. Heat Transfer Affected by Transverse Magnetic Field using 3D Modeling of Arc Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Gas shielded metal arc welding is used to join the various metal because this is the high quality joining technology. Thus, this welding is used for a welding of large buildings such as bridges and LNG tanks. However, the welding defect caused by the heat transfer decrement may occur with increasing the wind velocity. This is because that the convection loss increases because the arc deflects to leeward side with increasing the wind velocity. In order to prevent from the arc deflection, it is used that the transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc. However, the arc deflection occurs with increasing the transverse magnetic field excessively. The energy balance of the arc is changed with increasing the convection loss caused by the arc deflection, and the heat transfer to the anode decreases. Therefore, the analysis including the arc and anode is necessary to elucidate the heat transfer to the anode. In this paper, the heat transfer affected by the transverse magnetic field using 3D modeling of the arc plasma is elucidated. The heat transfer to the anode is calculated by using the EMTF(electromagnetic thermal fluid) simulation with increasing the transverse magnetic field. As a result, the heat transfer decreased with increasing the transverse magnetic field.

  11. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  12. Treatment of impaired affective information processing and social cognition in neuropsychiatric patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting impr

  13. A comparison of affective information processing in Noonan and Turner syndromes: Evidence of alexithymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.L.; Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Freriks, K.; Verhaak, C.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Noonan (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes share physical features, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative

  14. Affective priming of emotional pictures in parafoveal vision: left visual field advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Avero, Pedro

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated whether stimulus affective content can be extracted from visual scenes when these appear in parafoveal locations of the visual field and are foveally masked, and whether there is lateralization involved. Parafoveal prime pleasant or unpleasant scenes were presented for 150 msec 2.5 degrees away from fixation and were followed by a foveal probe scene that was either congruent or incongruent in emotional valence with the prime. Participants responded whether the probe was emotionally positive or negative. Affective priming was demonstrated by shorter response latencies for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs. This effect occurred when the prime was presented in the left visual field at a 300-msec prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony, even when the prime and the probe were different in physical appearance and semantic category. This result reveals that the affective significance of emotional stimuli can be assessed early through covert attention mechanisms, in the absence of overt eye fixations on the stimuli, and suggests that right-hemisphere dominance is involved.

  15. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  16. Multi-physical field coupling simulation of TCVI process for preparing carbon/carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To prepare Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composites with advanced performance, the thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (TCVI) process has been optimized by simulation. A 2D axisymmetric unstable model was built, which included convection, conduction, diffusion, densification reactions in the pores and the evolution of the porous medium. The multi-physical field coupling model was solved by finite element method (FEM) and iterative calculation. The time evolution of the fluid, temperature and preform density field were obtained by the calculation. It is indicated that convection strongly affects the temperature field. For the preform of carbon/carbon composites infiltrated for 100 h by TCVI, the radial average densities from simulation agrees well with those from experiment. The model is validated to be reliable and the simulation has capability of forecasting the process.

  17. Multi-physical field coupling simulation of TCVI process for preparing carbon/carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO YanQiong; LI HeJun; LI KeZhi

    2009-01-01

    To prepare Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composites with advanced performance, the thermal gradient chemi-cal vapor infiltration (TCVI) process has been optimized by simulation.A 2D axisymmetric unstable model was built, which included convection, conduction, diffusion, densification reactions in the pores and the evolution of the porous medium.The multi-physical field coupling model was solved by finite element method (FEM) and iterative calculation.The time evolution of the fluid, temperature and pre-form density field were obtained by the calculation.It is indicated that convection strongly affects the temperature field.For the preform of carbon/carbon composites infiltrated for 100 h by TCVI, the radial average densities from simulation agrees well with those from experiment.The model is validated to be reliable and the simulation has capability of forecasting the process.

  18. Cultivars of tulip affected by tulip necrotic disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in commercial field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahata, K.; Kusaba, T.; Mukobata, H.

    1983-08-01

    This paper represents the name of cultivars in which typical symptoms of tulip necrotic disease have been shown in commercial fields. Within 1976-1983 growing seasons, the authors observed fifty cultivars having the symptoms on their ground parts of tulips and it seemed that cultivars which belong to classes of Truimph, Darwin, Darwin Hybrid and Double Late were highly susceptible to tulip necrotic disease. It was also recognized that, most of affected cultivars flowered in mid or late April, and a few in early April.

  19. Changes in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollan JK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jackie K Gollan, Laina Rosebrock, Denada Hoxha, Katherine L Wisner Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum to inform future research. Numerous changes occur in attentional processing and affective reactivity across the childbearing period. This review focuses on the definition and methods of measuring attentional processing and affective reactivity. We discuss research studies that have examined the changes in these two processes during the perinatal phases of pregnancy and postpartum, with and without depression and anxiety. We evaluate the importance of using multiple levels of measurement, including physiological and neuroimaging techniques, to study these processes via implicit and explicit tasks. Research that has identified regions of brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as other physiological assessments is integrated into the discussion. The importance of using sophisticated methodological techniques in future studies, such as multiple mediation models, for the purpose of elucidating mechanisms of change during these processes in pregnancy and postpartum is emphasized. We conclude with a discussion of the effect of these processes on maternal psychological functioning and infant outcomes. These processes support a strategy for individualizing treatment for pregnant and postpartum women suffering from depression and anxiety. Keywords: attentional processing, emotion, affective reactivity, depression, pregnancy, postpartum

  20. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. A Survey on the Affect of the Field of Study on the Religiosity of Different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Saeid Zaheh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractReviewing history of human thought, there are two different realities talked about: observable andnon-observable. Abrahamian religious thinkers referring to revelation, talk about non-observable realityand its relationship with observable reality. These materials were mixed with superstitious in such a waythat European thinkers preferred just to rely on experience and talk about observable reality afterRenascence. So, secularism appeared as a value and experimental sciences became the sign of wisdomand a reliable reference for the life. New sciences with positivistic viewpoint became a good referencefor industrialization and modernism. Meanwhile sociology improved as a substitute for religion's socialfunctions. As modernism improved and expanded, these sciences with all their outcomes spread all overthe world. In our country, especially higher education, improved in this tradition. This research seeks tofind the impact of these studies on the religious attitude of students and compare Sociology's affect withother fields influence in this respect. Also this research would likes to examine some backgroundvariables effect on religious status of the students. This is a survey, longitudinal and a comparative study.Questionnaire is our tool for data gathering from Shiraz University and Shiraz Medical Universitystudents in different fields of study. Results, analyzed with SPSS software, shows that medical studies,agricultural sciences and sociology have the most negative affect on religious attitude of students. Thosewho are studying Humanities are the list influenced students, but any how all secular fields have theirown impacts. Our findings show that the only field that students left university with more religiousattitudes in regard of what they had at the entrance are Architecture students.

  2. 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields do not affect human lymphocyte activation and proliferation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capri, Miriam; Mesirca, Pietro; Remondini, Daniel; Carosella, Simona; Pasi, Sara; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio; Bersani, Ferdinando

    2004-12-01

    In the last 30 years, an increasing public concern about the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines and domestic appliances has pushed the scientific community to search for a correct and comprehensive answer to this problem. In this work the effects of exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields, with a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and 2.5 mT (peak values), were studied on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy young and elderly donors. Cell activation and proliferation were investigated by using flow cytometry techniques and 3H-TdR incorporation assays, respectively. The results obtained indicated that exposure to the fields altered neither DNA synthesis nor the capacity of lymphocytes to enter the activation phase and progress into the cell cycle. Thus, the conclusions are that two important functional phases of human lymphocytes, such as activation and proliferation, are not affected by exposures to 50 Hz magnetic fields similar to those found under power lines.

  3. Adaptive wave field synthesis for broadband active sound field reproduction: signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction is a physical approach to the reproduction of the natural spatial character of hearing. It is also useful in experimental acoustics and psychoacoustics. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. A real reflective reproduction space thus reduces the objective accuracy of WFS. Recently, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a combination of WFS and active compensation. AWFS is based on the minimization of reproduction errors and on the penalization of departure from the WFS solution. This paper focuses on signal processing for AWFS. A classical adaptive algorithm is modified for AWFS: filtered-reference least-mean-square. This modified algorithm and the classical equivalent leaky algorithm have similar convergence properties except that the WFS solution influences the adaptation rule of the modified algorithm. The paper also introduces signal processing for independent radiation mode control of AWFS on the basis of plant decoupling. Simulation results for AWFS are introduced for free-field and reflective spaces. The two algorithms effectively reproduce the sound field and compensate for the reproduction errors at the error sensors. The independent radiation mode control allows a more flexible tuning of the algorithm.

  4. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  5. Using strong electromagnetic fields to control x-ray processes

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Linda; Dunford, Robert W; Ho, Phay J; Kanter, Elliot P; Krässig, Bertold; Peterson, Emily R; Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin; Southworth, Stephen H

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of a new ultrafast-ultrasmall frontier in atomic and molecular physics has begun. Not only is is possible to control outer-shell electron dynamics with intense ultrafast optical lasers, but now control of inner-shell processes has become possible by combining intense infrared/optical lasers with tunable sources of x-ray radiation. This marriage of strong-field laser and x-ray physics has led to the discovery of methods to control reversibly resonant x-ray absorption in atoms and molecules on ultrafast timescales. Using a strong optical dressing field, resonant x-ray absorption in atoms can be markedly suppressed, yielding an example of electromagnetically induced transparency for x rays. Resonant x-ray absorption can also be controlled in molecules using strong non-resonant, polarized laser fields to align the framework of a molecule, and therefore its unoccupied molecular orbitals to which resonant absorption occurs. At higher laser intensities, ultrafast field ionization produces an irreversible...

  6. The Impact of Affect on Out-Group Judgments Depends on Dominant Information-Processing Styles: Evidence From Incidental and Integral Affect Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Lair, Elicia C; Rovenpor, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    Two studies tested the affect-as-cognitive-feedback model, in which positive and negative affective states are not uniquely associated with particular processing styles, but rather serve as feedback about currently accessible processing styles. The studies extend existing work by investigating (a) both incidental and integral affect, (b) out-group judgments, and (c) downstream consequences. We manipulated processing styles and either incidental (Study 1) or integral (Study 2) affect and measured perceptions of out-group homogeneity. Positive (relative to negative) affect increased out-group homogeneity judgments when global processing was primed, but under local priming, the effect reversed (Studies 1 and 2). A similar interactive effect emerged on attributions, which had downstream consequences for behavioral intentions (Study 2). These results demonstrate that both incidental and integral affect do not directly produce specific processing styles, but rather influence thinking by providing feedback about currently accessible processing styles.

  7. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brond, J. C.; Arvidsson, D.

    2016-01-01

    the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Acti...

  8. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  9. How Age of Transplants from In Vitro Derived Potato Plantlets Affects Crop Growth and Seed Tuber Yield After Field Transplanting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro produced plantlets are used in potato seed systems for production of minitubers under protected conditions or for production of transplants to be transplanted to the field. Three field experiments were carried out to analyse how transplant age (Age) affected the field performance. In the

  10. How Do the Parameter Changes in the Moist Processes Affect the Temperature and Circulation Simulations in the Lower-Troposphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the grid-point atmospheric model developed at IAP LASG (GAMIL2) is used to investigate how the altering parameters in the moist processes influence the simulations of the lower-tropospheric temperature and circulation. Two experiments were performed: the control experiment (CNTL) with the default parameter values and the sensitivity experiment (EXP) with the values obtained from a "two-step" parameter optimization method, which applied a full factor sampling scheme and the simplex downhill algorithm. Results show that parameter changes lead to variation of diabatic heating and affect the lower tropospheric temperature and circulation through the interaction and mutual responses between dynamical and physical processes. Furthermore, the interactions of dynamical and physical processes are different in the tropics and high latitudes. In the tropics, dynamical processes mainly resulted from vertical motion balance the variation of latent heating, both of which are negatively correlated to offset each other and play significant roles in the simulation of temperature. However, in the high latitudes, dynamical processes mainly due to horizontal advection dominate the total temperature tendency compared to physical processes. The variation of dynamical effects can overcompensate the diabatic heating from physical processes, thus affecting the geopetential height and wind fields. Moreover, there exists a positive feedback among the temperature, geopotential height, and meridional wind in the mid and high latitudes.

  11. Depth of field affects perceived depth-width ratios in photographs of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefs, Harold T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out how much influence depth of field has on the perceived ratio of depth and width in photographs of natural scenes. Depth of field is roughly defined as the distance range that is perceived as sharp in the photograph. Four different semi-natural scenes consisting of a central and two flanking figurines were used. For each scene, five series of photos were made, in which the distance in depth between the central figurine and the flanking figurines increased. These series of photographs had different amounts of depth of field. In the first experiment participants adjusted the position of the two flanking figurines relative to a central figurine, until the perceived distance in the depth dimension equaled the perceived lateral distance between the two flanking figurines. Viewing condition was either monocular or binocular (non-stereo). In the second experiment, the participants did the same task but this time we varied the viewing distance. We found that the participants' depth/width settings increased with increasing depth of field. As depth of field increased, the perceived depth in the scene was reduced relative to the perceived width. Perceived depth was reduced relative to perceived width under binocular viewing conditions compared to monocular viewing conditions. There was a greater reduction when the viewing distance was increased. As photographs of natural scenes contain many highly redundant or conflicting depth cues, we conclude therefore that local image blur is an important cue to depth. Moreover, local image blur is not only taken into account in the perception of egocentric distances, but also affects the perception of depth within the scene relative to lateral distances within the scene.

  12. The mechanism of valence-space metaphors: ERP evidence for affective word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say "feeling down" or "cheer up" in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations

  13. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  14. Analytical tools for investigating strong-field QED processes in tightly focused laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is the natural continuation of the letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{113}, 040402 (2014)], where the electron wave functions in the presence of a background electromagnetic field of general space-time structure have been constructed analytically, assuming that the initial energy of the electron is the largest dynamical energy scale in the problem and having in mind the case of a background tightly focused laser beam. Here, we determine the scalar and the spinor propagators under the same approximations, which are useful tools for calculating, e.g., total probabilities of processes occurring in such complex electromagnetic fields. In addition, we also present a simpler and more general expression of the electron wave functions found in [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{113}, 040402 (2014)] and we indicate a substitution rule to obtain them starting from the well-known Volkov wave functions in a plane-wave field.

  15. Effects of Background Fields on Some Physical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Ranabir

    We computed the operator product expansion of the scalar, spinor and the vector (in a specific gauge) propagator in an arbitrary background gauge field. The Schwinger background field formalism--as developed by DeWitt and others--is a very suitable tool for this purpose. The analysis is used to verify, at the tree level, the conjecture put forward by Shifman et al., that a smooth background field does not modify the coefficient functions of a perturbative operator product expansion. The expansion was done using the "heat kernel" method with the proper time variable as the expansion parameter; and in the momentum space the successive coefficients of the composite operators have an inverse power structure. The phase factor P exp-(INT) Adz, emerging naturally in the expansion scheme, preserves the gauge covariance of the scalar and spinor propagator. The formalism may be used to find the background field effects in various Green's functions. The vector field propagator in an instanton field has an infrared divergent piece D(,(alpha))(1/D('2))('2) D(,(beta)), but is also amenable to a similar expansion scheme. From the expansion it follows that the divergences in the momentum space, except for the inverse power structure, are of the type (delta)('(4)) (p) or derivatives thereof. It is also evident that only for the vector is it possible to ascribe a non-perturbative vacuum expectation value to the composite operators. We used these results to find the leading instanton effect for the spin-independent structure functions. The process chosen as a model is the deep inelastic scattering of an electromagnetic current off a single quark state. One can calculate the diagonal matrix elements between single quark states of twist-2 operators at the lowest order in the strong coupling constant. They describe the moments of the structure functions, and inverting the moment relations, we can obtain the instanton generated structure functions. A systematic expansion in the parameter

  16. Object-Based Flood Mapping and Affected Rice Field Estimation with Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong D. Dao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is one of the most flood-prone countries in Southeast Asia. It is geographically situated in the downstream region of the Mekong River with a lowland floodplain in the middle, surrounded by plateaus and high mountains. It usually experiences devastating floods induced by an overwhelming concentration of rainfall water over the Tonle Sap Lake’s and Mekong River’s banks during monsoon seasons. Flood damage assessment in the rice ecosystem plays an important role in this region as local residents rely heavily on agricultural production. This study introduced an object-based approach to flood mapping and affected rice field estimation in central Cambodia. In this approach, image segmentation processing was conducted with optimal scale parameter estimation based on the variation of objects’ local variances. The inundated area was identified by using Landsat 8 images with an overall accuracy of higher than 95% compared to those derived from finer spatial resolution images. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation index products were utilized to identify the paddy rice field based on seasonal inter-variation between vegetation and water index during the transplanting stage. The rice classification result was well correlated with the statistical data at a commune level (R2 = 0.675. The flood mapping and affected rice estimation results are useful to provide local governments with valuable information for flooding mitigation and post-flooding compensation and restoration.

  17. Superresolution with Seismic Arrays using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T

    2010-03-24

    Scattering and refraction of seismic waves can be exploited with empirical matched field processing of array observations to distinguish sources separated by much less than the classical resolution limit. To describe this effect, we use the term 'superresolution', a term widely used in the optics and signal processing literature to denote systems that break the diffraction limit. We illustrate superresolution with Pn signals recorded by the ARCES array in northern Norway, using them to identify the origins with 98.2% accuracy of 549 explosions conducted by closely-spaced mines in northwest Russia. The mines are observed at 340-410 kilometers range and are separated by as little as 3 kilometers. When viewed from ARCES many are separated by just tenths of a degree in azimuth. This classification performance results from an adaptation to transient seismic signals of techniques developed in underwater acoustics for localization of continuous sound sources. Matched field processing is a potential competitor to frequency-wavenumber and waveform correlation methods currently used for event detection, classification and location. It operates by capturing the spatial structure of wavefields incident from a particular source in a series of narrow frequency bands. In the rich seismic scattering environment, closely-spaced sources far from the observing array nonetheless produce distinct wavefield amplitude and phase patterns across the small array aperture. With observations of repeating events, these patterns can be calibrated over a wide band of frequencies (e.g. 2.5-12.5 Hertz) for use in a power estimation technique similar to frequency-wavenumber analysis. The calibrations enable coherent processing at high frequencies at which wavefields normally are considered incoherent under a plane wave model.

  18. On whether mirror neurons play a significant role in processing affective prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2009-02-01

    Several behavioral and neuroimaging studies have indicated that both right and left cortical structures and a few subcortical ones are involved in processing affective prosody. Recent investigations have shown that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in several higher-level functions such as empathy, theory of mind, language, etc., but no studies so far link the mirror neuron system with affective prosody. In this paper is a speculation that the mirror neuron system, which serves as a common neural substrate for different higher-level functions, may play a significant role in processing affective prosody via its connections with the limbic lobe. Actual research must apply electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to assess whether the mirror neuron systems underly affective prosody in humans.

  19. Polymerization and processing of polymers in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Smith, M.E.; Douglas, E.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT`s) have become recognized over the past few years as an important class of materials. Numerous reports from the authors laboratory and others have described their synthesis and phase behavior. In particular, the authors have described important effects due to the orientation of the rodlike molecules in a liquid crystalline phase. They have found that curing rates are enhanced compared to reaction in an isotropic phase, and that the glass transition of the fully cured material can be significantly higher than the final cure temperature. For structural applications, orientation of LCT`s will allow maximum improvement in mechanical properties. A few studies have described use of magnetic fields to orient LCT`s. However, no measurements were made of the tensile properties of materials processed in magnetic fields. The authors have conducted experiments which describe the tensile modulus dependence of an LCT over the complete range of magnetic field strengths from 0 to 18 Tesla. Their work has focused on the system composed of the diglycidyl ether of dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene (DGE-DHAMS) cured with sulfanilamide (SAA).

  20. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie M. G.; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; De Brito, Stephane A.; McCrory, Eamon J. P.; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11–16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24–40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing. PMID:21467048

  1. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  2. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  3. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  4. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. The lateralized processing of affect in emotionally labile extraverts and introverts: central and autonomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B D; Kline, R; Lindgren, K; Ferro, M; Smith, D A; Nespor, A

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to better understand both the lateralized hemispheric processing of emotion and the differential neural processing of arousal in extraverts and introverts. We preselected right-handed male and female extraverts and introverts who were high in emotional lability. Each subject was exposed to two positive and two negative emotional stimuli under each of three counterbalanced conditions, including affective, cognitive, and neutral, while EEG and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Results showed that introverts are more aroused and that extraversion interacts with gender to produce differentiated patterns of lateralized neural activity. In addition, affective conditions produced higher levels of arousal than did cognitive or neutral conditions, particularly in the left hemisphere and under negative as opposed to positive stimuli. Finally, the hemispherically differentiated processing of positive and negative stimuli was affected by the contextual conditions under which they were experienced.

  6. Developmental Coordination Disorder Affects the Processing of Action-Related Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Giovanni; Del Signore, Sara; Lakens, Daniel; Averna, Roberto; Penge, Roberta; Capozzi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Processing action-language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, which suggests that the motor system might be involved in action-language understanding. However, this claim is hotly debated. For the first time, we compared the processing of action-verbs in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disease that specifically affects the motor system, with children with a typical development (TD). We administered two versions of a go/no-go task in which verbs expressing either hand, foot or abstract actions were presented. We found that only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved, TD children showed an increase in reaction times if the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. In contrast, DCD patients did not show any difference between verb categories irrespective of the task. These findings suggest that the pathological functioning of the motor system in individuals with DCD also affects language processing. PMID:28119585

  7. Intuitive (in)coherence judgments are guided by processing fluency, mood and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweklej, Joanna; Balas, Robert; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Godlewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed accounts of intuitive judgments of semantic coherence assume that processing fluency results in a positive affective response leading to successful assessment of semantic coherence. The present paper investigates whether processing fluency may indicate semantic incoherence as well. In two studies, we employ a new paradigm in which participants have to detect an incoherent item among semantically coherent words. In Study 1, we show participants accurately indicating an incoherent item despite not being able to provide an accurate solution to coherent words. Further, this effect is modified by affective valence of solution words that are not retrieved from memory. Study 2 replicates those results and extend them by showing that mood moderates incoherence judgments independently of affective valence of solutions. The results support processing fluency account of intuitive semantic coherence judgments and show that it is not fluency per se but fluency variations that drive judgments.

  8. How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-11-01

    The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate.

  9. Exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field affects biofilm formation by cystic fibrosis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Pompilio, Arianna; Crocetta, Valentina; De Nicola, Serena; Barbaro, Filippo; Giuliani, Livio; D'Emilia, Enrico; Fiscarelli, Ersilia; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on growth and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains from cystic fibrosis patients. The motion of selected ions (Fe, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mg, K, Na) was stimulated by the ion resonance effect, then influence on growth and biofilm formation/viability was assessed by spectrophotometry or viability count. Generally, exposure to ELF-MF significantly increased bacterial growth and affected both biofilm formation and viability, although with differences with regard to ions and species considered. Exposure to ELF-MF represents a possible new approach for treatment of biofilm-associated cystic fibrosis lung infections.

  10. How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Ulrich; Camerer, Colin F; Fox, Craig R; Langer, Thomas

    2013-07-16

    A fundamental debate in social sciences concerns how individual judgments and choices, resulting from psychological mechanisms, are manifested in collective economic behavior. Economists emphasize the capacity of markets to aggregate information distributed among traders into rational equilibrium prices. However, psychologists have identified pervasive and systematic biases in individual judgment that they generally assume will affect collective behavior. In particular, recent studies have found that judged likelihoods of possible events vary systematically with the way the entire event space is partitioned, with probabilities of each of N partitioned events biased toward 1/N. Thus, combining events into a common partition lowers perceived probability, and unpacking events into separate partitions increases their perceived probability. We look for evidence of such bias in various prediction markets, in which prices can be interpreted as probabilities of upcoming events. In two highly controlled experimental studies, we find clear evidence of partition dependence in a 2-h laboratory experiment and a field experiment on National Basketball Association (NBA) and Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup) sports events spanning several weeks. We also find evidence consistent with partition dependence in nonexperimental field data from prediction markets for economic derivatives (guessing the values of important macroeconomic statistics) and horse races. Results in any one of the studies might be explained by a specialized alternative theory, but no alternative theories can explain the results of all four studies. We conclude that psychological biases in individual judgment can affect market prices, and understanding those effects requires combining a variety of methods from psychology and economics.

  11. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  12. P300 amplitudes in the concealed information test are less affected by depth of processing than electrodermal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) has been used in the laboratory as well as in field applications to detect concealed crime related memories. The presentation of crime relevant details to guilty suspects has been shown to elicit enhanced N200 and P300 amplitudes of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as well as greater skin conductance responses (SCRs) as compared to neutral test items. These electrophysiological and electrodermal responses were found to incrementally contribute to the validity of the test, thereby suggesting that these response systems are sensitive to different psychological processes. In the current study, we tested whether depth of processing differentially affects N200, P300, and SCR amplitudes in the CIT. Twenty participants carried out a mock crime and became familiar with central and peripheral crime details. A CIT that was conducted 1 week later revealed that SCR amplitudes were larger for central details although central and peripheral items were remembered equally well in a subsequent explicit memory test. By contrast, P300 amplitudes elicited by crime related details were larger but did not differ significantly between question types. N200 amplitudes did not allow for detecting concealed knowledge in this study. These results indicate that depth of processing might be one factor that differentially affects central and autonomic nervous system responses to concealed information. Such differentiation might be highly relevant for field applications of the CIT. PMID:23162454

  13. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  14. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Lecomte, Anthony; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; de-Seze, René

    2008-08-19

    The world-wide and rapidly growing use of mobile phones has raised serious concerns about the biological and health-related effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, particularly concerns about the effects of RFs upon the nervous system. The goal of this study was conducted to measure cytochrome oxidase (CO) levels using histochemical methods in order to evaluate regional brain metabolic activity in rat brain after exposure to a GSM 900 MHz signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/Kg or for 15 min/day at a SAR of 6 W/Kg over seven days. Compared to the sham and control cage groups, rats exposed to a GSM signal at 6 W/Kg showed decreased CO activity in some areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex (infralimbic cortex, prelimbic cortex, primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex areas 1 and 2 (Cg1 and Cg2)), the septum (dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral septal nucleus), the hippocampus (dorsal field CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus and dental gyrus) and the posterior cortex (retrosplenial agranular cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex). However, the exposure to GSM at 1.5 W/Kg did not affect brain activity. Our results indicate that 6 W/Kg GSM 900 MHz microwaves may affect brain metabolism and neuronal activity in rats.

  15. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  16. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants.

  17. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  18. Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbach, Lieke A; Philippi, John G M; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-09-01

    We are increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) by electrical devices and power lines, but if and how these fields interact with living cells remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on calcium signalling in neutrophils. In neutrophilic granulocytes, activation of G-protein coupled receptors leads to efflux of calcium from calcium stores and influx of extracellular calcium via specialised calcium channels. The cytoplasmic rise of calcium induces cytoskeleton rearrangements, modified gene expression patterns, and cell migration. If LF EMF modulates intracellular calcium signalling, this will influence cellular behaviour and may eventually lead to health problems. We found that calcium mobilisation upon chemotactic stimulation was not altered after a short 30 min or long-term LF EMF exposure in human neutrophil-like cell lines HL-60 or PLB-985. Neither of the two investigated wave forms (Immunent and 50 Hz sine wave) at three magnetic flux densities (5 μT, 300 μT, and 500 μT) altered calcium signalling in vitro. Gene-expression patterns of calcium-signalling related genes also did not show any significant changes after exposure. Furthermore, analysis of the phenotypical appearance of microvilli by scanning electron microscopy revealed no alterations induced by LF EMF exposure. The findings above indicate that exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal or Immunent LF EMF will not affect calcium signalling in neutrophils in vitro.

  19. Experimental design based on field spectrometry for characterization of fire-affected soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, Olga; Vlassova, Lidia; Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires can modify physical and chemical properties of soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011; Badía et al., 2014). These disturbances involve changes in soil spectral properties, which can be analyzed by using field spectrometry (VIS-SWIR) (Montorio et al., 2008; Guerrero et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to present an experimental design for hyperspectral characterization of fire affected soils in laboratory conditions. We analyzed soil samples from Montes de Zuera area (Aragón, Spain) repeatedly affected by wildfires in the period of 1979-2008. Fourteen samples, seven from the burned zones and the corresponding control samples were collected in spring of 2013. Spectral analysis was performed on subsamples of around 130 g (fine fraction, particle size < 2 mm), previously dried in a stove at 105°C during 36 hours, and placed in crystal petri dishes (90 mm x 15 mm). The spectra were obtained using spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec® 4 (spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm) combined with a Contact Probe ensuring homogeneity of observation and illumination conditions. Spectralon reference panel Labsphere® was used for conversion to reflectance values. The resulting reflectance is an average of the measurements corresponding to five random points of the subsample, each of them representing a mean value of 10 spectra. The averaging of spectra improves the signal to noise ratio and, at the same time, it minimizes the variations caused by the samples surface roughness. Statistically significant differences have been detected between burned and control soils. Reflectance increase of 12% (average for the whole spectrum) was observed in 70% of the samples: 16%, 15% and 10% increase in visible, NIR and SWIR respectively. Therefore regardless of the wildfire date, an increase of reflectance is observed in burned soils due to changes on soil properties. A detailed analysis of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils will be used in further research to

  20. Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

    1999-10-05

    A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

  1. Hall effect on a Merging Formation Process of a Field-Reversed Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Guo, Xuehan; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2015-11-01

    Counter-helicity spheromak merging is one of the formation methods of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). In counter-helicity spheromak merging, two spheromaks with opposing toroidal fields merge together, through magnetic reconnection events and relax into a FRC, which has no or little toroidal field. This process contains magnetic reconnection and a relaxation phenomena, and the Hall effect has some essential effects on these process because the X-point in the magnetic reconnection or the O-point of the FRC has no or little magnetic field. However, the Hall effect as both global and local effect on counter-helicity spheromak merging has not been elucidated. In this poster, we conducted 2D/3D Hall-MHD simulations and experiments of counter-helicity spheromak merging. We find that the Hall effect enhances the reconnection rate, and reduces the generation of toroidal sheared-flow. The suppression of the ``slingshot effect'' affects the relaxation process. We will discuss details in the poster.

  2. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  3. Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-01-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

  4. Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kate E; Martin, Frances H

    2009-06-01

    There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 34 participants during a modified oddball paradigm in which levels of stimulus valence, arousal, and motivational relevance were systematically varied. Results were partially consistent with motivated attention models of emotional perception, as P3b amplitude was enhanced in response to highly arousing and motivationally relevant sexual and unpleasant stimuli compared to respective low arousing and less motivationally relevant stimuli. However P3b amplitudes were significantly larger in response to the highly arousing sexual stimuli compared to all other affective stimuli, which is not consistent with either dominant theory. The current study therefore highlights the need for a revised model of affective picture processing and provides a platform for further research investigating the independent effects of sexual arousal on cognitive processing.

  5. Affective Cues and Processing Strategy: Color-Coded Examination Forms Influence Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert C.; Soldat, Alexander S.; Mark, Melvin M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that external cues provide affective information that influence processing strategy and, therefore, examination performance. Notes the differences in performance for two midterm examinations, identical, except that they were printed on blue and red paper. Discusses a method for appropriately adjusting scores to control for form effects.…

  6. 76 FR 30509 - Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Part 1653 Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts AGENCY: Federal... amendment which subjects TSP accounts to orders issued pursuant to the Mandatory Victims Restitution Act... in which child support orders and MVRA orders are payable. The amendments clarify that these...

  7. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  8. Getting emotional with evolutionary simulations: the origin of affective processing in artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.T. Heerebout

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the evolutionary roots of basic affective processes and their underlying neural mechanisms. To this end, simulations were performed with agents that evolved artificial neural networks. Our general working hypothesis was that positive and nega

  9. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  10. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  11. The functional profile of the human amygdala in affective processing: insights from intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ryan J; Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2014-11-01

    The amygdala is suggested to serve as a key structure in the emotional brain, implicated in diverse affective processes. Still, the bulk of existing neuroscientific investigations of the amygdala relies on conventional neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, which are very useful but subject to limitations. These limitations are particular to their temporal resolution, but also to their spatial precision at a very fine-grained level. Here, we review studies investigating the functional profile of the human amygdala using intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), an invasive technique with high temporal and spatial precision. We conducted a systematic literature review of 47 iEEG studies investigating the human amygdala, and we focus on two content-related domains and one process-related domain: (1) memory formation and retrieval; (2) affective processing; and (3) latency components. This review reveals the human amygdala to engage in invariant semantic encoding and recognition of specific objects and individuals, independent of context or visuospatial attributes, and to discriminate between familiar and novel stimuli. The review highlights the amygdala's role in emotion processing witnessed in differential treatment of social-affective facial cues, differential neuronal firing to relevant novel stimuli, and habituation to familiar affective stimuli. Overall, the review suggests the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of affective relevance. Finally, this review delineates effects on amygdala neuronal activity into three time latency windows (post-stimulus onset). The early window (∼ 5 0-290 msec) subsumes effects respective to exogenous stimulus-driven affective processing of faces and emotion. The intermediate window (∼ 270-470 msec) comprises effects related to explicit attention to novel task-relevant stimuli, irrespective of sensory modality. The late window (∼ 600-1400 msec) subsumes effects from tasks soliciting semantic associations and working

  12. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  13. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  14. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  15. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  16. Theta phase coherence in affective picture processing reveals dysfunctional sensory integration in psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillem, Scott; Ryan, Jonathan; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle

    2016-09-01

    Psychopathic offenders are described as emotionally cold, displaying deficits in affective responding. However, research demonstrates that many of the psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by attention, such that under conditions of high attentional and perceptual load psychopathic offenders display deficits in affective responses, but do not in conditions of low load. To date, most studies use measures of defensive reflex (i.e., startle) and conditioning manipulations to examine the impact of load on psychopathy-related processing, but have not examined more direct measures of attention processing. In a sample of adult male offenders, the present study examined time-frequency EEG phase coherence in response to a picture-viewing paradigm that manipulated picture familiarity to assess neural changes in processing based on perceptual demands. Results indicated psychopathy-related differences in the theta response, an index of readiness to perceive and integrate sensory information. These data provide further evidence that psychopathic offenders have disrupted integration of sensory information.

  17. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Evaluation of ginkgo biloba extract on hematological changes affected with hazards of electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Baieth, H E

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study if the GBE 761 (Ginkgo biloba leaves extract) which is beneficial in arterial disease owing to its vasodilator and blood flow acts against the hazards of exposure to electromagnetic field. Here, the GBE was used in two ways either as a protector or for treating the hazards due to exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF). For this purpose, albino rats were grouped into six groups and blood samples were collected from eye vein of the animals from all groups at the end of the experiment. This study concentrates on the cellular membrane and function of the RBCs and focuses on the rheological and physical measurements for blood and hemoglobin molecule because the RBCs membranes play an essential role in the blood flow rate. The changes in its biophysical properties of RBCs membrane will affect its capability for carrying on its metabolic functions. Furthermore, the molecular diameter of hemoglobin, its relaxation time and conductivity were calculated from the dielectric relaxation data. The results indicate that the administration of GBE led to the decrease of RBCs membrane elasticity will lead to the increase of the blood viscosity. Results suggest that GBE may be not of clinical value as anti-oxidant drug for such diseases occurred due to to EMF exposure for long time. It may be conclude that through treatment with those extract some physical measurements like "viscosity of blood, Osmotic fragility to measure the hemolysis rat of RBCs, the radius and the conductivity of hemoglobin molecule" should be considered during the time of treatment. Overall, these leaves (GBE) need more study and there is a recommendation to put the physical parameters parallel to the clinical study.

  19. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eDuke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  20. The growth and photosynthesis of Typha in oil sands process affected material and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Aquatic plants such as cattail contribute substantially to the energy flow in wetlands. Since Typha (cattail) plants acquire and cycle carbon and nutrients through wetlands, their growth and recycling of captured nutrients are an important part of natural, healthy wetland ecosystems. Cattail are pervasive and satisfy many of the criteria to be used as indicators of wetland integrity. This study investigated if cattail growth and carbon accrual were influenced by oil sands process materials (OSPM) such as consolidated tailings (CT). The purpose was to facilitate land reclamation initiatives by evaluating the impact that constituents of oil sands process material have on aquatic plant growth. The study was conducted at Suncor's experimental trenches. Six lined basins were used, of which 3 were filled with natural water and 3 were filled with trench water. Cattail were planted in different growth medium combinations, including CT over CT; soil over soil; soil over CT; and soil over sterilized sand. All leaf lengths and widths were measured along with the photosynthesis of the leaves and root and plant biomass at planting and after 2-years growth. A larger leaf area was observed under oil sands process influence, which may indicate increased carbon accrual above ground. Leaf area data suggested that CT affected plants are quite productive. The study also indicated that oil sands affected water may reduce plant fitness, and therefore could influence the overall oil sands reclamation timelines. Conversely, cattail grown in soil capped process affected material had a much larger leaf area compared to those grown in soil capped sand, most likely due to the higher levels of ammonia in process affected material.

  1. Factors Affecting Image Quality in Near-field Ultra-wideband Radar Imaging for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charlotte

    Near-field ultra-wideband radar imaging has potential as a new breast imaging modality. While a number of reconstruction algorithms have been published with the goal of reducing undesired responses or clutter, an in-depth analysis of the dominant sources of clutter has not been conducted. In this thesis, time domain radar image reconstruction is demonstrated to be equivalent to frequency domain synthetic aperture radar. This reveals several assumptions inherent to the reconstruction algorithm related to radial spreading, point source antennas, and the independent summation of point scatterers. Each of these assumptions is examined in turn to determine which has the greatest impact on the resulting image quality and interpretation. In addition, issues related to heterogeneous and dispersive media are addressed. Variations in imaging parameters are tested by observing their influence on the system point spread function. Results are then confirmed by testing on simple and detailed simulation models, followed by data acquired from human volunteers. Recommended parameters are combined into a new imaging operator that is demonstrated to generate results comparable to a more accurate signal model, but with a 50 fold improvement in computational efficiency. Finally, the most significant factor affecting image quality is determined to be the estimate of tissue properties used to form the image.

  2. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles.

  3. Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase confer salt tolerance in maize grown on salt-affected fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

    2009-11-01

    Salt stress is one of the major constraints hampering agricultural production owing to its impact on ethylene production and nutritional imbalance. A check on the accelerated ethylene production in plants could be helpful in minimizing the negative effect of salt stress on plant growth and development. Four Pseudomonas, 1 Flavobacterium, and 1 Enterobacter strain of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase were selected and their effects on growth and yield of maize were investigated to improve the salt tolerance of maize grown on salt-affected fields. The selected rhizobacterial isolates reduced or eliminated the classical "triple" response, indicating their ability to reduce stress-induced ethylene levels. Results showed that rhizobacterial strains, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacter spp., significantly promoted the growth and yield of maize compared with the non-inoculated control. Pseudomonas fluorescens increased plant height, biomass, cob yield, grain yield, 1000 grain mass, and straw yield of maize up to 29%, 127%, 67%, 60%, 17%, and 166%, respectively, over the control. Under stress conditions, more N, P, and K uptake and high K+-Na+ ratios were recorded in inoculated plants compared with the control. The results imply that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase could be a useful approach for improving growth and yield of maize under salt-stressed conditions.

  4. Measured and simulated nitrogen fluxes after field application of food-processing and municipal organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, V; Génermont, S; Hénault, C; Farrugia, A; Robert, P; Nicolardot, B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess N fluxes (mineralization, volatilization, denitrification, leaching) caused by spreading various organic wastes from food-processing industries during a field experiment, and (ii) to identify the main factors affecting N transformation processes after field spreading. Experimental treatments including the spreading of six types of waste and a control soil were set up in August 2000 and studied for 22 mo under bare soil conditions. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, and nitrogen mineralization were measured in experimental devices and extrapolated to field conditions or computed in calculation models. The ammonia emissions varied from 80 to 580 g kg(-1) NH4+-N applied, representing 0 to 90 g N kg(-1) total N applied. Under these meteorologically favorable conditions (dry and warm weather), waste pH was the main factor affecting volatilization rates. Cumulated N2O-N fluxes were estimated at 2 to 5 g kg(-1) total N applied, which was quite low due to the low soil water content during the experimental period; water-filled pore space (WFPS) was confirmed as the main factor affecting N2O fluxes. Nitrogen mineralization from wastes represented 126 to 723 g N kg(-1) organic N added from the incorporation date to 14 May 2001 and was not related to the organic C to organic N ratio of wastes. Nitrogen lost by leaching during the equivalent period ranged from 30 to 890 g kg(-1) total N applied. The highest values were obtained for wastes having the highest inorganic N content and mineralization rates.

  5. 5th Seminar on Stochastic Processes, Random Fields and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Francesco; Dozzi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains twenty-eight refereed research or review papers presented at the 5th Seminar on Stochastic Processes, Random Fields and Applications, which took place at the Centro Stefano Franscini (Monte Verità) in Ascona, Switzerland, from May 30 to June 3, 2005. The seminar focused mainly on stochastic partial differential equations, random dynamical systems, infinite-dimensional analysis, approximation problems, and financial engineering. The book will be a valuable resource for researchers in stochastic analysis and professionals interested in stochastic methods in finance. Contributors: Y. Asai, J.-P. Aubin, C. Becker, M. Benaïm, H. Bessaih, S. Biagini, S. Bonaccorsi, N. Bouleau, N. Champagnat, G. Da Prato, R. Ferrière, F. Flandoli, P. Guasoni, V.B. Hallulli, D. Khoshnevisan, T. Komorowski, R. Léandre, P. Lescot, H. Lisei, J.A. López-Mimbela, V. Mandrekar, S. Méléard, A. Millet, H. Nagai, A.D. Neate, V. Orlovius, M. Pratelli, N. Privault, O. Raimond, M. Röckner, B. Rüdiger, W.J. Runggaldi...

  6. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged arc welding process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Om; Sunil Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of tremendous heat of arc is of big concern as it affects the performance of welded/surfaced structure in service due to metallurgical changes in the affected region. This work was carried out to investigate the effect of polarity and other SAW parameters on HAZ size and dilution and to establish their correlations. Influence of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone was then carried out. Four levels of heat input were used to study their effect on % dilution and HAZ area at both the electrode positive and electrode negative polarities. Proper management of heat input in welding is important, because power sources can be used more efficiently if one knows how the same heat input can be applied to get the better results. Empirical models have been developed using statistical technique.

  7. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  8. Integrative Processing of Touch and Affect in Social Perception: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Salone, Anatolia; Martinotti, Giovanni; Carlucci, Leonardo; Mantini, Dante; Perrucci, Mauro G; Saggino, Aristide; Romani, Gian Luca; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Northoff, Georg; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information) in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content.

  9. Main Factors Affecting the Distribution of the Macroscopic Destruction Field of Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Minfeng; Li Shengqiang; Chen Yong; Mi Hongliang

    2001-01-01

    It is proposed that some possible macroseismic epicenters can be determined quickly from the relationship that the microseismic epicenters located by instruments bear with faults. Based on these so-called macroseismic epicenters, we can make fast seismic hazard estimation after a shock by use of the empirical distribution model of seismic intensity. In comparison with the method that uses the microseismic epicenters directly, this approach can increase the precision of fast seismic hazard estimation. Statistical analysis of 133 main earthquakes in China was made. The result shows that the deviation distance between the microseismic epicenter and macroseismic epicenter falls within the range of 35 km for 88 % earthquakes of the total and within the range of 35 to 75 km for the remaining ones. Then, we can take the area that has the microseismic epicenter as its center and is 35 km in radius as the area for emphatic analysis, and take the area within 75 km around the microseismic epicenter as the area for general analysis. The relation between the 66 earthquake cases on the N-S Seismic Belt in China and the spatial distribution characteristics of faults and the results of focal mechanism solution were analyzed in detail. We know from the analysis that the error of instrumental epicenter determination is not the only factor that gives effects to the deviation of the macroseismic epicenter. In addition to it, the fault size, fault distribution, fault activity, fault intersection types, earthquake magnitude, etc. are also main affecting factors. By sorting out,processing and analyzing these affecting factors, the principle and procedures for quickly determining the possible position of the macroseismic epicenter were set up. Taking these as a basis and establishing a nationwide database of faults that contains relevant factors, it is possible to apply this method in practical fast estimation of seismic hazard.

  10. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni;

    2009-01-01

    a clear distinction of B. rapa and B. napus individuals except for three individuals that seemed to be backcrosses. The backcrossed hybrids descended from two Swedish populations, one wild and one escaped. The overall pattern of genetic variation and structure in B. rapa showed that cultivated and wild B...... cultivar. The study point to that many processes, e.g. spontaneous introgression, naturalisation, breeding and agricultural practise affected the genetic structure of wild and cultivated B. rapa populations....

  11. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qiu L.; Wang, Han L.; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical a...

  12. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuling eLuo; Hanlin eWang; Milena eDzhelyova; Lei eMo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the extent to which there are neural correlates of the influence of affective personality information on face processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (with a neutral expression or faint smile) paired with negative, neutral or positive sentences describing the target’s previous typical behavior. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Stat...

  13. Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Ohlberger; Rogers, Lauren A.; Nils Chr. Stenseth

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a lif...

  14. The ANK3 gene and facial affect processing: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan; Zhang, Qiumei; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Zhifang; Chen, Xiongying; Gu, Huang; Zhai, Jinguo; Chen, Min; Du, Boqi; Deng, Xiaoxiang; Ji, Feng; Wang, Chuanyue; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Dawei; Wu, Hongjie; Dong, Qi; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Jun; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-09-01

    ANK3 is one of the most promising candidate genes for bipolar disorder (BD). A polymorphism (rs10994336) within the ANK3 gene has been associated with BD in at least three genome-wide association studies of BD [McGuffin et al., 2003; Kieseppä, 2004; Edvardsen et al., 2008]. Because facial affect processing is disrupted in patients with BD, the current study aimed to explore whether the BD risk alleles are associated with the N170, an early event-related potential (ERP) component related to facial affect processing. We collected data from two independent samples of healthy individuals (Ns = 83 and 82, respectively) to test the association between rs10994336 and an early event-related potential (ERP) component (N170) that is sensitive to facial affect processing. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance in both samples consistently revealed significant main effects of rs10994336 genotype (Sample I: F (1, 72) = 7.24, P = 0.009; Sample II: F (1, 69) = 11.81, P = 0.001), but no significant interaction of genotype × electrodes (Ps > 0.05) or genotype × emotional conditions (Ps > 0.05). These results suggested that rs10994336 was linked to early ERP component reflecting facial structural encoding during facial affect processing. These results shed new light on the brain mechanism of this risk SNP and associated disorders such as BD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure. For the purposes of research a new experiment was created, where affective priming was measured in a lexical decision task. The term affective priming stands for facilitation in recognition of the stimuli that comes after the presentation of stimuli of the same valence. In this experiment, two words were presented on a screen in front of the subject (stimuli-prime and stimuli-target. Those two words were of the same or different affective valence, and the subject's were instructed to respond whether the second word on the screen had a meaning or not. The basic personality structure was defined by the 'Big five' model and the Disintegration model and measured by NEO PI-R and Delta 10 questionnaires. The results of the affective priming experiment indicated a strong effect of positive facilitation and much weaker effect off negative facilitation. Two significant functions were extracted by quasicanonical correlation analysis. The first function showed correlation between the effect of positive facilitation and all of the subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (NEO PI-R, as well as all sub dimensions of Disintegration (DELTA 10. The second one indicated to a correlation between the negative facilitation effect and some subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness (NEO PI-R, as well as all subscales of Disintegration (DELTA 10.

  16. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  17. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion.

  18. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique eJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  19. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  20. Soy processing affects metabolism and disposition of dietary isoflavones in ovariectomized BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Clinton D; Twaddle, Nathan C; Allred, Kimberly F; Goeppinger, Tracy S; Churchwell, Mona I; Ju, Young H; Helferich, William G; Doerge, Daniel R

    2005-11-02

    Soy foods and nutritional supplements are widely consumed for potential health benefits. It was previously shown that isoflavone-supplemented diets, which contained equal genistein equivalents, differentially stimulated mammary tumor growth in athymic mice based on the degree of processing. This paper reports plasma pharmacokinetic analysis and metabolite identification using the parental mouse strain fed the same diets, which contained genistin, mixed isoflavones, Novasoy, soy molasses, or soy flour plus mixed isoflavones. Whereas the degree of soy processing did affect several parameters reflecting isoflavone bioavailability and gut microflora metabolism of daidzein to equol, stimulation of tumor growth correlated significantly with only the plasma concentration of aglycon genistein produced by the diets. This conclusion is consistent with the known estrogen agonist activity of genistein aglycon on mammary tumor growth. Conversely, plasma equol concentration was inversely correlated with the degree of soy processing. Although antagonism of genistein-stimulated tumor growth by equol could explain this result, the very low concentration of aglycon equol in plasma (12-fold lower relative to genistein) is inconsistent with any effect. These findings underscore the importance of food processing, which can remove non-nutritive components from soy, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoflavones. Such changes in diet composition affect circulating, and presumably target tissue, concentrations of genistein aglycon, which initiates estrogen receptor-mediated processes required for the stimulation of tumor growth in a mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer.

  1. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  2. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Griffin

    Full Text Available Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM. Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes.

  3. Affective processing bias in youth with primary bipolar disorder or primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Weissman, Alexandra B; Galvan, Thania; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-11-01

    High rates of comorbidity and overlapping diagnostic criteria between pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute to diagnostic and treatment confusion. To advance what is known about both disorders, we compared effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with primary BD, primary ADHD and typically developing controls (TDC). Participants included 7-17 year olds with either "narrow-phenotype" pediatric BD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 25) or TDC (n = 25). Groups were matched on participant age and FSIQ. The effect of emotional stimuli on response control was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Affective Go/No-Go task (CANTAB AGN). We found a group by target valence interaction on commission errors [F(2,71) = 5.34, p children with ADHD. Our results suggesting a positive affective processing bias in children with ADHD compliment emerging literature show that difficulties with emotional processing and regulation may be core features of ADHD. Further, given the observed pattern of results in children with ADHD compared to BD children, our behavioral results suggest the importance of examining differences in the brain-behavior mechanisms involved in affective processing in children with ADHD compared to BD children.

  4. Metacognitive, affective-motivational processes in self-regulated learning and students' achievement in native language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical and empirical research has focused on metacognitive and affective processes in learning and performance in diverse domains of inquiry. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between these processes and achievement in native language (Slovene. 369 pupils in fifth grade of primary school participated in the study. A 41-item questionnaire was constructed to measure pupils' metacognitive and affective processes in learning native language. Factor analysis of the items revealed four different factors that accounted for 38.4% of the explained variance: two metacognitive (strategies of learning and solving tasks in Slovenian, searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian and two affective (experiencing fear of Slovenian, feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. Further analysis showed negative correlations between achievement and these factors: searching for meaning and understanding in Slovenian, experiencing fear of Slovenian. Positive correlation was found between achievement and the factor feelings of success and interest in Slovenian. In conclusion, implications for educational practice are discussed.

  5. Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis of Soil Affected by Hydrocarbon in Wonocolo Traditional Oil Field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, Melianna; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soil affected by hydrocarbon was studied through cored soil samples in two zones (Zone One and Zone Two) of an oil field in Wonocolo Village, East Java. We also collected soil samples as the background from a residential area near the oil field (Zone Three). The Zone One, consisted two cores near producing well; the Zone Two consisted two cores obtained from near a dry hole well and a discontinued well; and the Zone Three consisted two cores to validate the initial soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. The hydrocarbon content measurement was also done for the upper part of each cores using distillation method to identify the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and hydrocarbon content. From magnetic susceptibility measurement in dual frequency, samples from the Zone One and Zone Two have magnetic susceptibility range from 6,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 160 × 10-8 m3kg-1 and 15,7 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 417,9 × 10-8 m3kg-1, respectively. Whereas background samples from Zone Three have magnetic susceptibility range from 4,8 × 10-8 m3kg-1 to 81,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1. We found low χfd (%) in samples with high magnetic susceptibility values, shown that there was no indication of superparamagnetic minerals in the samples. The hydrocarbon content measurement shows the value range of 8% - 14% only exists in the upper part of all cores in Zone One and one core in Zone Two. From this analysis, we assume that other than the volume of the hydrocarbon content in soil, the period of petroleum hydrocarbon deposition in soil and the fossil fuel combustion generated in the study site could differently increase the soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. Positive correlation between the two parameters hopefully could contribute to develop environmental magnetic methods for detecting oil spills in soil, especially to remediate former hydrocarbon exploration and production area.

  6. Behavioral and brain oscillatory correlates of affective processing in subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskoy-Plusnin, Jaroslav

    2017-09-15

    Named among the most dangerous diseases of the modern era, depression is characterized primarily by distortions in the affective sphere. Despite extensive investigations of underlying the neural background, mechanisms of the distortion still remain unknown. The current study analyzed brain oscillatory dynamics in different frequencies during resting state and presentation of affective stimuli in nonclinical individuals with high Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores (HB) versus controls. Both behavioral and electrocortical "markers" of clinical depression were apparent at subclinical level. A resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) of HB revealed increased power in low frequencies, predominantly in the frontal cortical areas, that is in accordance with a "spatio-temporal dysfunction" model of depression. Related to that, transition from an eyes-closed to eyes-open condition was associated with diminished alpha blockade in HB, suggesting difficulties with the relocation of attention focus from inner processes toward environmental stimuli. Subsequently, independently of a sign of emotion, five out of six discrete emotions were evaluated as less valenced and four out of six as less intense by HB than by controls, corroborating the view of emotion context insensitivity (ECI) associated with depression. Underlying brain oscillatory dynamics revealed that depression was associated with deficits in the early, implicit, processing stages of emotional stimuli. Later processing stages were characterized by prominent power surges in low and alpha frequencies, presumably indicating emotion upregulation processes and increased engagement of cognitive mechanisms in affective tasks. The study provides brain oscillatory-based mechanisms of emotion processing distortions associated with depression.

  7. Embryonic zebrafish neuronal growth is not affected by an applied electric field in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Peter; Robinson, Kenneth R

    2007-01-10

    Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) have been implicated in cell guidance during embryonic development and adult wound healing. Embryonic Xenopus laevis neurons sprout preferentially towards the cathode, turn towards the cathode, and migrate faster towards the cathode in the presence of an external EF in vitro. A recent Phase 1 clinical trial has investigated the effects of oscillating EFs on human spinal cord regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether embryonic zebrafish neurons respond to an applied EF, and thus extend this research into another vertebrate system. Neural tubes of zebrafish embryos (16-17 somites) were dissected and dissociated neuroblasts were plated onto laminin-coated glass. A 100 mV/mm EF was applied to cell cultures for 4 or 20 h and the responses of neurons to the applied EFs were investigated. After 4h in an EF neurites were significantly shorter than control neurites. No other statistically significant effects were observed. After 20 h, control and EF-exposed neurites were no different in length. No length difference was seen between cathodally- and anodally-sprouted neurites. Application of an EF did not affect the average number of neurons in a chamber. Growth cones did not migrate preferentially towards either pole of the EF and no asymmetry was seen in neurite sprout sites. We conclude that zebrafish neurons do not respond to a 100 mV/mm applied EF in vitro. This suggests that neurons of other vertebrate species may not respond to applied EFs in the same ways as Xenopus laevis neurons.

  8. Induction of Cell Activation Processes by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtill Simkó

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields (EMF such as those from electric power transmission and distribution lines (50/60 Hz have been associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia, cancer of the nervous system, and lymphomas. Several in vitro studies on EMF effects were performed to clarify the existing controversies, define the risks, and determine the possible mechanisms of adverse effects. In some of these reports, the effects were related to other mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Modification in cell proliferation was observed after EMF exposure and a few reports on cytotoxic effects have also been published. This limited review gives an overview of the current results of scientific research regarding in vitro studies on the effects of power line frequency EMF, but also cell biological mechanisms and their potential involvement in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity are discussed. Cell cycle control and signal transduction processes are included to elucidate the biochemical background of possible interactions. Exposure to EMF has been also linked to the incidence of leukemia and other tumors in some epidemiological studies and is considered as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”, but there is no well-established biological mechanism that explains such a relation. Furthermore, EMF is also shown as a stimulus for immune relevant cells (e.g., macrophages to release free radicals. It is known that chronic activation of macrophages is associated with the onset of phagocytosis and leads to increased formation of reactive oxygen species, which themselves may cause DNA damage and are suggested to lead to carcinogenesis. To demonstrate a possible interaction between EMF and cellular systems, we present a mechanistic model describing cell activation as a major importance for cellular response.

  9. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Xu, Peng; Ou-Yang, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Li, Jun; Piao, Xianqing; Wang, Miao; Sun, Zhuo

    2015-02-01

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm-1 and threshold field of 0.657 V μm-1 corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  10. Internal and External Factors Affecting The Size of Paddy Field Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Rostiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted  to identify internal condition of the farmers who sold their paddy field and analyze the effects of age, education level, number of family members, field productivity, location, and production cost to the total area of paddy field sold. This study used quantitative descriptive method. This research found that age, education level, number of family members, and location of the land had positive relation to the total area of paddy field sold. On the other hand, production cost and field productivity had negative relation to the total area of paddy field sold. Partially, field production and number of family members had no significant effect to the total area of paddy field sold.

  11. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    /or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

  12. Information processing reveals how microscopic components affect the macroscopic system-state in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Quax, Rick; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    Nature processes information. We observe this from physical systems, which register information in the system state, transfer information through interactions, and lose information due to thermal noise. Being able to quantify this information processing could lead to a unifying framework for a better understanding of complex systems. In this letter we present a formalism to describe to what extent a macroscopic system is affected by the microstates of its constituents. We study this numerically for a scale-free network of Ising-spins, a prototypical complex system, and present an answer to the unexplained phenomenon that real systems with a heterogeneous topology are mainly controlled by nodes with fewer connections. Counter to intuition we find that due to selective information dissipation, not the hubs but rather the intermediately connected nodes are remembered best by the system. Our study reveals that the framework of information processing improves our understanding of complex systems at large.

  13. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure.

  14. Role of transportation in the persuasion process: cognitive and affective responses to antidrug narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined transportation effects of first- and third-person narratives as well as the role of transportation in the persuasion process. In particular, the authors evaluated the role of transportation in affecting cognitive and affective responses. Last, they addressed the relation between (a) cognitive and affective responses and (b) antidrug expectancies. Participants were 500 undergraduate students at a large northern university in the United Kingdom who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: first- or third-person narratives on cocaine use. The results demonstrated that there was no difference between first- and third-person narratives in terms of transportation. However, overall, greater transportation was associated with more favorable cognitive responses, and more favorable cognitive response was associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. In terms of affective responses, results indicated the mediating role of sadness and contentment in the association between transportation and anticocaine expectancies. In particular, increased transportation was associated with greater sadness and lower contentment. Lower sadness and contentment were associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.

  15. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Trbižan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compared and based on these conclusions were drawn.Results: An individual has an active role and the use of ICT enables, through the processes of reflection and exchanges of views, for an individual to resolve problems and consequently is able to achieve excellent results at both the personal (educational level and in business. In learning and working with computers, individuals needinternal motivation. Internal motivation can be increased with positive affective processes that also positively influence cognitive processes.Organization:Knowledge of generational characteristics is currently becoming a competitive advantage of organizations. Younger generations are growing up with computers and both teachers and managers have to beaware and accommodate their teaching and business processes to the requirements of ICT.Society: In the 21st century we live in a knowledge society that is unconditionally connected and dependent on the development of information technology. Digital literacy is an everyday concept that society also is aware of and training programmes are being offered on computer literacy for all generations.Originality: The paper presents a concise synthesis of research and authors points of views recorded over the last 25 years and these are combined with our own conclusions based on observations.Limitations/Future Research:The fundamental limitation is that this is a comparative research study that compares the views and conclusions of different authors

  16. Rapid core field variations during the satellite era: Investigations using stochastic process based field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to traditional....... We report spherical harmonic spectra, comparisons to observatory monthly means, and maps of the radial field at the core-mantle boundary, from the resulting ensemble of core field models. We find that inter-annual fluctuations in the external field (for example related to high solar-driven activity...

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry for affective stimulus processing in healthy subjects--a fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Beraha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While hemispheric specialization of language processing is well established, lateralization of emotion processing is still under debate. Several conflicting hypotheses have been proposed, including right hemisphere hypothesis, valence asymmetry hypothesis and region-specific lateralization hypothesis. However, experimental evidence for these hypotheses remains inconclusive, partly because direct comparisons between hemispheres are scarce. METHODS: The present fMRI study systematically investigated functional lateralization during affective stimulus processing in 36 healthy participants. We normalized our functional data on a symmetrical template to avoid confounding effects of anatomical asymmetries. Direct comparison of BOLD responses between hemispheres was accomplished taking two approaches: a hypothesis-driven region of interest analysis focusing on brain areas most frequently reported in earlier neuroimaging studies of emotion; and an exploratory whole volume analysis contrasting non-flipped with flipped functional data using paired t-test. RESULTS: The region of interest analysis revealed lateralization towards the left in the medial prefrontal cortex (BA 10 during positive stimulus processing; while negative stimulus processing was lateralized towards the right in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9 & 46 and towards the left in the amygdala and uncus. The whole brain analysis yielded similar results and, in addition, revealed lateralization towards the right in the premotor cortex (BA 6 and the temporo-occipital junction (BA 19 & 37 during positive stimulus processing; while negative stimulus processing showed lateralization towards the right in the temporo-parietal junction (BA 37,39,42 and towards the left in the middle temporal gyrus (BA 21. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests region-specific functional lateralization of emotion processing. Findings show valence asymmetry for prefrontal cortical areas and left

  18. Does the processing fluency of a syllabus affect the forecasted grade and course difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, R Kim

    2012-06-01

    Processing fluency is known to affect a variety of cognitive assessments, but most research has not examined such effects in the context of a real-life experience. In the first experiment, college students, enrolled in either a statistics or cognitive psychology course, read a course syllabus which varied in the clarity of its font and frequency of its vocabulary. Based on the syllabus, students then forecasted their final course grade and the course's difficulty. Despite methodological similarity to other fluency experiments and adequate statistical power, there were no significant differences in forecasts across fluency conditions. Fluency may be discounted in a task which provides information that affects people's lives. This interpretation was bolstered by a second experiment whose participants were students in a statistics course. These students read the cognitive course's syllabus and forecasted better grades and less difficulty in the cognitive course when the font of the syllabus was more clear than unclear.

  19. Computer Literacy For College Students Analysis of Factors Affecting The Effect of Data Mining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ÇOBAN BUDAK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The uses of computer and related technologies have grooving role on educational process. The person’s computer usage as an effective tool in educational process and adaptation to computer-based systems are highly related to the computer knowledge level. In this study, a survey is designed and applied to describe the factors overruling computer knowledge, and the results derived from survey are analyzed with an electronic table and computing program, also using data mining process. Sample group selected from bachelor degree students attending to social sciences and health science fields of Kocaeli University. Some of the results are tested with using pre-quiz and post-quiz applications results.

  20. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of neuronal differentiation-related genes in embryonic neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Ma

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF can affect the processes of brain development, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The proliferation and differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs is essential for brain development during the gestation period. To date, there is no report about the effects of ELF-EMF on eNSCs. In this paper, we studied the effects of ELF-EMF on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs. Primary cultured eNSCs were treated with 50 Hz ELF-EMF; various magnetic intensities and exposure times were applied. Our data showed that there was no significant change in cell proliferation, which was evaluated by cell viability (CCK-8 assay, DNA synthesis (Edu incorporation, average diameter of neurospheres, cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry and transcript levels of cell cycle related genes (P53, P21 and GADD45 detected by real-time PCR. When eNSCs were induced to differentiation, real-time PCR results showed a down-regulation of Sox2 and up-regulation of Math1, Math3, Ngn1 and Tuj1 mRNA levels after 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure (2 mT for 3 days, but the percentages of neurons (Tuj1 positive cells and astrocytes (GFAP positive cells were not altered when detected by immunofluorescence assay. Although cell proliferation and the percentages of neurons and astrocytes differentiated from eNSCs were not affected by 50 Hz ELF-EMF, the expression of genes regulating neuronal differentiation was altered. In conclusion, our results support that 50 Hz ELF-EMF induce molecular changes during eNSCs differentiation, which might be compensated by post-transcriptional mechanisms to support cellular homeostasis.

  1. Effect of electric field and atmosphere on the processing of nanocrystalline ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, Benjamin; Gonzalez-Julian, Jesus; Guillon, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    The retention of nanocrystallinity in dense ceramics is still a challenge, even with the application of stress-assisted methods like Spark Plasma Sintering. Starting powder and sintering process strongly affect the evolution of the microstructure and thus, the final properties of ZnO. Control of the microstructure was carried out through the combined effect of high heating rates and the presence of bound water, which seems to significantly promote densification of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Hence, dense nano-grained ZnO could be synthesized at a temperature of only 400 °C. In addition, sintering behavior can be also modified by the use of external electric fields, which can generate a drastic mass diffusion process that is called flash sintering. The current flow through the specimen entails an increment of the temperature produced by Joule heating, enhancing the sintering process. Control of both parameters, heating rates/water content and electric field, leads to dense ZnO compacts with grain size between 150 nm to almost 5 μm.

  2. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  3. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  4. Mosquito species succession and physicochemical factors affecting their abundance in rice fields in Mwea, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The succession of mosquito species and abiotic factors affecting their distribution and abundance in rice (Oryza spp.) fields was investigated over a 16-wk rice growing cycle covering the period between January and May 2006. Fifteen experimental rice plots were sampled for mosquito larvae and characterized based on rice height, number of tillers, floating vegetation cover, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Microscopic identification of 3,025 larvae yielded nine mosquito species predominated by Anopheles arabiensis Patton (45.0%), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (35.8%), Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (9.0%) and Ficalbia splendens Theobald (7.1%). Other species, including Anopheles rufipes Gough, Anopheles coustani Laveran, Anonopheles maculipalpis Giles, Culex annulioris Theobald, and Culex poicilipes Theobald made up 3.1% of the total collection. Anopheles gambiae s.l., Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. pharoensis occurred throughout the cycle, but they were more abundant up to 4 wk posttransplanting with peaks after fertilizer application. As rice plants became established, three groups of mosquitoes were recognized: the first groups included An. rufipes, Fl. splendens, and Cx. annulioris, which occurred throughout much of the second half of the rice cycle, whereas the second group included Cx. poicilipes, which was found in the middle of the rice cycle. An. coustani and An. maculipalpis formed the third group occurring toward the end of the cycle. Dissolved oxygen, number of tillers, and rice height were negatively associated with the abundance ofAn. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. In addition, Cx. quinquefasciatus also was associated with water depth (-ve) and turbidity (+ve). Abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly associated with water temperature (+ve), the number of tillers (-ve), and rice height (-ve), whereas Fl. splendens was significantly associated with

  5. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conson, Massimiliano; Errico, Domenico; Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Giordano, Marianna; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task), and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal) applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  6. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  7. Rapid core field variations during the satellite era: Investigations using stochastic process based field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    . We report spherical harmonic spectra, comparisons to observatory monthly means, and maps of the radial field at the core-mantle boundary, from the resulting ensemble of core field models. We find that inter-annual fluctuations in the external field (for example related to high solar-driven activity...

  8. Dynamics of bacterial communities in rice field soils as affected by different long-term fertilization practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Myung-Sook; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-11-01

    Fertilization and the response of the soil microbial community to the process significantly affect crop yield and the environment. In this study, the seasonal variation in the bacterial communities in rice field soil subjected to different fertilization treatments for more than 50 years was investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The simultaneous application of inorganic fertilizers and rice straw compost (CAPK) maintained the species richness of the bacterial communities at levels higher than that in the case of non-fertilization (NF) and application of inorganic fertilizers only (APK) in the initial period of rice growth. The seasonal variation in the bacterial community structure in the NF and APK plots showed cyclic behavior, suggesting that the effect of season was important; however, no such trend was observed in the CAPK plot. In the CAPK plot, the relative abundances of putative copiotrophs such as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were higher and those of putative oligotrophs such as Acidobacteria and Plactomycetes were lower than those in the other plots. The relative abundances of organotrophs with respiratory metabolism, such as Actinobacteria, were lower and those of chemoautotrophs that oxidize reduced iron and sulfur compounds were higher in the CAPK plot, suggesting greater carbon storage in this plot. Increased methane emission and nitrogen deficiency, which were inferred from the higher abundances of Methylocystis and Bradyrhizobium in the CAPK plot, may be a negative effect of rice straw application; thus, a solution for these should be considered to increase the use of renewable resources in agricultural lands.

  9. Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

    2013-05-21

    Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region.

  10. Suppression of Arabidopsis flowering by near-null magnetic field is affected by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Li, Yue; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Yuxia; Wei, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that a near-null magnetic field suppressed Arabidopsis flowering in white light, which might be related to the function modification of cryptochrome (CRY). To further demonstrate that the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering is associated with CRY, Arabidopsis wild type and CRY mutant plants were grown in the near-null magnetic field under blue or red light with different light cycle and photosynthetic photon flux density. We found that Arabidopsis flowering was significantly suppressed by near-null magnetic field in blue light with lower intensity (10 µmol/m(2) /s) and shorter cycle (12 h period: 6 h light/6 h dark). However, flowering time of CRY1/CRY2 mutants did not show any difference between plants grown in near-null magnetic field and in local geomagnetic field under detected light conditions. In red light, no significant difference was shown in Arabidopsis flowering between plants in near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field under detected light cycles and intensities. These results suggest that changes of blue light cycle and intensity alter the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering, which is mediated by CRY.

  11. Temperature management during semen processing: Impact on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Henning, H; Rüdiger, K; Wallner, U; Waberski, D

    2013-12-01

    Freshly collected boar spermatozoa are sensitive to a fast reduction in temperature because of lipid phase transition and phase separation processes. Temperature management during semen processing may determine the quality of stored samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of isothermic and hypothermic semen processing protocols on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory study, ejaculates (n = 12) were first diluted (1:1) with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) at 32 °C, then processed either with isothermic (32 °C) or hypothermic (21 °C) BTS, stored at 17 °C, and assessed on days 1, 3, and 6. Temperature curves showed that 150 minutes after the first dilution, semen doses of both groups reached the same temperature. Two-step hypothermic processing resulted in lower sperm motility on days 1 and 6 (P sperm on days 3 and 6 (P boar semen compared with isothermic dilution and that the type of semen extender affects the outcomes.

  12. QC of sampling processes- a first overview: from field to test portion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Kim H; Ramsey, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Quality control (QC) is a systematic approach for estimating and minimizing significant error contributions to the measurement uncertainty from the full sampling and analysis process. Many types of QC measures can be implemented; the three dealt with here are primary sampling reproducibility, sample processing reproducibility, and contamination. Sampling processes can be subject to QC by applying a replication experiment, used either from the top by replication of the entire sampling/ preparation/analysis process, or in a hierarchical fashion successively at each subsequent sampling stage. The analytical repeatability is necessarily always included in either alternative. The replication experiment results in a quality index, the Relative Sampling Variability, which is used to assess the total error associated with the full field-to-analysis pathway. Contamination can occur at essentially all locations in the sampling regimen in the food/feed realm, affecting sample containers, sampling tools, sample processing equipment, environmental conditions, and sampling personnel. QC events to determine contamination should always be included where appropriate, but is of most concern for low concentration and/or volatile analytes. It is also of key importance in the development of new sampling protocols or carried-over protocols intended for use on new types of materials/lots than the ones for which they were originally developed. We here establish a first practical framework for QC as applied to the sampling context.

  13. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable.

  14. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  15. How baryonic feedback processes can affect dark matter halos: a stochastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, J.; El-Zant, A.; Combes, F.

    2016-12-01

    Feedback processes from stars and active galactic nuclei result in gas density fluctuations which can contribute to `heating' dark matter haloes, decrease their density at the center and hence form more realistic `cores' than the steep `cusps' predicted by cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a theoretical model deriving this effect from first principles: stochastic density variations in the gas distribution perturb the gravitational potential and hence affect the halo particles. We analytically derive the velocity dispersion imparted to the CDM particles and the corresponding relaxation time, and further perform numerical simulations to show that the assumed process can indeed lead to the formation of a core in an initially cuspy halo within a timescale comparable to the derived relaxation time. This suggests that feedback-induced cusp-core transformations observed in hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation may be understood and parametrized in relatively simple terms.

  16. Sugar Beet Yield and Quality Characteristics as Affected by Magnetic Field and Silver Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Feizi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of magnetic field, silver nano particles and micronutrient fertilizers on sugar beet, an experiment was conducted at Razavi Research and Technology Institute, Mashhad, Iran. Experiment carried out with seven treatments based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included (T1 magnetic field and silver nano particles + Kemira fertilizer (T2 magnetic field and silver nano particles + Humax fertilizer (T3 magnetic field and silver nano particles (T4 Kemira fertilizer (T5 Librel fertilizer (T6 Humax fertilizer and (T7 control. The results showed that exposure of sugar beet with magnetic field and silver nano particles (T3 increased root yield about 43 percent more than control. Magnetic field and silver nano particles stimulated shoot yield twice more than control. Magnetic field + silver nano particles treatment showed the highest sugar yield (12.71 ton/ha but T4 and control treatments showed the lowest sugar yield. Experimental treatments had no significant effects on root quality except potassium content. It is expectable that magnetic field and silver nano particles could be suitable as an alternative for chemical fertilizers to reduce their application.

  17. Oil sands process-affected water impairs feeding by Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Steinkey, Dylan; Morandi, Garrett; Rasmussen, Joseph B; Giesy, John P; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Growth in extraction of bitumen from oil sands has raised concerns about influences of this industry on surrounding environments. Water clearance rate (a surrogate of feeding rate by Daphnia magna) in water containing D. magna exposed to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and its principal components, dissolved component (DC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM), was reduced to 72, 29, and 59% of controls, respectively. This study also examined several possible mechanisms for the observed changes algal cell density (i.e., feeding rate). There was no change in the digestive enzymes trypsin or amylase when D. magna were exposed to DC or SPM; however, exposure to total OSPW reduced trypsin activity. Mandible rolling or post-abdominal rejections, which are indicators of feeding and palatability of food, were not affected by any exposures to OSPW. Beating of thoracic limbs, which provides water flow toward the feeding groove, was reduced by exposure to SPM or total OSPW. Peristaltic activity was reduced by exposure to DC, which then might result in reduced digestion time in D. magna exposed to DC, SPM or whole OSPW. All treatments caused an increase in numbers of intact algae cells in the hindgut and excreted material. These results suggest that both DC and SPM affect feeding of D. magna by impairing actions of the digestive system, but most probably not by reducing rates of ingestion.

  18. Successful rescue and field establishment of native banana varieties severely affected by rhizome rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basawantanahalli Saddappa Sreeramu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome rot disease caused by Erwinia spp. is emerging as a major problem in banana nurseries and young plantations worldwide. Management of the disease is possible only in the initial stages of development. Currently no method is available for rescuing plant material already infected with this pathogen. A total of 95 Nanjanagud Rasabale and 212 Elakki Bale suckers were collected from different growing regions of Karnataka, India. During nursery maintenance of these lines, severe Erwinia infection was noticed. We present a method to rescue infected plants and establish them under field conditions. Differences were noticed in infection severity amongst the varieties and their accessions. Field data revealed good establishment and growth of most rescued plants under field conditions. The discussed rescue protocol coupled with good field management practices resulted in 89.19 and 82.59 percent field establishment of previously infected var. Nanjanagud Rasabale and var. Elakki Bale plants, respectively.

  19. Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    . Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels. Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited...... to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force...

  20. The Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on the Affect and Evaluation of the Creative Process among Fine Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of intrinsic motivation on affect, subjective evaluation, and the creative process of young artists. Relations between motivation, affect, and evaluation were treated as a dynamic process and measured several times. The unique contribution of this study is that it…

  1. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can compensate for progressive dopaminergic nerve degeneration in carriers of a single mutant Parkin or PINK1 gene, who show a mild but significant reduction of dopamine metabolism in the basal ganglia in the complete absence of clinical motor signs. However, it is currently unknown whether similar compensatory mechanisms are effective in non-motor basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Here, we ask whether asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers show altered patterns of brain activity during processing of facial gestures, and whether this might compensate for latent facial emotion recognition deficits. Current theories in social neuroscience assume that execution and perception of facial gestures are linked by a special class of visuomotor neurons ('mirror neurons') in the ventrolateral premotor cortex/pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44/6). We hypothesized that asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers would show increased activity in this area during processing of affective facial gestures, replicating the compensatory motor effects that have previously been observed in these individuals. Additionally, Parkin mutation carriers might show altered activity in other basal ganglia-cortical gating loops. Eight asymptomatic heterozygous Parkin mutation carriers and eight matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a subsequent facial emotion recognition task. As predicted, Parkin mutation carriers showed significantly stronger activity in

  2. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu L; Wang, Han L; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual's face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN) showed the same result pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top-down modulation on face processing.

  3. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling eLuo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the extent to which there are neural correlates of the influence of affective personality information on face processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs. In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (with a neutral expression or faint smile paired with negative, neutral or positive sentences describing the target’s previous typical behavior. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN showed the same pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential (LPP was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top-down modulation of face processing.

  4. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessit

  5. Physical and Mathematical Model of Ice-Field Formation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Livansky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes stages of ice field freezing on indoor ice rinks. Regime parameters have been determined for ice freezing. The paper presents results of temperature distribution and heat flow in ice massif which have been obtained while solving a differential heat conduction equation.

  6. Flow Field Post Processing via Partial Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preusser, T.; Rumpf, M.; Telea, A.

    2006-01-01

    The visualization of stationary and time-dependent flow is an important and challenging topic in scientific visualization. Its aim is to represent transport phenomena governed by vector fields in an intuitively understandable way. In this paper, we review the use of methods based on partial differen

  7. Pons to Posterior Cingulate Functional Projections Predict Affective Processing Changes in the Elderly Following Eight Weeks of Meditation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Robin; Keuper, Kati; Geng, Xiujuan; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-08-01

    Evidence indicates meditation facilitates affective regulation and reduces negative affect. It also influences resting-state functional connectivity between affective networks and the posterior cingulate (PCC)/precuneus, regions critically implicated in self-referential processing. However, no longitudinal study employing active control group has examined the effect of meditation training on affective processing, PCC/precuneus connectivity, and their association. Here, we report that eight-week meditation, but not relaxation, training 'neutralized' affective processing of positive and negative stimuli in healthy elderly participants. Additionally, meditation versus relaxation training increased the positive connectivity between the PCC/precuneus and the pons, the direction of which was largely directed from the pons to the PCC/precuneus, as revealed by dynamic causal modeling. Further, changes in connectivity between the PCC/precuneus and pons predicted changes in affective processing after meditation training. These findings indicate meditation promotes self-referential affective regulation based on increased regulatory influence of the pons on PCC/precuneus, which new affective-processing strategy is employed across both resting state and when evaluating affective stimuli. Such insights have clinical implications on interventions on elderly individuals with affective disorders.

  8. Does the unemployment benefit institution affect the productivity of workers? : Evidence from the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, Patricio; Vargas, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of unemployment benefit schemes on individual productivity. We created employment and unemployment in the field and compared workers' productivity under no unemployment benefits to productivity under two different unemployment schemes. In one scheme, the unemployed

  9. Protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles/nanorods affects amyloid beta fibrillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadeghi, Somayeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Zohreh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ghavami, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit Aβ fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of Aβ in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of Aβ to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of Aβ fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)).Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades

  10. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  11. The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Moscovitch, David A

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

  12. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  13. Captan and fenitrothion dissipation in field-treated cauliflowers and effect of household processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cruz, María L; Barreda, Mercedes; Villarroya, Mercedes; Peruga, Arantzazu; Llanos, Susana; García-Baudín, José M

    2006-07-01

    Field trial studies have been performed with captan and fenitrothion on cauliflower to propose maximum residue limits and to study the dissipation of the pesticides. Residue levels have been determined at different times following good laboratory practice using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The behaviour of residue levels of these compounds after household processing has been analysed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Seven days after treatment, residue levels of captan could be detected, but not of fenitrothion. The half-lives of dissipation for captan and fenitrothion were calculated as 0.9 and 1.8 days respectively. Washing did not significantly affect the residual amounts of captan and fenitrothion observed in raw vegetables; however, after cooking, captan had degraded completely, whereas residue levels of fenitrothion were not modified significantly.

  14. A near-null magnetic field affects cryptochrome-related hypocotyl growth and flowering in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yin, Xiao; Lv, Yan; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Yuxia; Song, Tao

    2012-03-01

    The blue light receptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to act as a magnetoreceptor based on the proposition that photochemical reactions are involved in sensing the geomagnetic field. But the effects of the geomagnetic field on cryptochrome remain unclear. Although the functions of cryptochrome have been well demonstrated for Arabidopsis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the growth of Arabidopsis and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. We eliminated the local geomagnetic field to grow Arabidopsis in a near-null magnetic field and found that the inhibition of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by white light was weakened, and flowering time was delayed. The expressions of three cryptochrome-signaling-related genes, PHYB, CO and FT also changed; the transcript level of PHYB was elevated ca. 40%, and that of CO and FT was reduced ca. 40% and 50%, respectively. These data suggest that the effects of a near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis are cryptochrome-related, which may be revealed by a modification of the active state of cryptochrome and the subsequent signaling cascade.

  15. Effect of local environment in resonant domains of polydisperse plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates on optodynamic processes in pulsed laser fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. E. Ershov; A. P. Gavrilyuk; S. V. Karpov; P. N. Semina

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of pulsed laser radiation with resonance domains of multiparticle colloidal aggregates having an increas-ingly complex local environment are studied via an optodynamic model. The model is applied to the simplest configurations, such as single particles, dimers, and trimers consisting of mono-and polydisperse Ag nanoparticles. We analyze how the local environment and the associated local field enhancement by surrounding particles affect the optodynamic processes in domains, including their photomodification and optical properties.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  17. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  18. General anesthesia as a possible GABAergic modulator affects visual processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn eVan Den Boomen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA inhibitory interneurons play an important role in visual processing, as is revealed by studies administering drugs in human and monkey adults. Investigating this process in children requires different methodologies, due to ethical considerations. The current study aimed to investigate whether a new method, being general anesthesia using Sevoflurance, can be used to trace the effects of GABAergic modulation on visual brain functioning in children. To this aim, visual processing was investigated in children aged 4-12 years who were scheduled for minor urologic procedures under general anesthesia in day care treatment. In a visual segmentation task, the difference in Event-Related Potential (ERP response to homogeneous and textured stimuli was investigated. In addition, psychophysical performance on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured. Results were compared between before and shortly after anesthesia. In two additional studies, effects at one day after anesthesia and possible effects of task-repetition were investigated. ERP results showed longer latency and lower amplitude of the Texture Negativity component shortly after compared to before anesthesia. No effects of anesthesia on psychophysical measurements were found. No effects at one day after anesthesia or of repetition were revealed either. These results show that GABAergic modulation through general anesthesia affects ERP reflections of visual segmentation in a similar way in children as benzodiazepine does in adults, but that effects are not permanent. This demonstrates that ERP measurement after anesthesia is a successful method to study effects of GABAergic modulation in children.

  19. Earth-strength magnetic field affects the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish swimming in shoals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Alessandro; De Rosa, Rosario; Putman, Nathan F; Agnisola, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behavior. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields. Here, we investigated whether a static magnetic field in the Earth-strength range influenced the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish in a swimming tunnel. The direction of the horizontal component of the magnetic field relative to water flow influenced the rheotactic threshold of fish as part of a shoal, but not of fish tested alone. Results obtained after disabling the lateral line of shoaling individuals with Co(2+) suggest that this organ system is involved in the observed magneto-rheotactic response. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that magnetic fields influence rheotaxis and suggest new avenues for further research.

  20. Faces and emotions: brain electric field sources during covert emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Lehmann, D

    1998-04-01

    Covert brain activity related to task-free, spontaneous (i.e. unrequested), emotional evaluation of human face images was analysed in 27-channel averaged event-related potential (ERP) map series recorded from 18 healthy subjects while observing random sequences of face images without further instructions. After recording, subjects self-rated each face image on a scale from "liked" to "disliked". These ratings were used to dichotomize the face images into the affective evaluation categories of "liked" and "disliked" for each subject and the subjects into the affective attitudes of "philanthropists" and "misanthropists" (depending on their mean rating across images). Event-related map series were averaged for "liked" and "disliked" face images and for "philanthropists" and "misanthropists". The spatial configuration (landscape) of the electric field maps was assessed numerically by the electric gravity center, a conservative estimate of the mean location of all intracerebral, active, electric sources. Differences in electric gravity center location indicate activity of different neuronal populations. The electric gravity center locations of all event-related maps were averaged over the entire stimulus-on time (450 ms). The mean electric gravity center for disliked faces was located (significant across subjects) more to the right and somewhat more posterior than for liked faces. Similar differences were found between the mean electric gravity centers of misanthropists (more right and posterior) and philanthropists. Our neurophysiological findings are in line with neuropsychological findings, revealing visual emotional processing to depend on affective evaluation category and affective attitude, and extending the conclusions to a paradigm without directed task.

  1. Analysis Variation of Drying Parameters of Corn Seeds Processed in Microwave Field. Thermal Field Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Darie SOPRONI; VICAS Simina; Carmen MOLNAR; ARION Mircea; HATHAZI Francisc Ioan

    2012-01-01

    The present research has the objective to analyze the drying characteristics of the corn seeds in the microwave field. During the experiment is being followed the germination of the seeds and thedistribution of temperature in the dielectric.

  2. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Franziska; Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ozonation of oil sands process-affected water accelerates microbial bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan W; Barri, Thaer; Han, Xiumei; Fedorak, Phillip M; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Perez, Leonidas; Scott, Angela C; Jiang, Jason Tiange

    2010-11-01

    Ozonation can degrade toxic naphthenic acids (NAs) in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but even after extensive treatment a residual NA fraction remains. Here we hypothesized that mild ozonation would selectively oxidize the most biopersistent NA fraction, thereby accelerating subsequent NA biodegradation and toxicity removal by indigenous microbes. OSPW was ozonated to achieve approximately 50% and 75% NA degradation, and the major ozonation byproducts included oxidized NAs (i.e., hydroxy- or keto-NAs). However, oxidized NAs are already present in untreated OSPW and were shown to be formed during the microbial biodegradation of NAs. Ozonation alone did not affect OSPW toxicity, based on Microtox; however, there was a significant acceleration of toxicity removal in ozonated OSPW following inoculation with native microbes. Furthermore, all residual NAs biodegraded significantly faster in ozonated OSPW. The opposite trend was found for ozonated commercial NAs, which are known to contain no significant biopersistent fraction. Thus, we suggest that ozonation preferentially degraded the most biopersistent OSPW NA fraction, and that ozonation is complementary to the biodegradation capacity of microbial populations in OSPW. The toxicity of ozonated OSPW to higher organisms needs to be assessed, but there is promise that this technique could be applied to accelerate the bioremediation of large volumes of OSPW in Northern Alberta, Canada.

  4. Neuronal correlates of three attentional strategies during affective picture processing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schoengassner, Florian; Scharmüller, Wilfried

    2014-12-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study directly compared the neurocircuitry involved in three different attentional strategies during affective picture processing. We exposed 40 participants (20 men, 20 women) to images depicting dental treatment, as well as neutral scenes. They were asked to do one of three tasks while watching the same pictures: directing their attention toward a foreground object within the picture (distraction), classifying whether the image showed dental treatment, or deciding whether the scene elicited fear of pain (introspection). The participants performed the distraction and classification task with high accuracy and rated only 11 % of the dental treatment pictures as pain relevant. Introspection was associated with increased activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), relative to the two other conditions. Since the dental, relative to the neutral, pictures elicited enhanced DMPFC activation across all conditions, this underlines the role of this brain region for the assignment, as well as self-reference, of affective meaning. Moreover, self-reported dental anxiety was positively correlated with activation of a pain modulatory network (DMPFC, basal ganglia) when the participants focused on the pain relevance of the dental treatment cues. For future studies, it seems promising to study a high-anxious group or even patients afflicted with dental phobia.

  5. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. The effect of self-affirmation in nonthreatening persuasion domains: timing affects the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E; Gallardo, Ismael; DeMarree, Kenneth G

    2007-11-01

    Most research on self-affirmation and persuasion has argued that self-affirmation buffers the self against the threat posed by a persuasive message; thus, it increases the likelihood that participants will respond to the message favorably. Little research, in contrast, has looked at the effects of self-affirmation on persuasive messages that are not threatening to the self. This research examines mechanisms that can operate under these conditions. Consistent with the idea that self-affirmation affects confidence, the article shows that self-affirmation can decrease information processing when induced prior to message reception (Experiment 1) and can increase the use of self-generated thoughts in response to a persuasive message when induced after message reception (Experiment 2). In addition, Experiment 3 manipulates the timing of self-affirmation to replicate both effects and Experiment 4 provides direct evidence for the impact of self-affirmation on confidence.

  7. Affective processing in positive schizotypy: Loose control of social-emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas

    2014-10-30

    Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations.

  8. Ranking factors affecting the quality of banking services using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Pourmohammad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify the priority of factors affecting the quality of banking services in Bank Saderat Iran for better allocation of resources to enhance the quality of its banking services. The study develops a fuzzy method to handle uncertainty associated with the data and using analytical network process (ANP ranks different factors influencing on service quality. The results have indicated that the quality of e-services (ESQ is the most important factor followed by the quality of banking services agility (ASQ, the service system quality (SSQ, and the behavioral service qualities (BSQ. Moreover, the employees’ competence and skills, the reliability of the electronic system and the reliability of the service system, an impeccability banking system integrity and accountability instruments are among other effective factors influencing on the quality of banking services.

  9. Microwave Field Applicator Design in Small-Scale Chemical Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first experiments nearly three decades ago, microwave enhanced chemistry has received incessant scientific attention. Many studies report improved process performance in terms of speed and conversion under microwave exposure and therefore it is recognized as a promising alternative me

  10. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  11. Microwave Field Applicator Design in Small-Scale Chemical Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first experiments nearly three decades ago, microwave enhanced chemistry has received incessant scientific attention. Many studies report improved process performance in terms of speed and conversion under microwave exposure and therefore it is recognized as a promising alternative

  12. SPECIAL ISSUES REGARDING THE MEDIATION PROCESS IN THE COMMERCIAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEPTIMIU STOICA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research subject to this paper is to find proper solutions for the increase of the volume and efficiency in the field of commercial mediation. Starting from practical remarks, after an analysis of the substance, a new concept is suggested to be included and put into operation, namely the special commercial mediation, and a plead is made for its use in the current activity of alternative dispute resolution. The first major objective of this paper is to demonstrate once again the need and utility of mediation in the commercial field, insisting though on its remarkable specific nature. The second objective is, starting from the outlined differences between the commercial mediation and the classical mediation, to define and to conceptualize the special commercial mediation, as a separate branch of mediation. The third objective of this paper is to draw the regime of the newly defined category of commercial mediation from a regulatory point of view, of the implementation structure and techniques as foreseen.

  13. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

    2000-01-01

    Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all

  14. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research.

  15. Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans.

  16. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  17. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields affect lipid-linked carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Pepe, Isidoro Mario; Calzia, Daniela; Morelli, Alessandro; Panfoli, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    In the last years, the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the activity of different enzymes were investigated. Only the membrane-anchored enzymes did decrease their activity, up to 50%. In this work, the effect of ELF-EMF on bovine lung membrane carbonic anhydrase (CA) were studied. Carbonic anhydrases are a family of 14 zinc-containing isozymes catalyzing the reversible reaction: CO(2)+H(2)O = HCO(3)(- )+H(+). CA differ in catalytic activity and subcellular localization. CA IV, IX, XII, XIV, and XV are membrane bound. In particular, CA IV, which is expressed in the lung, is glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol-linked to the membrane, therefore it was a candidate to inhibition by ELF-EMF. Exposure to the membranes to a field of 75 Hz frequency and different amplitudes caused CA activity to a reproducible decrease in enzymatic activity by 17% with a threshold of about 0.74 mT. The decrease in enzymatic activity was independent of the time of permanence in the field and was completely reversible. When the source of enzyme was solubilized with Triton, the field lost its effect on CA enzymatic activity, suggesting a crucial role of the membrane, as well as of the particular linkage of the enzyme to it, in determining the conditions for CA inactivation. Results are discussed in terms of the possible physiologic effects of CA inhibition in target organs.

  18. Actual and potential nitrogen fixation in pea and field bean as affected by combined nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, van M.

    1981-01-01

    Actual nitrogen fixation of pea and field-bean plants, grown in soil in the open air, was determined as the acetylene reduction of nodulated roots. During the major part of the vegetative growth of these plants, actual nitrogen fixation was equal to the potential maximum nitrogenase activity of the

  19. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Piepkho, M.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner.

  20. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  1. Additional force field in cooling process of cellular Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明军; 何德坪; 戴戈

    2002-01-01

    The foaming process of Al alloy is similar to that of Al, but there is a solid-liquid state zone in the solidification process of cellular Al alloy which does not exist in the case of Al. In the unidirectional solidification of cellular Al alloy, the proportion of the solid phase gradually reduces from the solid front to the liquid front. This will introduce a force and result in a serious quick shrinkage. By the mathematic and physical mode, the solidification of the cellular Al alloy is studied. The data measured by experiment are close to the result calculated by the mode. This kind of shrinkage can be solved by suitable cooling method in appropriate growth stage. The compressive strength of the cellular Al alloy made by this way is 40% higher than that of cellular Al.

  2. Key parameters and processes affecting the re-establishment of eelgrass in estuaries and coastal water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula

    of field activities and laboratory experiments around seed and seedling survival fitting and success rates were planned. Initially, there were performed pre-screening activities, in a pre-selected study area, Odense fjord (Fyn, Denmark). From the pre-screening basic data on fauna, benthic vegetation...... and sediment trapping. In the last decades seagrass, in general and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in particular, have been heavily reduced, primarily due to a generalized euthrophication of the coastal waters. In Denmark, a numerous efforts on nutrient reduction and improvement on coastal water quality have been...... of the objectives were to gain a further and deeper understanding on eelgrass recolonization processes and to gather all the collected data into a modelling tool which allowing to predict eelgrass reestablishment. Eelgrass re-establishment in Denmark has to be based on seed and seedling success, therefore a series...

  3. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would prima...

  4. Frequency Shift and Sub-band Effect in Pair-Production Process Under Adiabatic Closing the External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinfang; Wang, Wenyuan; Fu, Libin

    2016-09-01

    Oscillating electric field is chosen to investigate the electron-positron pair production process by using a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050402 (2014)]. The particle yield exhibits a characteristic oscillatory structure which is related to the multi-photon thresholds. The true peak positions are typically slightly above the naive threshold estimate, which is defined as frequency shift. During the numerical calculations, we find the frequency shift can be affected by the system parameters under adiabatic closing the external field, it is worthwhile to study in detail. In this paper, we investigate the frequency shift and the sub-band effect in electron-positron pair production with oscillating electric field. First, a quantum kinetic theory and the effective mass are presented to obtain the frequency shift, the results are fitted very well. And we find the frequency shift and the sub-band effect can be influenced by pulse duration, photon number, and strength of the external field. The frequency shift becomes evident as increases of photon number and the external field strength. The sub-band width is relatively lower at longer pulse duration, higher photon number region, and weaker external field. The results shown in the paper are helpful for understanding multi-photon pair production process in the strong field.

  5. Field experiment of T-H-M process in the near field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Moro, Yoshiji

    1999-03-01

    A test pit for thermal-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) experiments was excavated by the shot boring method at the bottom of a drift excavated at Kamaishi in situ field in 1994. The test pit has the diameter of 1.7 m and the depth of 6.0 m. A heating system was installed in the center of the pit and buffer material composed of granulated bentonite was compacted around the heater. Duration of the heating test was 280 days and the heater was controlled to be 100degC at the surface during the time. A number of sensors were installed to monitor the temperature and pore pressure distribution in both buffer and rock mass, the water content distribution in the buffer, swelling pressure of the buffer, and strain in the rock mass. The field experiment led to a better understanding of the behavior of the T-H-M phenomena in the near field. (H. Bata)

  6. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  7. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  8. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment.

  9. Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog Affects the Replication Stress Response through Regulation of RNA Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Gina; Zhao, Runxiang; Guo, Yan; Mohni, Kareem N.; Glick, Gloria; Lacy, Monica E.; Hutson, M. Shane; Ascano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Accurate replication of DNA is imperative for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog (ERH) using a whole-genome RNA interference (RNAi) screen to discover novel proteins that function in the replication stress response. Here we report that ERH is important for DNA replication and recovery from replication stress. ATR pathway activity is diminished in ERH-deficient cells. The reduction in ATR signaling corresponds to a decrease in the expression of multiple ATR pathway genes, including ATR itself. ERH interacts with multiple RNA processing complexes, including splicing regulators. Furthermore, splicing of ATR transcripts is deficient in ERH-depleted cells. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicates that ERH depletion affects the levels of ∼1,500 transcripts, with DNA replication and repair genes being highly enriched among those with reduced expression. Splicing defects were evident in ∼750 protein-coding genes, which again were enriched for DNA metabolism genes. Thus, ERH regulation of RNA processing is needed to ensure faithful DNA replication and repair. PMID:26100022

  10. Pseudomonads biodegradation of aromatic compounds in oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic naphthenic acids (NAs) have been shown to be more toxic than the classical NAs found in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). To reduce this toxicity, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida were used to determine their ability to biodegrade aromatic compounds including treatments considering the impacts of external carbon and iron addition. Results showed that with added carbon P. fluorescens and P. putida have the capability of biodegrading these aromatics. In the presence of external carbon, gene expression of a functional PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) was determined through reverse transcription real-time PCR, suggesting active degradation of OSPW aromatic compounds. Although no significant classical NAs removal was observed during this process, toxicity was reduced by 49.3% under optimal conditions. OSPW toxicity was eliminated with the combination of ozonation at a dose of 80 mg/L followed by biodegradation, indicating that it is a promising combined OSPW treatment approach for the safe discharge to the aquatic environment.

  11. Carbon availability affects diurnally controlled processes and cell morphology of Cyanothece 51142.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stöckel

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142.

  12. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  13. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  14. Neuroimaging of affect processing in schizophrenia; Funktionelle Bildgebung von emotionalem Verhalten und Erleben bei schizophrenen Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habel, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Universitaetsklinikum, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Aachen (Germany); Kircher, T.; Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

    2005-02-01

    Functional imaging of normal and dysfunctional emotional processes is an important tool for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These symptoms are still poorly characterized with respect to their neural correlates. Comparisons of cerebral activation during emotional paradigms offered the possibility for a better characterization of cerebral dysfunctions during emotional processing in schizophrenia. Abnormal activation patterns reveal a complex dysfunctional subcortical-cortical network. This is modulated by respective genotypes as well as psycho- and pharmacotherapy. (orig.) [German] Die funktionell bildgebende Untersuchung emotionaler Prozesse und ihrer Dysfunktionen ist fuer ein besseres Verstaendnis der Pathophysiologie emotionaler Stoerungen wesentlich. Schizophrene Patienten zeigen eine Reihe affektiver Symptome, die klinisch relevant, aber nur unzureichend bzgl. ihrer neurobiologischen Korrelate bekannt sind. Der Vergleich zerebraler Aktivierung zwischen gesunden und schizophrenen Patienten waehrend unterschiedlicher emotionaler Paradigmen hat dazu beigetragen, zerebrale Dysfunktionen naeher zu charakterisieren. So weisen auffaellige Aktivierungsmuster auf eine komplex gestoerte subkortikal-kortikale Netzwerkstruktur hin. Deren Modulation durch genetische Faktoren und durch psycho- wie auch pharmakologische therapeutische Interventionen konnte mittlerweile nachgewiesen werden. (orig.)

  15. The dominant factors affecting agricultural land use (rice field change in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sabari Yunus

    2013-07-01

    The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.

  16. 916 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects rat behavior and hippocampal neuronal discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Hao; Lei Yang; Su Chen; Yonghao Tian; Shuicai Wu

    2012-01-01

    Wistar rats were exposed to a 916 MHz,10 W/m2 mobile phone electromagnetic field for 6 hours a day,5 days a week.Average completion times in an eight-arm radial maze were longer in the exposed rats than control rats after 4-5 weeks of exposure.Error rates in the exposed rats were greater than the control rats at 6 weeks.Hippocampal neurons from the exposed rats showed irregular firing patterns during the experiment,and they exhibited decreased spiking activity 6-9 weeks compared with that after 2-5 weeks of exposure.These results indicate that 916 MHz electromagnetic fields influence learning and memory in rats during exposure,but long-term effects are not obvious.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis affects the grain proteome of Zea mays: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Elisa; Scarafoni, Alessio; Marsano, Francesco; Boatti, Lara; Copetta, Andrea; Massa, Nadia; Gamalero, Elisa; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Cesaro, Patrizia; Cavaletto, Maria; Berta, Graziella

    2016-05-24

    Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and is strongly dependent on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi, organisms that form a mutualistic association with land plants. In maize, AM symbiosis enhances spike dry weight, spike length, spike circumference, and the dry weight and dimensions of the grain. Notwithstanding its ubiquitous nature, the detailed relationship between AM fungal colonization and plant development is not completely understood. To facilitate a better understanding of the effects of AM fungi on plants, the work reported here assessed the effects of a consortium of AM fungi on the kernel proteome of maize, cultivated in open-field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the modulation of a plant seed proteome following AM fungal inoculation in the field. Here, it was found that AM fungi modify the maize seed proteome by up-regulating enzymes involved in energetic metabolism, embryo development, nucleotide metabolism, seed storage and stress responses.

  18. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  19. [Initial growth processes in seeds in magnetic fields, strengthened or weakened in relation to the geomagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'kov, E K; Rodionov, Iu A

    2010-01-01

    The effects of modifications of magnetic fields, simulating anomalies of natural magnetism of the Earth, were studied in the seeds of peas and winter wheat. It has been shown that strengthening or weakening of the geomagnetic field inhibits water absorption and initial growth processes. The influence of magnetic fields on the orientation of rootlets and development of plantlets is determined. The connection between the magnetic susceptibility of seeds and content of heavy metals in them is established, which obviously concerns the magnetic susceptibility and magnetotropism in plants.

  20. Discourse Goals Affect the Process and Product of Nominal Metaphor Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Akira; Sakamoto, Maki

    2015-10-01

    Although a large number of studies have addressed metaphor comprehension, only a few attempts have so far been made at exploring the process of metaphor production. Therefore, in this paper, we address the problem of how people generate nominal metaphors or identify an apt vehicle for a given topic of nominal metaphors. Specifically, we examine how the process and product of metaphor production differ between two discourse goals of metaphor, namely an explanatory purpose (e.g., to clarify) and a literary purpose (e.g., to aesthetically pleasing). Experiment 1 analyzed the metaphors (or vehicles) generated in the metaphor production task, and demonstrated that people identified more prototypical exemplars of the property to be attributed to the topic as a vehicle for explanatory metaphors than for literary metaphors. In addition, it was found that metaphors generated for the explanatory purpose were more apt and conventional, and had high topic-vehicle similarity than those generated for the literary purpose, while metaphors generated for the literary purpose were more familiar and imageable than those for the explanatory purpose. Experiment 2 used a priming paradigm to assess the online availability of prototypical and less prototypical members of the topic property during metaphor production. The result was that both prototypical and less prototypical members were activated in producing literary metaphors, while neither members were activated in the production of explanatory metaphors. These findings indicate that the process of metaphor production is affected by discourse goals of metaphor; less prototypical members of the category are searched for a vehicle during the production of literary metaphors, and thus literary metaphors are generated with less prototypical vehicles than explanatory metaphors.

  1. Process-induced extracellular matrix alterations affect the mechanisms of soft tissue repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Q Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the

  2. Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflicts. Three groups of 8-11-year-old children--bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1)--were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life.

  3. Nanomorphology of Itokawa regolith particles: Application to space-weathering processes affecting the Itokawa asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Uesugi, Kentaro; Nakano, Tsukasa; Uesugi, Masayuki; Matsuno, Junya; Nagano, Takashi; Shimada, Akira; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakamura, Michihiko; Gucsik, Arnold; Nagaki, Keita; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-08-01

    The morphological properties of 26 regolith particles from asteroid Itokawa were observed using scanning electron microscopes in combination with an investigation of their three-dimensional shapes obtained through X-ray microtomography. Surface observations of a cross section of the LL5 chondrite, and of crystals of olivine and pyroxene, were also performed for comparison. Some Itokawa particles have surfaces corresponding to walls of microdruses in the LL chondrite, where concentric polygonal steps develop and euhedral or subhedral grains exist. These formed through vapor growth owing to thermal annealing, which might have been caused by thermal metamorphism or shock-induced heating in Itokawa's parent body. Most of the Itokawa particles have more or less fractured surfaces, indicating that they were formed by disaggregation, probably caused by impacts. Itokawa particles with angular and rounded edges observed in computed tomography images are associated with surfaces exhibiting clear and faint structures, respectively. These surfaces can be interpreted by invoking different degrees of abrasion after regolith formation. A possible mechanism for the abrasion process is grain migration caused by impact-driven seismic waves. Space-weathered rims with blisters are distributed heterogeneously across the Itokawa regolith particles. This heterogeneous distribution can be explained by particle motion and fracturing, combined with solar-wind irradiation of the particle surfaces. The regolith activity-including grain motion, fracturing, and abrasion-might effectively act as refreshing process of Itokawa particles against space-weathered rim formation. The space-weathering processes affecting Itokawa would have developed simultaneously with space-weathered rim formation and regolith particle refreshment.

  4. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P electromagnetic field (P electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  5. Metastability for the Exclusion Process with Mean-Field Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselah, Amine; Giacomin, Giambattista

    1998-12-01

    We consider an exclusion particle system with long-range, mean-field-type interactions at temperature 1/β. The hydrodynamic limit of such a system is given by an integrodifferential equation with one conservation law on the circle C: it is the gradient flux of the Kac free energy functional F β. For β≤1, any constant function with value m ∈ [-1, +1] is the global minimizer of F β in the space \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} . For β>1, F β restricted to \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} may have several local minima: in particular, the constant solution may not be the absolute minimizer of F β. We therefore study the long-time behavior of the particle system when the initial condition is close to a homogeneous stable state, giving results on the time of exit from (suitable) subsets of its domain of attraction. We follow the Freidlin-Wentzell approach: first, we study in detail F β together with the time asymptotics of the solution of the hydrodynamic equation; then we study the probability of rare events for the particle system, i.e., large deviations from the hydrodynamic limit.

  6. Panel discussion on near-field coupled processes with emphasis on performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments.

  7. Task difficulty affects the predictive process indexed by visual mismatch negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro eKimura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual mismatch negativity (MMN is an event-related brain potential (ERP component that is elicited by prediction-incongruent events in successive visual stimulation. Previous oddball studies have shown that visual MMN in response to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli is insensitive to the manipulation of task difficulty, which supports the notion that visual MMN reflects attention-independent predictive processes. In these studies, however, visual MMN was evaluated in deviant-minus-standard difference waves, which may lead to an underestimation of the effects of task difficulty due to the possible superposition of N1-difference reflecting refractory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of task difficulty on visual MMN, less contaminated by N1-difference. While the participant performed a size-change detection task regarding a continuously-presented central fixation circle, we presented oddball sequences consisting of deviant and standard bar stimuli with different orientations (9.1% and 90.9% and equiprobable sequences consisting of 11 types of control bar stimuli with different orientations (9.1% each at the surrounding visual fields. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying the magnitude of the size-change. We found that the peak latencies of visual MMN evaluated in the deviant-minus-control difference waves were delayed as a function of task difficulty. Therefore, in contrast to the previous understanding, the present findings support the notion that visual MMN is associated with attention-demanding predictive processes.

  8. The divided city: the territory of informality as an affective field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Aubán Borrell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contradictory nature of informal settlements open up a space to think about the complex implications of the contemporary city. This article proposes an affective reading which will enable a reconsideration of the negative conditions that de ne the informal city, with the aim of reorienting the research of effective transformations within these territories. An approach to the case of Rio de Janeiro will allow delving into the individual-territory relationship in order to relocate the subjective dimension of the city as a key factor in the socio-spatial articulation of informality.

  9. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Urita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. M ethods : Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results : The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions : From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing. (Urita Y, Watanabe T, Imai T, Yasuyuki Miura Y, Washizawa N, Masaki Sanaka M, Nakajima H, Sugimoto M. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism.

  10. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  11. Electric field effect on the magnetization process for a very thin Co60Fe40 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K. Z.; Ranjbar, R.; Sugihara, A.; Kondo, Y.; Mizukami, S.

    2016-08-01

    The electric field effect on the magnetization process for a very thin Co60Fe40 film was studied. The magnetization process under the electric field was characterized using tunnel magnetoresistance curves measured in a fully-epitaxial (001)-oriented CoFe(1)/MgO/CoFe(3) (thickness in nanometers) magnetic tunnel junction, where both the CoFe electrodes are magnetized in- plane. The out-of-plane saturation field of the thinner CoFe electrode changed linearly by varying the applied voltage, and the field-induced change of saturation field was estimated to be -0.10 TV-1. This change in the saturation field is interpreted as the electric field induced change in a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy originating from the CoFe/MgO interface. The electric field effect efficiency was estimated to be about 200 fJV-1 m-1.

  12. Universal scaling behaviour of directed percolation and the pair contact process in an external field

    CERN Document Server

    Lübeck, S

    2002-01-01

    We consider the scaling behaviour of directed percolation and of the pair contact process with a conjugated field. In particular we determine numerically the equation of state and show that both models are characterized by the same universal scaling function. Furthermore we derive the equation of state for the pair contact process within a mean-field approach which again agrees with the mean-field equation of state of the directed percolation universality class.

  13. Reference Information Extraction and Processing Using Random Conditional Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostering both the creation and the linking of data with the scope of supporting the growth of the Linked Data Web requires us to improve the acquisition and extraction mechanisms of the underlying semantic metadata. This is particularly important for the scientific publishing domain, where currently most of the datasets are being created in an author-driven, manual manner. In addition, such datasets capture only fragments of the complete metadata, omitting usually, important elements such as the references, although they represent valuable information. In this paper we present an approach that aims at dealing with this aspect of extraction and processing of reference information. The experimental evaluation shows that, currently, our solution handles very well diverse types of reference format, thus making it usable for, or adaptable to, any area of scientific publishing.

  14. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure.

  15. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses.

  16. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  17. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Menghua; Jia Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD) caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field...

  18. Field application of glyphosate induces molecular changes affecting vegetative growth processes in leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommended rates of glyphosate for non-cultivated areas destroy the aboveground shoots of the perennial plant leafy spurge. However, such applications cause little or no damage to underground adventitious buds (UABs), and thus the plant readily regenerates vegetatively. High concentrations of glyph...

  19. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  20. Microemulsions of Record Low Amphiphile Concentrations Are Affected by the Ambient Gravitational Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Behrens, Manja; Eriksson, Stefanie; Topgaard, Daniel; Olsson, Ulf; Wennerström, Håkan

    2016-07-07

    It is shown that the ternary system heavy water-heptane-hexadecyl hexaethylene oxide (C16E6) has a stable bicontinuous microemulsion phase down to an exceptionally low concentration at the balanced temperature of 26.8 °C. It is further demonstrated that the ambient gravitational field has an influence on the observed phase equilibria for typical sample sizes (∼1 cm). Direct measurements using a nuclear magnetic resonance imaging technique demonstrate that sample compositions vary with the height in the vials. It is furthermore found that some samples show four phases at equilibrium in apparent violation of Gibbs' phase rule. It is pointed out that Gibbs' phase rule strictly applies only when effects of gravity are negligible. A further consequence of the ambient gravitational field is that, for the system studied, the microemulsion one-phase samples are not observed, when using standard size vials, that is, sample heights on the order of a centimeter. Quantitative determinations of concentration profiles can be used to determine parameters of the free-energy density for the system.

  1. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  2. Impulsivity is associated with early sensory inhibition in neurophysiological processing of affective sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eSoshi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is widely related to socially problematic behaviors and psychiatric illness. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between response inhibition and impulsivity. However, no study has intensively examined how impulsivity correlates with automatic sensory processing before the drive for response inhibition to sensory inputs. Sensory gating is an automatic inhibitory function that attenuates the neural response to redundant sensory information and protects higher cognitive functions from the burst of information processing. Although sensory gating functions abnormally in several clinical populations, there is very little evidence supporting sensory gating changes in conjunction with impulsivity traits in non-clinical populations. The present study recruited healthy adults (n = 23 to conduct a neurophysiological experiment using a paired click paradigm and self-report scales assessing impulsive behavioral traits. Auditory stimuli included not only a pure tone, but also white noise, to explore the differences in auditory evoked potential responses between the two stimuli. White noise is more affective than pure tones; therefore, we predicted that the sensory gating of auditory evoked potentials (P50, N100, P200 for white noise would correlate more with self-reported impulsivity than with those for pure tones. Our main findings showed that sensory gating of the P50 and P200 amplitudes significantly correlated with self-reported reward responsiveness and fun-seeking, respectively, only for white noise stimuli, demonstrating that higher-scoring impulsivity subcomponents were related to greater sensory gating. Frequency-domain analyses also revealed that greater desynchronization of the beta band for the second white noise stimulus was associated with higher motor impulsivity scores, suggesting that an impulsivity-related change of sensory gating was associated with attentional modulation. These findings indicate that the

  3. Factors affecting measurement of channel thickness in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Haiyang; Jung, Euo Chang; Lee, Seungho

    2015-05-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) has been considered to be a useful tool for simultaneous separation and characterization of polydisperse macromolecules or colloidal nanoparticles. AF4 analysis requires the knowledge of the channel thickness (w), which is usually measured by injecting a standard with known diffusion coefficient (D) or hydrodynamic diameter (dh). An accurate w determination is a challenge due to its uncertainties arising from the membrane's compressibility, which may vary with experimental condition. In the present study, influence of factors including the size and type of the standard on the measurement of w was systematically investigated. The results revealed that steric effect and the particles-membrane interaction by van der Waals or electrostatic force may result in an error in w measurement.

  4. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  5. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-08-12

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm(3) in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  6. Weak Static and Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect In Vitro Pollen Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucietta Betti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (MF at 10 μT oriented downward, combined with a 16-Hz sinusoidal MF (10 μT, on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. Two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. In the direct treatment, pollen samples were directly exposed during rehydration, germination, or both. In the indirect treatment, the pollen growth medium was prepared with water aliquots (at standard temperature of 20°C and pH = 6.74 that were exposed before use for 8 or 24 h. The main purpose of our research was to identify a biological marker (in vitro pollen germination in a stressing growth medium without Ca2+ susceptible to the effects of direct or indirect ELF-MF exposure. The working variable was the pollen germination rate, as detected blind after 3 h 30 min by an Axioplan microscope. A directionally consistent recovery of germination percentage was observed both for direct exposure (during germination and both rehydration and germination phases and water-mediated exposure (with water exposed for 24 h and immediately used. Our results suggest that the ELF-MF treatment might partially remove the inhibitory effect caused by the lack of Ca2+ in the culture medium, inducing a release of internal Ca2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of pollen plasma membrane. Although preliminary, findings seem to indicate the in vitro pollen performance as adequate to study the effects of ELF-MFs on living matter.

  7. Influence of affective personality on cognition-mediated emotional processing: Need for empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Archer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The notion that both positive and negative affect contribute not only to affective personality profiles but also to self-report estimations of both psychological and physical well-being or discomfort. Method: Two studies are described, based upon applications of psychometric and clinical instruments, including the Positive Affective and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS, Stress and Energy (SE, Dispositional optimism (LOT, Locus of Control, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Perfectionism, Hospital Anxirty and Depression (HAD and the Uppsala Sleep Inventory (USI. In Study 1, one hundred and twenty-two high school students (Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 17-19 years participated, whereas in Study 2, two hundred and eight professional office employees from a number of government agencies and corporations (Borås, Sweden, aged 27-61 years participated. Measures for HAD-anxiety and HAD-depression from five other studies of affective personality profiles were included also. Results: The results indicated marked differences in both psychological and physical well-being or discomfort due to affective personality profiles, whereby "Self-fulfilling" individuals, expressing high positive affect and low negative affect, presented markedly better health profiles than the other three types of affective personality, i.e. "Low affective", "High affective" and "Self-destructive". Conclusions: In this regard the notion of "empowerment" as a vehicle for putative reinforcements of cognitive abilities that modulate emotional systems is discussed.

  8. Influence of affective personality on cognition-mediated emotional processing: Need for empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Archer

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The notion that both positive and negative affect contribute not only to affective personality profiles but also to self-report estimations of both psychological and physical well-being or discomfort. Method: Two studies are described, based upon applications of psychometric and clinical instruments, including the Positive Affective and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS, Stress and Energy (SE, Dispositional optimism (LOT, Locus of Control, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Perfectionism, Hospital Anxirty and Depression (HAD and the Uppsala Sleep Inventory (USI. In Study 1, one hundred and twenty-two high school students (Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 17-19 years participated, whereas in Study 2, two hundred and eight professional office employees from a number of government agencies and corporations (Borås, Sweden, aged 27-61 years participated. Measures for HAD-anxiety and HAD-depression from five other studies of affective personality profiles were included also. Results: The results indicated marked differences in both psychological and physical well-being or discomfort due to affective personality profiles, whereby "Self-fulfilling" individuals, expressing high positive affect and low negative affect, presented markedly better health profiles than the other three types of affective personality, i.e. "Low affective", "High affective" and "Self-destructive". Conclusions: In this regard the notion of "empowerment" as a vehicle for putative reinforcements of cognitive abilities that modulate emotional systems is discussed.

  9. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW.

  10. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

  11. The Electrochemical Properties of Biochars and How They Affect Soil Redox Properties and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochars are complex heterogeneous materials that consist of mineral phases, amorphous C, graphitic C, and labile organic molecules, many of which can be either electron donors or acceptors when placed in soil. Biochar is a reductant, but its electrical and electrochemical properties are a function of both the temperature of production and the concentration and composition of the various redox active mineral and organic phases present. When biochars are added to soils, they interact with plant roots and root hairs, micro-organisms, soil organic matter, proteins and the nutrient-rich water to form complex organo-mineral-biochar complexes Redox reactions can play an important role in the development of these complexes, and can also result in significant changes in the original C matrix. This paper reviews the redox processes that take place in soil and how they may be affected by the addition of biochar. It reviews the available literature on the redox properties of different biochars. It also reviews how biochar redox properties have been measured and presents new methods and data for determining redox properties of fresh biochars and for biochar/soil systems.

  12. Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Murray-Close, Dianna; Godleski, Stephanie A; Hart, Emily J

    2013-09-01

    The central goal of this study was to examine the prospective associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior with social (i.e., peer rejection) and affective (i.e., anger, emotion regulation skills) processes during early childhood (N = 96, mean age = 42.80 months, SD = 7.57). A cross-lagged path analysis revealed that proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with decreases in peer rejection, whereas reactive relational aggression was associated with increases in peer rejection over time. Proactive relational aggression predicted decreases in anger, whereas reactive relational aggression tended to be associated with increases in anger. Proactive relational aggression uniquely predicted increases in emotion regulation skills, whereas reactive relational aggression tended to be associated with decreases in emotion regulation skills over time. Finally, anger was significantly associated with increases in several subtypes of aggressive behavior. In sum, the findings provide further support for the distinction between subtypes of aggressive behavior in young children.

  13. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based On the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammah Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2015-11-17

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women's participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test.

  14. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma.

  15. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Steward

    Full Text Available Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25 and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25 performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures, Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques. When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  16. Power to punish norm violations affects the neural processes of fairness-related decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei eCheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG. The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people’s responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the Impunity Game (IG, was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder’s income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people’s behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  17. Power to Punish Norm Violations Affects the Neural Processes of Fairness-Related Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Guo, Xiuyan; Wang, Qianfeng; Lord, Anton; Hu, Zengxi; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people's responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the impunity game (IG), was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder's income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people's behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  18. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  19. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  20. Quantum fields and poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jacqueline; Gaveau, Bernard; Rideau, Guy

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schrödinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  1. The Digital Fields Board for the FIELDS instrument suite on the Solar Probe Plus mission: Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, David M.; Ergun, Robert E.; Bolton, Mary; Kien, Mark; Summers, David; Stevens, Ken; Yehle, Alan; Karlsson, Magnus; Hoxie, Vaughn C.; Bale, Stuart D.; Goetz, Keith

    2016-06-01

    The first in situ measurements of electric and magnetic fields in the near-Sun environment (Solar Probe Plus mission. The Digital Fields Board (DFB) is an electronics board within FIELDS that performs analog and digital signal processing, as well as digitization, for signals between DC and 60 kHz from five voltage sensors and four search coil magnetometer channels. These nine input signals are processed on the DFB into 26 analog data streams. A specialized application-specific integrated circuit performs analog to digital conversion on all 26 analog channels simultaneously. The DFB then processes the digital data using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), generating a variety of data products, including digitally filtered continuous waveforms, high-rate burst capture waveforms, power spectra, cross spectra, band-pass filter data, and several ancillary products. While the data products are optimized for encounter-based mission operations, they are also highly configurable, a key design aspect for a mission of exploration. This paper describes the analog and digital signal processing used to ensure that the DFB produces high-quality science data, using minimal resources, in the challenging near-Sun environment.

  2. How do rituals affect cooperation? An experimental field study comparing nine ritual types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Callander, Rohan; Reddish, Paul; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Collective rituals have long puzzled anthropologists, yet little is known about how rituals affect participants. Our study investigated the effects of nine naturally occurring rituals on prosociality. We operationalized prosociality as (1) attitudes about fellow ritual participants and (2) decisions in a public goods game. The nine rituals varied in levels of synchrony and levels of sacred attribution. We found that rituals with synchronous body movements were more likely to enhance prosocial attitudes. We also found that rituals judged to be sacred were associated with the largest contributions in the public goods game. Path analysis favored a model in which sacred values mediate the effects of synchronous movements on prosocial behaviors. Our analysis offers the first quantitative evidence for the long-standing anthropological conjecture that rituals orchestrate body motions and sacred values to support prosociality. Our analysis, moreover, adds precision to this old conjecture with evidence of a specific mechanism: ritual synchrony increases perceptions of oneness with others, which increases sacred values to intensify prosocial behaviors.

  3. Trait-based affective processes in alcohol-involved "risk behaviors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Simons, Jeffrey S; Dvorak, Robert D; Gaher, Raluca M

    2012-11-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would primarily exhibit relationships with alcohol use and problems through behavioral dysregulation occurring during extreme affective states. To evaluate these hypotheses, we tested a SEM with three alcohol-related outcomes: "Typical" alcohol use, "blackout" drinking, and risk behavior. High trait negative affect and low tolerance for affective distress contribute to difficulty controlling behavior when negatively aroused and this is directly associated with increased risk behavior when drinking. In contrast, associations between positive urgency and risk behaviors are indirect via increased alcohol consumption. Positive affectivity exhibited both inverse and positive effects in the model, with the net effect on alcohol outcomes being insignificant. These findings contribute important information about the distinct pathways between affect, alcohol use, and alcohol-involved risk behavior among college students.

  4. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents affects color vision, contrast sensitivity and visual fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Leiros Costa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males. All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6 ± 6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT. Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24-2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i. Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd. Results from both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01. Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01, and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01. Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01 and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01. Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01 except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05, indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho=0.52; p<0.05, perimetry results in the fovea (rho= -0.51; p<0.05 and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho= -0.46; p<0.05. Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created.

  5. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C; Dalzell, Danielle R; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (2  nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2  kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  6. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil.

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    Daebeler, Anne; Gansen, Martina; Frenzel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH(3)F) caused surprisingly little differences in community composition of active methanogenic archaea from a rice field soil. By measuring the natural abundances of carbon isotopes we found that the effective dose for a 90% inhibition of aceticlastic methanogenesis in anoxic paddy soil incubations was <0.75% CH(3)F (v/v). The construction of clone libraries as well as t-RFLP analysis revealed that the active community, as indicated by mcrA transcripts (encoding the α subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, a key enzyme for methanogenesis), remained stable over a wide range of CH(3)F concentrations and represented only a subset of the methanogenic community. More precisely, Methanocellaceae were of minor importance, but Methanosarcinaceae dominated the active population, even when CH(3)F inhibition only allowed for aceticlastic methanogenesis. In addition, we detected mcrA gene fragments of a so far unrecognised phylogenetic cluster. Transcription of this phylotype at methyl fluoride concentrations suppressing aceticlastic methanogenesis suggests that the respective organisms perform hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Hence, the application of CH(3)F combined with transcript analysis is not only a useful tool to measure and assign in situ acetate usage, but also to explore substrate usage by as yet uncultivated methanogens.

  7. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil.

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    Anne Daebeler

    Full Text Available The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH(3F caused surprisingly little differences in community composition of active methanogenic archaea from a rice field soil. By measuring the natural abundances of carbon isotopes we found that the effective dose for a 90% inhibition of aceticlastic methanogenesis in anoxic paddy soil incubations was <0.75% CH(3F (v/v. The construction of clone libraries as well as t-RFLP analysis revealed that the active community, as indicated by mcrA transcripts (encoding the α subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, a key enzyme for methanogenesis, remained stable over a wide range of CH(3F concentrations and represented only a subset of the methanogenic community. More precisely, Methanocellaceae were of minor importance, but Methanosarcinaceae dominated the active population, even when CH(3F inhibition only allowed for aceticlastic methanogenesis. In addition, we detected mcrA gene fragments of a so far unrecognised phylogenetic cluster. Transcription of this phylotype at methyl fluoride concentrations suppressing aceticlastic methanogenesis suggests that the respective organisms perform hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Hence, the application of CH(3F combined with transcript analysis is not only a useful tool to measure and assign in situ acetate usage, but also to explore substrate usage by as yet uncultivated methanogens.

  8. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

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    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  9. A field experiment shows that subtle linguistic cues might not affect voter behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alan S; Huber, Gregory A; Biggers, Daniel R; Hendry, David J

    2016-06-28

    One of the most important recent developments in social psychology is the discovery of minor interventions that have large and enduring effects on behavior. A leading example of this class of results is in the work by Bryan et al. [Bryan CJ, Walton GM, Rogers T, Dweck CS (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12653-12656], which shows that administering a set of survey items worded so that subjects think of themselves as voters (noun treatment) rather than as voting (verb treatment) substantially increases political participation (voter turnout) among subjects. We revisit these experiments by replicating and extending their research design in a large-scale field experiment. In contrast to the 11 to 14% point greater turnout among those exposed to the noun rather than the verb treatment reported in the work by Bryan et al., we find no statistically significant difference in turnout between the noun and verb treatments (the point estimate of the difference is approximately zero). Furthermore, when we benchmark these treatments against a standard get out the vote message, we estimate that both are less effective at increasing turnout than a much shorter basic mobilization message. In our conclusion, we detail how our study differs from the work by Bryan et al. and discuss how our results might be interpreted.

  10. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Affects Ectomycorrhizal Species Abundance and Increases Sporocarp Production under Field Conditions

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    Douglas L. Godbold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities during the last century have increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Forest net primary productivity increases in response to elevated CO2, altering the quantity and quality of carbon supplied to the rhizosphere. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate symbiotic associations with the fine roots of trees that mediate improved scavenging for nutrients in exchange for a carbohydrate supply. Understanding how the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi is altered by climate change is important to further our understanding of ecosystem function. Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were grown in an elevated CO2 atmosphere delivered using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE under field conditions in the U.K., and Picea abies was grown under elevated CO2 in glass domes in the Czech Republic. We used morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungal ribosomal operon to study ectomycorrhizal community structure. Under FACE, un-colonised roots tips increased in abundance for Fagus sylvatica, and during 2006, sporocarp biomass of Peziza badia significantly increased. In domes, ectomycorrhizal community composition shifted from short-distance and smooth medium-distance to contact exploration types. Supply and competition for carbon belowground can influence ectomycorrhizal community structure with the potential to alter ecosystem function.

  11. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  12. Lignin engineering in field-grown poplar trees affects the endosphere bacterial microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Bram; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Weyens, Nele; Van Acker, Rebecca; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-02-23

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway, represents a promising biotechnological target to reduce lignin levels and to improve the commercial viability of lignocellulosic biomass. However, silencing of the CCR gene results in considerable flux changes of the general and monolignol-specific lignin pathways, ultimately leading to the accumulation of various extractable phenolic compounds in the xylem. Here, we evaluated host genotype-dependent effects of field-grown, CCR-down-regulated poplar trees (Populus tremula × Populus alba) on the bacterial rhizosphere microbiome and the endosphere microbiome, namely the microbiota present in roots, stems, and leaves. Plant-associated bacteria were isolated from all plant compartments by selective isolation and enrichment techniques with specific phenolic carbon sources (such as ferulic acid) that are up-regulated in CCR-deficient poplar trees. The bacterial microbiomes present in the endosphere were highly responsive to the CCR-deficient poplar genotype with remarkably different metabolic capacities and associated community structures compared with the WT trees. In contrast, the rhizosphere microbiome of CCR-deficient and WT poplar trees featured highly overlapping bacterial community structures and metabolic capacities. We demonstrate the host genotype modulation of the plant microbiome by minute genetic variations in the plant genome. Hence, these interactions need to be taken into consideration to understand the full consequences of plant metabolic pathway engineering and its relation with the environment and the intended genetic improvement.

  13. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

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    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  14. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes.

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    Fu, Xiaowen; Cui, Zhaojie; Zang, Guolong

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals are among the major pollutants in the worldwide soil environment. In oilfields, the crude oil extraction process results in the simultaneous contamination of the soil with petroleum and heavy metals. In this work, we investigated the influence of oil extraction on the migration, speciation, and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Mn) in soils of an oil region of Shengli Oilfield, China. The results showed that oil-polluted soils were contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, with mean concentrations of 27.63, 67.12, 0.185 and 33.80 mg kg(-1), respectively (greater than the background values of local surface soils). Compared with the control profile, the vertical distributions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V were affected in oil-polluted soils, particularly those of Cd and Ni. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, V, and Mn in oil-polluted soils increased with the duration of oil well development, which indicated the levels of these metals in the oil field were enhanced by human activities. Fractionation analysis revealed that the mobility potential of heavy metals in oil polluted soil decreased in the sequence Cd > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > V. The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil.

  15. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

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    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  16. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

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    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  17. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  18. Coherent Structure Patterns Affect Energy Balance Closure: Evidence from Virtual Measurements for a Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; De Roo, F.; Heinze, R.; Eder, F.; Huq, S.; Schmidt, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Mauder, M.

    2015-12-01

    The energy balance closure problem is a well-known issue of eddy-covariance measurements. However, the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that organized low-frequency motion contributes significantly to the energy balance residual, because the associated transport cannot be captured by a point measurement. In this study, we carry out virtual measurements using a PArallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM). In order to represent specific measurement days of the field campaign "High definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction" (HD(CP)²), which was part of the project "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction"(HOPE) in 2013, the simulations were driven by synoptic-scale COSMO-DE reanalysis data. Planet boundary layer height, the vertical profiles of variance and skewness of vertical wind were analyzed and a comparison with Doppler-lidar observations shows good agreement. Furthermore, simulated energy imbalances were compared with real-world imbalances from two eddy-covariance stations in the model domain. Particularly poor energy balance closure was found for a day with cellular organized structures in the surface layer, while the energy balance closure was better on other days with roll-like structures. This finding might be one explanation why the energy balance closure generally tends to improve with increasing friction velocity, since roll-like structures are typically associated with higher wind speeds. In order to gain insight into the partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and latent heat fluxes, we further employed a control volume method within the numerical simulation. Hence, advection and storage terms were identified as the most important causes for the lack of energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method. The results of the virtual measurements indicate that the "missing" part of the surface energy mainly comes from the

  19. Quality stability and sensory attributes of apple juice processed by thermosonication, pulsed electric field and thermal processing.

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    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.

  20. On-Ground Processing of Yaogan-24 Remote Sensing Satellite Attitude Data and Verification Using Geometric Field Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mi; Fan, Chengcheng; Yang, Bo; Jin, Shuying; Pan, Jun

    2016-07-30

    Satellite attitude accuracy is an important factor affecting the geometric processing accuracy of high-resolution optical satellite imagery. To address the problem whereby the accuracy of the Yaogan-24 remote sensing satellite's on-board attitude data processing is not high enough and thus cannot meet its image geometry processing requirements, we developed an approach involving on-ground attitude data processing and digital orthophoto (DOM) and the digital elevation model (DEM) verification of a geometric calibration field. The approach focuses on three modules: on-ground processing based on bidirectional filter, overall weighted smoothing and fitting, and evaluation in the geometric calibration field. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed on-ground processing method is both robust and feasible, which ensures the reliability of the observation data quality, convergence and stability of the parameter estimation model. In addition, both the Euler angle and quaternion could be used to build a mathematical fitting model, while the orthogonal polynomial fitting model is more suitable for modeling the attitude parameter. Furthermore, compared to the image geometric processing results based on on-board attitude data, the image uncontrolled and relative geometric positioning result accuracy can be increased by about 50%.

  1. Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

    2013-10-01

    We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation

  2. ER stress affects processing of MHC class I-associated peptides

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    Meloche Sylvain

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infection and neoplastic transformation trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Thus, a large proportion of the cells that must be recognized by the immune system are stressed cells. Cells respond to ER stress by launching the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR regulates the two key processes that control major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I-peptide presentation: protein synthesis and degradation. We therefore asked whether and how the UPR impinges on MHC I-peptide presentation. Results We evaluated the impact of the UPR on global MHC I expression and on presentation of the H2Kb-associated SIINFEKL peptide. EL4 cells stably transfected with vectors coding hen egg lysozyme (HEL-SIINFEKL protein variants were stressed with palmitate or exposed to glucose deprivation. UPR decreased surface expression of MHC I but did not affect MHC I mRNA level nor the total amount of intracellular MHC I proteins. Impaired MHC I-peptide presentation was due mainly to reduced supply of peptides owing to an inhibition of overall protein synthesis. Consequently, generation of H2Kb-SIINFEKL complexes was curtailed during ER stress, illustrating how generation of MHC I peptide ligands is tightly coupled to ongoing protein synthesis. Notably, the UPR-induced decline of MHC I-peptide presentation was more severe when the protein source of peptides was localized in the cytosol than in the ER. This difference was not due to changes in the translation rates of the precursor proteins but to increased stability of the cytosolic protein during ER stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ER stress impairs MHC I-peptide presentation, and that it differentially regulates expression of ER- vs. cytosol-derived peptides. Furthermore, this work illustrates how ER stress, a typical feature of infected and malignant cells, can impinge on cues for adaptive immune recognition.

  3. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing.

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    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2007-06-01

    Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis. Both tylosin and erythromycin are classified as macrolide drugs and cross-resistance between these antimicrobials occurs. Commercial broiler chicks were placed in isolation grow-out chambers and colonized with Campylobacter jejuni. From 14 d of age through grow-out, broilers were fed ad libitim a diet that included 22 ppm of tylosin phosphate (20 g/ton). Control broilers received the same diet without tylosin phosphate. At 42 d of age, broilers were processed in a pilot plant with equipment that closely modeled commercial conditions. Carcass rinses were collected after feather removal, after inside and outside washing, and after immersion chilling. Campylobacter numbers recovered from carcasses after feather removal did not differ according to feed type (3.53 log cfu/mL of rinse for control carcasses, and 3.60 log cfu/mL of rinse for those fed medicated feed). Likewise, medicated feed did not affect Campylobacter numbers on carcasses after inside-outside washing (3.11 and 3.07 log cfu/mL of rinse). However, carcasses of broilers fed tylosin phosphate had lower numbers of Campylobacter after chilling (1.45 log cfu/mL of rinse) than control carcasses (2.31 log cfu/mL of rinse). No Campylobacter isolated from control carcasses were resistant to erythromycin; all Campylobacter recovered from carcasses fed tylosin phosphate were resistant to erythromycin. Application of tylosin phosphate in feed results in lower numbers of Campylobacter on chilled carcasses; however, the Campylobacter that do remain are resistant to erythromycin.

  4. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  5. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Processing of hand-related verbs specifically affects the planning and execution of arm reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mirabella

    Full Text Available Even though a growing body of research has shown that the processing of action language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, several aspects of this interaction are still hotly debated. The directionality (i.e. does understanding action-related language induce a facilitation or an interference with the corresponding action?, the time course, and the nature of the interaction (i.e. under what conditions does the phenomenon occur? are largely unclear. To further explore this topic we exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing either hand or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when abstract verbs were presented. We found that reaction times (RT and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. This interference occurred very early, when the interval between verb presentation and the delivery of the go signal was 50 ms, and could be elicited until this delay was about 600 ms. In addition, RTs were faster when subjects used the right arm than when they used the left arm, suggesting that action-verb understanding is left-lateralized. Furthermore, when the color of the printed verb and not its meaning was the cue for movement execution the differences between RTs and error percentages between verb categories disappeared, unequivocally indicating that the phenomenon occurs only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved. These results are compatible with the theory of embodied language, which hypothesizes that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the sensory-motor experience of the action, and provide a new and detailed view of the interplay between action language and motor acts.

  7. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianipar, Agnes; Middelburg, Renée; Dijkstra, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime "driver"facilitating response to target "street") was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., "sweet" facilitating"taste") was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1). Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words), indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure.

  8. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Sianipar

    Full Text Available To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime "driver"facilitating response to target "street" was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., "sweet" facilitating"taste" was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1. Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words, indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure.

  9. Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

  10. Thermal and magnetic behaviors of a melt-textured superconducting bulk magnet in the zero-field-cooling magnetizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Nino-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Yokoyama, K [Ashikaga Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Fujishiro, H; Noto, K [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 3-4-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2009-06-15

    The heat generation and magnetic field trapping behaviors of the melt-textured single-domain Sm-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor have been precisely investigated in the zero-field-cooling magnetizing processes (ZFC). The temperature and magnetic flux density were simultaneously measured in the temperature range of 50-60 K. Since the invasion of magnetic flux is suppressed by the superconducting pinning effect, the applied magnetic field is not supplied to the whole of the sample. Therefore, the trapped field distributions consequently exhibit trapezoid shapes. According to the balance of heat generation and draining, the temperature profiles show us distinctive behaviors of magnetic fluxes. Both the temperature and the magnetic flux density kept increasing even after the external magnetic field has stopped growing at 5 T. This is attributed to the flux creeping phenomenon which propagates from the periphery to the center portion of the sample like a snow slide. The highest temperature rise due to the flux motion reached 7.5 K even when the sample was magnetized at a slow sweeping rate of 5.06 mT s{sup -1}. As the temperature profiles were different between the ascending and descending field processes, it is suggested that the magnetic fluxes invade in and diffuse out in different heating manners between the processes. This assists the hypothesis that the time while the moving fluxes heat the sample strongly affects the total amount of heat generation, which acts contrary to the FC case. This behavior implies that the improvements of the heat propagation property of the HTS bulk material by embedding metallic membranes and more powerful/efficient cooling systems must suppress the temperature increases and enhance the field trapping abilities.

  11. Quasiclassical approach to high-energy QED processes in strong laser and atomic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A

    2012-01-01

    An approach, based on the use of the quasiclassical Green's function, is developed for investigating high-energy quantum electrodynamical processes in combined strong laser and atomic fields. Employing an operator technique, we derive the Green's function of the Dirac equation in an arbitrary plane wave and a localized potential. Then, we calculate the total cross section of high-energy electron-positron photoproduction in an atomic field of arbitrary charge number (Bethe-Heitler process) in the presence of a strong laser field. It is shown that the laser field substantially modifies the cross section at already available incoming photon energies and laser parameters. This makes it feasible to observe the analogous effect in a laser field of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect for the Bethe-Heitler process.

  12. Magnetic field influence on nanocrystallization process of FeCoSiBCuNb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Pilar; Lopez, Miguel; Hernando, Antonio [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, UCM-RENFE. P.O. Box 155 28230, Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Gonzalez, Luisa; Gonzalez-Calbet, Jose Maria [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de C.C. Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortes Gil, Raquel [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, UCM-RENFE. P.O. Box 155 28230, Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de C.C. Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    We report the influence of magnetic field in the first stages of nanocrystallization process of FeCoSiBCuNb alloys. Amorphous ribbons have been annealed under longitudinal magnetic field. Depending on annealing temperature and magnetic field intensity, we observe the formation of different microstructures. In particular, when annealing at a temperature corresponding to the first stages of nanocrystallization process in the presence of magnetic field, an alignment of grains associated to grain growth related with a decrease of amorphous percentage has been obtained for certain intensities of applied magnetic field. Sample microstructure has been observed by means of TEM and the influence of microstructure in magnetic behaviour has been analysed by means of magnetization and coercivity field evolution with measuring temperature. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Benthic processes and coastal aquaculture: merging models and field data at a local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigolin, Daniele; Rabouille, Christophe; Bombled, Bruno; Colla, Silvia; Pastres, Roberto; Pranovi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Shellfish farming is regarded as an organic extractive aquaculture activity. However, the production of faeces and pseudofaeces, in fact, leads to a net transfer of organic matter from the water column to the surface sediment. This process, which is expected to locally affect the sediment biogeochemistry, may also cause relevant changes in coastal areas characterized by a high density of farms. In this paper, we present the result of a study recently carried out in the Gulf of Venice (northern Adriatic sea), combining mathematical modelling and field sampling efforts. The work aimed at using a longline mussel farm as an in-situ test-case for modelling the differences in soft sediments biogeochemical processes along a gradient of organic deposition. We used an existing integrated model, allowing to describe biogeochemical fluxes towards the mussel farm and to predict the extent of the deposition area underneath it. The model framework includes an individual-based population dynamic model of the Mediterranean mussel coupled with a Lagrangian deposition model and a 1D benthic model of early diagenesis. The work was articulated in 3 steps: 1) the integrated model allowed to simulate the downward fluxes of organic matter originated by the farm, and the extent of its deposition area; 2) based on the first model application, two stations were localized, at which sediment cores were collected during a field campaign, carried out in June 2015. Measurements included O2 and pH microprofiling, porosity and micro-porosity, Total Organic Carbon, and pore waters NH4, PO4, SO4, Alkalinity, and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon; 3) two distinct early diagenesis models were set-up, reproducing observed field data in the sampled cores. Observed oxygen microprofiles showed a different behavior underneath the farm with respect to the outside reference station. In particular, a remarkable decrease in the oxygen penetration depth, and an increase in the O2 influx calculated from the

  14. MECHANISM OF IMPACT OF ELECTRIC FIELDS ON PROCESSES OF MODIFYING OF Fe-C ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Minenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of physical model of process of impact of electric field on process of modifying of an alloy is stated. Major factors of the processing electric current arising from imposing on metal fusion of electric field are considered. The mechanism of influence of energy of electric field and power interaction of free current carrier with the centers of crystallization of an alloy is shown. The periodicity of stages of modifying of gray cast iron is offered. Results of impact of electric field on mechanical properties of cast iron depending on the content of silicon in the modifier are yielded. Influence of thermotemporary processing of fusion of the modified steel on its strength properties is shown.

  15. Electric Field-Mediated Processing of Biomaterials: Toward Nanostructured Biomimetic Systems. Appendix 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Gary L.; Simpson, David G.; Lam, Philippe; Wnek, Gary E.

    2001-01-01

    Significant opportunities exist for the processing of synthetic and biological polymers using electric fields ('electroprocessing'). We review casting of multi-component films and the spinning of fibers in electric fields, and indicate opportunities for the creation of smart polymer systems using these approaches. Applications include 2-D substrates for cell growth and diagnostics, scaffolds for tissue engineering and repair, and electromechanically active biosystems.

  16. A Lack of Left Visual Field Bias when Individuals with Autism Process Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Eva M.; Best, Catherine A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that typically developing individuals have a bias to attend to facial information in the left visual field (LVF) more than in the right visual field. This bias is thought to arise from the right hemisphere's advantage for processing facial information, with evidence suggesting it to be driven by the configural demands of…

  17. Assessing Factors Affecting Implementation of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristy

    2010-01-01

    The capability of organizations to operate on the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework is reliant on ITIL process measurements. Appropriate ITIL process measurements help ensure desired outcomes, enable corrective actions to take place prior to process failure, and direct process activities towards continuous improvement.…

  18. Assessing Factors Affecting Implementation of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristy

    2010-01-01

    The capability of organizations to operate on the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework is reliant on ITIL process measurements. Appropriate ITIL process measurements help ensure desired outcomes, enable corrective actions to take place prior to process failure, and direct process activities towards continuous improvement.…

  19. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed.

  20. Upper subsoil pore characteristics and functions as affected by field traffic and freeze–thaw and dry–wet treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Cretin, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated soils are subject to very high stresses from machinery. This may affect the soil pore system and its processes, soil functions and soil ecosystem services. Compaction experiments were performed on loamy Luvisols at three sites in Denmark: Aarslev, Flakkebjerg and Taastrup. Non-traffick......Cultivated soils are subject to very high stresses from machinery. This may affect the soil pore system and its processes, soil functions and soil ecosystem services. Compaction experiments were performed on loamy Luvisols at three sites in Denmark: Aarslev, Flakkebjerg and Taastrup. Non...... depth when the experimental plots had received either 2 years (Flakkebjerg) or 3 years (Aarslev and Taastrup) of repeated compaction treatment. The volume of air-filled pores and air permeability were quantified for soil drained to –100 hPa matric potential. Freeze–thaw and dry–wet treatments were...... applied to soil cores in the laboratory for Aarslev and Taastrup samples. The multipass machinery significantly affected >30 mm soil pores and air permeability at wheel loads of ~6 Mg or higher, whereas no or only minor effects could be detected for ~3-Mg wheel loads. Indices combining air permeabilities...

  1. Computer Simulation on Metallic Card Clothing Garnett Wire Teeth's Temperature Field & Structure Field in the Process of Quenching Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liang; REN Shi-he

    2006-01-01

    The quenching process of garnett wire teeth of metallic card clothing heated by flame was researched by use of 3-D finite element method and the equation of boundary condition was established by making use of a model of artificial neural network. The transient temperature field, phase transformation in the heating process, the quenching microstructures and the hardness distribution on quenched garnett wire teeth of metallic card clothing were simulated.The result shows that the maximum error of the hardness between the simulative value and the actual measuring value is 8.0% on only one testing point and errors are all less than 3.0% on other testing points.

  2. Investigations on Temperature Fields during Laser Beam Melting by Means of Process Monitoring and Multiscale Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schilp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring and modelling can contribute to fostering the industrial relevance of additive manufacturing. Process related temperature gradients and thermal inhomogeneities cause residual stresses, and distortions and influence the microstructure. Variations in wall thickness can cause heat accumulations. These occur predominantly in filigree part areas and can be detected by utilizing off-axis thermographic monitoring during the manufacturing process. In addition, numerical simulation models on the scale of whole parts can enable an analysis of temperature fields upstream to the build process. In a microscale domain, modelling of several exposed single hatches allows temperature investigations at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Within this paper, FEM-based micro- and macroscale modelling approaches as well as an experimental setup for thermographic monitoring are introduced. By discussing and comparing experimental data with simulation results in terms of temperature distributions both the potential of numerical approaches and the complexity of determining suitable computation time efficient process models are demonstrated. This paper contributes to the vision of adjusting the transient temperature field during manufacturing in order to improve the resulting part's quality by simulation based process design upstream to the build process and the inline process monitoring.

  3. Affect and memory in advertising: an empirical study of the compensatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, J C; Laroche, M; Badura, D; Filiatrault, P

    1995-08-01

    The influence of the affect dimensions (a) source identification, (b) attractiveness, and (c) fear appeal on memorization of a message by advanced Canadian students was investigated. Professionally designed commercials were used for the experiment. The results indicate a strong relationship between the three affective variables of the communication and the number of items in the respondents' memory. Two-way interactions between (a) attractiveness and identification and (b) attractiveness and fear were significant, as was the three-way interaction.

  4. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  5. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli.

  6. A new fabrication process for the SOI-based miniature electric field sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Yang Pengfei; Peng Chunrong; Fang Dongming; Xia Shanhong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new fabrication process for the SOI-based novel miniature electric field sensor.This new process uses polyimide film to release the SiO2 layer.Compared with the CO2 critical point release method,it significantly improves the device surface cleanliness and shortens the process flow.The impurity on the base layer is analyzed.The problem of peak and butterfly-type contamination occurring on the base layer of the SOI wafer during the DRIE process is discussed and solved by thickening the photoresist layer and coating with polyimide film twice.This new process could fabricate MEMS sensors and actuators such as SOI-based electric field sensors,gyroscopes,and micro mirrors and can be an alternative fabrication process compared to commercial SOIMUMPS fabrication processes.

  7. The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

  8. HST Frontier Fields: WFC3/IR data processing, persistence, time-variable background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandrika, Harish G.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mack, Jennifer; Robberto, Massimo; Hilbert, Bryan; Sabbi, Elena; Hubble Frontier Fields Pipeline Team, WFC3 Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) pipeline and WFC3 teams discuss the specialized procedures for processing IR data for the Frontier Fields program. Frontier Fields is a Director's Discretionary program that uses ultra-deep imaging to observe lensing galaxy clusters in an effort to search for the most distant observable galaxy. The program uses both the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) observing the prime and parallel areas of each field simultaneously. The WFC3/IR data are processed through a pipeline which performs calibrations not included in the standard CalWF3 software including persistence correction, Time-Variable-Background (TVB) correction, and scripts used to create satellite trail masks. Here the HFF pipeline team present the individual methods that perform the corrections and showcase the results of these corrections on sample data of Abell 370, Abell S1063 and others.

  9. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  10. Validation of a pulsed electric field process to pasteurize strawberry puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive data acquisition method was developed to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing. The novel validation method was evaluated in conjunction with developing a pasteurization PEF process for strawberry puree. Both buffered...

  11. The fate of SOC during the processes of water erosion and subsequent deposition: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemelryck, H.; Govers, G.; van Oost, K.; Merckx, R.

    2009-04-01

    Globally soils are the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C). A relatively small increase or decrease in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices could therefore result in a significant net exchange of C between the soil C reservoir and the atmosphere. As such, the geomorphic processes of water and tillage erosion have been identified to significantly impact on this large pool of soil organic carbon (SOC). Soil erosion, transport and deposition not only result in redistribution of sediments and associated carbon within a landscape, but also affect the exchange of C between the pedosphere and the atmosphere. The direction and magnitude of an erosion-induced change in the global C balance is however a topic of much debate as opposing processes interact: i) At eroding sites a net uptake of C could be the result of reduced respiration rates and continued inputs of newly produced carbon. ii) Colluvial deposition of eroded sediment and SOC leads to the burial of the original topsoil and this may constrain the decomposition of its containing SOC. iii) Eroded sediment could be transported to distal depositional environments or fluvial systems where it will either be conserved or become rapidly mineralized. iv) Increased emission of CO2 due to erosion may result from the disruptive energy of erosive forces causing the breakdown of aggregates and exposing previously protected SOC to microbial decomposition. The above-mentioned processes show a large spatial and temporal variability and assessing their impact requires an integrated modeling approach. However uncertainties about the basic processes that accompany SOC displacement are still large. This study focuses on one of these large information gaps: the fate of eroded and subsequently deposited SOC. A preceding experimental study (Van Hemelryck et al., 2008) was used to identify controlling factors (erosional intensity, changes in soil structure,…). However this experimental research

  12. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed.

  13. Moderate-intensity rotating magnetic fields do not affect bone quality and bone remodeling in hindlimb suspended rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Jing

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence has substantiated the positive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF and static magnetic fields (SMF on inhibiting osteopenia and promoting fracture healing. However, the osteogenic potential of rotating magnetic fields (RMF, another common electromagnetic application modality, remains poorly characterized thus far, although numerous commercial RMF treatment devices have been available on the market. Herein the impacts of RMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone metabolism were systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU rats. Thirty two 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the Control (n = 10, HU (n = 10 and HU with RMF exposure (HU+RMF, n = 12 groups. Rats in the HU+RMF group were subjected to daily 2-hour exposure to moderate-intensity RMF (ranging from 0.60 T to 0.38 T at 7 Hz for 4 weeks. HU caused significant decreases in body mass and soleus muscle mass of rats, which were not obviously altered by RMF. Three-point bending test showed that the mechanical properties of femurs in HU rats, including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus were not markedly affected by RMF. µCT analysis demonstrated that 4-week RMF did not significantly prevent HU-induced deterioration of femoral trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Serum biochemical analysis showed that RMF did not significantly change HU-induced decrease in serum bone formation markers and increase in bone resorption markers. Bone histomorphometric analysis further confirmed that RMF showed no impacts on bone remodeling in HU rats, as evidenced by unchanged mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, osteoblast numbers and osteoclast numbers in cancellous bone. Together, our findings reveal that RMF do not significantly affect bone microstructure, bone mechanical strength and bone remodeling in HU-induced disuse osteoporotic rats. Our study indicates

  14. Top contact organic field effect transistors fabricated using a photolithographic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Ji zhuo-Yu; Shang Li-Wei; Liu Xing-Hua; Peng Ying-Quan; Liu Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective method of fabricating top contact organic field effect transistors by using a photolithographic process.The semiconductor layer is protected by a passivation layer.Through photolithographic and etching processes,parts of the passivation layer are etched off to form source/drain electrode patterns.Combined with conventional evaporation and lift-off techniques,organic field effect transistors with a top contact are fabricated successfully,whose properties are comparable to those prepared with the shadow mask method and one order of magnitude higher than the bottom contact devices fabricated by using a photolithographic process.

  15. Evaluation of optimal number of soil samples for detail reconstruction of initial field of 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Ivanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Chernobyl-derived 137Cs- fallout was associated with one or two rainfalls Because of that vast areas of the Europe affected by Chernobyl-derived fallout are characterized by non-uniform field of radionuclide contamination. It was assessed after detailed field investigation within few river basins of the Central Russia located in areas with different levels of Chernobyl contamination, that existing maps of radionuclide contamination composed during last two decades are not enough detailed for assessment of initial contamination field transformation by the lateral migration processes of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs. This problem can be overcomed if additional soil sampling are undertaken in reference locations for correction of exiting radionuclide contamination maps. However it is necessary to evaluate the optimal number of bulk samples which should be taken in each sampling point for receiving statistically correct results of radionuclide concentration. Special investigation was undertaken in few catchments (S= 2-50 km2 of the Central Russia, located in areas with different levels of initial Chernobyl contamination, for evaluation the optimal number of samples, which should be taken in each sampling point for the determination of Cs-137 concentrations error not exceed 30 % on 95 % confidence level.

  16. Quantum fields and poisson processes II: Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J.; Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G.

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models: interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cut-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  17. Quantum fields and Poisson processes. Pt. 2. Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J. (Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Mathematique); Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Dept. de Mathematiques)

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models; interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cutt-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  18. Does nitrogen gas bubbled through a low density polymer gel dosimeter solution affect the polymerization process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It appeared that reactions between gelatin-free radicals and monomers, due to an increase in the gel temperature during rotation in the household mixer, led to a higher R 2 -background response. In the second type of gel, it seemed that the collapse of the nitrogen bubbles was the main factor that affected the R 2 -responses.

  19. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars

    The Stevns peninsula, situated in the eastern Danish Basin at the fringe of the Baltic Sea, is an ideal target for studying the early stages of diagenesis that affected the Upper Cretaceous chalk during its burial to 500-1400m depth. For the present study onshore and offshore high-resolution seis...... in chalk sedimentary rocks....

  20. Does a dieting goal affect automatic cognitive processes and their trainability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.; Tanis, J.; Becker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated implicit self-control dispositions-implicit approach tendencies towards low-caloric food rather than towards high-caloric food-in dieters. Action tendencies were assessed and trained using the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Additionally, positive/negative affective associatio

  1. The affective and cognitive processing of touch, oral texture, and temperature in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2010-02-01

    Some of the principles of the representation of affective touch in the brain are described. Positively affective touch and temperature are represented in parts of the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex. The orbitofrontal cortex is implicated in some of the affective aspects of touch that may be mediated through C fibre touch afferents, in that it is activated more by light touch to the forearm (a source of C-tactile (CT) afferents) than by light touch to the glabrous skin of the hand. Oral somatosensory afferents implicated in sensing the texture of food including fat in the mouth also activate the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex, as well as the insular taste cortex. Top-down cognitive modulation of the representation of affective touch produced by word labels is found in parietal cortex area 7, the insula and ventral striatum. The cognitive labels also influence activations to the sight of touch and also the correlations with pleasantness in the pregenual cingulate/orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum.

  2. Processing of affective prosody in boys suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köchel, Angelika; Schöngaßner, Florian; Feierl-Gsodam, Silke; Schienle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological studies on facial affect recognition have demonstrated reduced response amplitudes to anger cues in patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is still unclear whether a similar deficit exists in the auditory domain. Therefore, this near-infrared spectroscopy study focused on neuronal correlates of affective prosody processing. Fourteen boys suffering from ADHD and fourteen healthy boys were exposed to emotionally intoned, standardized sentences of the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and to affectively neutral sentences. Relative to controls, the patients displayed a diminished activation of the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) when processing anger prosody, which was correlated with aggressive behavior. There were no group differences for the other emotions. Additionally, the ADHD group showed increased supramarginal gyrus (SMG) activation in the anger condition. This might mirror compensatory attention allocation. In summary, we identified a selectively lowered STG activation to auditory anger cues in ADHD patients. Consequently, STG recruitment during anger exposure might be used for evaluation of psychotherapy effects.

  3. Model Simulations of a Field Experiment on Cation Exchange-affected Multicomponent Solute Transport in a Sandy Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ammentorp, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1993-01-01

    A large-scale and long-term field experiment on cation exchange in a sandy aquifer has been modelled by a three-dimensional geochemical transport model. The geochemical model includes cation-exchange processes using a Gaines-Thomas expression, the closed carbonate system and the effects of ionic...... of 800 days due to a substantially attenuation in the aquifer. The observed and the predicted breakthrough curves showed a reasonable accordance taking the duration of the experiment into account. However, some discrepancies were observed probably caused by the revealed non-ideal exchange behaviour of K+....

  4. Full extremal process, cluster law and freezing for two-dimensional discrete Gaussian Free Field

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren

    2016-01-01

    We study the extremal process associated with the Discrete Gaussian Free Field (DGFF) in scaled-up (square-)lattice versions of bounded open planar domains subject to mild regularity conditions on the boundary. We prove that, in the scaling limit, this process tends to a Cox process decorated by independent, correlated clusters whose distribution is completely characterized. As an application, we control the scaling limit of the discrete supercritical Liouville measure, extract a Poisson-Diri...

  5. Study on the air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process has a great effect on the polymer drawing, the filament diameter and orientation. A numerical simulation of the process is carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental data, showing good accuracy of the numerical prediction. This research lays an important foundation for the optimal design of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process.

  6. When feelings arise with meanings: How emotion and meaning of a native language affect second language processing in adult learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sianipar, A.N.S.; Middelburg, R.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and

  7. When feelings arise with meanings: How emotion and meaning of a native language affect second language processing in adult learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sianipar, A.N.S.; Middelburg, R.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and

  8. Conflict and disfluency as aversive signals: context-specific processing adjustments are modulated by affective location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Reindl, Anna-Lena; Fischer, Rico

    2016-11-08

    Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs. low proportions of aversive signals (Experiment 1: conflict trials; Experiment 2: disfluent trials) were presented either above or below the screen center. This location manipulation was motivated by existing evidence that verticality is generally associated with affective valence with up being positive and down being negative. From there it was hypothesized that the aversive signals would lose their trigger function for processing adjustments when presented at the lower (i.e., more negative) location. This should then result in a reduced context-specific proportion effect when the high proportion of aversive signals was presented at the lower location. Results fully confirmed the predictions. In both experiments, the location-specific proportion effects were only present when the high proportion of aversive signals occurred at the more positive location above but were reduced (Experiment 1) or even eliminated (Experiment 2) when the high proportion occurred at the more negative location below. This interaction of processing adjustments with affective background contexts can thus be taken as further hint for an affective origin of control adaptations.

  9. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  10. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Lochman, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations be

  11. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  12. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  13. Relationship between the magnetic field distribution and attractive force of single domain YBCO bulk under different field cooling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wan-Min; Zhou Lian; Feng Yong; Zhang Ping-Xiang; R. Nicolsky

    2004-01-01

    The levitation forces under different field cooling states were measured at 77K by changing the field cooling distance 0Zfc between a YBCO bulk and a permanent magnet. It is found that the relationship between the absolute maximum attractive force (Fmaf) and the corresponding gap distance (Zmaf) to Fmaf can be well described by exponential laws as a function of Zfc, which allow us to predict these values according to Zfc. It is also found that the distance between the Z0fa (gap distance corresponding to the zero force) and Zmaf in the ascending process is a constant value, which is closely related to the constant reduction factor of the axial component of flux density along the axial line of the magnet if Zmaf - Z0fa is a constant value. These results are very interesting for fundamental research and helpful in practical designing and applications.

  14. Triclosan affects the microbial community in simulated sewage-drain-field soil and slows down xenobiotic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningsen, Hanne [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Solvgade 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Henriksen, Trine [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Prieme, Anders [Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Solvgade 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg{sup -1} of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate substrate profiling) and the general profile (T-RFLP) of the microbial community. Triclosan degradation was slow at all concentrations tested (0.33-81 mg kg{sup -1}) during 50-days of incubation. Mineralization experiments ({sup 14}C-tracers) and chemical analyses (LC-MS/MS) showed that the persistence of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a common analgesic (ibuprofen) increased with increasing triclosan concentrations (0.16-100 mg kg{sup -1}). The largest effect was seen for LAS mineralization which was severely reduced by 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} of triclosan. Our findings indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of triclosan may affect the efficiency of biodegradation in percolation systems. - Highlights: > Triclosan may enter the soil environment through sewage. > Triclosan impacts the microbial community in sewage-drain-field soil. > Triclosan-resistant pseudomonads are strongly enriched. > Degradation of co-occurring LAS and ibuprofen is reduced. - Environmentally realistic triclosan concentrations in percolation systems may reduce the biodegradation of other xenobiotics and select for triclosan-resistant bacteria.

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting Production, Release, and Field Populations of Conidia of Alternaria alternata, the Cause of Brown Spot of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, L W; Solel, Z; Gottwald, T R; Ibañez, A M; Zitko, S E

    1998-11-01

    ABSTRACT Alternaria brown spot, caused by Alternaria alternata pv. citri, affects many tangerines and their hybrids, causing loss of immature leaves and fruit and reducing the marketability of the remaining fruit. Conidial production of A. alternata was greatest on mature leaves moistened and maintained at near 100% relative humidity (RH) for 24 h, whereas leaves that had been soaked or maintained at moderate RH produced few conidia. Conidial release from filter paper cultures and infected leaves was studied in a computer-controlled environmental chamber. Release of large numbers of conidia was triggered from both substrates by sudden drops in RH or by simulated rainfall events. Vibration induced release of low numbers of conidia, but red/infrared irradiation had no effect. In field studies from 1994 to 1996, air sampling with a 7-day recording volumetric spore trap indicated that conidia were present throughout the year with periodic large peaks. The number of conidia captured was not closely related to rainfall amounts or average wind speed, but was weakly related to the duration of leaf wetness. Likewise, disease severity on trap plants placed in the field weekly during 1995 to 1996 was not closely related to conidial numbers or rainfall amounts, but was weakly related to leaf wetness duration. Sufficient inoculum appears to be available to allow infection to occur throughout the year whenever susceptible host tissue and moisture are available.

  16. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

  17. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...

  18. Contrasting biogeomorphic processes affecting salt-marsh development of the Mokbaai, Texel, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptist, M.J.; Groot, de A.V.; Duin, van W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and decline of salt marshes may be the result of various interacting biogeomorphic processes and external factors. We present a case study of the Mokbaai on the Wadden island of Texel, where we assess the relative importance and the interaction between the biogeomorphic processes and vari

  19. Frontal Electroencephalogram Asymmetry during Affective Processing in Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, N. J.; Schmidt, L. A.; Niccols, A.; Polak, C. P.; Riniolo, T. C.; Burack, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the pattern of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry during the processing of emotion has been examined in many studies of healthy adults and typically developing infants and children, no published work has used these theoretical and methodological approaches to study emotion processing in children with Down syndrome.…

  20. Processing Fluency in Education: How Metacognitive Feelings Shape Learning, Belief Formation, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Rolf; Greifeneder, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Processing fluency--the experienced ease with which a mental operation is performed--has attracted little attention in educational psychology, despite its relevance. The present article reviews and integrates empirical evidence on processing fluency that is relevant to school education. Fluency is important, for instance, in learning,…

  1. Traditional processing strongly affects metabolite composition by hydrolysis in Rehmannia glutinosa roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, W.T.; Choi, Y.H.; Heijden, R. van der; Lee, M.S.; Lin, M.K.; Kong, H.; Kim, H.K.; Verpoorte, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2011-01-01

    The processing of biological raw materials is considered to have an important role in the therapeutic application in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The root of Rehmannia glutinosa has to be processed by nine cycles of rice wine immersing, steaming and drying before using in clinical applications. In

  2. Traditional processing strongly affects metabolite composition by hydrolysis in Rehmannia glutinosa roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, W.T.; Choi, Y.H.; Heijden, R. van der; Lee, M.S.; Lin, M.K.; Kong, H.; Kim, H.K.; Verpoorte, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2011-01-01

    The processing of biological raw materials is considered to have an important role in the therapeutic application in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The root of Rehmannia glutinosa has to be processed by nine cycles of rice wine immersing, steaming and drying before using in clinical applications. In

  3. Contrasting biogeomorphic processes affecting salt-marsh development of the Mokbaai, Texel, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptist, M.J.; Groot, de A.V.; Duin, van W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and decline of salt marshes may be the result of various interacting biogeomorphic processes and external factors. We present a case study of the Mokbaai on the Wadden island of Texel, where we assess the relative importance and the interaction between the biogeomorphic processes and vari

  4. A Transdiagnostic Perspective on Cognitive, Affective, and Neurobiological Processes Underlying Human Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases classify mental health disorders on the basis of their putatively distinct symptom profiles. Although these nosologies are highly influential, they also have been derided as mere "field guides" because they focus solely on the…

  5. Data-driven matched field processing for Lamb wave structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Joel B; Moura, José M F

    2014-03-01

    Matched field processing is a model-based framework for localizing targets in complex propagation environments. In underwater acoustics, it has been extensively studied for improving localization performance in multimodal and multipath media. For guided wave structural health monitoring problems, matched field processing has not been widely applied but is an attractive option for damage localization due to equally complex propagation environments. Although effective, matched field processing is often challenging to implement because it requires accurate models of the propagation environment, and the optimization methods used to generate these models are often unreliable and computationally expensive. To address these obstacles, this paper introduces data-driven matched field processing, a framework to build models of multimodal propagation environments directly from measured data, and then use these models for localization. This paper presents the data-driven framework, analyzes its behavior under unmodeled multipath interference, and demonstrates its localization performance by distinguishing two nearby scatterers from experimental measurements of an aluminum plate. Compared with delay-based models that are commonly used in structural health monitoring, the data-driven matched field processing framework is shown to successfully localize two nearby scatterers with significantly smaller localization errors and finer resolutions.

  6. Study on ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing process using low frequency alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinzhong, E-mail: wjz.0926@163.com; Zou, Yanhua, E-mail: yanhua@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Sugiyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: sugiyama@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp

    2015-07-15

    We proposed a new ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process using low frequency alternating magnetic field in this paper. Magnetic cluster themselves may produce the up and down movement change under alternating magnetic force. The movement may not only promote the dispersion of micro-magnetic particles, but also improve stirring effect and cross-cutting effects of the abrasives, achieving circulation and update to ensure the stability of grinding tools. This process is considered to be able to efficiently apply in ultra-precision finishing of plane and complicated micro-surfaces. In this study, we investigated the effects of alternating magnetic field on magnetic field distribution, finishing force and abrasive behavior. Furthermore, a set of experimental devices have been designed for finishing SUS304 stainless steel plate. The present work is aimed at understanding finishing particularity of this process and studying impacts of important process parameters namely grinding fluid, rotational speed of magnetic pole, current frequency on change in finish surface and material removal. Experimental results indicate that the process can realize ultra-precision finishing of plane by using oily grinding fluid. In the present research, the surface roughness of SUS304 stainless steel plate was improved from 240.24 nm to 4.38 nm by this process. - Highlights: • We investigated magnetic field distribution in processing region. • Magnetic cluster can produce a fluctuating finishing force in alternating magnetic field. • Oily grinding fluid is more applicable to this process. • Few nanometer finish surface can be obtained by this process.

  7. Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7 years. Familiarity differed between 5 years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective.

  8. Naphthenic Acid Mixtures from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Enhance Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Affect Development of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Paria; Hahn, Noah A; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2015-08-18

    Extraction of petrochemicals from the surface mining of oil sand deposits results in generation of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Naphthenic acids (NA) are generally considered to be among the most toxic components of OSPW. Previous studies have shown that NAs are toxic to aquatic organisms, however knowledge of their effects on mammalian health and development is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental effects of an NA extract prepared from fresh OSPW on differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). We found that treatment of differentiating cells with the NA extract at noncytotoxic concentrations alters expression of various lineage specification markers and development of the heart. Notably, expression of cardiac specific markers such as Nkx2.5, Gata4, and Mef2c were significantly up-regulated. Moreover, exposure to the NA extract enhanced differentiation of embryoid bodies and resulted in the early appearance of spontaneously beating clusters. Interestingly, exposure of undifferentiated mouse ESCs to the NA extract did not change the expression level of pluripotency markers (i.e., Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2). Altogether, these data identify some of the molecular pathways affected by components within this NA extract during differentiation of mammalian cells.

  9. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level.

  10. Automatic effects of processing fluency in semantic coherence judgments and the role of transient and tonic affective states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweklej Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature reported that judgments of semantic coherence are influenced by a positive affective response due to increased fluency of processing. The presented paper investigates whether fluency of processing can be modified by affective responses to the coherent stimuli as well as an automaticity of processes involved in semantic coherence judgments. The studies employed the dyads of triads task in which participants are shown two word triads and asked to solve a semantically coherent one or indicate which of the two is semantically coherent. Across two studies in a dualtask paradigm we show that a attentional resources moderate insight into semantically coherent word triads, whereas b judgments of semantic coherence judgments are independent of attentional resources. We discuss implications of our findings for how people might form intuitive judgments of semantic coherence.

  11. Post-processing methods of PIV instantaneous flow fields for unsteady flows in turbomachines

    OpenAIRE

    Cavazzini, G.; A. Dazin; Pavesi, G; Dupont, P; G. Bois

    2012-01-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry is undoubtedly one of the most important technique in Fluid-dynamics since it allows to obtain a direct and instantaneous visualization of the flow field in a non-intrusive way. This innovative technique spreads in a wide number of research fields, from aerodynamics to medicine, from biology to turbulence researches, from aerodynamics to combustion processes. The book is aimed at presenting the PIV technique and its wide range of possible applications so as to p...

  12. Computer simulation of the emission process of some field emission alloy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, S.; Vichev, R.; Drandarov, N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-10-01

    The ion emission process from InGa, AuBe and AuSi field emission alloy ion sources (LAIS) is simulated. Field strength is calculated using the SOC model. Paraxial source size, beam spot size, energy and angular distributions are estimated. The effects on the emission characteristics of Coulomb interaction between ions are investigated, and the strong influences of ion mass and charge are also shown. (Author).

  13. Laws of the oxidation of carbon isotopes in plasma processes under magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, V. F.; Bespala, E. V.; Khan, V. A.; Makarevich, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    From law of quantum mechanics it follows that spin precession phase of unpaired electron in external magnetic field cannot be determined. It uncertainty necessary take into account in different physical and chemical processes. The expression of the rate constant of a chemical reaction based on the number of discrete spin states was obtained. The equations of chemical kinetics of plasma oxidation of carbon isotopes in the magnetic field were given.

  14. Erosion and redeposition processes of molybdenum with oblique incidence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Masahiro; Ido, Yasuhiro; Ezumi, Naomichi; Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    Erosion and redeposition processes have been investigated using a linear plasma device and a Monte Carlo simulation code. Argon plasmas were irradiated on a molybdenum substrate with an oblique incidence of magnetic field. The erosion distributions depending on the direction of magnetic field are clearly observed. Numerical code analysis gives a qualitative explanation for the erosion profiles by considering the effect of prompt redeposition of high Z material. However, we have still quantitative differences for their erosion and redeposition rates. (author)

  15. In vivo formation and bioavailability of isothiocyanates from glucosinolates in broccoli as affected by processing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Vermeulen, M.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Scope: To study the effect of residual myrosinase (MYR) activity in differently processed broccoli on sulforaphane (SR) and iberin (IB) formation, bioavailability, and excretion in human volunteers. Methods and results: Five different broccoli products were obtainedwith similar glucoraphanin (GR)

  16. Simulation of Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing (MFAF) Process Utilizing Smart MR Polishing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Anwesa; Das, Manas

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic field assisted finishing process is an advanced finishing process. This process is capable of producing nanometer level surface finish. In this process magnetic field is applied to control the finishing forces using magnetorheological polishing medium. In the current study, permanent magnet is used to provide the required magnetic field in the finishing zone. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with MR fluid which is used as the polishing brush to remove surface undulations from the top surface of the workpiece. In this paper, the distribution of magnetic flux density on the workpiece surface and behaviour of MR polishing medium during finishing are analyzed using commercial finite element packages (Ansys Maxwell® and Comsol®). The role of magnetic force in the indentation of abrasive particles on the workpiece surface is studied. A two-dimensional simulation study of the steady, laminar, and incompressible MR fluid flow behaviour during finishing process is carried out. The material removal and surface roughness modelling of the finishing process are also presented. The indentation force by a single active abrasive particle on the workpiece surface is modelled during simulation. The velocity profile of MR fluid with and without application of magnetic field is plotted. It shows non-Newtonian property without application of magnetic field. After that the total material displacement due to one abrasive particle is plotted. The simulated roughness profile is in a good agreement with the experimental results. The conducted study will help in understanding the fluid behavior and the mechanism of finishing during finishing process. Also, the modelling and simulation of the process will help in achieving better finishing performance.

  17. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    nucleation occurs while the concentration in the ice goes well above the theoretical one, calculated from brine equilibrium under temperature and salinity changes and observed brine volumes. This phase change locks the gases within the sea ice structure, preventing "degassing" of the ice, as is observed...... within the sea ice cover, including in the gaseous form. Diffusive processes will become dominant once internal melting is strong enough to stratify the brine network within the ice. In the Kapisilit case, the regular decrease of an internal gas peak intensity due to external forcing during ice growth......Recent data from a year-round survey of landfast sea ice growth in Barrow (Alaska) have shown how O2/N2 and O2/Ar ratios could be used to pinpoint primary production in sea ice and derive net productivity rates from the temporal evolution of the oxygen concentration at a given depth within the sea...

  18. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  19. Influences of different types of magnetic fields on HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU; Bifen; MA; Xiaolin; GUO; Kaihua; LI; Jianhong

    2004-01-01

    In this study, visualizations and experiments are carried out on the influence of static and rotating magnetic fields on the characteristics of HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation, such as crystallization form, formation temperature and induction time. It has been found that a proper rotating magnetic field can considerably improve the low-pressure gas hydrate formation process,especially in increasing the formation temperature and shortening the induction time. The morphology of the gas hydrate formation appears rather complex and compact. However, a proper static magnetic field can make the gas hydrate crystal more organized, which will be benefit to heat transfer.

  20. Dynamical Process of Liner Implosion in the Electromagnetic Flux Compression for Ultra-high Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of magnetic fields that are generated by the electromagnetic flux compression technique is investigated, with emphasis on the dynamical processes of an imploding liner. By comparing with the results of computer simulations, we found that the non-uniform implosion of a liner is important in order to explain the magnetic field's distribution during the liner's implosion. In addition, our results suggest that the initial inwards compressing spool-like motion of the liner subsequently turns out to be outwards stretching barrel-like motion along the magnetic field axis.